First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Salzburg (Saltzburga), once upon a time called Juvavia and Petena, is a very old city of Noricum, and now a principal Episcopal city of Bavaria. It had its origin, as they say, in the time of the emperor Julius. It is not far from the mountains which at one time belonged to Noricum and which are now ascribed to Germany. The Norici, who lived in the mountains nearby (as Pliny writes), were formerly called Taurisci; and even now as then around the Carni within the first boundaries of Germany, the people are called Thauri.[Noricum, a Roman province, probably derived its name from the principal town of Noreia, and was bounded on the north by the Danube, on the west by Rhaetia and Vindelicia, on the east by Pannonia, and on the south by Pannonia and Italy. The province was separated from Rhaetia and Vindelicia by the river Aenus (Inn), from Pannonia on the west by Mount Cetius, and from Pannonia and Italy on the south by the river Savus, the Alpes Carnicae and Mount Ocra. It thus corresponds to the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, and a part of Austria, Bavaria and Salzburg. Noricum was a mountainous country, not only surrounded on the south and east by mountains, but one of the main branches of the Alps, the Alpes Noricae (in the neighborhood of Salzburg) running right through the province. In these mountains a large quantity of excellent iron was found, and the Noric swords were celebrated in antiquity. Gold also is said to have been found here in ancient times. The inhabitants were Celts, divided into several tribes, of which the Taurisci, also called Norici, after their capital Noreia, were the most important. They were conquered by the Romans toward the end of the reign of Augustus, and their country was formed into a Roman province.] At one time the Saxons and the people of the Marches overran the country of the Wends;[A Slavic people dwelling in Saxony and Prussia.] and the Roman Gnaeus Papirius Carbo fought with them in the mountains not far from Noricum, and (as Strabo says) suffered defeat.[Noreia (now Neumarkt in Styria) was the ancient capital of the Taurisci or Norici. It was situated in the center of Noricum, just a little south of the river Murius. It is celebrated as the place where Papirius Carbo, Roman consul, was defeated by the Cimbri in the year 113 BCE.] But not long afterwards three mighty people, the Saxons, the Germans, and the people of the mountains bordering on Austria, all at one and the same time overran Italy and, as Plutarch says, one portion of them passed through Noricum; but the armies were defeated and destroyed—the first, not far from Salzburg near the mountains, and the second on the Athesis;[A river in southern Tyrol and Upper Italy.] and of the barbarian peoples (as Pliny states) three hundred forty thousand were slain, and one hundred fifty thousand were taken prisoner. This rebellion not only frightened all the countries which were invaded, but all Italy as well. And thus the Roman arms passed here and there through Noricum, accompanied by so much commotion that the Norici could hardly continue to live there; and at one time they were obliged to endure the presence of three armies in the vicinity. Now the Romans went to war with the people along the Danube, and also with the Pannonians, Wends and Germans; and they used Salzburg as a base for the ingress and egress of their arms. Now when Julius, the Roman emperor, was about to attack the Germans, he ordered a fortress to be built on a hill in the same region where the Roman army might take refuge, or from which they might secure help; and therefore the fortress was called Juvavium (which according to the vernacular tongue[The ‘vernacular tongue’ in this instance is German.] is called Helfenburg). The name was also derived from Ivarus, the river upon which the fortress was situated. And the city which was later built there was called Juvavia,