First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Gall (Gallus), a disciple of the Blessed Columban, lived in the West, and in his manner of life he earned for himself the name of saint. He flourished in Germany in the time of Emperor Heraclius. In recognition of his services the monastery of Saint Gall was built for him in the bishopric of Constance. In this monastery flourished many men of virtuous and miraculous lives. Although four hundred lived there in piety, one of their number, called Erubrinus, fled from there, having been enticed away by Brunigild, the queen of France. The Blessed Gall finally went to rest in the Lord, having attested his holiness by many miracles.[Gall (c.550-645), an Irish follower of St. Columban, in 614 fixed his cell at St. Gall in Switzerland, and around this there grew up a great Benedictine abbey.] Eustachius the abbot followed in his footsteps, and Saint Aurea followed him. In her honor the Blessed Eligius built a convent for women.[Aurea is mentioned as an abbess at Patis in the 7th century. It is said that when Dogobert I built a nunnery at Paris according to the advice of St. Eligius, Aurea was made abbess of the virgins placed in it. According to her Acts, she was a Syrian maiden who came to Paris, and there was constituted superior of three hundred virgins. She is credited with the most fantastic miracles; for instance; while at a country house belonging to the abbey, she heard that the girl who shared her cell was dead. Hastening back to Paris she found the dead girl, grasping the cellar keys so tightly in her hand that they could not be taken from her. Aurea recalled her to life, and after she surrendered the keys, Aurea dismissed her again to the realm of death. On another occasion the oven was red hot, but there was no bread to put in it. Aurea got into the oven and swept the red-hot ashes out with her sleeves. At that moment all the bells of the convent began to ring. The sisters rushed to church and sang “Te Deum.” When the hymn was ended, the oven was found full of well-baked loaves.] At this time they also say that a certain Basilius, who shared equal honors with Isidore the bishop in life, virtue and skill, lived.

John (Ioannes), a monk, and later a bishop of Gerunda,[Gerunda, a small inland town of the Ausetani, in north eastern Hispania Tarraconensis, on the south side of the river Alba (Ter) on the high ground from Tarraco to Narbo Martius. It stood on a hill near Garona.] preserved the Christian faith by his preaching, teaching, and writings. He was a Goth and sought learning at Constantinople. He became so versed in the Greek and Latin tongue and script, that upon his return to Lusitania he easily put to scorn the Arian heresy which had then gained the upper hand; but on this account the heretics sent him into exile. However, after the death of King Leovigild (Lemungildis), who favored the heretics, he returned, built a cloister, and wrote many things favorable to the Christian faith.

Adaloald (Adoaldus), son of Agilulf by Theodolinda, reigned with his mother for ten years after the death of his father. At the age of four years his father had espoused him to the daughter of Theodobert, king of the Franks. They were on terms of peace with the Lombards and Italians for ten years, and in the meantime liberally endowed the churches.[Adaloald (602-626), was the son of Theodolinda and Agilulf. (See Authari, Theodolinda and Agilulf, Folio CL recto and notes). Upon becoming king at the age of fourteen, he reigned under his mother who acted as his regent. Adaloald, however, went insane in his early twenties and lost the support of the nobles. He was deposed in 626 by Arioald, a Lombard noble from Turin and husband of the king’s sister Gundiberga, who was hostile to the Catholic Church. Adaloald died in Ravenna shortly afterwards under mysterious circumstances.]

Eleutherius, ninth exarch of the Roman emperor in Italy, was a Greek of noble birth, well versed in military matters. The Emperor Heraclius sent him into Italy, but when he came to Ravenna he declared himself king of Italy. However, when he later went to Rome, he was slain by his own soldiers because of his haughty demeanor, and his head was sent to Constantinople.

Eleutherius, the eunuch, was exarch at Ravenna from 616 to 620. His predecessor John (Johannes) Lemigius Thrax ruled in Ravenna from 611 to 615, and in the latter year was assassinated there in the midst of a popular uprising. Eleutherius under these conditions was dispatched to Italy by the emperor Heraclius, and found the imperial state in Italy in utter confusion, and indeed on the verge of dissolution. To him it seemed obvious that the imperial cause was failing, and in 619 he actually assumed the diadem and proclaimed himself emperor in Ravenna. With an Army he set out along the Flaminian Way for Rome for the purpose of having himself crowned by Pope Boniface V. But the eunuch was before his time. At Luceoli upon the Flaminian Way, not far from Gualdo Tabino where Narses had broken Totila, his own soldiers slew him and sent his head to Heraclius.

The Exarchate of Ravenna is the official name of that part of Italy that remained in the allegiance of the Roman emperors at Constantinople from the closing years of the sixth to the middle of the eighth century. The civil and military head of these possessions was stationed at Ravenna. The term exarchate has been conferred at different periods on certain chief officers or governors, both in secular and ecclesiastical matters. The exarchate of Ravenna was probably the most powerful and most important officer of this type.

Eligius, bishop of Novia,[Novia, properly Novium, was a town of the Artabri in Hispania Tarraconensis, identified with Porto Mauro, by some, and by others with Noya.] was held in great veneration at this time for his many virtues. A countless number of miracles attest to his wonderful life. He was born in the country about the city of Lemona. His father was Eucherius; his mother, Terrigia. In his youth his father apprenticed him to a goldsmith. Having served his apprenticeship he went to France, taking service with the goldsmith of the king. Now the king wished a saddle ornamented in gold and silver. The master furnished Eligius with all the material, and out of this he made two very beautiful saddles; and in consequence his renown at court increased. He so loved the poor that what he did not require for his mere necessities he generally expended upon them. Later on he withdrew from the world, and with the assistance of the king built many monasteries. From the time of Brunigild to that of King Dagobert, the evil of simony flourished in Gaul, and Eligius industriously applied himself to uprooting it. For this he was appointed bishop there; and he exercised his authority in many other places. He discovered several holy bodies, and ornamented many saintly graves and coffins with gold and silver, and King Dagobert bore the expense. Eligius also restored sight to a blind man. He died at the age of 70, and a year after his burial he was found in a good state of preservation, his hair and beard appearing to have grown in the grave.[Eligius, bishop of Noyon, was born at Chatelat, near Limoges. At an early age he was placed in the service of a goldsmith named Abbo, master of the mint there. Eligius acquired great skill in working the precious metals, and in that enamel work which afterward made the place famous. He went to Paris and was placed with the treasurer of Clothair II. The king, impressed with his workmanship and honesty, advanced him to master of the mint. The affection born by Clothair toward Eligius passed to the king’s son Dagobert, who also honored him with special confidences, sending him on various embassies. On his return Eligius occupied himself in hammering out gold and jewel-encrusted vessels for his master, and in striking coins for him. Dagobert granted Eligius the estate of Solignac in Limousin, on which he founded a monastery. The abbey when completed was filled with monks. Eligius continued his work in the precious metals, and made shrines for many relics. Finally he became bishop of Noyon. He proved as conscientious a bishop as he had been a layman, and converted many pagans, and unearthed the bones of many a saint, including those of St. Quentin. He died in 659 in the midst of his faithful servants and beloved by his flock. In art he is represented, though erroneously, as a farrier, with a horse’s leg in his hand. The story goes that one day while shoeing a horse the animal became restive; so he took the leg off, shod it, and put it on again, without any harmful consequences to the animal.]

Rupert (Rupertus), a bishop born from the royal line of the Franks, governed the bishopric of Worms in the time of Childebert (Hildeberti), king of France. After that sovereign’s death Rupert was beaten with rods by Duke Berchgarius (Berchario), who destroyed the churches and forcibly drove Rupert from the Episcopal see. After this he was cheerfully received at Regensburg by Theodo, the duke of Bavaria, whom he baptized, together with many nobles and common people. Later on he traveled from Noricum to Pannonia, preaching and proclaiming Christ, the Light of the Faith. Finally he came to the river Ivarus, on which is located the city then called Juvavia (after the river), and now known as Salzburg. This city was a distinguished one among barbarian cities, but was then fallen into ruin, being overgrown with weeds, shrubbery and woods. And when Rupert saw that the place was well situated and adapted to a bishopric, he acquired it from the duke of Bavaria. And there he built a church in honor of Saint Peter, sending forth his disciples to convert the mountain people to the faith. Therefore he is called the Apostle of Bavaria, Austria, Steier, etc. After many works of piety he died in blessedness on Easter Day, having occupied the Episcopal chair for 44 years.[Rupert was a kinsman of the Merovingian House, and bishop of worms under Childebert III (695-711). At the invitation of the Duke of Bavaria, Theodo II, Rupert went to Regensburg (Ratisbona), where he began his apostolate. He founded the Church of St. Peter near the Wallersee, and subsequently, at Salzburg, the church of St. Peter; also a monastery and a dwelling for the clerks, as well as a convent for women. He died at Salzburg, and is regarded as the Apostle of the Bavarians.]


Gall, the abbot (Gallus Abbas). He is in the garb of a monk, but has a crozier in his right hand, while his left fondly rests on the head of an animal, probably intended to represent a bear. Gall was born in Ireland, of noble parents, and was brought up in the monastery of Bangor. With two companions he went to a desert place near the river Stemaha, and while his companions slept, Gall spent the time in prayer. Presently a bear came from the mountain, and carefully gathered up the crumbs left at the evening meal of the three recluses. Gall said to the bear, “I beg of you, in the name of Christ, to put a few logs of wood on our fire.” This the bear did, and Gall gave it a loaf of bread from his pouch. “Now go back to the mountain,” said St. Gall, “and be sure to hurt neither man nor beast;” and the bear did as he was told.


Eligius (or Loy), bishop of Novium (Noyon); portrayed in Episcopal vestments, a chalice in his left hand; in his right a crozier, and a small hammer. Both chalice and hammer are probably symbolic of the bishop’s original calling as a goldsmith.