First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO CL recto

Authari (Artharis) Flavius, king of the Lombards. After the Lombards had been without a king for ten years, they elected him king; and he reigned for seven years. He was the son of King Daphonus[Actually, Authari was the son of Cleph, who ruled from 572/3-574/5 and was assassinated after an 18-month reign by a young guard. His death was followed by a ten-year interregnum known as the “Rule of the Dukes”. His son, Authari, eventually took the throne in 585.], whom the Lombards surnamed Flavius. And although elevated to the throne as a youth, he earned great praise through many deeds and transactions; and so much so that all the Lombard dukes entrusted to him one half of their wealth. He built Phara, a very noble city, on the river Abdue. He besieged the city of Brixellus[Brixellum or Brixillum (Brescello), a town of Cisalpine Gaul, is situated on the south bank of the Po (Padus in Latin) about 12 miles northeast of Parma.], situated on the shores of the river Po (Padi), captured it, and razed it to the ground. He enhanced his victory by subjugating everything to the Sicilian Sea, and brought many Italian cities under his control. He also defeated the king of the Franks, together with a large number of his own troops and of Germans, and drove them out of Italy. Afterwards he drove Francilionus, the Roman duke, out of the Comanian Island, and carried away from there great treasures. He married Theodolinda (Theudelindam) daughter of Garibald, the king of the Bavarias, a most Christian woman. Chilperic, king of the Franks, was a bitter enemy of Authari. So he overran the kingdom of Garibald, Authari’s father-in-law, and drove him out of Bavaria; and Garibald fled to his son-in-law. Authari died in the year he was married.[Authari: Alboin’s reign in Italy was brief. He was assassinated in 572, but during this short reign the Lombards had established themselves in the north of Italy, from where in the next decade they frequently raided Frankish territory beyond the Alps. Chiefs were placed, or placed themselves, first in the border cities, like Friuli and Trent, and then in other places. The principal seat was the rich plain watered by the Po and its affluents, which was in the future to receive its name from them; but their power extended across the Apennines into Liguria and Tuscany and then southward to the outlying dukedoms of Spoleto and Benevento. Ticinum (Pavia), the one place that had obstinately resisted Alboin, became the seat of their kings. Alboin was succeeded by Cleph, a Lombard noble, who reigned only 18 months. For the next ten years (574-584) no one noble obtained recognition as king. In the latter year, when Frankish invasion threatened, the Lombards chose as king Authari, son of Cleph, to whom is chiefly due the consolidation of the Lombard power in Italy. Under him the independence of the dukes was reduced, and something was done toward their transformation into royal officers. The dukedoms of the northern marches, Trent and Friuli, with the dukedom of Turin, long retained the independence natural to a border government in early times. The great dukedom of Benevento in the south, with its neighbor Spoleto, threatened at one time to be a separate principality, and to the last resisted the full claims of the royal authority at Pavia. Authari secured the kingdom by celebrated battles and gave it internal order and strength. In 589, at Verona, he married Theodolinda, daughter of Garibald, duke of Bavaria, and brought her to Italy. But in 591, shortly after his marriage, he died.]

Theodolinda (Theudelinda), the queen of the Lombards, was the daughter of the king of the Bavarians, and high-born and of illustrious blood. Although young at the beginning of her queenly career, and of distinguished appearance and endowed with great riches, she was noted for her chastity and devout practises. Moved by her virtue, the Blessed Gregory (as some say), wrote her a number of letters of moral import. She was a very brave woman and devoted to the Christian faith. Among other good deeds she built a cloister with her own funds in honor of Columban in the city of Bobium; and to it she gave many landed estates. She also built the Basilica of the Blessed John at Modicia (Modoecia)[Modicia (Monza in Italian), a city of Cisalpine Gaul, on the river Lambrus, about 12 miles north of Milan, the name of which is not found during the period of the Roman Empire; and it was probably in those days a mere village, or at least a dependency of Mediolanum; but the Gothic king Theodoric constructed a palace there, making it his summer residence. It continued as a favorite abode of the Lombard kings, and Queen Theolinda founded a Basilica there, which has ever since been one of the most celebrated churches in northern Italy, and still contains many interesting relics of the celebrated Lombard queen.] which lies ten thousand paces from Milan, and endowed it with many estates. From this point on the Lombards, following this woman’s example, adopted John the Baptist as their patron saint.

Theodolinda, daughter of Garibald, duke of Bavaria, married Authari; but her husband died one year later. As queen of the Lombards she played an important part in their history as mediator between them and the Catholic church. Although in Italy for only one year when her husband died, Theolinda had so won over the Lombard chiefs that they begged her as queen to choose the one among them whom she would have for husband and king. She chose Agilulf, duke of Turin, a Thueringian noble by birth. Agilulf remained an Arian, and was a very uneasy neighbor, not only to the Greek exarch but to Rome itself. However, he was favorably disposed both to peace and to the Catholic Church. Arian and Catholic bishops went on for a time side by side; but the Lombard kings and clergy gradually yielded to the religious influences around them. Gregory the Great, opposed as he was to the new barbarian kingdom, recognized that the empire could not expel the Lombards from Italy, and endeavored to promote peace between the Italians and Agilulf. Under these conditions the pope and the king of the Lombards naturally became the two real powers in the north and center of Italy.

Theodolinda converted her husband and many of his subjects from the Arian to the Catholic faith, and was rewarded by Pope Gregory the Great with the famous Iron Crown of Lombardy, which was said to have been forged from one of the nails of the true cross, and which is still preserved in the cathedral of Milan.

Agilulf (Agilulphus), king of the Lombards, after king Authari (Artharim) reigned over the Lombards for 21 years. After the latter’s death the Lombards could not agree on a king. They finally concluded that he whom Theodolinda (Theudelinda) should choose to marry should be accepted as king; for she was a woman of such great virtue and honor that her choice was highly regarded. She chose Agilulf. He was a duke of Turin, young, well built, and warlike. The first concerns of this new king were the redemption of prisoners whom Childebert had taken, and to make peace with that king. Having secured peace, he determined to punish the dukes who had been antagonistic to his ancestor Authari. And he slew Minulfus, duke of Saint Julian’s island. When Gandulfus, duke of Bergamum, learned of this he gave himself up, asked mercy and obtained it. So also with Ulfarus, duke of Tervis, who was taken prisoner, bound, and brought before the king. After which the king decided to kill his enemy. Having now achieved peace, he made war against the Romans, besieging Rome for a year. And although a truce was declared, Zotto, duke of Benevento, broke it by attacking the monastery of Cassino; and the abbot fled, taking with him the monks, their clothing, and the book of regulations. The monastery was plundered by the barbarians and razed to the ground. And this may have been the downfall of this most celebrated monastery which (as Gregory writes) was predicted by Benedict, the holy father, who said he should hardly wish to reach God unless some of the souls from his city had accompanied him. However, Benitus, fourth abbot after Benedict, reached Rome with his brethren. Not long after the commission of this crime Zotto (Zoto) died and Arrigus was made duke by the king. Later the Lombards moved their array before Padua, which had been without fortifications since the days of the tyrant Atilla, being protected only by a moat and embankments. The buildings within had been reconstructed of wood; so when the wind was favorable, the Lombards threw flaming torches and fiery darts into these wooden buildings; and they ravaged the city with fire. This Agilulf and his Lombards were finally converted at the request of a Christian king from idolatry to Christ. And he returned the property of the churches, and died. He left a son, Adaloald (Adoaldum), still a child, and its mother Theodolinda.[Agilulf, duke of Turin (592-615), was a Thueringian nobleman. Theolinda, queen of the Lombards, chose him for husband, and thus he became king of Lombardy. Though an Arian, he was favorably disposed to the Catholic Church.]