First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Verona or Bern, the beautiful and picturesque city of the Venetians, lying against the mountains (as Justinus[Justinus = Justin. See note to Folio XLVIII verso.] , quoting Trogus Pompeius, says) was, with Milan (Mediolanum), Brescia (Brixia)[Brixia, the modern Brescia, was originally a town in Gallia Cisalpina on the road from Comum to Aquileia, through which the river Mella flowed. It submitted to the Romans in 225 BCE, and in 27 BCE Augustus founded a civil colony here. It was plundered by Attila in 425 CE, but became the seat of a duchy in the Lombard period. In 1258, it fell into the hands of Eccelino of Verona and belonged to the Scaligers (della Scala) until 1421, when it came under the Visconti of Milan and in 1426 under the dominion of Venice.] and Bergomum,[Bergamo, anciently Bergomum, was originally the tribal center of the Orobii in Gallia Cisalpina, between Comum and Brixia. It is located at the foot of the alps northeast of Milan. After destruction by Attila, it became the capital of a Lombard duchy. From 1264 to 1428 it was under Milan, but then became Venetian, and so it remained until 1797.] built by the Gauls, who were conquered by the Romans; although some, including Siccardo of Cremona, says that it was built earlier, and after the destruction of Troy. Through it flows the Athesis,[Athesis, the Adige or Etach, rises in the Rhaetian Alps, flows past Verona and into the Adriatic.] by which it is made picturesque and secure. The river is of use in the transportation of merchandise and fruit. The fields about it produce good fruit—all sorts of apples, oil, various kinds of wine, as well as wool, out of which the soft and beautiful Italian cloth is made; and in this the Italians by reason of good pastures carry on an extraordinary trade. The fields and meadows give city and country a natural and pleasant aspect. Balbus, a high mountain, produces various kinds of herbs and roots and these are gathered to promote the health of the living. In the fields are natural springs. The Romans also found this city agreeable and set up an amphitheater and other buildings there. Many high structures, beautiful temples and strongholds were erected, including the castles of the kings of the Goths and Lombards. Wine is grown here which has an exceptionally agreeable taste. This wine (as Cassiodorus[Cassiodorus, Magnus Aurelius, was a distinguished statesman and one of the few men of learning at the downfall of the Western Empire. He was born about 468 CE, and came of an ancient and wealthy Roman family. He enjoyed the full confidence of Theodoric the Great and his successors, and under a variety of different titles he conducted for a long series of years the government of the Ostrogothic kingdom. At 70 he retired to the monastery of Viviera, which he founded in his native province, and there passed the last 30 years of his life. His time was devoted to study and the composition of elementary treatises on history, metaphysics, the seven liberal arts and divinity. His leisure hours were employed in the construction of philosophical toys, such as sun-dials, water-clocks, etc.] states) was brought in ships on the Athesis and over the sea to Rome by Theodoric (Theodatum)[Theodoric, surnamed the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, was at first an ally of Zeno, the emperor of Constantinople but was afterwards involved in hostilities with him. In order to get rid of Theodoric, Zeno gave him permission to invade Italy, and expelled the usurper Odoacer from the country. Theodoric entered Italy in 489, defeated Odoacer in three great battles, and finally became master of Italy, ruling it for 33 years till his death in 526. His long reign was prosperous and beneficent. He was a patron of literature, and among his ministers were Cassiodorus and Boethius, the two last writers who can claim a place in the literature of ancient Rome.], the third king of the Ostrogoths, who highly prized it. There is also much history connected with the place. Attila, king of the Goths, burned and destroyed the city. Here also Alboin (Alboninus)[Alboin, king of the Lombards and barbarian conqueror of northern Italy, succeeded his father Audoin about 565. The Lombards at that time were engaged in constant war with the Gepidae. Alboin finally destroyed them, slew their king Cunimund in battle, and married his daughter Rosamund. On April 1, 568 he assembled his people with a great number of allies to cross the Alps and form a new settlement in Italy—a migration rather than an invasion. The Roman defenses were overrun and Lombard rule was established in northern Italy. But Alboin was murdered at the instigation of his wife whom he insulted by making her drink wine from her father's skull. ], the first king of the Lombards, was killed by his wife Rosamund. And here the Emperor Rudolphus defeated the Emperor Berengarius, and killed him. Here also the noble House of La Scala was in power, and ruled illustriously for seventy years.[The reference is to the great Della Scala family, whose name is Latinized to Scaliger, and is given in the German as "von der Leiter", there being a ladder in the coat of arms. To this family belonged two great scholars, Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484 to 1558), and Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 to 1609), the greatest scholar of his day. For a fuller consideration of this house, see Folio CCXXIII verso).] Then the city came into the hands of the Venetians. Here, as in other noted cities, flourished distinguished men. Zeno was the first bishop of Verona. He wrote much in interpretation of the Old and the New Testaments.[St. Zeno, or Zenone, the eighth bishop of Verona, was famous for his learning and for the piety of his life. According to some traditions he reduxit Veronam ad baptismum (‘led Verona back to baptism,' i.e., rechristianized the city). His writings have come down to the present day, and besides their doctrine and devotion, also have some literary merit. He died about 380 or 390.] Eusebius states that Aemilius Marius was a poet of Verona, and that he died in Asia. And later came Catullus, the poet,[Valerius Catullus, a Roman poet, was born at Verona, or in the immediate vicinity, in 87 BCE. He inherited considerable property from his father, who was the friend of Julius Caesar. His extant works consist of 116 poems— lyrics, elegies, epigrams, etc; while the Wedding of Pellus and Thetis, in 409 hexameter lines, is a ‘little epic'. He adorned all he touched, and his shorter poems are characterized by original invention and felicity of expression. In fact, Catullus is now considered one of the greatest of all Roman poets.] and the two Plinys, as well as Guarino, a celebrated orator[Guarino da Verona (1370-1460) was one of the restorers of classical learning. He was born at Verona, and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysolaras. In 1436 he became professor of Greek at Ferrara, where he died in 1460. His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the Lives of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysolaras, and a series of commentaries on Persius, Juvenal, Martial, and on some of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero.] ; and there were many others.

Verona is an important town in what was anciently Gallia Cisalpina, on the river Athesis, now called the Adige. It belonged to the Cenomani, a Gaulish tribe, whose chief town was Brixia. It became a Latin colony in 89 BCE. Its territory stretched as far as Hostilia on the Padus (Po), thirty miles to the south. It lay on the road between Mediolanum and Aquileia, while here diverged to the north the roads over the Brenner. It was the birthplace of the poet Catullus. In 69 CE, it became the headquarters of the legions which were siding with Vespasian. It was defended by a river along two-thirds of its circumference. The existing remains of walls and gates date back to the year 265. The emperor Constantine, while advancing toward Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here too that Odoacer was defeated in 499 by Theodoric the Goth, known to the German writers as Dietrich von Bern, after whom the town was named Dietrich Bern, to distinguish it from Berne in Switzerland. He built a castle at Verona, and frequently resided there. He enlarged the fortified area by constructing a wall and ditch (now called Adigetto), to the southwest of the amphitheatre, and also built baths and restored aqueducts, which had long been out of use.

In the Middle Ages Verona gradually grew in size and importance. Alboin, the Lombard king, captured it in 568, and it was one of the chief residences of the Lombards and later of the Frankish monarchs. It rose to importance under the rule of the Della Scala family. The first prominent member of this family and founder of his dynasty was Mastino I, della Scala, who ruled over the city from 1260 till his death in 1277. Verona had previously fallen under Ezzelino da Romano (1227-1259). Alberto della Scala was succeeded by his eldest son Bartholomew, who was confirmed as ruler of Verona by popular vote, and died in 1304. It was at this time that Romeo and Juliet are said to have lived. Alboino, the second son, succeeded his brother, and died in 1311, when the youngest son of Alberto, Can Grande, who since 1308 had been joint-lord of Verona with his brother, succeeded to the undivided power. Can Grande was the best and most illustrious of his line, and is specially famous as the hospitable patron of Dante. The dynasty lasted for rather more than a century.

In 1387 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan, became by conquest lord of Verona. Soon after his death the city fell by treacherous means into the hands of Francesco II, di Carrara, lord of Padua. In 1404-5 Verona, together with Padua, was finally conquered by Venice, and remained subject to the Venetians until the overthrow of the Republic by Napoleon in 1797, who ceded it to Austria in the same year with the rest of Venetia.

The Roman remains of Verona surpass those of any other city in northern Italy. The most conspicuous of them is the great amphitheatre, which closely resembled the Colosseum in Rome. Its axes measured 505 and 404 feet. It was partly thrown down by an earthquake in 1183, and was subsequently used to supply building materials. The interior, with seats for about 25,000 people, has been restored.


The woodcuts of Verona in the Latin and German editions of the Chronicle are different.