First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Caius Julius Caesar, son of Lucius, at the age of sixteen years lost his father. As quaestor he pronounced funeral orations from the rostrum, according to custom, in praise of his aunt Julia, and his wife Cornelia. As aedile he adorned—in addition to the Comitium and the Forum and the Basilicas—the Capitol. After his praetorship he obtained by lot Spain (Hispania), and was made consul with Bibulus. At the beginning of this office the first thing he did was to order that the daily proceedings of the senate be made public to the people.[This sentence and the three that precede it are not in the German edition of the .] At the same time he married Calpurnia, the daughter of L. Piso, his successor in the consulship. And he gave his own daughter Julia to Gnaeus Pompey (Pompeius). After that he waged wars for nine years throughout nearly all of Gaul that is contained by the borders of the Pyrennes, the Alps, Mt. Gebenna, and the rivers Rhine (Rhenuo) and Rhone (Rhodano). In this same space of time he lost first his mother and then his daughter, and not much later his granddaughter. He was victorious in five campaigns. The first and most excellent was in Gaul; the next was in Alexandria; then in the Pontus; after that in Africa; and last in Spain; and he accomplished public shows of various kinds. He is said to have been a tall erect man, of light complexion, rounded limbs, a somewhat full mouth, black and lustrous eyes, and a strong body; but at the end of his life his health left him and he also was accustomed to being terrified in his sleep. He first lived in a small house in the Suburra[The Suburra lay between the Caelian and Esquiline hills. It was one of the most frequented quarters of Rome.], but after he became chief priest he occupied a palace belonging to the state in the Via Sacra. There was a doubt whether in his military affairs he was more cautious or more daring. When he concluded the civil wars, he was the sole ruler of the city (i.e., Rome) and of the world. His rule over the Romans began in the 183rd Olympiad, and lasted 4 years and 7 months. After him the Roman rulers were called Caesars. But when, contrary to the custom and usages of freedom, he undertook to give himself honors and to distribute them, a conspiracy was formed against him of over sixty men, including Gaius Cassius (C. Cossio) and Marcus (M.) and Decimus Brutus. His future destruction, nevertheless, had been announced to him through clear omens. When he arrived at the Capitol the conspirators surrounded him in the guise of their offices, and he was stabbed by them with twenty-three wounds. And Caesar ended his life in the 56th year of his age. His body was burned before the rostrum in the Campus Martius. Scarcely any of those who were accessory to his murder survived him more than three years, or died a natural death.

For Caesar's earlier history see Folios LXXXVI recto and LXXXIX recto and notes. Caesar's power was not witnessed without envy, for the Roman aristocracy, who had been long accustomed to rule the Roman world, could hardly endure such a master, and resolved to remove him by assassination. Cassius set the conspiracy in motion, and there were more than sixty persons involved in it. Many of these Caesar had raised to wealth and honor; some, like Brutus, lived with him on terms of intimate friendship. The conspirators pretended solicitude for the republic, but for many (not all) their object was power for themselves and their party. Caesar had many warnings, but disregarded them all, and fell by the daggers of his assassins on the Ides (or 15th) of March 44 BCE. At an appointed signal the conspirators surrounded him. Casca dealt the first blow; others quickly followed. Caesar at first defended himself, but when he saw his friend and favorite, Brutus, also draw his knife, he pulled his toga over his face, and sank, pierced with many wounds.

Caesar was a truly remarkable figure. He was gifted by nature with the most various talents, and was distinguished by the most extraordinary attainments in the most diversified pursuits. He was at one and the same time a general, statesman, lawgiver, jurist, orator, poet, historian, philologer, mathematician and architect. In his busy career he found time for literature, and was the author of many works, the majority of which are lost. The purity of his Latin and the clearness of his style were celebrated by the ancients themselves, and are conspicuous in his Commentaries, his only works that have come down to us.

The paragraph devoted to Caesar in the Chronicle is a massive abridgment of Suetonius' Life of Caesar.

Octavian (Octavianus) Augustus was born to Octavius, a Roman consul, on the 9th of the Kalends of October, shortly before sunrise, during the time of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Antony, consuls. At the age of four he lost his father, and at twelve his grandmother Julia, whom he praised in a funeral oration before an assembly of the people. Four years after he attained manhood he received military honors at the African triumph of Caesar. He fought five battles of the civil war, namely, at Mutina, Philippi, Perusia, Sicily, and Actium; the first and last against Mark Antony; the second against Brutus and Cassius; the third against the triumvir Antony's brother, the fourth against Sextus, son of Pompey. The beginning and cause of these wars was the murder of his uncle Julius. He also subjugated Cantabria, Aquitania, Pannonia, Dalmatia, and all of Illyricum. Item, he subdued the Rhaeti, the Vindelici, and the Salassi, peoples of the Alps, and checked the inroads of the Dacii, of whom he slew a great number, together with three of their leaders. He also took the Germans beyond the river Elbe; and other restless people were by him brought to submission. He also erected many public buildings, and surpassed all his predecessors in the frequency, variety, and magnificence of his public shows. While young he took to wife the daughter of P. Servilius; and when he became reconciled to Antony, he took his stepdaughter Claudia to wife. He also married Scribonia, but divorced her. Afterwards he caused Livia Drusilla to become pregnant and her alone he loved steadfastly. By Scribonia he begot Julia, his daughter; but of Livia he begot no children. He gave Julia in marriage to Marcellus; and after the latter's death, to Marcus Agrippa. From Agrippa and Julia he had three grandsons and two granddaughters. He was a man of beautiful physique, and very handsome in all the stages of his life. He had clear and beautiful eyes; his hair was slightly wavy and almost golden; his eyebrows were drawn together; ears medium size; nose elevated above and longer below; complexion between light and dark. He was of short stature. From youth he studied oratory and the liberal arts eagerly with very great industry. He wrote numerous prose works of various kinds.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] When he returned victorious from the East he was first hailed as Augustus because he had increased the republic. And and from that point on he held the highest power in the state—a thing which the Greeks call monarchy. From him the kings of the Romans were afterwards called Augusti. He also enlarged the city of Rome, and beautified it with many buildings, taking pride in that statement of his: I have found this a city of brick; I leave it one of marble. He reigned 56 years. The temple of Janus Quirinus, which had been closed only twice before his time since the founding of the city, he closed in a far shorter period, having won peace on land and sea.[For this sentence the German edition of the simply states: "He made peace on land and sea."] In these peaceful times our Savior Jesus is said to have been born. He (i.e., Augustus) finally succumbed to his bed at Nolae (Nole), and when everyone had been dismissed, he died while kissing Livia, saying to her: Live mindful of our marriage, Livia, and farewell.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He obtained an easy death and such a one as he had always longed for at the age of his life of 78.

Augustus, the first Roman emperor, was born on the 23rd of September 63 BCE, the son of C. Octavius by Atia, a daughter of Julia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, but for the sake of brevity he is called Augustus, though this was only a title given him by the Senate and the people in 27, to express their veneration for him. He lost his father when he was 4 years of age, but his education was conducted with great care by his grandmother Julia, and by his mother and stepfather, L. Marcius Phillipus, whom his mother married soon after his father's death. C. Julius Caesar, who had no male issue, also watched over his education with solicitude. He joined his uncle in Spain in 45, in the campaign against the sons of Pompey, and in the course of the same year he was sent by Caesar to Apollonia in Illyricum, where some legions were stationed, that he might acquire more thorough practical training in military affairs, and at the same time prosecute his studies. While at Apollonia, he heard of his uncle's murder, and forthwith set out for Italy, accompanied by Agrippa and a few other friends. Caesar having adopted him in his testament and made him his heir, Augustus now assumed the name of Caesar, and was so saluted by the troops; but, on reaching Rome, he demanded nothing but the private property which Caesar had left him, declaring however his resolution to avenge the murder of his benefactor. He displayed extraordinary tact and prudence. He had to contend against the republican party as well as against Antony, who attempted to prevent his acceptance of the inheritance his uncle had left him. Resolved to first crush Antony, Augustus made overtures to the republican party, and these succeeded. The senate made him praetor and sent him with the two consuls of the year, C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius to attack Antony, who was besieging D. Brutus in Mutina. Antony was defeated but the senate became alarmed, and determined to prevent Augustus from acquiring further power. Ignoring the senate, Augustus marched on Rome and compelled that terrified body to give him the consulship. The murderers of the dictator were outlawed. Later Augustus and Antony became reconciled, and agreed to divide the empire between the triumvirate of Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus. They proscribed their enemies, and a large number were put to death, including Cicero. Soon afterwards Augustus and Antony crossed over to Greece, defeating Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in 42, by which the hopes of the republican party were ruined. The triumvirs made a new division of the provinces. Lepidus obtained Africa, and Augustus returned to Italy to reward his veterans with the lands he had promised them. Here a new war awaited him, excited by Fulvia, wife of Antony. She was supported by L. Antonius, consul and brother of the triumvir, who threw himself into the fortified town of Perusia, which Augustus succeeded in taking in 40. Antony now made preparations for war, but the opportune death of Fulvia led to a reconciliation between the triumvirs, and a new division of the provinces was made. Antony married Octavia, sister of Augustus, in order to cement this alliance. In 39 Augustus made peace with Sextus Pompey, whose fleet gave him command of the sea, and thus enabled him to prevent corn from reaching Rome, but the peace was only transitory, and in a naval battle which followed, the fleet of Augustus gained a decisive victory over that of Pompey, who abandoned Sicily and fled to Asia. In 35 and 34 Augustus was engaged in war with the Illyrians and Dalmatians. Meanwhile, Antony had repudiated Octavia and had alienated the Roman people by his arrogant proceedings in the East. In 32 the senate declared war against Cleopatra, for by means of Augustus' propaganda machine, Antony was looked upon only as her infatuated slave. The fleet of Augustus gained a brilliant victory over Antony near the promontory of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, and being pursued by Augustus, committed suicide.

Augustus now became the ruler of the world, and though he had thus united in his own person all the power and the great offices of the state, he was too prudent to make any display of authority to indicate that he was the sole master. The people retained their republican privileges, though merely in form, for only such persons were elected as had been proposed or recommended by the emperor. Almost uninterrupted festivities, games, distributions of wheat, and the like, made the people forget the substance of their republican freedom, and obey contentedly their new ruler. The wars of Augustus were not aggressive, but chiefly undertaken to protect the frontiers of his dominions. Most of them were carried on by his relations and friends, but some he conducted in person, such as his attack on the warlike Cantabri in Spain, whose subjection, however, was not completed until later by Agrippa. In 16 the Romans suffered a defeat on the Lower Rhine by some German tribes; whereupon Augustus went himself to Gaul, and spent four years there to regulate the government of that province and to make the necessary preparations for defense against the Germans. In the year 9 he went to Gaul, made peace with the German ambassadors he received there, and from this time he took no active part in the wars. He died at Nola in 14 CE, at the age of 76. He was first married, though nominally, to Clodia, daughter of Clodius and Fulvia; secondly to Scribonia, who bore him his only daughter Julia. His third wife was Livia Drusilla, the mother of Tiberius Nero by her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero.

The last sentence of this paragraph in the German edition of the Chronicle simply states: "He died a peaceful death at the age of 76 years."

The paragraph devoted to Augustus in the Chronicle is a massive abridgment of Suetonius' Life of Augustus.

Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius), the consul, was declared an enemy by the senate; whereupon Pansa and Hirtius, and also Octavian, then still a youth, were sent against him. Afterwards Caesar (i.e., Octavian) made peace with Antony, and the Roman Empire was divided between them; to Augustus (i.e., Octavian) was given Spain, Gaul and Italy; to Antony, Asia, Pontus, and the East. He (i.e., Antony) deserted the sister of Caesar Augustus Octavian, and married Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. He brought on a civil war while he was hoping to rule the city with unmanly greed. He was defeated by Augustus in a naval battle at Actium (Accium), which is a place in Epirus. After that he fled to Egypt. And as every man now allied himself with Augustus, Antony despaired and took his own life. Thus the land of Egypt became part of the Empire through Octavian.[Marc Antony, son of M. Antony (surnamed Creticus) and Julia, the sister of L. Julius Caesar, consul in 64, was born in 83 BCE. His father died while Antony was still young, and Antony was brought up by Cornelius Lentulus, who married his mother Julia, and who was put to death by Cicero in 63 as one of Catiline's conspirators; for this reason he became a personal enemy of Cicero. In his early youth Antony indulged in every kind of dissipation, and his affairs soon became deeply involved. He took part in the campaigns against Syria, Aristobulus in Palestine, and the restoration of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt. In 54 he went to Caesar in Gaul, and by his influence was elected quaestor. As such, he returned to Gaul and served under Caesar for two years, returning to Rome in 50, and becoming one of the active partisans of Caesar. He voted against the senate decree depriving Caesar of his command, and fled back to the latter in Cisalpine Gaul. He accompanied Caesar in his victorious march into Italy and was left in command of that country, while Caesar carried on the war in Spain. He commanded the left wing of Caesar's army at Pharsalia, and was again left in command of Italy while Caesar went to Africa. In 44 he was consul with Caesar, when he offered him the kingly diadem at the feast of the Lupercalia. After Caesar's murder, Antony attempted to succeed him in power, but found an unexpected rival in young Octavian, the adopted son and grandnephew of Caesar, who assumed the name of Caesar, and at first joined the senate to crush Antony. Towards the end of the year Antony proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which had been previously granted to him by the senate; but Dec. Brutus refused to surrender the province to him and threw himself into Mutina, where he was besieged by Antony. The senate supported Brutus, declared Antony a public enemy, and entrusted the conduct of the war against him to Octavianus. Antony was defeated at Mutina, and was obliged to cross the Alps. Both the consul, however, had fallen and the senate now began to show its jealousy of Octavian. But the latter became reconciled to Antony, and it was agreed that the government of the state should be vested in Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus. The mutual enemies of both were proscribed, and Cicero thus lost his life to Anthony, whom he had opposed. In 42, Antony and Octavian crushed the republican party at Philippi, in which battle Brutus and Cassius both fell. Antony then went to Asia, which he had received as his share of the Roman world, and here began his relationship with Cleopatra, whom he followed to Egypt. In 41 Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, made war upon Octavian in Italy. But the war was ended before Antony reached Italy. The opportune death of Fulvia resulted in the reconciliation of Antony and Octavian, which was cemented by the marriage of Antony to Octavia, the sister of Octavian. But he later sent her back to her brother and returned to Cleopatra. His conduct and the unbounded influence that Cleopatra had acquired over him, alienated many of his friends and supporters; and Octavian thought that the time had now come for crushing his rival. The contest was decided by the sea-battle-that-never-really-occurred off Actium, September 2nd, 31, in which Antony's fleet was completely defeated. Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, fled to Alexandria, where he put an end to his own life in the following year (30).]