First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

fled over the water, hid himself in the marshes, and gave his name to Lake Vernensee. Afterwards, that consul died miserably.[The entire narrative on the battle of Augsburg by the Marcian Legion may be the most corrupt in the Chronicle (it certainly is in terms of the Fifth Age). The corruption is probably due to a medieval chronicler whose knowledge of the ancient world was, to say the least, shaky at best. Much of Schedel's text seems to follow that of the Auersberg chronicle. The names of the various individuals mentioned in the story (Avar Bogudis, Titus Ennius (or should it be Annius?), and Varus/Varro/Verres) have, at least in terms of the last two, common enough names, but no historical figure known by these names is associated with Augsburg. Although Titus and Ennius/Annius are individually well known, there is no Titus Ennius/Annius that I'm aware of. And despite the fact that there were many Romans named Varus/Varro/Verres, none fought at Augsburg. The only connection here might be the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, in which the Roman general Varus suffered the complete elimination of three Roman legions under his command in 9 CE. This was possibly the worst defeat suffered by Rome at the height of its empire. Unfortunately, Augsburg and the Teutoburg Forest are in different parts of Germany (Bavaria and Lower Saxony, respectively).] Suetonius records that Octavian Augustus suffered every serious disgrace and the two disasters, Loliana and Varriana, entirely in no other place than Germany. Variana was almost a total annihalation, with three legions, the general, emissaries and common allies slain. But three years later after the Variana disaster Augustus, through Tiberius Nero (while Drusus his brother advanced against the region of the Rhine), defeated the Lechs and destroyed their city. And as the words of Strabo in his fourth book indicate, Caesar Augustus sent three thousand Romans to occupy the city. But Claudius Drusus later built up the city, enlarging it with walls and towers. As the city was taken and enlarged through the initiative of Augustus, it was named Augusta in honor of Augustus Octavian. Horace (Oratius) in his odes makes mention of these wars: So the Vindelici saw Drusus waging war against the Rhaeti (Rethi) under the Alps, for whom it is the custom, descended through all time, to arm their right hands with the Amazonian axe, etc.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the . The citation is from the fourth book of Horace's , 4.17-21, a poem in the style of Pindar written in honor of Augustus' stepson Drusus, who at the age of 23 (in 15 BCE) had brought the eastern Alps under Roman control with the aid of his brother, the future emperor Tiberius. Suetonius states that this praise of his stepsons was the reason why Augustus wanted Horace to publish a fourth book of odes.] The Swabians, who then excelled all others in strength and people, had before that time selected this city as a most secure one, and it remained loyal and true to the Roman empire. Much evidence of its age remains. When the Hungarians (Ungari) swept over Germany and Swabia in the nine hundred and fifty-fourth year of salvation, they besieged Augusta and afflicted the Noricans, Rhaeti, and the Swabians with many disasters. Emperor Otto the first fought many days against them and finally defeated them near Augusta. Also, three princes of the Hungarians were captured by his soldiers and led to him. On account his clemency, he tried to make them slaves.[This sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .] The Swabians, however, against his protestations, had them put to death by hanging. In the same battle died Count Diepolt (Diopoldus), brother of Saint Ulrich (Udalrici) , and Regnibaldus (Regniboldus), his sister's son. Afterwards Saint Ulrich, the bishop, made the city more famous and rebuilt the church of Saint Affra, which one before by Attila and now by the Hungarians (Huni) had been damaged. This city is adorned by a large Episcopal cathedral and by a church in honor of the Blessed Virgin; also with Saint Ulrich's Cloister, of the order of St. Benedict, in which lie the bodies of Saint Ulrich and Simprecht (Simperti), and of the blessed Affra, the martyr. There also many other holy men are held in esteem, whose martyrdom brought credit to Augusta.

Augusta is a name given to a number of towns founded or colonized by Augustus. Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), capital of Vindelicia, or Rhaetia (also spelled Raetia) Secunda, on the Licus (Lech), was colonized by Drusus under Augustus, after the conquest of Rhaeti in 14 BCE. Vindelicia was a Roman province south of the Danube, which separated it from Germany. It was bounded on the west by the territory of the Helvetti in Gaul, on the south by Rhaetia, and on the east by the river Oenus (Inn), which separated it from Noricum, thus corresponding to the northeast part of Switzerland, the southeast of Baden, the south of Wuertemberg and Bavaria, and the north part of the Tyrol. It was originally part of the province of Rhaetia, and was conquered by Tiberius in the reign of Augustus. Later Rhaetia was divided into two provinces: Rhaetia Prima and Rhaetia Secunda. The latter became Vindelicia. It was drained by the tributaries of the Danube, of which the most important were the Licus (Lech), with its tributaries, the Vindo or Vidro (Wertach), the Isarus (Isar) and Oenus (Inn). The greater part of the Vindelicia was a plain, but the south portion was occupied by the northern slopes of the Alpes Rhaeticae. It derived its name from its chief inhabitants, the Vindelici, a warlike people dwelling in the southern part of the country. Their name is said to have been formed form the two rivers, Vinda and Licus. The Vindelici were a Celtic people, and closely connected with the Rhaeti; with whom they are frequently spoken of by the ancient writers, and along with whom they were subdued by Tiberius. The other tribes in Vindelicia were the Brigantii on Lake Constance, the Licatti on the Lech, and the Breuni in the north of Tyrol, on the Brenner. Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), as already stated, was the chief town of the province, and it was situated at the confluence of the Vindo and the Licus. It was made a Roman colony in 14 BCE, and was the residence of the governor. Together with other towns of Vindelicia, it fell into the hands of the Alemanni in the fourth century, and from this time the population of the country appears to have been entirely Germanized.

The Roman province of Rhaetia lay south of the Danube and was originally distinct from Vindelicia. Toward the end of the first century, however, Vindelicia was added to the province of Rhaetia. When Rhaetia was subdivided, Rhaetia Prima answered for the old province, and Rhaetia Secunda in time was named Vindelicia. They were separated from one another by Lake Constance (Brigantinus Lacus) and the river Oenus (Inn). Rhaetia was a very mountainous country, as the main chain of the Alps ran through the greater part of the province. The Rhaeti are first mentioned by Polybius. They were known as a brave and warlike people, and conducted marauding incursions into Gaul and northern Italy, and were not subdued by the Romans until the reign of Augustus. They offered a brave and desperate resistance against both Drusus and Tiberius, who finally conquered them. Rhaetia then became a Roman province, to which Vindelicia was later added.

The Augsburg of today is a city and Episcopal see in Bavaria, Germany, and chief town of the district of Swabia. It lies on the plateau 1500 feet above the sea, between the Wertach and Lech, which unite below the city. Since the time the Chronicle was written, namely, in 1632, it was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus. The Augsburg Confession, the most important Protestant Statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation, was presented in Latin and German to the emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg, June 25th 1530. It was compiled by Melancthon, but based on articles previously drawn up by Luther. Augsburg was the chief seat of the textile industry in southern Germany, and has bleaching and dye works, while its production of agricultural and industrial machinery and its chemical works are important. According to the chronicler there was a theory that this ancient city was built by the Trojans and that they chose for themselves a goddess named Ziza, as he designates her, and whom they believed to be the Roman goddess Ceres (the Greek goddess Demeter). Undoubtedly the deity to whom the chronicler refers is Cisa, the goddess of the ancient Germans, who, according to middle age tradition was worshipped in Augsburg (ancient Cisaris) and the surrounding country. The chronicler gives the old name of the city as "Zizaria," instead of Cisaris.

The reference to Perlech, and the origin of the name from perdita legio, the lost legion, are both rather indefinite. The chronicler states that Perlech is now in the middle of the city. In explanation it may be said that north of the courthouse in Augsburg rises the "Perlachturm," or "Perlach Tower," a portion of which has survived from the eleventh century. This, perhaps, marks the spot of the victory over the Romans. Its weather vane represents Cisa, the ancient pagan patron goddess of the city of Augsburg.