First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Antipater, a son of Aristobulus, and Crispus his wife had four sons and a daughter. He was accused by Antigonus before Julius Caesar. Exposing his wounds that were covered by his clothes, he revealed that fidelity is not to be proven by words, but by scars. Immediately after that he was declared governor of Judea. After this he appointed his eldest son Phasael (Faselus) governor of Jerusalem under him; and Herod he appointed governor of Galilee.[Antipater was the son of a noble Idumaean of the same name, although the chronicler calls him Aristobulus. He had a brother of the latter name against whom he espoused the cause of Hyrcanus. Antipater ingratiated himself with the Romans and in 47 BCE he was appointed procurator of Judea by Caesar; which appointment he held until 43, when he was killed by poison, which Malichus, whose life he had twice saved, bribed the cup-bearer of Hyrcanus to administer to him. Antipater's father was apparently the first governor of Idumaea (Greek for Edom), originally the territory east of the Jordan-Arabah valley, and south of the land of Moab. It was originally inhabited by the Horites. They were partly destroyed and partly absorbed by the Bedouin tribes, who claimed descent through Esau from Abraham, and whom the Israelites acknowledged as brethren. They were governed by sheiks. After the fall of Babylon the pressure of the desert Arabs forced the Edomites across the Jordan-Arabah valley, and the people and name were extended westward. Hebron was in Idumaea. Herod's family was by origin Idumaean.]

Ptolemy Dionysius, the 12th king of the Egyptians, reigned 30 years. Pompey went to him in order to get aid from him. Because of the tenderness of his age, the Roman senate had appointed him (Pompey) his (Ptolemy's) tutor, but being a very ungrateful man, he (Ptolemy) killed Pompey. After Pompey's death Caesar proceeded to Alexandria, where he was subjected to the enmity of Ptolemy the murderous traitor, who unexpectedly besieged him; but Caesar fled on a small vessel which, however, sank under the burden of his followers. With an upraised hand, in which he held a letter, he swam two hundred paces to a larger vessel. Not long after that he won a naval battle over the royal navy; but Ptolemy, who escaped, again waged war against Caesar; but his entire force was destroyed. The king had boarded a small vessel on which he had hoped to escape, but was drowned. His body, identified by his breastplate inlaid with gold, was found on the shore. And thus Caesar captured Alexandria. He recalled from exile Cleopatra, the sister of Ptolemy, and gave her the kingdom. She later came to the city (i.e., Rome) in the royal train.[]

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, was a daughter of Dionysius Auletes[Ptolemy XI. Philopater Philadelphus Neos Dionysus (80-51 BCE), nicknamed Auletes (‘the flute-player'), was the illegitimate son of Soter II, and was chosen king by the Alexandrian people. The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimacy, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II had bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people. Ptolemy Auletes was thus obliged to spend his reign in buying the support of the men in power in Rome. From 58 to 55, Auletes was in exile, driven out by popular hatred, and worked by bribery and murder in Rome to get himself restored to Roman power. His daughter Bernice meanwhile reigned in Alexandria, a husband being found for her in the Pontic prince Archelaus. In 55, Auletes was restored by Aulus Gabinus, proconsul of Syria. He killed Bernice and, dying in 51, bequeathed the kingdom to his eldest son, aged ten years, who was to take as wife his sister Cleopatra, aged seventeen.], whom the Alexandrians expelled on account of his crimes. After the death of her brother, Caesar made her queen. After the death of Caesar and the events that took place at Philippi, Anthony proceeded to Asia, and he showed the queen the greatest honors so that he too her as his wife and had sons by her. Both were in the Attic War[There is no Attic War except in Greek mythology (where the Amazons do battle with Theseus and the Athenians in Attica, Greece). The chronicler is referring to the Battle of Actium (31 BCE).], and both fled. Finally they were defeated by Augustus. At the city of Nicopolis, Augustus forced Anthony to take his own life and ordered Cleopatra taken into custody. Not long afterwards she died in shackles in the sepulcher of her husband Antony from the bite of a serpent she had secretly gotten hold of. She was a very beautiful and eloquent woman, but greedy, cruel and and universally known for her licentiousness. And thus the Egyptian kingdom came to an end, having endured for 306 years under thirteen kings. And Augustus calmed raging Egypt.[Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) was the eldest daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Her father died when she was seventeen, leaving the kingdom to her and her younger brother Ptolemy, whom she was to marry. She was expelled from the throne by his guardians and retreated into Syria, collecting an army with which she was preparing to enter Egypt when Caesar arrived there in pursuit of Pompey. Her charms gained her support of Caesar, who placed her on the throne with his brother. This led to the Alexandrine War in which Ptolemy perished. Although this left Cleopatra the sole ruler, Caesar associated her with another brother of the same name who was still a child and to whom she was nominally married. She had a son by Caesar and followed Caesar to Rome, where she appears to have been at the time of his death in 44. She returned to Egypt, and in the year 41 met Anthony who became her devoted lover and slave. She accompanied Anthony in the war with Octavian, and was present at the battle of Actium in which she retreated with her fleet, hastening Anthony's defeat. She then attempted to win over Augustus, but having failed, and seeing that he was about to carry her to Rome as a captive, she ended her life at the age of thirty-nine in the year 30 BCE.]