First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

In the first year of the reign of Cleopatra there arose between Caesar and Pompey a horrible civil war in which occurred not only the hardships that happen in battles, but the prosperity of the Roman people was changed. The cause of such calamity was due to the excessive good fortune of everyone; for when Caesar invaded Gaul, Crassus invaded Asia, and Pompey invaded Spain. There were three very great armies. Thus the rule of the world was occupied by the alliance of three rulers. This rule continued for ten years. After this each was afraid of the other. Upon the death of Crassus among the Parthians, and of Julia, the daughter of Julius Caesar, who had been married to Pompey to keep peace between the parties, discord immediately arose among them; for Pompey became jealous of the riches and power of Caesar, while the reputation of Pompey weighed upon Caesar. Now as Caesar was master of the peaceful empire of Europe, he crossed over into Greece and besieged Pompey and destroyed all his forces, though he himself escaped with the help of the arrival of night. Caesar swiftly marched on through Epirus in Thessaly. Pompey followed him with a very large force. They armed for the fight, and fought a mighty battle of doubtful fortune. Finally the forces of Pompey ware scattered, and Pompey fled to Alexandria seeking the aid of Ptolemy (Ptholomeo). But he was unwilling (to assist him), killed Pompey, and sent his head and a small ring to Caesar. When Caesar saw this he immediately wept. After the death of Pompey, Caesar was subjected to the secret enmity of Ptolemy, the murderer, and after the capture of Alexandria, Caesar recalled Cleopatra from exile and conferred on her the kingdom. After this he swept over Syria for two years, and defeated Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, in Pontus. When he returned to Rome he was made a dictator and consul, and crossed over to Africa. Then, with the wars completed, he celebrated a triumph. He returned to Rome, and caused himself to be named emperor; and so ended the rule of the people and of the consuls, which had endured for 464 years.[This text is continued from Folio LXXXVI recto, and this footnote is a continuation of the note there. On his arrival in Egypt Caesar became involved in a war, which gave the remnant of the Pompeian party time to rally. This war, usually called the Alexandrine War, arose from the determination of Caesar that Cleopatra, who had won his heart, should reign in common with her brother Ptolemy; but his decision was opposed by the guardians of the young king, and the war which thus broke out was not brought to a close until the end of March, 47. It was soon after this that Cleopatra had a son by Caesar. Caesar returned to Rome through Syria and Asia Minor and, on his march through Pontus attacked Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates the Great, who had assisted Pompey. He defeated Pharnaces near Zela with such ease that he informed the senate by the words, "Veni, vidi, vici." (" I came, I saw, I conquered.") He reached Rome in September (47), was appointed consul for the following year, and before the end of September set sail for Africa, where Scipio and Cato had collected a large army. The war was terminated by the defeat of the Pompeian army at the battle of Thapsus, on April 6th, 46. Cato, unable to defend Utica, put an end to his own life. Caesar returned to Rome in the latter part of July. He was now the undisputed master of the Roman world, but he used his victory with the greatest moderation. His clemency against his enemies was one of the brightest features of his character. All parties vied with each other in paying him honor. He was made dictator for ten years.]

Tullius, surnamed Marcus and Cicero, was a very great philosopher and a prince of orators, and also a consul of the Romans. He was of the Tullian family, which had its origin in Arpinum (Arpinati) and traced its beginning to Tullius, the king of the Volsci. His father was Tullius, and his mother Helvia (Olbia). When he was first able to study, he excelled his fellow students in the greatness of his intelligence. He was first praised for his poetry, of which he wrote several books. With the passing years he fell in love with the art of rhetoric, which was better suited to his nature.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] After he had mastered the studies of his youth, he devoted himself to the study of philosophy and civil law. Then he fought under Sulla (Sylla) in the Marian War. Then he became a master builder; and aftewards, with the help of the Roman people, he was made praetor. Later still he was elected a consul with C. Antonius, son of the orator M. Antonius. He discharged his duties as consul so gloriously that he was called the father of his country. He explained the ideas of philosophy that previously were unknown to our books; and by virtue of the enlightened subtlety of his intelligence he wrote very many things. From his wife Terentia he had Tulliola (his daughter) and Marcus, his son.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] At last the famous orator was killed in the 64th year of his life by Antony through the agency of his supporters on the pretext of securing unity with Octavian; nevertheless, his enemies passed away disgracefully.[Marcus Tullius Cicero was born January 3rd, 106 BCE, of M. Tullius and his wife, Helvia, at the family residence in the vicinity of Arpinum. He and his brother Quintus displayed such aptitude for learning that his father sent them to Rome, where they received instruction from the best teachers in the capital. After receiving the manly gown (91), the young Marcus was placed under the care of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, from whom he learned the principles of jurisprudence. In 89 he served his first and only campaign under Cn. Pompeius Strabo in the Social War. During the civil wars between Marius and Sulla, Cicero did not identify himself with either party, but devoted himself to the study of law, philosophy, and rhetoric. Having carefully cultivated his powers, Cicero came forward as a pleader in the forum, as soon as tranquility was restored in the final overthrow of the Marian party. He defended many notable causes, but fearing the resentment of Sulla, he retired to Greece, ostensibly for the improvement of his health, which was very delicate. From Athens he went to Asia Minor, receiving instruction from the most celebrated rhetoricians in the Greek cities of Asia. From there he went to Rhodes. After an absence of two years, he returned to Rome, his health improved, and his rhetorical powers greatly enhanced. He obtained great distinction in the forum as an orator, and thus he paved his way to the high offices of state. In 75, he was quaestor in Sicily; in 74 he returned to Rome, and for four years was engaged in pleading causes. In 69, he was praetor. Two years later he was elected consul with C. Antonius as a colleague. Although he favored the popular party up to this time, he now allied himself with the aristocracy. He crushed Cataline, the conspirator, and for this service received the highest honors, was addressed as "father of his country," and thanksgivings in his name were voted to the gods. When he laid down the consulship, the tide turned against him. The friends of the conspirators accused him of putting Roman citizens to death without the vote of the whole people assembled in the comitia. The people, whose cause he had deserted, showed signs of resentment. He mortally offended Clodius by bearing witness against him, and Clodius vowed vengeance. The triumvirs, Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, left Cicero to his fate. Cicero retired from Rome into Greece. He gave himself over to despair. But his friends at Rome had not deserted him, and over the opposition of Clodius, he was recalled from banishment. In 57, Cicero returned to Rome and was received with honor. But he retired to a great extent form public life. He was sent to Cicilia as governor, returning to Rome in 49, just as the civil war between Caesar and Pompey broke out. He threw his lot with Pompey and crossed over to Greece. At the battle of Pharsalia (48), Cicero abandoned the Pompeian party and returned to Brundisium, where he lived in the greatest anxiety for many months, dreading Caesar; but when the latter landed at Brundisium he greeted Cicero with kindness and respect, and allowed him to return to Rome. Cicero now retired into privacy and composed the greater part of his philosophical and rhetorical works. The murder of Caesar in 44 again brought Cicero into public life. He put himself at the head of the republican party, and attacked M. Antony with unmeasured vehemence. On the formation of the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus in 43, Cicero's name was in the list of the proscribed. Cicero tried to escape but was overtaken, his head and hands cut off and taken to Rome, and by orders of Antony, were nailed to the Rostra. He perished December 7th, 43, in his 64th year.]

Catiline, born of a noble family, was strong of mind and body, but had a depraved intelligence. From youth he loved civil wars, destruction, robbery and internal strife. And in those things he employed his youth; for in his mind he was bold, subtle, ever changing and a treacherous deceiver in all things. And inasmuch as he was a most evil and greedy man, and a leader of criminal activities, he sought to surround himself with companions of the same disposition. With the help and counsel of such associates, the disgraceful Catiline himself conceived a plan to overthrow the Republic. When it was his very great hope of obtaining the consulship, he attempted a dangerous conspiracy against the Republic when Marcus Tullius Cicero was consul. After the disclosure of this conspiracy and when the names of the conspirators were known, Lentulus, born of the very famous family of the Cornelii, abdicated from the senate during his first magistracy. Then Cethegus, Statilius, Gabinius (Gabinus), and Coeparius (Ceparius), men of senatorial rank, were sent to prison by decree of the senate. And at once, with Lentulus himself, they were all strangled with a noose.[For this last sentence and the one that precedes it, the German edition of the simply states: "Some of them, who were members of the senate, were apprehended, taken to prison, and there strangled."] When the news reached Catiline, he decided to flee beyond the Alps. When this became known, and as Antonius was pursuing him with his legions, he stabbed himself in the midst of the battling legions; and thus the Republic was saved by Cicero's virtue from great disaster.[See Note on L. Sergius Catilina (Catiline) Folio LXXXVI recto.]

Cato the Later, the great-grandson of Cato the Former, shared his name. Marcus Porcius Cato was a Stoic philosopher whom some men call Uticensis because he died at Utica. He was a very highly educated man, and he was so fired by his zeal for learning that even in the senate house while the senate was in session he could not restrain from reading, but actually was reading eagerly Greek books. By such diligence he showed that some lack time, while others are superior to times.

Compare the chronicler's text to his source, Valerius Maximus (who gets his own mini-biography on Folio XCIII verso), Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium Libri Novem (‘Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings') VIII.7.2:

Cuius mirifica proles, propior aetati nostrae Cato, ita doctrinae cupiditate flagravit ut ne in curia quidem, dum senatus cogitur, temperaret sibi quo minus Graecos libros lectitaret. Qua quidem industria ostendit aliis tempora deesse, alios superesse temporibus.
His (Cato the Elder's) marvelous progeny, a Cato nearer to our own time, was so aflame with desire for learning that even in the senate house, while the members were assembling, he did not refrain from reading Greek books. By such diligence he showed that some lack time, whereas others are superior to times.

D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Valerius Maximus, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 2000; p. 225

Shackleton Bailey has a note on the last word, ‘times' (tempora, temporibus), that reads (p. 224): "The text has been questioned. Is there a play on two senses of tempora, time and circumstances?"

He taught that the Republic was better guarded by virtue than by weapons, saying: Do not assume that our ancestors made their state from small to great by means of arms; for if that had been true, we would have a greater one; for we also aspire to greater power, and have more allies, citizens, weapons and horses than they had. The more he fled from human glory, the more glory pursued him. And among the other aspects of his virtue he composed a book with his own rational explanations as an ethical and moral guide for the instruction of human life, from which (as they say) is that little book in meter which has been excerpted and is read to children. Among his thoughts was this one worthy of memory: Human life is especially like iron; because if it is used it is worn out; but when not used it is consumed by rust. He killed himself (as Augustine says), because he could not endure the victory of Caesar, and did not wish to submit to him.[M. Cato, great grandson of Cato the Censor, and surnamed Uticensis, from Utica, the place of his death, was born in 95 BCE. In early childhood he lost both his parents and was brought up in the house of his mother's brother, M. Livius Drusus. In his youth he revealed a stern and unyielding character, and applied himself with great zeal to the study of oratory and philosophy, and became a devoted adherent of the Stoic school. He was conspicuous for his rigid morality. In 63, he was tribune of the plebs, and supported Cicero against Cataline. He became one of the chief leaders of the aristocratic party, and an opponent of the measures of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. But all his efforts were in vain, and he was rejected as a candidate for the praetorship. On the breaking out of civil war in 49, he was entrusted as propraetor with the defense of Sicily; but on the landing of Curio with an overwhelming force, he abandoned the island and joined Pompey in Greece. After Pompey's victory at Dyrrachium, Cato was left in charge of the camp, and thus was not present at the battle of Pharsalia in 48. After this battle he set sail for Corcyra, and from there crossed over to Africa, where he joined Metellus Scipio, after a terrible march across the desert. The army wished to be led by Cato, but he yielded to Scipio. In opposition to the advice of Cato, Scipio fought with Caesar at Thapsus, and was utterly defeated. All Africa now submitted to Caesar, except Utica, where Cato wanted the Romans to resist; but when he saw that they were inclined to submit, he resolved to die rather than fall into the hands of the conqueror. He stabbed himself and died at the age of 49.]