First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Alexandra, wife of Alexander, the king of Jews, reigned nine years. For when her husband died, he left behind his children Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. But he left the rule of his kingdom to this Alexandra, his wife; for Hyrcanus, ignoring the responsibility of being a ruler, had elected to lead an idle life, while Aristobulus was too impetuous and bold. She herself was loved by the people. When she entered upon her reign she immediately appointed Hyrcanus high priest on account of his age. The heresy of the Pharisees originated in Judea at this time. She made use of their advice in all matters, but she alone carried the royal name. With their advice she murdered the best of the Jews, or condemned them to exile; and so destroyed everything. Yet she handled many matters in the best interests of the kingdom, and she was wily in retaining it. However, as she did not keep in view either goodness or righteousness, she brought the affairs of her house into a state of great discord. Upon her death the kingdom suffered many miseries. Yet she kept her people at peace. When she finally became seriously ill, Aristobulus, with an assembly of very many people, declared he would reign after his mother; not long after that she died at the age of 73 years.[Alexandra died in the year 69 BCE. Hyrcanus succeeded to the sovereignty, but was soon attacked by his younger brother Aristobulus, who possessed more energy and ambition than he. In the following year Hyrcanus was driven from the throne of Judea and took refuge with Aretes, king of Arabia Petraea. That monarch assembled an army and invaded Judea to restore Hyrcanus. He defeated Aristobulus, and blockaded him in the Temple of Jerusalem. But by bribes and promises, Aristobulus won over M. Scaurus, Pompey's lieutenant, who had arrived at Damascus, and who now ordered Aretes and Hyrcanus to withdraw from Judea (64). The next year Pompey himself arrived in Syria, reversed the decision of Scaurus, carried away Aristobulus as a prisoner to Rome, and reinstated Hyrcanus in the high priesthood. But Hyrcanus did not enjoy his newly recovered sovereignty in peace for long; for Alexander, son of Aristobulus, and subsequently Aristobulus himself, escaped from Rome and incited dangerous revolts, which, however, were quelled with Roman assistance. The real government was now in the hands of Antipater, the father of Herod, who rendered such important services to Caesar in the Alexandrian War (47) that Caesar made him procurator of Judea, leaving to Hyrcanus the title of high priest. Although Antipater was poisoned by the contrivance of Hyrcanus (43), the latter was a man of such evil character that he allowed Herod to take vengeance on the murderer of his father, and to succeed to his father's power and influence. In their invasion of Syria, the Parthians carried Hyrcanus away as a prisoner to Babylon, but treated him with consideration. He was allowed to return to Jerusalem to the invitation of Herod, who treated him with respect until the battle of Actium; when Herod, fearing that Augustus might place Hyrcanus on the throne, accused him of treasonable correspondence with the Arabians, and on that pretext put him to death.]

Jacob was Joseph's natural father; but Heli was his father according to the law. Matthew mentions one, Luke the other.[According to Matthew 1:16, "Jacob begat Joseph," the supposed father of Jesus; but according to Luke 3:23, Joseph "was the son of Heli."]

Hyrcanus, son of Alexander, king of the Jews, by the aforementioned Alexandra, was the twenty-third high priest of the Jews, taking the chief office of the priesthood. He held office for 24 years, having been installed by his mother. After the death of his mother he suffered very severe investigations and controversies. His brother, Aristobulus, attacked him with an army. Now, as the same two brothers marched out into the field of Jericho, Hyrcanus was defeated and fled to Jerusalem. They finally came to an agreement by which it was provided that Aristobulus was to rule, and that Hyrcanus was to be subject to him and in honor bound to obey him. Not long afterwards Hyrcanus was not satisfied with the role assigned to him; and he fled in the night to Aretes, the Arabian king. He assembled an army and invaded Judea, laying siege to Jerusalem. But Scaurus, the Roman general, drove off the besiegers; and he now considered Jerusalem an easy prey for tribute. And while they thus quarreled and fought, they thereby gave the Romans an excuse to make war on them. So Pompey came to Jerusalem and besieged it. Discord arose in the city, those on the side of Aristobulus wishing to protect the city, but those on the side of Hyrcanus preferring to surrender to the Romans. Finally he (Pompey) came into the city; and he assaulted the Temple. And in the third month the Temple was broken into. Faustus Cornelius, the son of Sulla, first dared to enter it.[This sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .] And the Romans desecrated the Temple. Nevertheless, from it he took nothing. He (Pompey) made Hyrcanus chief of the priesthood once again, and Judea was made a tribute-paying state.[See note on Alexandra, this folio. The last sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .]

Aristobulus, after Pompey's devastation of the city, was captured and, with his two sons Alexander and Antigonus, and as many daughters, was led off to Rome. And from that point in time the Jews completely surrendered their freedom and began to be subject to the Romans. The administration of Syria and Judea was entrusted to Scaurus Gabinius.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] After these things Aristobulus secretly left Rome and assembled a great army of Jews. Antonius was sent to wage war against him by Gabinius. Aristobulus was captured by Gabinius and led back to Rome again. During the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar he was sent to Syria with two cohorts. But the hope of Caesar was not realized, for the partisans of Pompey poisoned Aristobulus as he was attempting to bring Judea into the jurisdiction of Caesar.[Aristobulus was the younger son of Alexander Jannaeus and Alexandra. Upon the death of the latter, civil war broke out between Aristobulus and his brother Hyrcanus for the sovereignty. In 63 BCE he was deprived of the crown by Pompey, and sent as a prisoner to Rome. Six years later he escaped with his son Antigonus, returned to Judea and renewed the war. But he was taken prisoner by Gabinius and sent back to Rome. In 49, Julius Caesar released him, and sent him into Judea, but he was poisoned on the way by some of Pompey's party.]

Alexander, the high priest, son of Aristobulus, escaped while being taken to Rome with his father. He gathered a great army and was laying waste to Judea. And he was plotting against his uncle Hyrcanus. He was occupying such well-fortified places as Alexandrium, Hyrcanium and Macheros. Later he was slain at Antioch by Scipio with an axe in accordance with the contents of Pompey's letters, and with the accusation first laid against him in his trial for the things that he had done to the Romans.

Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, king of the Jews, fled as the sole survivor with his two sisters after Alexander and Aristobulus were slain. Caesar, taking control of Syria and Judea, appointed Antipater Idumeum, a strict man, procurator of Judea. And, in turn, he offered the kingdom to Hyrcanus, the uncle of Antigonus; but he was not to be called king. Shortly after that Antigonus fled to Pacchorus, the Parthian king, and there he remained until the death of Caesar, immediately after which he stormed and attacked the city, took Hyrcanus and tore off his ears with his teeth. For this reason M. Antony, with the assistance of Octavian, declared Herod king of Judea. He violently entered the city, took Antigonus and sent him in chains to Antony at Antioch, who slew him with an axe. And this was the end of the race of the Hasmoneans (Asamoneorum), for he was of the priestly family. And the kingdom of Judea ended.[Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II, was placed on the Judean throne by the Parthians in 40 BCE, but was taken prisoner by Sosius, lieutenant of Anthony, and put to death by the latter in the year 37.]