First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

was dedicated, which they call the Baptistery. The doors are made of solid bronze, and the histories of the New and Old Testament are engraved on them with indescribable art.[The Florence Baptistery (or Baptistry) of St John (Italian Battistero di San Giovanni) is a religious building in Florence believed to be the oldest building in the city. It is particularly famous for its three sets of artistically adorned bronze doors by two different artists. The South Doors were designed and created by Andrea Pisano in the years 1329-1336. The more celebrated North Doors, begun in 1401, took Lorenzo Ghiberti, the winner of a contest to see who would create the sculptures for these doors, 21 years to complete. Their success made Ghiberti the most celebrated artist in Italy, and secured him the commission to complete one further set of doors on the Baptistery, the East Doors (now known by Michelangelo having called them worthy of being "The Gates of Paradise"), which took 28 years to complete and contain what may be the greatest of all renaissance sculptures.] And although Florence was called the flower of all the cities of Italy, yet beside her beauty and the sophistication of her citizens, she also possessed more extraordinary men of every kind of virtue. She was graced by two poets, Dante Alighieri[Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) was Italy's greatest medieval writer. Although he wrote many works in Latin, his masterpiece, the (originally simply called the in Italian), was written in the vernacular language of his native Tuscany now known as Italian.] (Aldegerio), and Francesco Petrarch[Petrarch (1304-1374), called the ‘father of humanism' and the ‘father of the Renaissance', was an Italian scholar and poet. He perfected the sonnet form in poetry, and contributed significantly to the development of the study of ancient history and literature that would be the foundation of the Italian Renaissance. The is, in a certain sense, a descendant of Petrarch's humanistic legacy.]. The former was born at Arezzo (Aretium) of a Florentine father in exile, died and was buried in Arqua (Arquade) in the Euganean hills.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] The latter was born in Florence of Florentine parents and died in exile from his fatherland in Ravenna.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Not long after that she had the very famous painter Giotto[Giotto (c. 1267–1337), an Italian painter and architect from Florence, was the founding father of the artists of the Italian Renaissance. His most famous work, and the one that decisively broke with the medieval artistic traditions of the past, were the frescoes he painted for the Scrovegni Chapel between 1303 and 1310.] (Iotum), a highly celebrated artist and the equal of Appelles[Apelles of Kos (c. 352-308 BCE) was a celebrated painter of ancient Greece. Pliny the Elder, who discusses him in his ( 35.36.79-97 and passim), considered him the greatest painter of the ancient world. None of his paintings survive.]. She also had Accursius, prince of legal scholars, and foremost interpreter of the civil law. And she gave (to the world) Tadeus, of all physicians most renowned. And she was graced by Cosimo de Medici (Cosmo Mediceo), who in wealth, magnanimity and amiability excelled all the other citizens of Europe; and his sons and grandsons crown his good fortune, and added very many adornments to the city of Florence, particularly the monastery of San Marco, in which there are beautiful structures and a library which excels all others. These demonstrate the great man's magnificence. And his private residence built on the Via Larga (Lata) can be compared to the works of the Romans. Leonardo[Leonardo Bruni (c. 1369-1444) was a humanist, historian and chancellor of Florence. He was a pioneer in the development of a more modern understanding of history, in which secular events were divorced from religious ones, and where the Bible was just one source in the historian's toolbox. His greatest work, , applies these principals to the writing of history.] of Arezzo has given a detailed history of the origin and accomplishments of this most flourishing[Schedel—unusually—makes a pun here of the name of the city of Florence (‘The Flourishing Place'). His source, Biondo Flavio, (‘Italy Illuminated') 1.26, simply states: "The distinguished Leonardo of Arezzo has given a detailed account of the origin and accomplishments of the famous city of Florence in his ."] city. Beside Florence is the ancient city of Fiesole (Fesula), a place celebrated by the writings of many, especially Sallust (Salustii) and Livy (Livii). It has perished, or, as mentioned above, moved its people and its wealth to Florence. From its mountains, which slope down to the east, arises the Mugnone (Munio) stream, which washes the walls of Florence. The Arno River, yoked by four great bridges, divides the city of Florence. They say that the upper Arno valley, which now, as far as the floodplain of the Arno encompasses, is the most productive of the best wine in the Florentine region, was once a swamp. The foresight of the Florentines is to be praised in many respects, particularly in the selection of their chancellors who examine the art of rhetoric and who welcome men experienced in the field of study they call humanism, such as Leonardo[See the note above on Leonardo Bruni.] and Carlo Aretino[Carlo Marsuppini (1399-1453), also known as Carlo Aretino (Carolus Arretinus in Latin), was a celebrated Renaissance humanist and chancellor of Florence.] and Poggio[Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459), Italian scholar of the Renaissance, was born in 1380 at Terranuova, a village in the territory of Florence. His abilities and his dexterity as a copyist of manuscripts brought him into early notice with the chief scholars of Florence. Coluccio Salutati and Niccolo de'Niccoli befriended him, and in the year 1402 he was received into the service of the Roman curia. His functions were those of secretary. He did not concern himself with the ecclesiastical controversies of the times, but devoted himself heart and soul to the resuscitation of classical studies. He unearthed many valuable manuscripts, copied them and communicated them to the learned. Wherever he went he carried on his researches. He distinguished himself as an orator and writer, and epistolographer and grave historian, and as a facetious complier of fabliaux in Latin. He also wrote a , written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner. His , a collection of humorous and indecent tales, is chiefly remarkable for its unsparing satires on the monastic orders and the secular clergy. A considerable portion of his extant works are invectives. About 1452, Poggio finally retired to Florence, and on the death of Carlo Aretino in 1453 he was appointed chancellor and historiographer to the republic. His declining days were spent in the discharge of his Florentine office and in the composition of his history.]; and before these, Coluccio[Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406) was an Italian scholars and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of the Florentine Republic. The teacher of Leonardo Bruni, Coluccio wrote historical works linking Florence's origin to the Roman Republic. In his lifetime, although the study of ancient literature was generally frowned upon by the Roman Catholic Church, Coluccio both promoted the study of this literature and was instrumental in getting theologians and church officials to see the value of classical studies for current and future generations.], men who have passed down most eloquently the art of writing and speaking.

Florence, also called Florentia, Fiorenza, and Firenze, is located in Etruria, on either side of the river Arno, and about three miles south of Fiesole (Faesulae). Though celebrated in modern times as the capital of Tuscany, and in the Middles Ages as an independent republic, it was not a place of much consequence in antiquity. It is probable that it derived its first origin as a town from the Roman colony, the date of the establishment of which is not clear. A colony was settled there by the triumvirs after the death of Caesar; but there seems some reason to believe that one had previously been established there by Sulla. There is no direct authority for this fact, any more than for that of the new town having been peopled by emigrants who descended from the rocky heights of Fiesole to the fertile banks of the Arno; but both circumstances are in themselves probable enough, and have a kind of traditionary authority which has been generally received by the Florentine historians. A passage of Florus also, in which he enumerates Florentia (or as some manuscripts give the name, Fluentia) among the towns sold by auction by order of Sulla, is only intelligible on the supposition that the lands were divided among new colonists. But he is certainly in error in reckoning Florentia as a flourishing municipum at this time. It is probable that its favorable position in the center of a beautiful and fertile plain on the banks of the Arno, and on the line of the great high road through the north of Tuscany, became the source of its prosperity; and it is clear that it rapidly came to surpass its more ancient neighbor of Fiesole.

Fiesole (Faesulae) is an ancient and important city of Etruria, situated on a hill rising above the valley of the Arno, about three miles from the modern city of Florence. It was taken and ravaged with fire and sword during the Social War. In the middle ages the city was reduced to insignificance by the growing power of the Florentines, and gradually fell into decay. According to the ordinary histories of Florence it was taken and destroyed by the Florentines in 1010 CE, but much doubt has been thrown on this statement by modern historians. Fiesole is now a mere village, though retaining its Episcopal rank and ancient cathedral. Edmund G. Gardner, in his Story of Florence, observes, "The truth appears to be that Florence was originally founded by Etruscans from Fiesole, who came down from their mountain to the plain of the Arno for commercial purposes. The Etruscan colony was probably destroyed during the wars between Marius and Sulla, and a Roman military colony established here—probably in the time of Sulla, and augmented later by Caesar and Augustus."

Christianity is said to have been first introduced at Florence in the days of Nero; the Decian persecution raged here as elsewhere, and here Miniatus suffered martyrdom. Christian worship is said to have been first offered up on the hill where a stately eleventh century basilica now bears his name. When persecutions came to an end under Constantine, a church dedicated to the Baptist on the site of the Marsian temple, and a basilica outside the walls, where San Lorenzo now stands, were among the earliest churches in Tuscany.

By the beginning of the 13th century Florence became one of the foremost cities of Italy. When the inability of the nobles to govern themselves was made manifest by ceaseless conflicts between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the guilds, in 1282, took the government in hand. But in time a new aristocracy arose against which the lower ranks rebelled in 1378. Three years of mob rule followed, and then came an aristocratic government headed by the Albizzi, who inaugurated the city's most brilliant history. Florence became the money market of Europe, and the chief cradle of modern culture. The wealthy Medici, aided by the democrats, next seized the government. Cosimo, pater patriae (‘father of his fatherland'), while retaining the republican constitution, ruled the city from 1434 until his death in 1464. He was succeeded by his weak son, Piero, who was followed in 1469 by his son Lorenzo the Magnificent, a statesman, poet, and patron of arts and science, who died while the Chronicle was in the making. After his death the Florentine love of liberty was powerfully stimulated by the Dominican friar, Savonarola of Ferrara, and there followed a successful rebellion against the Medici rule. But Savonarola was burned at the stake in 1498, and in 1512 the Medici were reinstated with the aid of Spanish troops. In 1527 they were again expelled, but in 1530, after a heroic defense, during which Michelangelo had charge of the fortifications, Florence was captured by the army of Charles V, who installed Alessandro de Medici as hereditary duke. After him in 1537 came Cosimo I, who united the communities of Tuscany into a single state. On their extinction in 1737, Tuscany fell to the house of Lorraine. In 1860 Tuscany was united with the new kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite.

Florence is memorable in literature as the birthplace of Dante, who was born in 1265 and died in exile at Ravenna in 1321. Here also lived Giovanni Boccaccio, whose Decameron laid the foundation for modern Italian prose. Here Giotto, called the father of modern painting, began his work. The three greatest Italian masters, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, though not permanently attached to Florence, did some of their most important work here. Among the celebrated Florentine sculptors were Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia, and Donatello. Among its architectural monuments are the Palazzo Vecchio, with its tower 308 feet in height, built in 1298-1314, now the town hall; the great Cathedral, begun in 1296 and not completed until 1436, 185 yards long and 114 yards across the transepts, and with a dome 345 feet high; the Campanile, a square ball tower, begun by Giotto in 1334, and 275 feet high; and the Monastery of San Marco built in 1437-1443, which contains murals by Fra Angelico.

Nearly the entire paragraph devoted to Florence on folios LXXXVIv and LXXXVIIr was taken by Schedel from Biondo Flavio's Italia Illustrata (‘Italy Illuminated') 1.26-34.