First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Sulla (Silla), a Roman patrician, after he had performed many deeds in the Jugurthine War, carried away from the Roman senate the glory that belongs to an emperor. Immediately sent against Mithridates, he was victorious in Achaia and Asia. He was of the ancient and highly renowned family of the Scipios; and all of his days since youth were addicted to shameful and licentious practices, until under Marius he was made quaestor and sent against Jugurtha. In the exercise of this function he changed the course of his life entirely. He put Jugurtha in chains, silenced Mithridates, suppressed the affliction of the Social War, destroyed the power of Cinna, and had Marius proscribed and forced into exile. He was well versed in Greek and Latin, eloquent, sharp, smart, and greedy for glory; he gave away many things, especially money. He had a great mind, so much so that one doubted whether to say he was braver or luckier. As he now attained to the position of dictator and head of the Roman government, he decreed that no man should continue to keep life, property, or fatherland against his (Sulla's) will. He finally died in isolation of an intestinal disorder. With his death ended the two very deadly wars, namely, the Italian War, which was called the Social War, and the Sullan Civil War, both of which had continued for ten years with a loss of more than 150,000 people, 23 consuls, and 300 senators, not including those who were destroyed everywhere throughout Italy.

L. Sulla, surnamed Felix, the dictator, was born in 138 BCE. He studied Greek and Roman literature with success at an early age. But he followed pleasure with equal ardor, and his youth and manhood were filled with the most sensual activities. Still his love of pleasure did not absorb all his time, nor enervate his mind, which was always clear and firm. He aspired to the honors of state and became quaestor in 107, when he served under Marius in Africa. Although previously known only for his profligacy, he now displayed zeal and ability, and soon gained the approbation of his commander and the affection of the soldiers. It was to him that Jugurtha was delivered by Bocchus; and the quaestor thus shared with the consul the glory of bringing this war to an end. Sulla continued to serve under Marius with great distinction in the campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutons; but because Marius was becoming jealous of his rising fame, Sulla left him in 102 and took a command under the colleague of Marius, one Q. Catulus, who entrusted the chief management of the war to Sulla. In the military campaigns assigned to him he was successful. But now the enmity between Marius and Sulla assumed deadly form. This was temporarily checked by the breaking out of the Social War, which hushed all private quarrels for the time. Marius and Sulla took an active part against the common foe. Marius was advanced in years and found himself thrown in the shade by the superior energy of his younger rival. Sulla gained brilliant victories, and was elected consul in 88, receiving from the senate the command of the Mithridatic war. But he was expelled from Rome by Marius. So Sulla, on his return to the city at the head of his legions, proscribed Marius and his leading adherents. Sulla then remained at Rome till the end of the year, and set out for Greece at the beginning of 87, in order to carry on the war against Mithridates. He defeated Archelaus, Mithridates' general, in Boeotia, and in the following year was victorious in another battle against the same foe. But Sulla's enemies were giving trouble at home. The consul Cinna, who had been driven out of Rome by his colleague Octavius, soon after Sulla's departure from Italy, entered it again with Marius at the close of the year. Both Cinna and Marius were appointed consuls in the year 86, and all the regulations of Sulla were swept away. Having brought the Mithridatic War to conclusion, Sulla returned to Italy. He landed at Brundusium in the spring of 83. After several engagements Sulla became complete master of Rome and Italy. He resolved to take great vengeance on his enemies, and to utterly destroy the popular party. For the first time a list of names of those to be put to death was prepared. All persons whose names appeared on the list were outlaws, to be killed by anyone with impunity. Their property was to be confiscated and sold at public auction; and their descendants were excluded from a voice in public offices. Terror reigned throughout Rome and Italy. Fresh proscriptions constantly appeared. No one was safe. The confiscated property was purchased at nominal prices by Sulla's friends. Thousands perished. At the commencement of these horrors, towards the close of 81, Sulla had been appointed dictator for as long as he judged necessary. His object in the dictatorship was to carry out in a legal manner the reforms in the constitution and the administration of justice. He did not intend to abolish the republic, and consequently caused consuls to be elected for the following year, and was himself elected to the office while he continued to hold the dictatorship. His object was to give back to the senate and aristocracy the powers they had lost. In 81 he celebrated a splendid triumph on account of his victory over Mithridates. He claimed for himself the surname of Felix (‘happy' or ‘lucky'), as he attributed his success to the gods. He established military colonies throughout Italy, taking lands away from those who opposed him and giving it to his soldiers. At Rome he created a kind of a bodyguard for his protection by giving citizenship to slaves who had belonged to persons proscribed by him. The slaves thus rewarded were said to have numbered 10,000. In 79, to the surprise of everyone, Sulla resigned and retired to his estate at Putedi, and there, surrounded by the beauties of nature and art, he passed the rest of his life in literary and sensual enjoyments. He died in 78, at the age of 60. He wrote his own epitaph, stating that none of his friends ever did him a kindness, and none of his enemies a wrong, without being fully repaid.

Now when Sulla had placed the republic under these consuls new wars arose—one in Spain (Hispania), another in Pamphilia and Sicily, a third in Macedonia, and a fourth in Dalmatia. For Sertorius, who was (a member) of the Marian Party,[The German edition of the mistranslates the Latin clause qui partium marianarum fuerat ("who was (a member) of the Marian Party"—i.e., a partisan of the political party of Marius) as "being present in the region of the seas."] moved the Spaniards to war. Against him were sent the generals Quintus Caecilius (Cecilius) and Metellus, his son,[Schedel is mistaken here. The two generals sent against Sertorius were Quintus Caecilius Metellus, the son of that Metellus who had subdued Jugurtha, and the praetor Lucius Domitius.] and the Spaniards were brought under the dominion of the Roman people. Appius Claudius was sent against Macedonia, and later Cn. Scribonius was sent. He conquered the Dardanians, and marched as far as the Danube River. And so at one and the same time many triumphs and victories were celebrated.

The First Servile War, at the beginnings of the city[The phrase "at the beginnings of the city" is rather vague. Perhaps the chronicler is referring to the lands surrounding (i.e., the suburbs of) the city.], was incited in the city itself by Herodonius, the Sabine ruler. But this was more of an insurrection than a war. Soon afterwards, with the empire occupied throughout a variety of lands, who could believe that Sicily was being ravaged with far greater cruelty by the Servile War than during the Punic War? The land, rich in wheat, a province that, in its way, is a suburb of the city, was held by great estates of our citizens. At last Perperna (Perpenna) the general punished them. And he was content with an ovation (for his victory) over the slaves, so that he might not dishonor the dignity of his triumph with an inscription mentioning the slaves.

The Servile or Slave War occurred in Sicily in 133-131 BCE; a second in Sicily in 103 was ended by the proconsul Aquilius in 99.

In the 689th year from the founding of the city, in the time of these consuls (referring to the portraits of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gneus Antonius)

Marcus Tullius Cicero and C. Antonius (here called Gneus Antonius) were colleagues in the consulship in the year 63 BCE. Cicero, the Roman orator and politician, was born in 106, and spent his boyhood partly in his native town of Arpinum and partly at Rome. He was a devoted pupil of Philo, the head of the Academic School, studied rhetoric under Molo of Rhodes, and law under Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur and juris-consult. His forensic life began at twenty-five. He studied philosophy at Athens and under various masters in Asia. He returned to Rome in 77, engaging at once in forensic and political life. He held various political offices. He was elected the consulship in 63, and this was a year of amazing activity in his career, both administrative and oratorical. In the political dissensions of the times, Cicero found himself deserted, and on the advice of Cato went into exile at the end of March in the year 58 to avoid bloodshed. He was recalled the following year and was received at Rome with enthusiasm by all classes.

Under Caesar's dictatorship, Cicero abstained from politics. Domestic difficulties drove him to find comfort for his troubles in literature. His repose was broken by Caesar's murder in 44; but when it became apparent that the conspirators had removed the despot but not the despotism, he again devoted himself to philosophy. He returned to Rome at the end of the year and again became involved in Rome's political quarrels. He was included in the list of the proscribed and was slain on December 7th, 43 near Formiae. His head and hands were sent to Rome and nailed to the rostra after Fulvia, wife of Antony, and widow of Clodius, had thrust her hairpin through the tongue.

C. Antonius, according to most accounts, was one of Catiline's conspirators, and his well-known extravagance and rapacity seem to render this probable. Cicero gained him over to his side by promising him the rich province of Macedonia, in which he would have better opportunity of amassing wealth than in the other consular province of Gaul. At the conclusion of the war he went into this province and plundered it so shamefully that his recall was proposed in the senate. Cicero defended him. In 60 he was succeeded in the province by Octavius, father of Augustus, and on his return to Rome was convicted in his province. He retired to the island of Cephallenia, but was recalled by Caesar, whom he probably did not long survive.

, one L. Sergius Catilina, a man of very noble lineage, but of very depraved intelligence, conspired to destroy his fatherland. Together with some other famous, but reckless men, he was driven out of the city of Rome by Cicero. His accomplices, after being seized, were strangled in prison, and Catiline was defeated in battle and slain by the other consul, Antonius.[L. Sergius Catilina (Catiline) was a descendant of an impoverished ancient patrician family. His youth and early manhood were stained by every vice and crime. He first appears as a zealous partisan of Sulla, sharing personally in the horrors of Sulla's proscriptions. Notwithstanding his infamy he attained to the dignity of praetor in 68 BCE, was governor of Africa during the following year, and returned to Rome in 66 to sue for the consulship, but was disqualified by an impeachment for oppression in the province. Disappointed in the outcome, Catiline organized a conspiracy to murder the new consuls; but through his own hastiness the attempt failed. His subsequent attempts to upset the government are best read in Cicero. Catiline was slain in the year 62.] Then in the following year Metellus triumphed over the island of Crete when Junius Sillanus and L. Murena were consuls.

Pompeius Maximus, general of the Romans, was held in very great esteem by the Romans. After a speedy defeat of the pirates he was made a commander of the army and proceeded against twenty-two eastern kings. In Lesser Armenia he defeated Mithridates in a battle at night. Afterwards he made war against Tigranes the king, and the Albanians and Herod their king. He also wisely fought the king of Iberia, the Itureos and the Arabs. He then proceeded against Jerusalem, the capital city of Judea; and although at that time the city was not only well protected by nature, but by great walls and moats, he besieged it and captured it in barely three months' time. A thousand Jews were slain, and the remainder held as hostages. He ordered the walls of the city to be overturned.[This sentence is not found in the German edition of the .] Hycarnus was given the office of high priest. Aristobulus was carried to Rome as a prisoner. He then went to Asia, and from there he returned to Rome in great glory and triumph in the consulships of Junius Sullanus and L. Murena.[Cn. Pompeius Magnus, born September 30, 106 BCE, was a few months younger than Cicero, and six years older than Caesar. He was one of Sulla's most successful generals. When the war in Italy was brought to a close, Sulla sent Pompey against the Marian party in Sicily, of which he easily made himself master. He proceeded to Africa and gained further victories, returned to Rome in great triumph. He became consul, and openly breaking with the aristocracy, which was jealous of him, he became the great popular hero. A number of changes were now made in the laws, such as restoring to the tribunes the powers of which Sulla had deprived them. For the next two year Pompey remained in Rome. In 67 power was conferred upon him to make war against the pirates, which he did with great speed and success (though several modern scholars believe that the threat of piracy was intentionally overplayed by Pompey for political reasons). During the remainder of the year and the beginning of the following, he visited the cities of Cicilia and Pamphylia, and provided for the government of the newly conquered districts. He was then authorized to proceed against the Mithridates, who retreated to Armenia, but was there defeated by Pompey; and as Tigranes now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and from there made his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Pompey now turned against Tigranes, but the Armenian king submitted without a contest, and was allowed to conclude a peace with the republic. In 65, Pompey was sent out in pursuit of Mithridates, but met with much opposition from the Albanians and Iberians, so he resolved to leave these districts. In 64, he made Syria a Roman province. In 63, he advanced further south, in order to establish the Roman supremacy in Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine. The Jews shut the gates of Jerusalem against him; but after a siege of three months the city gave up. During this war came news of the death of Mithridates. Settling his affairs in Asia, Pompey returned to Italy in 62. As soon as he landed at Brundisium he disbanded his army in order to allay the fear that he might seize the supreme power. He was now 45, and for the third time was accorded the honor of a triumph. And now he was called upon to take part in the problematic civil affairs of the commonwealth, and for this he was hardly fitted. The aristocracy still regarded him with jealousy and distrust; yet Pompey would not ally himself with the popular party over which Caesar held sway. The aristocracy refused to sanction the work of Pompey in Asia, and Caesar having agreed to use his influence to favor Pompey in securing this approval, Pompey joined Caesar, and Crassus with his immense wealth became the third party to the triumvirate. This union, for the time, crushed the aristocracy. Pompey's acts in Asia were ratified and the Agrarian laws espoused by Caesar were passed. Caesar gave Pompey his daughter Julia in marriage. Caesar then went to Gaul, but Pompey remained in Rome. Caesar gained in glory, but Pompey lost confidence at home. The senate feared Pompey and deserted him for their favorite Clodius. And so he decided to strengthen his connection with Caesar. Thus he became regarded as the second man in the state. But he aspired to the dictatorship of the Roman world, and to this he fomented internal strife. The story of the civil war that followed between himself and Caesar eventually ended, as far as the part he played in it, in his assassination on the shores of Egypt.]

Caius Julius Caesar, who later became emperor, was, together with Lucius Bibulus, made consul in the 698th year from the founding of the city.[C. Julius Caesar and M. Calpurnius Bibulus were colleagues in the consulship in 59 BCE.] And to him were assigned Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul. To this the Roman senate also added Illyricum and ten legions with which he fought heavy engagements for ten years. First he fought the Helvetians, and he marched as far as the English Sea. Then he put to flight Ariovistus (Arioiustum), the king, and the Aedui (Arudes), Marcomones, Tribeti, Vangiones, and Suevi; and later also the Belgae and others whom we collectively call the Germans. After that he built a bridge over the Rhine (Rhenum) and passed over it. In nine years he subdued all Gaul lying between the Alps and the Rhone (Rhodanus) River, and the Rhine (Rhenum) River and the sea. This was followed by a grievous domestic war. For when the victorious Caesar returned from Gaul and craved the honor of the office of consul a second time, this was denied him by Marcellus Bibulus, Pompey and Cato; and he was ordered to dismiss his army and return to the city; and Pompey was sent (against him?) with absolute authority; and on account of this insult a war arose.[Caius Julius Caesar was born July 12th, 100 BCE in the consulship of C. Marius and L. Valerius Flaccus. He was six years younger than Pompey and Cicero. He was killed when almost 56 years of age, March 15th, 44. At the age of 22 he obtained great renown as an orator and was elected to high offices. In 63 he was elected Pontifex Maximus. In 61 he went as propraetor into farther Spain, where he gained great victories over the Lusitanians. On his return he and Bibulus were elected consuls. After his election he formed the first triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. Caesar's first popular measure was to divide the Campanian plain among the poorer citizens. By a vote of the people the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria were granted to Caesar with three legions for five years; also Transalpine Gaul, with another legion for five years. For nine years Caesar was now occupied with the subjection of Gaul. He conquered Transalpine Gaul, twice crossed the Rhine, and twice landed in Britian, previously unknown to the Romans. He conquered the Helvetii, who had emigrated from Switzerland, to settle in Gaul. He next defeated Ariovistus, the German king, who had taken possession of part of the territories of the Aedui and Sequavi, and pursued him as far as the Rhine. In his second campaign Caesar made war on the Belgae in northeastern Gaul, and subdued them. He crossed the Alps and made war against the Veneti and other states in northwestern Gaul. In three campaigns Caesar subdued the whole of Gaul. In his fourth campaign he crossed the Rhine in order to strike terror into the Germans, but he only remained 18 days on the further side of the river. He invaded Britain in the same year, but soon returned to Gaul and put down all the revolts that had occurred in the meantime (50). But his brilliant victories estranged Pompey, who joined the aristocratic party by the assistance of which alone he could hope to remain the chief man in the Roman state. The great object of this party was to deprive Caesar of his command, and to compel him to return to Rome as a private man to sue for the consulship. They would then have accused him, and as Pompey was in the neighborhood of the city with his army, the trial would have been a mockery, and condemnation certain. Caesar offered to compromise, and to resign his command if Pompey would do likewise. But the senate refused to listen. January 1st, 49 the senate decreed that Caesar disband his army, and refusing to do so, he should be regarded as an enemy of the state. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, which separated his province from Italy, and marched towards Rome. Pompey and some of the magistrates and senators fled to Capua, and from there to Greece, to which country Caesar was not able to follow on account of his lack of ships. In three months Caesar was master of all Italy, and later, crossing into Greece, completely defeated Pompey, who fled to Egypt. There Pompey was murdered before Caesar arrived. Caesar was now appointed dictator for a whole year and consul for five years. He accepted the dictatorship but declined the consulship. He made M. Antony his master of horse.]