First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

In the six hundred and twenty-seventh year from the founding of the city these consuls (referring to the dual portrait of Caius Cassius Longinus and Sextus Domitius Calvinus opposite) made war against the Transalpine Gauls; and of the forces of their (i.e., the Gauls') king Viturtus they (i.e., Longinus and Calvinus) slew countless numbers by the Rhone (Rhodanus) River. And although Viturtus had 180,000 warriors, and boasted that the small body of Romans would hardly make food enough for the dogs in his army, yet he was defeated in battle by the Romans. From his army some died in war, others were submerged with the bridge that they had constructed over the Rhone by means of their ships being joined together. 150,000 died. And a large quantity of spoils of war, consisting of the necklaces of the Gauls, was carried off. And the two consuls triumphed in great glory.[The 627th year from the founding of the city corresponds to 127 BCE; but Caius Cassius Longinus and C. Sextius Calvinus (here called Sextus Domitius Calvinus) were consuls in 124 BCE. During their consulship the war in Transalpine Gaul continued, and Calvinus defeated the Allobroges and Arverni. In the year 123 Calvinus had the administration of Gaul, and carried on the war against the Saulluvii. After having conquered them he founded the colony of Aquae Sextia.] When M. Porcius Cato and Quintus Marcus were consuls, a colony was led out to Narbonne in Gaul,[This clause is not in the German edition of the .] while in that same year when Licinius Metellus and Quintus Lucius Scaevola (Scevola) were consuls there was a victory over Dalmatia.[P. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus (here called Lucinius Metellus) and Quintus Mucius Scaevola (here called Quintus Lucius Scevola) were consuls in 117 BCE, and during this consulship Metellus subdued the Dalmatians.]

In the time of these two consuls (referring to the opposite dual portrait of Scipio Nasica and Calpurnius Bestia),[P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (nasica = "pointed nose") and L. Calpurnius Bestia were consuls in 111 BCE, the first year of the Jugurthine War. L. Calpurnius Bestia was tribune of the plebs in 121 BCE, but became popular with the aristocratic party who then had the chief power in the state. He obtained the consulship in 111, and the war against Jugurtha was assigned to him. At first he prosecuted it with great vigor, but by the offer of large sums of money he was induced to make peace with the Numidian without consulting the senate. An investigation resulted. Bestia and many men of high rank were condemned in 110. The nature of Bestia's punishment is not mentioned; he was still living in Rome in 90, in which year he went into voluntary exile.] a war arose against Jugurtha, king of the Numidians, because he had slain Adherbal and Hiempsal, the sons of Micispa, his own brothers, who were kings and were friends of the Roman people. Although Calpurnius (Calphurnius) Bestia was first sent against him, he was bribed by the money of the king and made a shameful peace with him that was rejected by the senate. Afterwards, in the following year, Spurius Albinus Postumus was sent against the same man; and he too, through his brother, fought ignominiously against the Numidians. The third consul to be sent was Quintus Caecilius (Cecilius) Metellus. He brought back the army, which he reformed with great severity and judgment, without exercising cruelty on any one, to Roman discipline.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He defeated Jugurtha in various engagements, killed or captured his elephants, and took many cities. And when he was about to put an end to the war, Caius Marius succeeded him. He defeated at the same time both Jugurtha and Bocchus, king of Mauretania, who had begun to bring Jugurtha assistance, and slew 20,000 warriors. Jugurtha and his two sons were chained to the chariot of Marius and driven before it. Soon afterwards he was strangled in prison at the command of the consul.[Jugurtha, king of Numidia, was orphaned at an early age and was adopted by his uncle Micipsa, who brought him up with his own two sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself and rose to such popularity that he excited the jealousy of his uncle, who, to remove him, sent Jugurtha to assist Scipio against Numantia; but there his zeal and bravery gained him the favor of Scipio and the leaders in the Roman camp. In 118 BCE the uncle died, leaving the kingdom to Jugurtha, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha, aspiring to sole rule, assassinated Hiempsal and defeated Adherbal, who fled to Rome for assistance, and the senate decreed that Numidia be equally divided between the two competitors. Jugurtha bribed the senators and thus succeeded in obtaining the western division of the kingdom, adjacent to Mauretania, by far the larger and richer portion. Still not content, Jugurtha invaded the territory of Adherbal, defeated and slew him. For this Rome declared war against Jugurtha, and sent L. Calpurnius Bestial, the consul, into Africa (111). Again Jugurtha purchased a favorable peace; but this aroused Roman indignation. The war was renewed; but the consul, Sp. Postumius Albinus, who conducted it, accomplished nothing. When he went to Rome to hold the comitia, he left his brother Aulus in command; but Aulus was defeated by Jugurtha. An ignominious peace made by Aulus was repudiated, and the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus was sent to Africa at the head of a new army (109). Metellus frequently defeated Jugurtha, and at length drove him to take refuge among the Gaetulians. In 107 Metellus was succeeded by Marius; but the cause of Jugurtha had meantime been espoused by his father-in-law Bocchus, king of Mauretania. Marius defeated the united forces, and Bocchus purchased the forgiveness of the Romans by surrendering his son-in-law to Sulla, the quaestor of M. Maurius (106). Jugurtha remained in captivity until the return of Marius to Rome, where, after adorning the triumph of his conqueror, he was starved to death.]

After the the Jugurthine victory, Marius became consul a second time, and to him was assigned the war against the Cimbrians (Cymbros) and Teutons (Theutones); and as the Cimbrian war continued, he was elected consul a third and fourth time. But in his fifth consulship he had as his colleague Quintus Lutatius (Lucanum) Catulus.

Caius Marius and Quintus Lutatius Catulus were Roman consuls at this time. Marius had served with distinction at Numantia under the younger Scipio Africanus in 134 BCE, and in 119 he became tribune of the plebs. In 114 he went to Spain as propraetor. He served in Africa against Jugurtha, and when elected consul in 107, closed that campaign. Meanwhile the Cimbrians and Germans burst into Gaul, repeatedly defeating the Romans. Marius finally defeated them also and was declared the savior of State, the third founder of Rome. When Sulla as consul was entrusted with the Mithridatic War, Marius, jealous of his patrician rival, attempted to deprive him of the command, and civil war followed. Marius was forced to flee to Africa, where he remained until his friends rose under Cinna. He hurried back to Italy, and with Cinna he marched against Rome, compelling it to yield. Marius and Cinna were elected consuls for the year 86, but Marius died a fortnight later.

Catulus, associate of Marius in 102, was to attack the Cimbri while Marius opposed the Germans. Although Marius succeeded, Catulus failed, and the Cimbri poured over the mountains with such fury that Catulus fled in confusion. Marius, after his return to Rome, came to his assistance and defeated the Cimbri. Catulus served with distinction in the Social War, and having espoused the cause of Sulla, his name was included in the great proscription of 87. Escape impossible, he shut himself up in a newly plastered chamber, kindled a fire, and was suffocated.

When the former consuls had been defeated at the Rhone (Rhodanus) River by the Cimbrians, Teutons, and Ambronians, which were nations of the Germans and Gauls, there was a great fear at Rome, the like of which had not been felt since the days of Hannibal during the Punic Wars. And now he fought against the Cimbrians, and in two battles he slew 200,000 of the enemy, and took 30,000 prisoners. Meanwhile the Cimbrians and Germans, of whom countless numbers remained, crossed into Italy. And once again Caius Marius and Quintus Catulus fought against them. Catulus was the more fortunate, for in the battle that soon followed, 140,000 of the enemy were slain in battle and during flight, and 40,000 were made prisoners. Of the two Roman armies both lost 300 men. And thirty-three standards of the Cimbrian army were carried off. Of these the army of Marius captured two, while the army of Catulus took 31. But the women gave the Romans a harder fight than the men had. With carts and chariots they made a wagon-fort, behind which they defended themselves for a long time. But they were now confronted with a new host that put them so in fear of death that they ceased fighting. For their hair was cut off, together with the posterior veins of the neck, presenting very gruesome wounds. The weapons that they had taken from the enemy, they turned upon themselves and upon their own. For although they sent their messengers to Marius, they could not obtain their freedom or anything approaching it. So they suffocated and strangled their children; and then they either wounded each other or, having made cords of their hair, they hanged themselves from trees and from the yokes of their wagons.

In the 662nd year of the founding of the city, the first civil war occurred at Rome. And in that same year also was the Mithridatic (War).[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Caius Marius, consul for a sixth time, was the cause of the civil war. For when Sulla (Silla), the consul, was sent to wage war against Mithridates (who had occupied Asia and Achaia), he kept his army in Campania a little while in order that the remains of the Social War, which had been carried on within the limits of Italy, might be extinguished. Marius desired that he himself be sent against Mithridates. This moved Sulla to first march to Rome with his army, and there give battle to Marius and Sulpicius. He was the first to enter the city in arms.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He slew Sulpicius and drove Marius to flight. And after he had made Gnaeus (Gneo) Octavius and Cornelius Cinna consuls for the next year, he went to Asia. At this time foreboding omens were seen. For under the rising of the sun a fiery globe in the region of the northern sky shone forth with a very great roar of thunder from the sky.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Among the Aretinians blood flowed from the bread at a feast; and animals of every kind that were accustomed to live with humans, with pitiable bleating, neighing, and howling they fled from their stables and pastures to the forests and mountains. And not long after these serious omens civil war followed.[L. Cornelius Cinna and Cn. Octavius were elected consuls in 87 BCE with the permission of Sulla when the latter was about to take the command against Mithridates, but upon condition that Cinna take an oath not to alter the constitution as then existing. But Cinna's first act as consul was to impeach Sulla; and as soon as the general had left Italy, Cinna sought to overpower the senate by forming a strong popular party of the new citizens, chiefly of the Italian states, who had lately been enrolled in the 35 old tribes, whereas they had previously voted separately as eight tribes; and by their aid it was proposed to recall Marius and his party. The other consul, Octavius, was ill fitted to oppose the popular leaders; yet Sulla had left the party of the senate so strong that Octavius was able to defeat his opponents in the forum, and Cinna fled the city. He was soon joined by Sertorius and others, who assisted in raising the Italians against the party in power at Rome. Cinna and his friends marched on Rome and invested it from the land, while Marius, having landed from Africa, blocked it by sea. The result has already been told in the previous note on Marius. Sulla threatened to return and take vengeance on his enemies. Cinna assembled an army at Brundisium to meet Sulla before he entered Italy; but when he ordered the rest to follow, a mutiny arose and Cinna was slain.]