First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

It is established that Philo, a Jew born of the priestly class and educated at Alexandria, flourished at this time. He translated the Book of Wisdom into the Greek tongue (in which he was highly learned) in an artistic manner; and this same book he called the Book of Wisdom, for in it, in particular, he mentioned the praise of our Lord Jesus Christ; also because wisdom is praised in it in many ways. He wrote many things, as Saint Jerome makes mention in his book On Illustrious Men.[Philo Judaeus, the Jew, was born at Alexandria, and was descended form a priestly family of distinction. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome (40 CE) on an embassy to the emperor Caligula, in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor. We have no other particulars of the life of Philo worthy of record. His most important works treat of the Books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Sacred Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two. He maintained that the fundamental truths of Greek philosophy were derived from the Mosaic revelations; and to make the latter agree more perfectly with the former, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses. He may therefore be regarded as a sort of precursor of the Neo-Platonism.]

Cato (Cathon), the Stoic philosopher, was born in Egypt, and was for some time a student of Panaetius (Panecii). He left many writings, the majority of which are considered excellent. From these the following small number of well-known ones has been excerpted: When you stop hoping you will cease to fear. When you ask what advantages I have secured for myself, I answer, I have begun to be a friend to myself. If you wish to be loved, love. Once upon a time, when he was asked whether a servant might do his lord a favor, he answered, There are various kinds of favors, various duties and various services; What a stranger does, he said, is a favor, but he is a stranger who does not criticize. But duty belongs to a son, a wife, and other persons whom compulsion sets in motion and orders to endure the task. But service is for the servant, whose own condition has placed him in that position, and he should not find fault with what his master does.[Cato Dionysius, probably the man here referred to, was the author of a work consisting of a series of sententious moral precepts. Nothing is known of the author nor of the time when he lived, but many writers place him under the Antonines.]

Cato (Catho), the first Roman philosopher and jurist, was at first a quaestor, and then was twice consul. And he distinguished himself among the Romans in the Greek and Latin languages. He first served in the military with Q. Fabius Maximus. Later, in the fifth year he went to Tarentum, and there, finding the poet Ennius, he brought him back with him to Rome. Afterwards he journeyed to Africa with that excellent man Scipio, and greatly helped the Roman cause. Then, from the office of aedile, he was made censor. And afterwards as praetor he acted best in everything. Even though he was twice consul, and after his consulship which he vigorously carried out in Spain, he was elected military tribune. Finally, late in his life at an advanced age, after he had learned Latin, he also decided to learn Greek. In consequence he became sufficiently learned that he treated of historical and military matters. And as he had obtained for himself certain glory on account of his clemency, he so conducted himself that the Romans regarded him as the best informed man in civil law; and he rose above all his father's contemporaries, in and out of the senate, in courage and in trustworthiness. He was called the Censor (Censorinus) because the office of censor had been especially intrusted to him. His marks of distinction were also the majesty of the senate and the continuation of his family, out of which indeed was born the greatest glory of the Romans, his descendant Cato, who afterwards made that most sacred name, Cato, immortal.[Cato, frequently surnamed Censorius or Censor, also Cato Major (to distinguish him from his great-grandson Cato Uticensis), was born at Tusculum in 234 BCE, and was brought up on his father's farm, situated in the Sabine territory. In 217 he served his first campaign at the age of 17, and during the remaining years of the second Punic War, he greatly distinguished himself by his courage and military abilities. In the intervals of war he returned to his Sabine farm, which he had inherited from his father, and there led the same simple and frugal life which characterized him to his last days. He went to Rome and became a candidate for office. He obtained the quaestorship in 204, and served under the proconsul Scipio Africanus in Sicily and Africa. But the habits and views of life of these two men were very different, and on his return to Rome he denounced the luxury and extravagance of his commander. On his voyage home he is said to have touched at Sardinia, and to have brought the poet Ennius from the island to Italy. He established a reputation for strict morality and virtue. In 195 he was consul with his old friend and patron L. Valerius Flaccus. He carried on war in Spain with greatest success, and on his return to Rome received the honor of a triumph in 194. In 191 he served in the campaign against Antiochus in Greece, and the decisive victory of Thermopolae was mainly due to him. But here his military career ended, and now he took an active part in civil affairs. He obtained the condemnation of L. Scipio, the conqueror of Antiochus, and compelled his brother P. Scipio to quit Rome in order to avoid the same fate. In 184 he was elected censor. His censorship was a great epoch in his life, but all his efforts to stem the luxury of the times proved unavailing. In his old age he applied himself to the study of Greek literature. He retained his physical and mental vigor in his old age. He died in 149 at the age of 85. His most important work entitled , has come down to us in fragments. It contains the history of the Roman kings, and treats of the origin of Italian towns.]

Scipio, grandson of Scipio the Great, was celebrated among the Romans for every virtue; and out of the regular order he was made a consul and given Africa. He proceeded against Carthage, and after storming it for six days and nights, he forced the Carthaginians to capitulate; and those who survived offered to submit. After that he first assembled the women, and later on the men. For (as Livy writes), he took as prisoners 25,000 women and 30,000 men. But Hasdrubal, their ruler, voluntarily fled, while his wife, with feminine madness, threw herself and her children into the flames. The city itself burned for sixteen successive days, so that even the victors looked on with compassion. This Scipio by reason of his very strong courage earned the illustrious surname of his ancestor, and was called Africanus the Younger.[P. Cornelius Aemilianus Africanus Minor was the younger son of L. Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Macedonia, and was adopted by P. Scipio, son of the conqueror of Hannibal. He was born about 185. On the outbreak of the third Punic War, he accompanied the Roman army to Africa, as a military tribune, and showed great personal bravery and military skill. The senate assigned Africa to him as his province, to which he immediately sailed. He prosecuted the siege of Carthage with the utmost vigor. The Carthaginians defended themselves with the courage of despair, but, by the spring of 146, the Romans forced their way into the city. The inhabitants fought from street to street, and from house to house, and the work of destruction and butchery went on for days. The fate of the once magnificent city moved Scipio to tears. After reducing Africa to a province, he returned to Rome in the same year, and celebrated a great triumph. The surname of Africanus, which he had inherited by adoption form the conqueror of Hannibal, had now been acquired by him by his own exploits.]

Publius Terentius (Terence), an African born in Carthage, was a comic poet who, as some say, was taken as a slave from Africa by the aforesaid Scipio the Younger. Because of his great intelligence and his distinguished appearance, he was given his freedom. Some write that Terentius served Lucanus, the senator, at Rome, by whom, on account of his innate talent and beauty, he was not only liberally educated, but also in time manumitted. This Terentius lived in the service of many noble persons, particularly Scipio Africanus and Laelius. He wrote six comedies with studious elegance in which he observed the character of many people attempting to avoid troubles. Concerning his death Volcatius hands down the following story: After the African had written six comedies for the people, he then made a journey to Asia. As soon as he boarded his ship, he was never seen again. Others pass down the tradition that he died in Arcadia, in the town of Stymphalus in the Gulf of Leucadia during the consulships of Gn. Cor. Dolobella and Marcus Fulvius Nobilior. He was said to have been of medium stature, lean of body, and of dusky complexion. He left behind a daughter who married a Roman knight. Afranius preferred him to all comic playwrights. The following epitaph was inscribed on his tomb: Born in the lofty towers of high Carthage, I was a prize of war to Roman generals. I described the character of people, both of youths and of old men, and how slaves deceive their masters. What the courtesan and the greedy pimp devise with their tricks, these things, whenever someone reads them, thus I think he will be safe.

P. Terentius Afer, usually called Terence, the celebrated comic poet, was born at Carthage in 195 BCE. By birth or purchase he became the slave of P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator. His handsome person and promising talents recommended Terence to his master, who afforded him the best education of the age, and finally manumitted him. On his manumission, according to the usual practice, Terence assumed his patron's nomen, Terentius, having been previously called Publius or Publipor. The Andria was the first play offered by Terence for representation. He was now in his 27th year. The play was successful. His chief patrons were Laelius and the younger Scipio, both of whom treated him as an equal, and are said even to have assisted him in the composition of his plays. After residing some years at Rome, Terence went to Greece, and while there he is said to have translated 108 of Menander's comedies. He never returned to Italy, and there are various accounts of his death. According to one story, after embarking at Brundusium, he was never heard of again. According to others, he died at Stymphalus in Arcadia, in Leucadia, or at Patrae in Achaia. One writer says he was drowned with all the fruits of his time in Greece, on his homeward passage. But the prevailing report was that his translations of Menander were lost at sea, and that grief for their loss caused his death. He died in 159 at the age of 36, leaving a daughter; but nothing is known of his family. Six comedies are all that remain to us, and they were probably all that Terence produced.

The sentence that begins "Afranius preferred…" to the end of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.