First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Antiochus, noble or illustrious, reigned 11 years. He was an image of the Antichrist. While he was a hostage at Rome he learned of his father's death and of the laziness of his own brother; and so he secretly fled and, coming to Syria, was there received by several cities. When his brother died he reigned in his place. After the sale of the priesthood, firstly by the advice of Jason and later by that of Menelaus, he ordered pagan names to be applied to the Jews and forbade sacrifices in the Temple at Jerusalem. After his return from Egypt he robbed the Temple at the instigation of Menelaus, and ordered the Jews to sacrifice to idolatrous gods and to adopt pagan customs. He placed an idol of Olympian Zeus (Jovis Olimpi) in the Temple, prohibited circumcision, and slew the circumcisers. The seven brothers and their mother, who would not eat pork, he martyred with various forms of punishment. Finally, when he was about to go to Jerusalem, he fell from a chariot, which broke; and he was consumed by worms, and died a miserable death in a strange land.[For Antiochus IV Epiphanes, see also Folio LXXX verso, and note.]

Antiochus Eupator reigned 2 years. He was still a child when his father died. Lysias was his guardian during his youth. They both led forth an army against the Jews, but before long were slain by their own people through fear of Demetrius, the son of Seleucus Eupator.[Antiochus V (Eupator), no doubt here referred to, was nine years old at the time of his father's death, and reigned under the guardianship of Lysias. He was dethroned and put to death by Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleucus Philopater, who had up until this point in time lived at Rome as a hostage.]

Demetrius Soter (Sother), the tenth king of Syria and Asia, reigned 12 years after the murder of his step-son. The son of Seleucus slew Antiochus Eupator and Lysias, and made Alcimus (Alchimum) a priest. He was sent to Jerusalem with Bacchides, and many Jews were slain. He sent Nicanor, who was killed by Judas Maccabeus. And he killed Bacchides the Judean. And, finally, he was conquered by Alexander, who deprived him of life and kingdom at the same time.[Demetrius Soter, who reigned 162-150 BCE, was the son of Seleucus IV (Philopator) and grandson of Antiochus the Great. While yet a child he had been sent by his father to Rome as a hostage, and remained there during the whole reign of Antiochus IV (Epiphanes). After the death of Antiochus, being now 23, he asked to be set at liberty, but being refused, he secretly fled from Rome and went to Syria. The Syrians declared in his favor; and the young king Antiochus V, with his tutor Lysias, was seized by his own guards and put to death. Rome recognized Demetrius as king; but having alienated his own subjects by luxury and intemperance, they sided with an imposter named Balas, who took the mane of Alexander. He defeated Demetrius in battle and slew him. Demetrius left two sons, Demetrius Nicator and Antiochus Sidetes.]

Mattathias, the priest, a son of Jonathan, the son of Simonides, was honored by the Jews for his learning and enjoyed glorious renown. In his wrath, this holy man slew the sinners; and he had five sons who possessed the same wrath. But he was not a priest, although three of his sons were. When he died he was buried at Modin.[Mattathias, a citizen of Modin, was of priestly descent. When in accordance with the policy of Antiochus IV, the royal officers attempted to establish pagan sacrifices in the town, Mattathias refused to conform, killed the officer and a Jew about to offer sacrifices, leveled the pagan altar to the ground, and fled with his five sons to the mountains. There he was joined by a number of other like-minded individuals. After a few months of vigorous fighting, Mattathias died, leaving the conduct of the revolt to his five sons. Of these Eleazar and John were killed in the succeeding struggle, without having attained official standing. The other three were his successors. (1 Maccabees 2)]

This Judas, the Maccabee, a very brave and war-like man, and a son of Mattathias, was a very stern warrior. He triumphed in Israel, and had no equal before or after that time. His glorious deeds are on display in the books of the Maccabees.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He was finally defeated in battle. For the sake of the laws of God he suffered death, after having administered the priesthood for three years.[Judas, called Maccabee, or ‘the Hammer,' from which surname the entire family came to be known, was essentially a warrior, whose plans involved not only the re-establishment of the Torah, but also, in all probability, the reestablishment of the Jewish State in at least a semi-independent position. He defeated successively the Syrian generals Apollonius and Seron. Antiochus IV then sent Lysias, the imperial chancellor, to put down the revolt, and he in turn sent a large body of troops against Judas, under three generals—Ptolemy, Nicanor and Gorgias. Judas called the fighting men of Galilee together at Mizpah, organized them, and at Emmaus surprised and utterly defeated the forces of Gorgias. Later he defeated a great army under Lysias at Bethzur. In December 165, Judas cleansed the Temple of the Syrian pollutions, and inaugurated the re-established worship with a great feast. For a year and a half he waged war against his enemies on the east of the Jordan, while his brother Simon brought the scattered Jews throughout Galilee back to Judea for safety. His vigorous campaign seems to have alienated ‘The Pious,' who had seen their ambitions realized in the re-establishment of the Temple worship. Lysias returned with a great army, completely defeating Judas at Beth-zacharias. He then laid siege to Jerusalem, where the citadel was still in Syrian hands. Jerusalem surrendered but Lysias did not attempt to disestablish the Jewish faith. He appointed Alcimus as high priest, who was received by ‘the Pious' as legitimate, although he favored the Greeks. Judas and his party, however, remained in revolt, and when Lysias returned to Syria, undertook war against Alcimus himself. Demetrius I, who had succeeded Antiochus IV, sent Nicanor to put an end to the rebellion; but Judas defeated him and became the supreme head of the Jewish State. Judas sent ambassadors to Rome and thus gained an ally, and Demetrius was asked to desist from fighting the Jews. But the international policy of Judas displeased ‘the Pious,' who deserted him; and before the message of the senate could reach Demetrius, Judas had been defeated by the Syrian general Bacchides, at Elasa, and killed (1 Maccabees 3-9:22).]

The Temple was cleansed by Judas and his brothers after it had been dishonored for three years.

Jonathan, the Jewish commander and high priest, ruled over the Jewish people after Judas, for a period of 19 years; and in virtue he was not unlike his brother Maccabee. He was finally betrayed, together with his sons, by Trypho, taken prisoner, and slain. Simon (Symon), his brother, buried his body with lamentation.

Jonathan undertook the leadership of the revolt upon the death of Judas Maccabeus, only to suffer serious defeat east of the Jordan, where he had gone to avenge the killing of his brother John by the ‘sons of Jambri.' For a time it looked as if Syria would again establish its complete control over the country. The high priest Alcimus died, and Bacchides, believing the subjecting of Judea complete returned to Syria (160 BCE). The land, however, was not at peace, and in the interests of order, Bacchides gave Jonathan the right to maintain an armed force at Michmash. The fortunes of the Maccabaean house now rose steadily. As a sort of licensed revolutionist, Jonathan was sought as an ally by the two rivals, Alexander Balas and Demetrius I. He chose Alexander, and when the latter defeated Demetrius, Jonathan found himself a high priest, a prince of Syria, and a military and civil governor of Judea (150 BCE). But the steady advance of Judea was checked by the treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho, the guardian and commanding general of the young Antiochus V, by whom he was executed in 142 (1 Maccabees 9:23).

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Aristarchus, a teacher of grammar, was famous in the time of the Maccabees.[Aristarchus of Samothrace, the celebrated grammarian and scholar, flourished in the middle of the second century BCE. He was educated in the school of Aristophanes of Byzantium, at Alexandria, where he himself founded a grammatical and critical school. His specialty was Homer, and he soon became the most influential of all scholars of Homeric poetry. He was also the librarian of the library of Alexandria, and seems to have succeeded his teacher Aristophanes of Byzantium in that role. At an advanced age he left Alexandria and went to Cyprus, where he is said to have died at the age of seventy-two of voluntary starvation, because he was suffering from incurable dropsy. He was, perhaps, the greatest textual critic of antiquity.]

Pacuvius (Bacubius)[There is no playwright known as Bacubius, which must be a corruption for Pacuvius (c. 220-230 BCE), a tragic poet who was born at Brundusium and was the nephew of Ennius. Cicero ranked him first among all Roman writers of tragedy.], from the town of Brundusium[Ennius (239-169 BCE) was Rome's greatest and most influential early poet and playwright.], a writer of tragedies, was a nephew of the poet Ennius by his sister. He was famous first at Rome, and then later as well when he returned to Tarentum (Tharentum). He died at the age of ninety.

Simon, third son of Mattathias, was the Jewish leader and high priest for almost 8 years. He was a spiritual and very wise. From his youth he was of very good conduct. He was at last shamefully killed by his son-in-law. This Simon and Jonathan, brothers of Judas, redeemed from the enemy the body of their brother after he was slain, and buried it at Modin. For Ptolemy had invited him to a banquet, and there murdered him with his two sons. The widow of Simon, with the other two, were put in prison, and with that event ends the first book of the Maccabees.[Simon, another son of Mattathias, succeeded Jonathan when the affairs of the State were in a critical position. He was a successful diplomatist and seldom compelled to resort to war. In 141 BCE he was elected high priest and military commander and civil governor of the Jews. The office of the high priest became hereditary in Simon's family. Like his brother, however, he met a violent death, being killed by his son-in-law at a banquet. (1 Maccabees 13-16:18).]