First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Ptolemy Epiphanes, the fifth king of the Egyptians, reigned 24 years. At the beginning of his reign he was not more than four years old. After he became of age he was neither wise nor strong, and therefore Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, undertook the conquest of his kingdom and began to make war upon it. But the princes of the realm stood by Ptolemy and protected the whole kingdom. Onias, the high priest of the Jews also came to protect him. But when he became of age Antiochus (Antiochus IV Epiphanes), the noble son of Antiochus the Great, clandestinely betrothed his sister to him; and she bore him two sons.[Ptolemy (V) Epiphanes was the son and successor of Ptolemy IV. At the death of his father in 205 BCE, he was but five years of age and Philip of Macedon and Antiochus III of Syria determined to take advantage of his minority, and entered into an alliance to divide his kingdom between them. Antiochus conquered Coele-Syria, while Philip reduced the Cyclades and the cities in Thrace that had remained subject to Egypt. In this emergency the Egyptian ministers had recourse to the powerful intervention of the Romans, who commanded both monarchs to refrain from further hostilities, and to restore all the conquered cities. In order to evade this demand without openly opposing the power of Rome, Antiochus concluded a treaty with Egypt, by which it was agreed that the young kind should marry Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, and receive back the Syrian provinces as her dower. This treaty was made in 199, but the marriage ceremony was not solemnized until six years later. The administration of Egypt was placed in the hands of Aristomenes, a man in every way worthy of the charge. As early as 196, the young king was declared to be of full age and his coronation was solemnized with great magnificence. It was on this occasion that the decree was issued which has been preserved to us in the celebrated inscription known as the Rosetta stone, which afforded the key to discovery of hieroglyphics. In 193 the marriage of Ptolemy to the Syrian princess Cleopatra was solemnized at Raphia. Ptolemy, however, refused to assist his father-in-law against the Romans in the war that was about to break out, and he continued steadfast in his alliance with Rome. But he derived no advantage from the treaty that concluded it, and Antiochus still remained in the possession of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. As long as Ptolemy remained under the influence of Aristomenes, his administration was equitable and popular; but gradually he became estranged from his able minister, and threw himself more and more into the power of flatterers and vicious companions, until at length he was induced to rid himself of Aristomenes, who was compelled to take poison. He attempted to recover Coele-Syria from Seleucus, the successor of Antiochus, but having, by an unguarded expression, excited the apprehensions of some of his friends, he was poisoned in the 24th year of his reign at the age of 29. He left two sons, who afterward ascended the throne under the names of Ptolemy Philometor and Euergetes II, and a daughter, who bore her mother's name of Cleopatra.] When Antiochus heard this, he came to Egypt in person to see his sister Cleopatra and her sons, and he planned to kill Ptolemy at dinner. And when he attempted to subjugate the entire land of Egypt, he was driven out by the Egyptians. When two years later he besieged Alexandria, the Roman emissaries compelled him to yield and leave Egypt.[Antiochus IV Epiphanes was the son of Antiochus (III) the Great. He carried on a war with Egypt from 171-163 BCE with great success, in order to obtain Coele-Syria and Palestine, which had been given as a dowry to his sister; and he was preparing to lay siege to Alexandria in 168 when the Romans compelled him to retire. Perhaps at the instigation of several of his high-ranking Hellenizing Jewish officials, Antiochus IV attempted to introduce rather forcefully the worship of the Greek divinities to the peoples of Jerusalem (in an attempt to unite the peoples of his empire around a common religious set of beliefs?); but this lead to a rising of the Jewish people under Mattathias and his sons the Maccabees, which Antiochus was unable to put down. He attempted to plunder a temple in Elymais in 164, but he was repulsed, and died shortly afterwards in a state of raving madness, which the Jews and Greeks equally attributed to his sacrilegious crimes. His subjects gave him the name of Epimanes ("the Madman") in parody of Epiphanes.]

Ptolemy Philometor, the sixth king of the Egyptians, reigned 35 years, and was the son of the sister of Antiochus. He was altogether a lazy man, and his mother's brother made war on him. Therefore he sent his messengers to Rome for assistance. And so the Romans sent Pompilius (Popillius), the consul, to Antiochus demanding that he keep out of Egypt. Antiochus received him with a kiss; and when Pompilius had executed his commission, he offered Antiochus the choice of peace or war; and by this sternness the king was brought to obey the Roman consul. Afterwards Ptolemy gave his daughter in marriage to king Alexander (Balas), and later took her back and gave her in marriage to Demetrius; and he warred against Alexander, putting him to flight. When the head of Alexander was sent to him by the Arabian king three days later, he died for joy.[Ptolemy (VI) Philometor was the eldest son of Ptolemy V, Epiphanes. He was but a child when his father died in 181 BCE, and during his minority the regency was assumed by his mother Cleopatra. By her able administration she maintained the kingdom in a state of peace; but after her death, in 173, the chief power fell into the hands of Eulaeus and Lenoeus, both corrupt and incapable. They rashly engaged in war with Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, hoping to recover the provinces of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. Their army was totally defeated by Antiochus, who advanced without opposition as far as Memphis in the year 170. The young king himself fell into the hands of the enemy but was treated kindly, as Antiochus hoped by that course to make himself master of Egypt. When the younger Ptolemy learned of the captivity of his brother, he was at Alexandria with his sister Cleopatra, and he assumed the kingship as Euergetes II, and prepared to defend the capital. Antiochus laid siege to Alexandria but was unable to take it, and withdrew to Syria after establishing Philometor as king of Memphis, retaining in his own hands the frontier fortress of Pelusium. This last circumstance, together with the ravages committed by the Syrian troops, awakened Philometor, who had hitherto been a mere puppet in the hands of the Syrian king, to a sense of his true position, and he hastened to make overtures of peace to his brother and sister at Alexandria. It was agreed the two brothers should reign together, and that Philometor should marry his sister Cleopatra. This arrangement did not suit Antiochus, who immediately resumed hostilities, and he advanced a second time to the walls of Alexandria, when he was met by a Roman embassy, headed by M. Popillius Laenas, who haughtily commanded him to immediately desist from hostilities. He dared not disobey, and withdrew to his dominions in 168. Dissension soon broke out between the brothers, and Euergetes expelled Philometor from Alexandria. Thereupon Philometor went to Rome in person, and the Romans appointed deputies to reinstate him in his power. This was effected without opposition; but they settled that Euergetes should have Cyrene as a separate kingdom. Euergetes, however, soon laid claim to Cyprus as well, and in this he was supported by the Romans. Philometor refused to surrender the island, and in the war which ensued, Euergetes was taken prisoner by his brother, who not only spared his life, but sent him back to Cyrene on condition that he content himself with that kingdom. The attention of Philometor from this time on appears to have been directed to the side of Syria. Demetrius Soter having sought during the dissensions between the two brothers to make himself master of Cyprus, Ptolemy now supported the usurper Alexander Balas, to whom he gave his daughter in marriage in the year 150. But when Ptolemy advanced with an army to the assistance of his son-in-law, Cummonius (the favorite and minister of Alexander) formed a plot against the life of Ptolemy; whereupon the latter took away his daughter Cleopatra from her faithless husband, and bestowed her hand on Demetrius Nicator, the son of Soter, whose cause he now espoused. In conjunction with Demetrius he warred against Alexander, whom he defeated in a decisive battle, but he died a few days later from a fall from his horse in this battle (146). He reigned 35 years from the period of his first ascension, and 18 years from his restoration by the Romans. He left three children: (1) A son, Ptolemy, who was proclaimed king after his father's death, as Ptolemy Eupator, but was put to death almost immediately by his uncle Euergetes; (2) a daughter, Cleopatra, married first to Alexander Balas, then to Demetrius II, king of Syria; and (3) another daughter named Cleopatra, who was afterwards married to her uncle Ptolemy Euergetes.]

Capronia (Caproma) Monialis, a vestal virgin, was hanged because she lost her virginity.

Titus Livius, a writer of tragedies, was at this time highly renowned. By reason of his ingenuity and intelligence, he was freed by Livius Salinator (Salivatore), whose books he was teaching.

Livy (Titus Livius), was a celebrated Roman historian. Jerome's Chronicle, from which our chronicler has lifted this paragraph word for word, has misnamed his intended subject, Livius Andronicus, a writer of tragedy and epic (indeed, he ‘translated' Homer's Odyssey into Latin, employing Saturnian verse). This Andronicus was Rome's first poet.
According to Smith (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, s.v. Andronicus, Livius, Vol. 1, p. 175), Andronicus was:

The earliest Roman poet, as far as poetical literature is concerned; for whatever popular poetry there may have existed at Rome, its poetical literature begins with this writer. (Quintilian 10.2.7.) He was a Greek and probably a native of Tarentum, and was made prisoner by the Romans during their wars in southern Italy. He then became the slave of M. Livius Salinator, perhaps the same who was consul in 219 BCE, and again in 207. Andronicus instructed the children of his master, but was afterwards restored to freedom, and received from his patron the Roman name Livius. During his stay at Rome, Andronicus made himself a perfect master of the Latin language, and appears to have exerted him self chiefly in creating a taste for regular dramatic representations. His first drama was acted in 240 BCE, in the consulship of C. Claudius and M. Tuditanus (Cicero, Brutus 18); but whether it was a tragedy or a comedy is uncertain. That he wrote comedies as well as tragedies is attested beyond all doubt. The number of his dramas was considerable, and we still possess the titles and fragments of at least fourteen. The subjects of them were all Greek, and they were little more than translations or imitations of Greek dramas. He is said to have died in 221, and cannot have lived beyond 214. As to the poetical merit of these compositions we are unable to form an accurate idea, since the extant fragments are few and short. The language in them appears yet in a rude and undeveloped form, but it has nevertheless a solid basis for further development. Cicero (Brutus 18) says, that in his time they were no longer worth reading, and that the 600 mules in the Clytemnestra and the 3000 craters in the Equus Trojanus (‘Trojan Horse') could not afford any pleasure upon the stage. (ad Famil. 7.1) In the time of Horace, the poems of Andronicus were read and explained in schools; and Horace, although not an admirer of early Roman poetry, says, that he should not like to see the works of Andronicus destroyed. (Horace, Epistulae 2.1.69)

Minucia, the vestal virgin, was convicted of unchastity and buried alive.

Theophrastus the Chresian[The word chresius used to describe Theophrastus is meaningless. Perhaps it is related to the equally meaningless word used to describe Sappho (crexea) at Folio LXI verso. Since both were from the town of Eresus (or Eressos, on the island of Lesbos), it is possible that chresius/chrexea are corruptions of ‘Eresus.'], was a philosopher, and, according to the testimony of Athenodorus[Athenodorus (c. 74 BCE-7 CE) was a Stoic philosopher. He was born in Canana, near Tarsus (in modern-day Turkey). A student of Poseidonius of Rhodes, he is perhaps most famous for being the teacher of Octavian (the future Caesar Augustus) at Apollonia. ] in his book on the Peripatetics, the son of a fuller.[The word "Chresian" and the phrase "and, according to the testimony of Athenodorus in his book on the Peripatetics, the son of a fuller" are not in the German edition of the .] In his own country he first heard Leucippus, his fellow citizen. Then, after he had heard Plato, he took himself to Aristotle. When that one (Aristotle) went to Chalcide, he (Theophrastus) succeeded him as the president of his school.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He was a man of high intelligence, exceptional industry, and wonderful speech; and although he was formerly called Tyrtamus (Tyranno), yet because of his divine eloquence, Aristotle called him Theophrastus. He published about three hundred books. He had (according to Pamphilus) about two thousand disciples who came to listen to him. Among these were Nicomachus, the son of Aristotle, and Menander, the comic playwright. And this he always said: The most valuable thing is time. He died at the age of 85.[Theophrastus, Greek philosopher, was a native of Eresus in Lesbos, and studied philosophy at Athens, first under Plato and later under Aristotle, who is said to have changed his original name of Tyrtamus to Theophrastus (‘the Divine Speaker') to indicate the fluent and graceful address of his pupil. Aristotle named Theophrastus his successor in the presidency of the Lyceum, and in his will bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his own writings. He was a worthy successor of his great master. When the philosophers were banished from Athens, Theophrastus also left the city; but he returned when the law was repealed. He continued to teach at Athens until the time of his death in 287 BCE, having presided over the Academy about 35 years. He is said to have closed his life with the complaint respecting the short duration of human existence—that it ended just when the insight into its problems was beginning. He bequeathed his library to Neleus of Scepsis. Theophrastus exerted himself to carry out the philosophical system of Aristotle, to throw light upon the difficulties contained in his books, and to fill up the gaps in them. His greatest contribution, perhaps, are his two surviving treatises on botany, which had a profound influence on the Middle Ages, and were the most important studies in this field for nearly eighteen hundred years.]

Menander, the comic poet and disciple of Theophrastus, is the one of whom Quintilian says: In my opinion this Menander must have been an industrious reader to acquire all this learning. He treated all forms of life. He was highly qualified in verse and diction and spoke ably on all matters and of persons and their inclinations. For these reasons Ovid thought that he would last forever. And the Apostle Paul reveals that he himself had read this man when he says to the Corinthians: Bad company corrupts good morals. 1 Corinthians 15.

Menander of Athens, born in 342 BCE, was the most distinguished playwright of New Comedy. Alexis, the comic playwright, was his uncle and no doubt instructed his nephew in the rules of composition of comic drama. His character must have been greatly influenced by his intimacy with Theophrastus and Epicurus, of whom the former was said to be his teacher, and the latter his intimate friend. His taste and sympathy were entirely with the philosophy of Epicurus, and in an epigram he declared that "as Themistocles rescued Greece from slavery, so Epicurus from unreason." From Theophrastus, on the other hand, he must have derived much of that skill in the discrimination of character which we so much admire in the Characters of the philosopher, and which formed the great charm of the Comedies of Menander. Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, was one of his admirers, and he invited the poet to his court at Alexandria; but Meander seems to have declined the honor. He died at Athens in 291. His comedies were imitated by the Roman comic playwrights, particularly Terence. Indeed, through his Roman successors (and their successors in the medieval period all the way up to the 21st century) he can be seen as the father of situation comedy.

The last two sentences of this paragraph (beginning with "For these reasons Ovid…") are not in the German edition of the Chronicle. The citation from Paul is 1 Corinthians 15.33.

Menippus, a cynic philosopher, was by race Phoenician and by social position a slave. His master was Bachus, a certain man from the Pontus. He was (as Hermippus relates) a constant moneylender; but through his enemies he lost all he had. On account of this he hanged himself.[Menippus, a cynic philosopher, and originally a slave, was a native of Gadara in Coele-Syria who flourished about 250 BCE. He amassed great wealth as a moneylender but was defrauded of it all and committed suicide. We are told that he wrote nothing serious per se, but that he discussed serious subjects in a spirit of ridicule, and especially delighted in attacking rival philosophical schools such as the Epicureans and Stoics. Strabo called him the "serious-jokester". His works, named in honor of their creator Menippean satire, mixed prose and verse, and constituted an entirely new genre of literature. Though now lost, their influence on later writers was profound. Varro, Seneca (his , or "Pumpkinification," is the only near-complete classical Menippean satire to survive), Petronius (Satyricon). Apuleius (Golden Ass) and Lucian were all his heirs in the ancient world. Modern descendants of Menippean satire include Voltaire, Diderot, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Swift, Rabelais, and Lewis Carroll (to name a few).]

Demetrius, nicknamed Phalereus, was a philosopher and disciple of Theophrastus (Thephrasti); a clever disputant and orator. He was somewhat impetuous (as Cicero says), but gentle. And after he had been with the Athenians for 10 years, because of his exceptional virtue he was honored with 360 statues of bronze, for he had increased greatly the revenues and buildings of the city. But later on, when in his absence the statues were broken by those jealous of him, he said: Yet they have not destroyed my virtue because of which they erected the statues. He also said that eloquence has as much power in a state as a weapon has in war.[Demetrius Phalereus, so called from his birthplace, the Attic demos of Phalerum, where he was born about 345 BCE. His parents were poor but by his talents and perseverance he rose to the highest honors at Athens, and became distinguished as an orator, statesman, philosopher and poet. He was educated, together with the poet Menander, in the school of Theophratus. In 317 the government of Athens was entrusted to him by Cassander, and he discharged the duties of his office for 10 years with such general satisfaction that the Athenians conferred on him the most extraordinary distinctions, and erected no less than 360 statues in his honor. But during the latter period of his administration, he seems to have become intoxicated with his good fortune, and abandoned himself to dissipation. When Demetrius Poliorcetes approached Athens in 307, Demetrius Phalereus was obliged to take to flight, and his enemies induced the Athenians to sentence him to death. He went to Ptolemy Lagi at Alexandria, with whom he lived for many years on the best of terms, and it was probably owing to the influence of Demetrius that the great library at Alexandria was formed. But his successor Ptolemy Philadelphus was hostile toward Demetrius, because he had advised his father to appoint another of his sons as his successor. He banished Demetrius to Upper Egypt, where he is said to have died from a snakebite.]