First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Antiochus, the second of that name, surnamed Antiochus Theos, son of Antiochus I, was the third king of Syria; and he reigned 15 years. His first wife was Laodice. He carried on a very strenuous war with Philadelphus, the king of Egypt. He made peace by marrying Berenice, the daughter of the same king of Egypt.[Antiochus Theos (261-246 BCE) was the son of Antiochus I, surnamed Soter. The Silesians gave him the surname Theos (‘God' or ‘Divine') because he delivered them from their tyrant Timarchus. He carried on war with Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, which was brought to a close by his putting away his wife Laodice. In revenge Laodice caused Antiochus and Berenice to be murdered. He was succeeded by his son Seleucus Callinicus.]

Eliud, son of Achim (Achym), in the Year of the World 4959.[This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the .]

Antiochus Galericus, third of the name, and fourth king of Asia and Syria, reigned 20 years. He was the son of Antiochus Theos, and his first wife Laodice, who poisoned her husband and killed Berenice together with her children. And this Galericus, her son, she made ruler in the place of his father. Therefore Euergetes made war on Syria. And afterwards Ptolemy killed him. He left Seleucus and Antiochus the Great to succeed him.[Antiochus Galericus was Seleucus II (surnamed, not Galericus, as the chronicler states, but Callinicus). He was the eldest son of Antiochus II (surnamed Theos) by his first wife Laodice. The first step of his administration, or rather that of his mother Laodice, was to put to death his stepmother Berenice, together with her infant son. In order to avenge his sister, Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt, invaded the dominions of Seleucus, made himself master of Antioch, all of Syria, and carried his arms unopposed beyond the Euphrates and Tigris. Seleucus held himself aloof; but when Ptolemy was recalled by domestic disturbances at home, Seleucus recovered the greater part of the provinces he had lost. He then became involved in a war with his brother Antiochus Hierax, who attempted to obtain Asia Minor as an independent kingdom for himself. Antiochus was decisively defeated, obligated to quit Asia Minor, and took refuge in Egypt. Seleucus undertook an expedition to the East to reduce the revolted provinces of Parthia and Bactria. He was, however, defeated by Arsaces, king of Parthia, in a great battle to which the Parthians attribute their independence. After the expulsion of Antiochus, Attalus, king of Pergamon, extended his dominions over Asia Minor. In an expedition to recover these provinces Seleucus was accidentally killed by a fall from his horse in the twenty-first year of his reign. He left two sons, who succeeded him, Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus, surnamed the Great. ]

Josephus the Jew was a pious and great minded man, and influenced the Jewish people to excellent things. After he had collected taxes and tribute for twenty-three years from Syria, Phoenicia and Samaria, he died leaving behind his son Hyrcanus (Hircano). Hyrcanus continued as collector of tribute for Ptolemy. From childhood Josephus was marvelously virtuous and intelligent. At the age of thirteen years he showed a bright state of mind. Wishing to test him, his father sent him on a two days' journey to an isolated place with three hundred yoke of oxen to cultivate the soil; but he hid away the halters necessary to secure them. Under these circumstances the youth, considering his age, exhibited great ingenuity. He slaughtered ten yoke of oxen, divided the meat among the shepherds, and out of the skins he made halters for the other oxen; and he cultivated the soil as his father had directed. Therefore, on his return to his home he was praised very much.

Flavius Josephus (37-95 CE), Jewish historian and military commander, born in the first year of Caligula, was a precocious student of the law, and made trial of the three sects of Judaism – Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes – before he reached the age of 19. Then, having spent three years in the desert with the hermit Banus, who was probably an Essene, he became a Pharisee. In 64 he went to Rome to intercede on behalf of some priests, his friends, whom the procurator Felix had sent to render account to Caesar for some insignificant offense. Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favorite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Popaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine. But they refused to listen; and he, with all the Jews who did not fly the country, were dragged into the great rebellion of 66. In company with two other priests, Josephus was sent to Galilee under orders to persuade the ill-affected to lay down their arms and return to an allegiance with Rome, which the Jewish aristocracy had not yet renounced. Having sent his two companions back to Jerusalem, he organized the forces at his disposal, and made arrangements for the government of his province. His obvious desire to preserve law and order excited the hostility of John of Giscala, who endeavored vainly to remove him as a traitor to the national cause by inciting the Galileans to kill him and by persuading the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem to recall him.

In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus. He sent to Jerusalem for reinforcements, but none came. With the stragglers who remained, he held a stronghold against the Romans by dint of his native cunning, and finally, when the place was taken, persuaded forty men, who shared his hiding place, to kill one another in turn rather than commit suicide. They agreed to cast lots, on the understanding that the second should kill the first, and so on. Josephus providentially drew the last lot and prevailed upon his destined victim to live. Their companions were all dead in accordance with the compact; but Josephus at any rate survived and surrendered. Being brought before Vespasian, he was inspired to prophesy that Vespasian would become emperor. When this prophecy was fulfilled, he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria. He returned to Rome, was awarded a pension, and was made a Roman citizen, receiving an estate in Judea. The Jewish War, oldest of his extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79). The Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jews from the Creation to the outbreak of the war with Rome, was finished in the year 93. He also wrote a narrative of his own life to defend himself against the accusation that he had caused the Jewish rebellion.

Simon (Symon), son of Onias the priest, and nicknamed "the Just," was the eighth high priest of the Jews. He received the office on his father's death, and held it for sixteen years. By reason of his piety, righteousness and kindness to his fellow citizens, he was called "the Just."[Josephus, , 12.2.]

Eleazar (Eleazarus), the high priest, brother of Simon the Just, took the priestly office after the death of his father, and while his brother's son Onias was still a child; and he held the office for 17 years. He sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus 72 of the most learned men to interpret the law; but we say 70.

And the seventy-two interpreters sent by Eleazar from Jerusalem to the said king of Alexandria, at the latter's request, were well received by him. And when the rolls upon which the Law was written in golden letters were shown to the king, he provided a separate room for each interpreter. And in seventy-two days they brought him the Law translated from the Hebrew into the Greek tongue, and so clearly (as Augustine testifies) that no doubt remained as to the words or their meaning. This translation, confirmed by the Jews, Demetrius delivered to the king. And the king had the seventy-two brought before him. He thanked them, and sent them home; and to each of them he made a present of three fine garments, of two talents of gold, of a cup of the value of one talent, and of the furniture of the room in which they were feasted.[The (Seventy) is the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament. Its name, often represented by the Roman numerals LXX, is derived from the tradition that the translators numbered 70 or 72. According to Josephus, six elders from each tribe were sent to Alexandria with a copy of the Law requested by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and translated it in seventy-two days. Accounts of the translation vary but agree that it was made at Alexandria, begun under the early Ptolemies, about 285 BCE, and that the Pentateuch was translated first. The whole of the Old Testament seems to have been complete in Greek in the time of Ptolemy (VII) Physcon, about 130 BCE. Internal evidence suggests that it was made by different persons at different times from Egyptian Hebrew manuscripts, and by Alexandrian Jews more or less imperfectly versed in Hebrew. The books of Moses are the best translated. The version is faithful in substance as a whole, but contains many errors. The chronology differs materially from that of the Hebrew text, adding, for example, 606 years between the creation and the deluge. The importance of the is that it was the text upon which the first generations of Christians based their teachings and understandings of the meaning of God and Jesus in their religion. For this reason it is, perhaps, the most important translation ever made.]

Onias, the second of that name, son of Simon the Just, the eleventh priest of the Hebrews, officiated for 9 years. He was of a mean disposition, stingy with money. Through love of the Law or through miserliness he refused to pay tribute to Euergetes; and thereby the whole Jewish land was placed in danger. But Josephus restored peace among the nobles, and Ptolemy placed him over Judea.

Those three, Jason, Menelaus and Alchimus, were of the priestly class; but are not to be placed in the priestly line because of their idolatry, evil works and practices.


The Lineage of Christ which ended with Achim (Achym) at Folio LXXV verso, is here resumed with his son.

  • Eliud, as per Matt. 1:14.


The Priestly Lineage is here resumed from Folio LXXV verso (which there ended with Onias, son of Jaddua), and now the following are added:

  1. Simon (Symon), son of Onias (Onyas) and called the Just.
  2. Eleazar (Eleazarus), brother of Simon the Just.
  3. Onias (Onyas), son of Simon the Just.


The Lineage of Syrian Kings is here resumed from Folio LXXV recto, as follows:

  1. Antiochus (II) Theos, son of Antiochus (I) Soter.
  2. Antiochus Galericus (Seleucus II), eldest son of Antiochus II.


Josephus, probably the historian.


Jason, Manelaus and Alchimus, the priests whom the chronicler declines to place in the priestly lineage because of their idolatry, are represented by small woodcuts not used heretofore.


The Seventy (LXX) who translated the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek are represented by a group portrait similar to that of the Seven Wise Men, Folio LX verso. A dove symbolizing the Holy Spirit hovers over the Seventy. One of the translators has his back turned toward us, apparently addressing the gathering. All are in close huddle.