First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Demas, the Athenian philosopher, flourished in the time of Alexander. He withstood Alexander at the time the latter besieged the city of Athens and tried to take it; and he counseled the Athenians not to give it up. But after Alexander had taken the city, Demas attached himself to Alexander with friendly solicitude. But when the Athenians were about to sacrifice to Alexander, he said: See that you do not lose the earth while you are waiting upon the heavens. This was his saying: When a friend asks me to borrow money, I will lose both the friend and the money.[Demas is unknown outside of Water Burley's (1275-after 1343; also known by his Latin name Gualteri Burlaeus) Liber de vita et moribus philosophorum (‘Book on the Life and Character of the Philosophers'), ch. 62: Demas. The entire passage is taken (slightly abridged) from this chapter of Burley's work.]

Quintus Curtius (Curcius), the philosopher, criticized Alexander because he asked him to accord him divine honors; and he said to him: If you are a god, give us the gift of immortality; and take it not from us. But if you are a human being, then think of it yourself and lay aside all else.[Quintus Curtius was not a philosopher, nor a contemporary of Alexander the Great. He was, in fact, a Roman biographer of Alexander who lived sometime in the period between Augustus and Constantine (i.e., anywhere from three to six centuries after the death of Alexander!).]

In these days, when Alexander was born, the Romans were frightened by dreadful signs. For one saw the sun fighting with the moon; and rocks sweated blood. In the daytime many moons appeared in the sky. The night in large measure yielded to the day. Rocks fell from the clouds; and hail beat the earth for seven days, far and wide, with a mixture of stones, the residue of slate and shells.

Olympias (Olimpias), the mother of Alexander, was slain; and she suffered death unmoved by any womanly fear.[Olympias, wife of Philip II of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great, was the daughter of Neopotolemus I, king of Epirus. She married Philip in 359 BCE. His numerous relationships and the jealousy of Olympias occasioned frequent disputes between them; and when he married Cleopatra, niece of Attalus (337) Olympias withdrew from Macedonia, taking refuge with her brother Alexander, king of Epirus. She was believed to have lent her support to the assassination of Philip in 336. After his death she returned to Macedonia, where she enjoyed a great influence through the affection of Alexander. On his death she again withdrew from Macedonia, where her enemy Antipater held undisputed control, and took refuge at Epirus. Here she lived in exile until the death of Antipater (319) presented a new opening to her ambition. She gave her support to the new regent Polysperchon, in opposition to Cassander, who had formed an alliance with Euridice, the wife of Philip Arrhidacus, nominal king of Macedonia. In 317 Olympias resolved to obtain supreme power in Macedonia. She invaded the country along with Polysperchon, defeated Euridice, and put her and her husband to death. She followed up her vengeance by the execution of Nicanor, the brother of Cassander, as well as of one hundred of his leading partisans among the Macedonian nobles. Cassander, who was at that time in the Peloponnese, hastened to turn his arms against Macedonia. Olympias on his approach threw herself (together with Roxana and the young Alexander) into Pydna, where she was closely blockaded by Cassander throughout the winder. In the spring of 316 she was compelled to surrender to Cassander, who caused her to be put to death. Olympias was not without something of the grandeur and loftiness of spirit that distinguished her son, but her ungovernable passions led her to acts of sanguinary cruelty that must forever disgrace her name. (This entry on Olympias was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 22-23 s.v. Olympias.)]

Of Philip and his kingdom there is no mention in the Holy Scriptures; but there is mention of the kings of Egypt and Syria; for these were at times favorable to the Jews, and at times not. The reason was this: Those kings fought almost continually with the Egyptians. Israel lay in the middle, and there they fled when they were in danger. And Ptolemy followed hard upon them. Therefore they (the Jews?) were dispersed among other peoples.

Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, the first king of Egypt after Alexander the Great, reigned 40 years. He was the son of a certain common soldier whose name was Lagus.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He left Egypt, Africa and a large part of Arabia to his descendants; and the kings of Egypt who followed him were therefore called Ptolemy.[Ptolemy I, surnamed Soter (‘Savior') but more commonly known as the son of Lagus, reigned 323-285 BCE. His father Lagus was a Macedonian of ignoble birth, but his mother Arsinoe had been a concubine of Philip of Macedon, on which account it seems to have been generally believed that Ptolemy was in reality the offspring of that monarch. Ptolemy is mentioned among the friends of the young Alexander, whom he accompanied throughout his campaigns in Asia, and was always treated by the king with great favor. On the division of the empire after Alexander's death (323) Ptolemy obtained the government of Egypt. He enlarged his dominion by conquests. He allied himself with Cassander and Lysimachus. The latter years of Ptolemy's reign appear to have been almost entirely devoted to the arts of peace, and to promoting the internal property of his dominions. In 285 he abdicated to his son Ptolemy Philadelphus, the child of his latest and most beloved wife, Berenice. Two years later the father died. By his able and vigorous administration he laid the foundation of the wealth and prosperity that Egypt enjoyed for a long time. He laid the foundation of the Library and Museum of Alexandria, which his son fostered after him. He surrounded himself with literary men and artists, and was himself an author. He composed a history of the wars of Alexander, which is frequently cited by later writers and is one of the chief authorities that Arrian made the groundwork of his own history. (This entry on Ptolemy I was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 581-586 s.v. Ptolemy I.)]

Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, reigned 38 years. He was the youngest son of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, before his death, abdicated to him, and by the example of his goodness the father caused the people to love the son. And as this Ptolemy was the most learned in all the arts, and had Straton, the philosopher, for a teacher, he founded the most celebrated library in all the world; and this endured to the time of the first Alexandrine war with the Romans. He released from Egyptian bondage about one hundred twenty thousand Jews and sent them back to Jerusalem, together with all the vessels that belonged to the Temple service, as a reward to Eleazar the high priest for the Holy Scriptures the he placed in the library. Ptolemy's mother was Berenice (Beronice), and his wife was Arsinoe (Asinoe). By her he begot Euergetes and Berenice, a daughter, whom he espoused to Antiochus, son of Seleucus.[Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 BCE) was the son of Ptolemy I by his wife Berenice. His long reign was marked by few events of a striking character. He was engaged in wars with his half-brother Magus, and frequently engaged in hostilities with Syria, which were terminated toward the close of his reign by a treaty of peace, by which Ptolemy gave his daughter Berenice in marriage to Antiochus II. His chief care was directed to the internal administration of his kingdom and the patronage of literature and science. The Museum of Alexandria, founded by his father, became the abode of all the most distinguished men of letters of the day, and in the library attached to it were accumulated all the reassures of ancient learning. Philadelphus founded new cities or colonies in great number in different parts of his dominion. He raised Egypt to great power and wealth. (This entry on Ptolemy II was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 586-587 s.v. Ptolemy II.) ]