First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Pavia (Papia), a city of Cisalpine Gaul, whose more ancient name was Ticinum, was (as Pliny says) built by the peoples called Laevi (Levii) and Maricii, who lived on the other side of the mountains; but as the historian Paulus Longobardus states, it was begun and its foundations laid in the time of Assuerus (Artaxerxes II) the king of Persia, by the Senonian Gauls. However, the region had been occupied as a village for a long time by the Insubres of Gaul. The city lies in the region of the Ticinus, the river that flows out of Lake Verbanus.[Verbanus Lacus (Lake Maggiore), one of the principal lakes of Northern Italy.] Over this river a beautiful stone bridge was built; and the city was named Ticinum after the river. It was here that the celebrated Scipio obtained his victory over Hannibal. In this city, because of its location and wholesome climate, the Ostrogothic and Lombardian kings loved to dwell. For this reason it has a history, and many deeds were wrought there; and therefore also it rivaled Milan in greatness, age and esteem. Now, however, Milan excels Pavia, although both were now and then celebrated and illustrious. The city was ravaged by Attila, the king of the Huns. When sometime afterwards it regained its strength, Odoacer[Odoacer, usually called king of the Heruli, was the leader of the barbarians who overthrew the Western empire in 476 CE. He took the title of king of Italy, and reigned till his power was overthrown by Theodoric, king of the Goths. Odoacer was defeated in three decisive battles by Theodoric (489-490) and took refuge in Ravenna, where he was besieged for three years. He at last capitulated on condition that he and Theodoric should be joint kings of Italy; but Odoacer was soon afterwards murdered by his rival.], the king of the Heruli (Erolorum), besieged Orestes[Orestes was regent of Italy during the short reign of his infant son Romulus Augustulus (475-6 CE). He was born in Pannonia, and served for some years under Attila; after whose death he rose to eminence at the Roman court. Having been entrusted with the command of an army by Julius Nepos, he deposed this emperor, and placed his son Romulus Augustulus on the throne; but in the following year he was defeated by Odoacer and put to death.] there, took him prisoner and put him to death; and he also cruelly destroyed and wasted the city. The defeat of the Roman citizens at this time was so great that the like of it has not occurred elsewhere since the decline of the Roman Empire. But while Rudolf, Duke of Burgundy afflicted the Italian kingdom, the Hungarians, under their commander Salade, in the time of Pope Stephen the Seventh, overran Italy and laid siege to this city, captured it, and ravaged it with fire and sword. In the meantime Pope Agapitus, and the nobility and people of Italy, asked Otto I of Germany to come to Italy; after which Italy began to recover from the oppressions which it had suffered for a long time. Petharit, the Lombard king, here built the cloister of Saint Agatha; and Theodolinda the queen, the Church of Our Lady. Luitprandus (Linthprandus), king of the Lombards, caused the bones of St. Augustine to be brought to Pavia from Sardinia. And with wonderful alacrity a tomb of very white marble was prepared. The same king also called the monastery of St. Peter the Ciel d' Oro (cellula aurea); and in the region where the kings often held court, he erected the monastery of St. Anastasias the martyr. And so here also Gondiberta, the queen, erected the Church of St. John the Baptist; and bishop Peter, the friend of King Luitprandus, the Church of St. Savini. Later still Gian Galeazzo Maria Visconti, the first duke of Milan, industriously devoted himself to the adornment of this city; and after he erected many buildings there, he also built a mighty castle in lordly style, with a large library; and beside the castle was a large forest supplied with game and enclosed by walls. In the midst of this forest he caused to be erected at great expense a tall Carthusian monastery and his tomb. The circumference of the forest is one hundred and twenty cubits. At this time Pavia has in its university many men celebrated in the spiritual arts, jurisprudence, philosophy and medicine. Many illustrious men were also born there, such as Syrus the bishop, highly esteemed in learning and holiness; Ennodius, the most eloquent poet; Antonius Guanerius, the most famous doctor of his age, who composed many works for medicinal cures; Cattonis, Saccus, Silanus; Nigrus, and others.[Pavia, was originally called Ticinum, after the Ticinus (now the Ticino) on whose left bank it is located. This was an important river in Gallia Cisalpina. It rises in Mons Adula, and after flowing through Lacus Verbanus (‘Lake Maggiore'), it falls into the Po near Ticinum. It was upon the bank of this river that Hannibal gained his first victory over the Romans by the defeat of P. Scipio in 218 BCE. The chronicler seems to have the situation reversed. Ticinum was a town of the Laevi, or, according to others, of the Insubres. It was subsequently a Roman municipum; but it owed its greatness to the Lombard kings, who made it the capital of their dominions. The Lombards gave it the name of Papia, which it still retains under the slightly changed form of Pavia.]