First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Xerxes (Xerses), the second of that name, eighth king of Persia, reigned only two months; and after him Sogdianus, the ninth king, reigned only seven months. Because of these brief periods there is nothing memorable to mention.[Xerxes II, the only legitimate son of Artaxerxes I, succeeded his father as king of Persia in 425, but was murdered after a reign of only two months by his half-brother Sogdianus, who thus became king. Sogdianus was one of the illegitimate sons of Artaxerxes I. Sogdianus, however, was murdered in turn, after a reign of seven months, by his brother Ochus, who reigned under the name of Darius II.]

Jesus (Iesus), son of Sirach (Syrach), a Hebrew, wrote the Book of Ecclesiasticus, in which he treated of the virtues, both spiritual and moral in a very beautiful manner. He called the book Ecclesiasticus because it speaks of and teaches everything that concerns spiritual discipline and ethics.[Jesus, son of Sirach, was the author of (or ‘The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach'), one of the most valuable of the Apochryphal books. It resembles the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Job in its ethical characteristics. The author was a Jew, and he wrote the book probably early in the third century, although the Greek translation was issued about 132 BCE. It was originally written in Hebrew, and in this language about one half of it has recently been discovered in Egypt and published. It is one of the works that gives us a vivid idea of the Wisdom literature produced in the centuries preceding the Christian era.]

Herodotus, a Greek historian, to be extolled above all others in Greece, at this time wrote his books of history.[Herodotus, Greek historian, and father of history, was born at Halicarnassus, a Doric colony in Caria, in 484 BCE. He later spent time in Athens, and was honored by being allowed to settle in the newly created Athenian colony at Thurii, in Italy, where he died. Where he wrote his history is not definitely known; but Lucian relates that he read his work to the assembled Greeks at Olympia, which was received with such universal applause, that the nine books of the work were in consequence honored with the names of the nine muses. On almost every page of his work he records the results of his personal observations and inquiries (the Greek word ‘historia' means ‘inquiry'). He spent much time in many parts of Greece, and in Asia Minor and Syria. He probably traveled extensively in Egypt and the lands of the Middle East. The object of his work is to give an account of the struggles between the Greeks and the Persians, and the second half of his history in particular is a brilliant recounting of the various Persian invasions of Greece, culminating in Xerxes' massive expedition in 480 BCE. His work concludes with the taking of Sestos by the Greeks in 478 BCE. The history is full of digressions and episodes, the most famous being book 2, which is almost entirely devoted to Egyptian history, culture, sociology, anthropology, and religion.] After he read them in the public assemblies at Athens, he attained to great honor as one (whose style), as Quintilian[Quintilian (M. Fabius Quintilianus), most celebrated Roman rhetorician, was born in Spain in 40 CE, attending lectures at Rome in his youth. Pliny the Younger was one of his pupils. He is also celebrated as the first public instructor to receive a regular salary from the imperial exchequer. After devoting twenty years to his profession, he retired to private life and died at about seventy-eight years of age. His greatest work is a complete system of rhetoric in twelve books.] says, is sweet and brilliant. Pliny, in book 12 of his Natural History, says that he wrote a history.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Darius, surnamed Nothus (Notus), tenth king of Persia, reigned 29 years. After he ascended the throne, he waged severe wars against the Athenians and put them to flight, so that afterwards they dared not resist him. In the tenth year of his reign the Egyptians seceded from him.[Darius II was king of Persia from 424-405 BCE. He was called Ochus before his accession, and then named Nothus (‘Bastard'), from his being one of the bastard sons of Artaxerxes I. He obtained the throne by murdering his brother Sogdianus. Darius was governed by eunuchs, and the weakness of his government is shown by the repeated insurrections of his satraps. In 414 the Persians were expelled from Egypt.]

Sophocles, the Athenian tragic poet, was by reason of his great ingenuity called the divine poet by Cicero. In the last days of his life he sent his poetry to be read before an assembly of the learned; and when he heard that he was the victor, he died for joy.[Sophocles, the celebrated tragic poet, was born in 495 BCE in the village of Colonus, about one mile from Athens. His first appearance as a dramatist took place in 468, under peculiarly interesting circumstances. On this occasion, so the story goes, at the age of 27, he came forward as the rival of Aeschylus, whose supremacy had been maintained through an entire generation. The solemnities of the Great Dionysia (the festival in honor of the god Dionysus held in March in Athens) were rendered more imposing by the occasion of the return of Cimon from the expedition to Scyros, bringing with him the bones of Theseus. Public expectation was so excited respecting the approaching dramatic contest, and party feeling ran so high that Apsephion, the Archon Eponymus, whose duty it was to appoint the judges, had not yet ventured to proceed to the final act of drawing the lots for their election, when Cimon with his nine colleagues in the command, having entered the theater, the Archon detained them at the altar, and administered to them the oath appointed for the judges in the dramatic contests. The first prize was awarded to Sophocles, the second to Aeschylus, who was so mortified that he left Athens and retired to Sicily. From this time on Sophocles held the supremacy of the Athenian stage, until Euripides came forth as a new rival and won the first prize in 441. The following year Sophocles brought forth the earliest of his extant dramas, , a play which gave the Athenians such satisfaction, especially on account of the political wisdom which it displayed, that they elected him one of the ten generals that year (Pericles was also one). Sophocles died in 406 at the age of 90.]

Artaxerxes (Artaxerses), the second of that name, whose nickname was Mnemon (Memnon), whom the Hebrews call Assuerus, was the eleventh king of the Persians for 40 years. He was the son of the above named Darius (II), and the mightiest of all those who had preceded him, for he ruled over 127 provinces from India to Ethiopia. In the third year of his reign he made a great feast and dined his subjects in a wonderful tabernacle. And the queen Vasci (Vasti), who declined to come, he deposed, and gave the honor to Hester, and made her queen in the former's place.[Artaxerxes II, nicknamed Mnemon (Greek for ‘ever-mindful,' ‘having a good memory'), from his good memory, succeeded his father Darius II, and reigned from 405-359 BCE. Cyrus, his younger brother, and supported by Greek mercenaries, invaded upper Asia. Cyrus fell in battle in the neighborhood of Cunaxa, near Babylon. Notwithstanding perpetual conflicts with the Greeks, the Persian empire maintained itself by the internal discord among the Greeks themselves, which was fomented by Persian money. The peace of Antalcidas (388 BCE) gave the Persians even greater power and influence than they possessed before. But Persia too was suffering from internal disturbances, and Artaxerxes had to carry on frequent wars with his tributary princes and satraps, who endeavored to make themselves independent. His attempts to recover Egypt failed. Toward the end of his reign he put to death his eldest son Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate him. His last days were still further embittered by the unnatural conduct of his son Ochus, who caused the destruction of two of his brothers in order to secure the succession of himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded by Ochus, who ascended the throne as Artaxerxes III.]

Artaxerxes (Artaxerses) the Third, also known as Ochus, and a son of Assuerus (Artaxerxes II) by Hester, was the twelfth king of Persia, and reigned for 26 years. He was so serious and cruel a man that by his acts he earned for himself an everlasting place in the memory of the Persians. He recalled to power Nectanabis[Nectanabis II came to the throne of Egypt in 361 BCE. For some time he defeated all the attempts of Artaxerxes III (Ochus) to recover Egypt, but he was at length defeated himself, and despairing of making any further resistance, he fled into Ethiopia in 350. He was the third king of the Sebennite dynasty, and the last native sovereign to rule over Egypt.], the king of Egypt, who had been driven into Ethiopia. Suspecting a conspiracy among his subjects, he spared neither his relatives nor the princes (of his realm) from murder and death, disregarding blood and tribal relations, and age. Nor did he himself escape divine vengeance, for he was slain by his own people.[Artaxerxes III, also called Ochus, reigned from 359-338 BCE. In order to secure his throne, he began his reign with a merciless extirpation of the members of his own family. A reckless despot, the great advantages which the Persian arms gained during his reign, were alone due to his Greek generals and mercenaries. By this means he put down the revolt of the satrap, Artabazius, reduced the Phoenicians and several towns which had revolted in Cyprus, and finally Egypt, in 350. The reins of government were entirely in the hands of Bagoas, the eunuch, and of Mentor, the Rhodian. Finally he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son Arses.]

Arses (Arsanus Ochus), the king's son, and thirteenth king of Persia, reigned 4 years and had many sons about whom Herodotus makes mention[There is no mention of this king or his sons in Herodotus' . Th phrase, "about whom Herodotus makes mention," in fact, is not found in the German edition of the .]; but of him we hear nothing memorable.[Arses was the youngest son of Artaxerxes III (Ochus). He was raised to the Persian throne by the eunuch Bagoas, after he had poisoned Artaxerxes in 339 BCE; but he too, was murdered by Bagoas in the third year of his reign, when he attempted to free himself from the bondage in which he was kept. After the death of Arses, Bagoas made Darius III king.] But Jaddua (Jaddus) the sixth Jewish priest, in this year, succeeded his deceased father Johanan in the priesthood; and he held the office 50 years—a good man and a lover of peace.[Jaddua, the son of Jonathan, was high priest of the Jews, and officiated a considerable time after the Captivity. He is believed to be the same who lived in the time of Alexander the Great, and is the last of the high priests mentioned in the Old Testament.]

Parmenides, an Athenian philosopher, fled the company of humankind and lived on a mountain ridge in the Caucasus. He first discovered logic, and was a master of Zeno.

Parmenides was a distinguished Greek philosopher, but a native of Elea (not Athens), in Italy. According to Plato, Parmenides at the age of 65 came to Athens to the Panathenaia (the annual festival in honor of the patron goddess of the city, Athena), accompanied by Zeno, then 40 years old, and became acquainted with Socrates, who at that time was quite young. Parmenides was regarded with great esteem by Plato and Aristotle; and his fellow citizens thought so highly of him, that every year they bound their magistrates to obey the laws which he had enacted for them. The philosophical opinions of Parmenides were developed in a didactic poem in hexameter verse entitled On Nature, of which only fragments remain. In this poem he maintained that the phenomena of sense were delusive, and that it was only by mental abstraction that a person could attain to the knowledge of the only reality, a One and All, a continuous and self-existent substance, which could not be perceived by the senses. His insights have haunted philosophers for millennia.

Zeno, the Eleatic philosopher, also a native of Elea (modern day Velia) in Italy, was one of the favorite disciples of Parmenides. His famous logical paradoxes have provided philosophers, mathematicians and writers from the time of Aristotle to the present with much to think about.

Darius, son of the aforementioned Arsanus (Arses), was the last king of the Persians. He received the rule in the first year of the empire of Alexander, and he reigned six years. And as he was the mightiest, and nothing oppressed his royal majesty, he undertook a war with Alexander with varying fortune. But Alexander finally defeated him. He was slain by his own relatives, and thus ended his own life and the kingdom of Persia as well.[Darius III (336-331 BCE) was the last king of Persia. He was the son of Arsames and Sisygambis, and a descendant of Darius II. He was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bogoas, after the murder of Arses. Alexander the Great defeated him in a number of successive engagements. While Alexander was pursuing Darius into the Parthian desert, the king was murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria.]

Melissus, the philosopher, native of the island of Samos, was a disciple of Parmenides. Aristotle often remembered him. He taught the virtues he practiced.[Melissus of Samos, a Greek philosopher, the son of Ithagenes, was according to common account, the commander of the fleet opposed to Pericles in 440 BCE. But he is not mentioned by Thucydides, and ought probably to be placed much earlier, as he is said to have been connected with Heraclitus, and to have been a disciple of Parmenides. It appears from the fragments of his work, which was written in prose, and in the Ionic dialect, that he adopted the doctrines of Eleatics.]

Brennus (Brenus)[We have already encountered Brennus at Folio LXXII recto and will shortly see him appear again in the .], leader of the Senonian Gauls, son of Monuchris, king of the Angles, in the 13th year of the reign of Artaxerxes (Assuerus) left his own land with an army of three hundred thousand Gauls and invaded Italy. And after driving the ancient Etruscans into exile and having occupied their cities, he (according to the reports of Polycritus (Policrates) and Justin) threw down the foundations of many cities, as soon will be described.[The German edition of the removes this paragraph devoted to Brennus.]