First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Perusia (now Perugia) is a very ancient and noble city of Etruria; and although formerly the first, it is now the third of all the Etrurian cities. According to Justin[Justin (the English form of his Latin name Justinus) was, like Schedel, also a compiler of sorts. He is the author of (known in English as the , short for the ), a work described by himself in his preface as a collection of the most important and interesting passages from the very lengthy , written in the time of Augustus by Pompeius Trogus, but now lost. His date is unknown, except that he must have lived after Trogus. Although the main theme of Trogus was the history of the Macedonian monarchy, Justin permitted himself a certain amount of freedom of digression, and thus produced an anthology instead of a mere summary (the meaning of ‘epitome'). Justin's history was widely used in the Middle Ages, during which the author was sometimes confounded with Justin Martyr.] it was built by the Achaeans. It had its beginning at the time the city of Rome was built, although some say that Perusius, the Trojan prince, was its builder, and that it was named Perusium, or Perusiam, after him. More than any other city in Italy, Perugia enjoyed the blessings of good fortune, and that to an incredible degree. This position it maintained, together with the same manners, customs and commercial dealings which it enjoyed before the building of Rome; and these it continued to enjoy when Rome was ruled by kings, consuls, emperors, and tyrants. Yet Perugia suffered from various attacks. After the death of Alexander the Great, it was forced to submit to the Romans, under the power and compulsion of L. Posthumus, the consul.[ Posthumus (M. Cassianus Latinius Postumus) is second on the list of the thirty tyrants, enumerated by Trebellius Pollio. He was a man of humble origin and owed his advancement to merit. Valerian nominated him governor of Gaul, and he was specially entrusted with the defense of the Rhenish frontier.] Livy relates that Fabius, the Roman, during the period of unrest and wars in Etruria, slew 4500 Perugians. Later, under the rule of the Roman triumvirate, the city was very unfortunate. The emperor Octavian besieged L. Antonius, the brother of M. Antonius (Mark Anthony), in the city of Perugia, and during that time the forces of Anthony and the Perugians suffered famine to an unheard-of degree. The city was captured and destroyed. When Octavian became sole ruler, he soon rebuilt the city, securing it with forts and turrets, which are still to be seen there. He called the city Augusta (Augusta Perusia), after himself; and to this cubit-high inscriptions on the fortifications testify to this day. The city is so situated, surrounded by sharp peaks and mountains, that it requires no other form of defense. Although there has been much dissension among the people of the city, and they were at times oppressed by tyrants, Perugia is now free and has within it good and highly educated men and laws. Here are to be found mighty churches, and beautifully adorned cloisters for the spiritual, tall palaces for the laity, large hospitals for the poor, a very renowned school, a large market, a beautiful fountain and a park well improved with buildings. Its fields produce oil, wine, saffron and all manner of sweet fruits. Here flourished Baldus[ Baldus de Ubaldis, Petrus (1327-1406) was an Italian jurist of the noble Ubaldi family. He studied civil law at Perugia under Bartolus, gaining the doctorate at the age of 17. Federicus Petrucius of Siena was his master in the canon law. Baldus taught at Bologna for three years, and then became a professor at Perugia, where he stayed thirty-three years. Later he taught at Pisa, Florence, Padua, and Pavia, when the schools of law in those universities disputed supremacy with Bologna. The extant Treatises of Baldus hardly account for the reputation he enjoyed, due partly to his public career, and partly to the fame of his consultations of which there are five volumes.], who was held in high esteem; and he, together with Bartolus Sassoferrato[Bartolus (1314-1357) was an Italian jurist, and the most famous master of the dialectical school. He was a native of Sassoferrato; whence his name Bartolus Saxoferrato. He studied law under Cinus at Perugia and other noted men at Bologna. His reputation was probably due to his revival of the exegetical system of law teaching. His treatises and are his best known works, although his has been sometimes exalted to equal authority with the code itself.], were supreme in knowledge of the civil and canon law. Similarly, Angelus and Petrus, brothers.[Angelus and Petrus were brothers of Baldus, and also eminent as jurists.] And Cinus before them was a very skillful lawyer of Perusia. During our time Matheolus, the celebrated physician, was born here, and with his learning and teaching he flourished in the University of Padua.[Perusia (now Perugia) was an ancient city in the eastern part of Etruria. It was one of the 12 cities of the Etruscan confederacy. It was situated on a hill, and was strongly fortified by nature and by art. In conjunction with the other cities of Etruria, it long resisted the Roman power, but at a later period was made a Roman colony. It is memorable in the civil wars as the place in which L. Antonius, the brother of the triumvir, took refuge, when he was no longer able to oppose Octavian in the field, and where he was kept closely besieged by Octavian for some months, from the end of 41 BCE to the spring of 40. Famine compelled it to surrender; but one of its citizens having set fire to his own house, the flames spread, and the whole city was burnt to the ground. It was rebuilt and colonized anew by Augustus, from whom it received the surname of Augusta. In the later time of the empire it was the most important city in all Etruria, and long resisted the Goths. Part of the walls and some of the gates still remain. Perugia, the capital of Umbria, is the seat of an archbishopric and of a small university founded in 1320. It lies in a group of hills about 1,000 feet above the valley of the Tiber. Of the Etruscan walls that enclosed the old town, over 3,000 yards in length, considerable portions still remain. In the 14th-15th century, Perugia was the most powerful city in Umbria, but in 1370, rent by internal quarrels; it had to surrender to the pope. The struggle for independence was, however, continued under various leaders, notably Braccio Fortebraccio of Montone, who usurped the supreme power in 1416, and later under Giovanni Parlo Baglioni, down to the end of the 15th century. Perugia was famous as the seat of the Umbrian school of painting. Perugino and Pinturicchio lived there. Matheolus, to whom Doctor Schedel refers in the text, was for three years his instructor in medicine at the University of Padua (see folio CCLII verso).]


The old Etrurian city of Perusia (now Perugia) is here represented by the same woodcut that at folio XXIII verso is used to represent the city of Damascus.