First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

acknowledged the result rather as a divine favor than the work of human strength. In the destruction of the city, murder, hunger and mortal suffering occurred, and if you would know the details, you should read Josephus[Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian, was born in Jerusalem in 37 CE. On his mother's side he was descended from the Amonaean princess, while from his father, Matthias, he inherited the priestly office. He enjoyed an excellent education, and at the age of 26 he went to Rome to plead the cause of some Jewish priests whom Felix, the procurator of Judea, had sent there as prisoners. He not only effected the release of his friends, but received great presents from the empress Poppea. On his return to Jerusalem he found his countrymen about to revolt from Rome, from which he used his best endeavors to dissuade them; but failing, he professed to enter into the popular designs. He was chosen one of the generals of the Jews, and was sent to manage affairs in Galilee. When Vespasian and his army entered Galilee, he threw himself into Iotapata, which he defended for 47 days. When the place was taken, his life was spared by Vespasian through the intercession of Titus. Josephus thereupon assumed the character of a prophet, and predicted that the empire should one day be his and his son's. Vespasian treated him with respect, but did not release him from captivity till he was proclaimed emperor three years later (70 CE). Josephus was present with Titus at the siege of Jerusalem, and afterwards accompanied him to Rome. He received the freedom of the city of Vespasian, who assigned him as a residence a house formerly occupied by himself, and treated him honorably to the end of his reign. The same favor was extended him by Titus, and by Domitian as well. He assumed the name of Flavius, as a descendant of the Flavian family. His time at Rome seems to have been chiefly employed in the composition of his works, among which is his , in seven books, published about 75 CE. He first wrote in Hebrew, then translated it into Greek. It commences with the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes in 170 BCE, runs rapidly over the events before Josephus' own time, and gives a detailed account of the fatal war with Rome. He also wrote another book, , in twenty books, completed about 93 CE. It gives an account of Jewish history from the creation of the world to 66 CE, the twelfth year of Nero. He also wrote his own life in one volume, and other works.] who wrote, not according to hearsay, but recorded actual facts to which he and others were witnesses. When Titus, together with his father Vespasian, entered the city, he caused Simon, who was the cause of the destruction, to be dragged through the streets with ropes in his triumphal train, and his body bruised; and thereafter he slew him. Vespasian built a temple of peace, and caused to be deposited in it the holy treasures of the Jews, such as the tablets of the laws, and other things. The city was at that time the abode of thieves and murderers; and so it continued until the time of Hadrian. For fifty years it remained desolate. Thereafter Hadrian, the emperor, rebuilt it and restored its walls; and he called it Aelia Capitolina (Helyam), after himself. As St. Jerome wrote to Paulinus, the worship of Jove was practiced from the time of Hadrian to that of Constantine, for 180 years; and on the Mount of the Cross a column was erected to Venus, the pagan goddess, and worshipped by the pagans. Thereby they meant to dishonor the Holy City, and to uproot belief in our origin and in the Cross. At various times our own princes have held the city. Charlemagne captured it with great labor, but lost it again. Godfrey (Gothefridus) recaptured it; and so that it might be retained in possession, Emperor Conrad and King Louis (Ludovicus) of France marched into Asia. But as our princes afterward became indifferent, neither Jerusalem nor Antioch remained in our power. O how lamentable and shameful it is that the Saracens, enemies of the Cross, should hold the Temple of Solomon in which the Lord often preached; Bethlehem, in which He was born; Calvary, where He was crucified, and the grave in which He slept! Although the Christians did not choose to think of this, they should never forget it. Look at the city of the Living God; the office of our redemption; the city which God glorified with miracles and sanctified with his blood; and in which the bloom of our origin first appeared—all now in the power of the hordes of Mohammed and subject to a sinful people.[ Jerusalem or Hierosolyma, called El-Kuds, that is, the Holy City by the Arabs. At the time of the Israelite conquest of Canaan, under Joshua, Jerusalem, then called Jebus, was the chief city of the Jebusites, a Canaanite tribe, who were not entirely driven out till 1050 BCE, when David took the city and made it the capital of the kingdom of Israel. It was also made the permanent center of the Jewish religion by the erection of the Temple of Solomon. After the division of the kingdom, under Rehoboam, it remained the capital of the kingdom of Judah, until it was entirely destroyed, and its inhabitants were carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, in 588 BCE. In 536, the Jewish exiles, having been permitted by Cyrus to return, began to rebuild the city and temple; and the work was completed in about 24 years. In 332 Jerusalem quietly submitted to Alexander. During the wars that followed his death, the city was taken by Ptolemy, son of Lagus, (320) and remained subject to the Greek kings of Egypt, till the conquest of Palestine by Antiochus III the Great, king of Syria (198). Up to this time the Jews had been allowed the free enjoyment of their religion and their own internal government, and Antiochus confirmed them in these privileges; but the altered government of his son Antiochus IV Epiphanes provoked a rebellion, which was at first put down when Antiochus took Jerusalem and polluted the temple (170); but the religious persecution which ensued drove the people to despair, and led to a new revolt under the Maccabees, by whom Jerusalem was retaken, and the temple purified (163). In 133 Jerusalem was retaken by Antiochus VII. Sidetes, and its fortifications dismantled, but its government was left in the hands of the Maccabee John Hyrcanus, who took advantage of the death of Antiochus in Parthia (128) to recover his full power. His son Aristobulus assumed the title of king of Judaea, and Jerusalem continued to be the capital of the kingdom until 63, when it was taken by Pompey, and the temple was again profaned. In 70 CE, the rebellion of the Jews against the Romans was put down, and Jerusalem was taken by Titus after a siege of several months, during which the inhabitants endured the utmost horrors. The survivors were all put to the sword or sold as slaves, and the city and temple were utterly razed to the ground. In consequence of a new revolt of the Jews, Hadrian resolved to destroy every vestige of their national and religious peculiarities; and, as one means to the end, he established a new Roman colony on the ground where Jerusalem had stood, by the name of Aelia Capitolina, and built a temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the side of the temple of Jehovah in 135. The establishment of Christianity as the religion of the Roman Empire restored to Jerusalem its sacred character, and led to the erection of several churches; but the various changes which have taken place in it since its conquest by the Arabs under Omar in 638, have left very few vestiges even of the Roman city. Jerusalem fell to Saladin in 1187. For a brief interval from 1229 to 1244 the German Christians held the city by treaty; but in the latter year the Kharezmian Massacre swallowed up the last relics of Christian occupation. In 1517, it was conquered by Sultan Selim I, and thereafter it was a Turkish city until the modern period, where it went from British to Jewish control after World War II.]