First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LX verso

Amon (in the Year of the World 4551)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .] did evil before the Lord, and was slain by his servants. He died in his own house, where he was murdered. And they buried him with his father.[Amon, fourteenth king of Judah, was the son and successor of Manasseh. He was 22 years old when he began to reign and he reigned two years in Jerusalem. Zephaniah gives a vivid picture of the degradation of the kingdom under this wicked king. He was murdered by his servants and succeeded by his son Josiah.]

Josiah (Iosias) (in the Year of the World 4558)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .], king of Judah, received the kingdom when he was eight years of age. He ruled very well, pursuing the idolaters, urging the priests to erect the temple, prevailing upon the people to observe the law, to fear God, and to celebrate in a commendable manner the Feast of the Passover. Finally, contrary to the will of the Lord, he went forth to give battle to the king of Egypt. In this battle he was seriously wounded and was taken back to Jerusalem, where he died. Upon his death Jeremiah wrote a song of lamentation; for Josiah was highly renowned for the glory and honor which he brought to the people of Judah, but which died with him. Josiah from childhood had sought the Lord, and persisted in his pursuit to the end. With devotion and zeal he walked in the laws of the Lord to such an extent that (as one may say) he had no equal among the kings of Judah.[Josiah (Josias) the son and successor of Amon, king of Judah, began to reign when he was only eight years of age and reigned thirty-one years (641-610 BCE). He was remarkable for his integrity and piety. He gradually abolished the idolatrous customs of his predecessors, and in the eighteenth year of his reign began a thorough repair of the temple. In the progress of this work Hilkiah the high priest found a "book of the law of the Lord given by Moses." What book it is uncertain—probably Deuteronomy. Josiah seems to have been ignorant of its existence; but when it was read to him by one of his officers he was overwhelmed with grief to find how far they and their fathers had departed from the right way. He, however, humbled himself before God, and sent to inquire of the Lord through Huldah, the prophetess. In Jehovah's name she assured him that evil was determined of the Lord, but that he should not see it. (II Chr. 34:23-28) He then assembled the people and published the Law in their hearing, and all united with the king in a solemn vow of obedience. Then he destroyed every vestige of idolatry. When Pharaoh-necho went up from Egypt to Carchemish, Josiah opposed him, and mistrusting Nacho's message from God, gave the Egyptian battle at Megiddo; but he was mortally wounded and brought to Jerusalem, where he died at the age of thirty-nine and was buried in one of his father's sepulchers. His history is narrated in II Kings 22:23; II Chr. 34:35, and probably Jer.1-12.]

Jehoahaz (Joathas) (in the Year of the World 4589)[This parenthetical phrase marking the year is not in the German edition of the .] was wicked before the Lord, for which reason God surrendered him into the hands of Pharaohnecho, the king, who took him into captivity in Egypt, and turned the kingdom over to his elder brother, Eliakim, and changed his name to Jehoiakim.[Jehoahaz was a son and the successor of Josiah, king of Judah. Though he was the fourth son, yet the people chose him king. He was an evildoer, and was referred to as a young lion by Ezekiel (19:3). He reigned only three months. It has been conjectured that his irregular election offended Pharaoh-necho, who got Jehoahaz into his power at Riblah, in Syria, whence he sent him a prisoner loaded with chains into Egypt. There he died, and his brother Jehoiakim became king in his stead.]

Zeleucus (Zaleucus), a very righteous man, made many laws, and among others he ordained that he who commits the sin of adultery should be deprived of the sight of both his eyes. His son committed adultery, and he ordered both his eyes to be torn out. But the entire city pleaded for the son. And when he was finally moved to mercy by the persistent pleas of the people, yet, in order that his law might be complied with, he first caused one of his own eyes to be put out, and then one of his son's; and thus he showed a wonderful sense of moderation and not unpraiseworthy equality, as a merciful father and just lawgiver. Therefore, learn, my fellow Christians, by this with what zeal you should observe the commandments of thy God. This pagan preferred to be punished himself rather than to have his son's offense against the laws pass unpunished.[Zaleucus, of Locri Epizephyril in Magna Graecia, flourished about 660 BCE. He was a Greek lawgiver, and is said to have been the author of the first written code of laws among the Greeks. The story had some familiar features. The Locrians were distressed at their own lawlessness, and commissioned Zaleucus, a slave, to draw up a code, and he did so under divine inspiration. The code was a severe one of the Draconic type, which remained unchanged for centuries. The story ends with the episode of the lawgiver committing suicide on discovering that he had inadvertently broken one of his own laws.]

Jehoiakim (Ieconias), also known as Eliakim (Eliachim), was also a son of Josiah, and was installed by Pharaoh as king, and was ordered to pay a tribute of one hundred pounds of silver. But he was wicked before the Lord, and therefore Nebuchadnezzar arose against him, and Jehoiakim became his servant for three years. But as he thereafter opposed Nebuchadnezzar, the latter again proceeded against him; and he slew him at Jerusalem and ordered his corpse to be thrown outside the wall.[Jehoiakim, second son of Josiah, and brother and successor of Jehoahaz as king of Judah, was at first called Eliakim. He was put on the throne by the king of Egypt, who at the same time changed his name to Jehoiakim. For the first four years he was subject to the king of Egypt, and paid him heavy tribute. Then for another three years he became tributary to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon. But he rebelled, and was taken prisoner by him and ingloriously slain and buried in 599 BCE.]

Jehoiachin (Joachim), also known as Jehoiakim (Jeconias) was a son of Jehoiakim (Ieconias); and he was wicked before the Lord. In consequence he soon ceased to reign. He was taken to Babylonia in fetters, and imprisoned among the Chaldaeans for thirty-seven years. His (Nebuchadnezzar's) son released him from captivity after the death of his father. [Jehoiachin (Jeconias or Jeconiah), was the son and successor of Jehoiakim as king of Judah. He reigned but three months, and was then carried away to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar to avenge the alliance of his father with Egypt against Babylon. With him went all his family, the best of the people, and the sacred and royal treasures. He was imprisoned for thirty-six years, until finally released and favored by Evil-Meredoch, son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar. He was also called Coniah and Jeconiah (I Chr. 3:16; Jer. 27:20; 37:1).]

Zedekiah (Sedechias) in the Year of the World 4600[The phrase "in the Year of the World 4600" is not in the German edition of the .] was the third son of Josiah and the last king of Judah and Jerusalem. He was evil and would not listen to the prophet Jeremiah. Therefore he and all of Judah were taken away to Babylon. His eyes were dug out, and his son was slain. Jeremiah and Ezekiel had predicted that he would be carried to the Babylonian king in fetters. And after he was made prisoner, the Chaldaeans strangled all the people. Those who escaped the sword were led away to serve the Chaldaeans.[Zedekiah, nineteenth and last king of Judah, was the third son of Josiah, full brother of Jehoahaz, and uncle to Jehoiachin, or Jeconiah, his predecessor (II Kings 24:17, 19; I Chr. 3:15). When Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem, he carried Jehoiachin to Babylon, with his wives, children, officers, and the best artificers in Judea, and put in his place his uncle Mattaniah, whose name he changed to Zedekiah, pledging him by an oath of fidelity. Zedekiah began to reign at twenty-one years of age, and he reigned for eleven years. The Bible depicts him as doing evil in the sight of God, committing the same crimes as Jehoiakim (II Kgs. 24:18-20; II Chr. 36:11-13). In the ninth year of his reign he revolted against Nebuchadnezzar, trusting to the support of the king of Egypt, which proved ineffectual , and weakly despising the faithful remonstrance of Jeremiah (Jer. 37:2, 5, 7-10). Nebuchadnezzar marched into Judea and took all the fortified places, and in the eleventh year of Zedekiah's reign, being the 9th day of the fourth month (July), Jerusalem was taken (588 BCE). The king and his people tried to escape by night, but the Chaldean troops overtook them in the plains of Jericho. Zedekiah was carried to Nebuchadnezzar, then at Riblah, in Syria, who reproached him for his perfidy, caused his children to be slain before his face, and his own eyes to be put out. Loaded with chains he was then sent to Babylon and imprisoned, probably at hard labor.]

Thales (Tales) the Milesian, one of the Seven Sages, is considered famous. After the theologians and the poets, they were called ‘Wise’, that is, ‘Sages’. This Thales was the first who was able to predict an eclipse of the sun and moon (as Augustine says). The preceding folios make clear the accomplishments and words of these men.[This paragraph and the two lines of verse that follow the list of the names of the Seven Sages are not in the German edition of the .]

    Seven Sages
  • Thales
  • Solon
  • Chilon
  • Periander
  • Cleobulus
  • Bias
  • Pittacus
He sings the Greek names of the Seven Sages.
And he honors those men famous in all parts of the world.
[ These two lines of verse (from a longer poem) are by Guarino Veronese (1374-1460), an Italian humanist and Classical scholar, one of the pioneers of Greek studies in Renaissance Western Europe and foremost teacher of humanistic scholars. Following studies in Italy and the establishment of his first school in Verona in the 1390s, Guarino studied at Constantinople (1403–08), where he was a pupil of Manuel Chrysoloras. Returning to Italy with a valuable collection of Greek manuscripts, he taught Greek at Florence (1410) and Venice (1414) and compiled (1418), the first Renaissance Latin grammar. It appeared in numerous editions and was used well into the 17th century. After two terms as master of rhetoric in Verona, Guarino became tutor to Leonello, son of Nicolò d'Este, lord of Ferrara, in 1430. Guarino prepared new editions of various Latin authors and translated works of Strabo and Plutarch. His linguistic talents were employed by Greek and Latin churchmen at the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438–45). With his colleague Gasparino da Barzizza and former pupil Vittorino da Feltre, Guarino helped set the pattern for studies in humanism.]

The Lineage of Christ is here resumed from Folio LV recto (which there ended with Manasseh), as follows:

  1. Amon, son and successor of Manasseh
  2. Josiah (Josias), son and successor of Amon.
  3. Jehoahaz (Joathas), son and successor of Josiah.
  4. Jehoiakim (Jeconias), second son of Josiah, and brother and successor of Jehoahaz. His name was originally Eliakim, and he is here called "Jeconias or Eliakim."
  5. Jehoiachin (Joachim), son and successor of Jehoiakim. He is here called "Joachim or Jeconias."
  6. Zedekiah (Sedechias), nineteenth and last king of Judah, third son of Josiah.


Zeleucus (Zaleucus), the Greek lawgiver.


"The Seven Sages, named Tales (Thales), Solon, Chilon, Periander, Cleobolus (Cleobulus), Bias and Pitacus (Pittacus)" are here honored with a composite woodcut—a sort of class-picture.