First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Rome, a city celebrated throughout the world, mistress of all things in Italy, and lying beside the Tiber, was named after Romulus its builder. It was built by him in the eleventh year of Hezekiah (Ezechie), king of Judah, and in the second year of the eighth Olympiad. Although many writers speak of the size of the city, Flavius Vopiscus (Vopistus),[Flavius Vopiscus, a native of Syracuse, and one of the six Scriptores Historiae Augustae, flourished about 300 CE. His name is prefixed to the biographies of 1. Aurelianus; 2. Tacitus; 3. Florins; 4. Proves; 5. The four tyrants, Firmus, Saturninus, Proculus, Bonosus; 6. Caius; 7. Numerianus; 8. Carinus; at this point he stops, declaring that Diocletian, and those who follow, demand a more elevated style of composition.] among others, states that the emperor Aurelius enlarged the city to a circumference of thirty thousand paces. However, the measurements of the ancients are not comparable with our own. The Tiber flows into the city from the north and out again on the southern aide in the direction of the city of Ostia, leaving the hills of Vaticanus and Janiculum beyond the river, on the right. On the left the municipal boundaries comprehend seven hills. Pliny states that the city had thirty open gates and seven which were closed.[The number of gates is uncertain, and the position of many of them is doubtful. Pliny, indeed, states that their number was 37; but it is almost certain that this number includes many mere openings made through the walls to connect different parts of the city with the suburbs. The walls and gates of the city are generally classified into three divisions: those originally erected by Romulus; secondly, the walls of Servius Tullius; and thirdly, those erected by Aurelian.] But as the city increased from time to time, the gates of the last enclosure lost their identity or form; and the city was later destroyed, we will not undertake to discover them all. The first gate was called Porta Flumentana; the second, Pinciana; the third, Salaria (Solaria); the fourth, Viminalis, now St. Agnes, or Nomentana (Numentana); the fifth, Esquilina (Exquilina), now St. Lawrence; the sixth, Naevia (Nenia); the seventh, Asinaria (Asmaria), now named St. John, but called Caelimontana (Celimontana) by the ancients; the eighth, now enclosed in an angle, is called the Porta Metrovia (Metrodori) and was known to the ancients as Cabiusam, and later as the Porta Latina. One called Appia, formerly Capena; the last, in the region of the Tiber, erstwhile Ostiensis and called St. Paul; for it leads to his church and toward Ostia. There is yet another in the region of the Tiber, called Carmentalis. Lastly, Triumphalis, or the Gate of Victory, the most celebrated of all, and which in our own time is the one through which triumphs and victory games proceed. There one may see the great buildings on the outer shores of the Tiber; also a bridge leading to the Hospital of the Holy Spirit; also the way which is called the field of victory, which, together with its appurtenances is called the Vatican, so named after the hill that lies by St. Peter's Church, and which is visited more zealously and is regarded as more holy than any other place because of the relics of St. Peter and because of its High Church and the Papal Palace founded by Pope Nicholas II. It has a large pleasure garden, enclosed by a wall. The Janiculum is a quarter beyond the Tiber. Pope Leo IV first fortified the Vatican with a wall, and after him it was called the Leonine City. Rome has seven hills, the Capitoline, Aventine, Palatine, Caelian, Esquiline, Viminal, and the Quirinal; and after these Rome was called the City of the Seven Hills. Capitoline means a chief, or head mount or hill; for when the foundations were dug for the Temple of Jove, a human skull was found there. Previously it was called the Tarpeian Rock, after Tarpeia, the vestal virgin.[Tarpeia was the daughter of Sp. Tarpeius, the governor of the Roman citadel on the Saturnian hill, afterwards called the Capitoline. She was tempted by the gold in the Sabine bracelets and collars to open a gate of the fortress to Tatius and his Sabines. As they entered, they threw upon her their shields, and thus crushed her to death. She was buried on the hill, and her memory was preserved by the name of the Tarpeian Rock which was given to a part of the Capitoline. A legend still exists at Rome that the fair Tarpeia ever sits in the heart of the hill, covered with gold and jewels and bound by a spell.] On this hill was the celebrated Temple of Jove, the great pagan god. The adornments of this entire hill even excelled the wonderful works of the Egyptians, and it was called the Golden Capitol, or abode of the gods. Beside it were two markets, one of oxen and the other of fish. Although this hill once had a remarkable number of small churches and temples, there is at present no church there except the Ara Caeli of the Franciscan Brothers. The Aventine Hill is so called after the people who came there, or after Aventinus Albanus, the king, who was buried there. On this hill many altars and temples were erected to gods and goddesses. Here also was a laurel wood, and a scattering of houses. At present the cloisters of St. Sabine and St. Boniface are located there. The rest of the hill is covered with buildings in a ruinous state, and with vineyards, except for the monastery of St. Alexius, and this appears to be very ancient. The Palatine Hill derived its name from Pallantinians, who came to Rome with Evander,[Evander was the son of Hermes by an Arcadian nymph, called Themis or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Carmenta or Tiburtis. About sixty years before the Trojan war, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony from Pallantium in Arcadia into Italy and there to have built a town, Pallantium, on the Tiber, at the foot of the Palantine hill, which town was subsequently incorporated with Rome. Evander taught his neighbors milder laws, and arts of peace and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been acquainted by Hercules, and music. He also introduced among them the worship of the Lycaean Pan, of Demeter, Poseidon, and Hercules. Virgil represents Evander as still alive at the time Aeneas arrived in Italy, and as forming an alliance with him against the Latins. Evander was worshipped at Pallantium in Arcadia, as a hero. At Rome he had an altar at the foot of the Aventine.] the king of Arcadia, and who (according to Cornelius Tacitus) gave Rome its beginning by building on the same hill. On this hill, kings and senators, and later the emperors, had their official seats and residences. Here also was the Temple of Victory.[Templum Victoriae (‘Temple of Victory'), on the summit of the Palatine, or the Clivus Victoriae above the Porta Romanula and the circus, in which the statue of the mother of the gods was at first preserved.] To it (as Pliny writes) was brought the great mother of the gods of Greece. There was also the Temple of Febris,[Febris, the goddess and averter of fever, had three sanctuaries at Rome, in which amulets were dedicated, to be worn by people during a fever.] and the Temple of the emperor Augustus, which was later destroyed by fire.[Templum Augusti (‘Temple of Augustus') was founded by Tiberius and completed by Caligula, on the slope of the Palatine in the direction of the Via Nova. It stood before the temple of Minerva from which it was probably separated by the Via Nova.] The emperor Caius Caligula (C. Callcula) by means of a bridge over the temple joined the Palatine and Capitoline hills. The emperor Augustus here erected the Temple of Apollinis,[Templum Apollinis (‘Temple of Apollo'), which was erected by Augustus, stood between the Circus Maximus and the Theater of Marcellus near the Porticus Octaviae, where the senate often assembled.] and added to it a structure with a Latin and Greek library. In the same region the ancients often held their councils. The same building was adorned with wonderful work. Although this greatly celebrated hill was once upon a time the site of magnificent and costly structures, as the ruins still testify, yet there is no building upon the hill now other than St. Nicholas Church built by Calixtus, the pope, but which is no longer entire. Now there was in this region of the Palatine (Pallacii), toward the north, looking in the direction of the triumphal arch of Constantine, the site of the statue of the goddess Minerva. And here also are remarkable buildings, in a ruinous state,