First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Numa Pompilius, second Roman king, succeeded Romulus in the 27th year of the kingdom of Hezekiah; and he reigned 41 years. Because of his piety he was elected king by the Sabine people. He taught spiritual exercises and the worship of the immortal gods, and instituted a priesthood of flamens, prophets, and others. He divided the year into twelve months, and ordered and prescribed the days of work and the holidays. All these things he ascribed to the goddess Egeria so that the rabble would more readily accept them and the uncivilized people brought to obedience. And so with justice and piety he ruled over a land that he had acquired by stealth and injustice. Later he died of a slight illness at the age of eighty years.[Numa Pompilius (715-672 BCE), second legendary king of Rome, was a Sabine, and his wife was the daughter of Titus Tatius, the Sabine colleague of Romulus. He was elected by the Roman people at the close of a year's interregnum, during which the sovereignty had been exercised by the members of the senate in rotation. Nearly all the early religious institutions of Rome were attributed to him. He set up the worship of Terminus (the god of landmarks), appointed the festival of Fides (‘Faith'), built the temple of Janus, reorganized the calendar and fixed days of work and holidays. He instituted the flamens or sacred priests of Jupiter, Mars and Quirinus; the virgins of Vesta, to keep the sacred fire burning on the hearth of the city; the Salii, to guard the shield that fell from heaven; the pontifices and augurs, to arrange the rites and interpret the will of the gods. He also divided the craftsmen into nine guilds. He derived his inspirations from his wife, the nymph Egeria, whom he met by night in her sacred grove. After a long and peaceful reign, during which the gates of Janus were closed, Numa died and was succeeded by the warlike Tullus Hostilius. No single legislator can really be considered responsible for all the institutions ascribed to Numa. They are essentially Italian, and older than Rome itself. Even Roman tradition itself wavers; e.g., the fetiales are variously attributed to Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius.]

Tullus Hostilius, third Roman king, was elected by the Romans in the thirty-ninth year of the reign of Manassah, and he reigned 31 years. The sovereignty was voluntarily turned over to him in view of his virtue and ability, although he was of vulgar peasant origin. His cradle was (as Eutropius writes) a rustic hut[This clause is not found in the German edition of the . Also, Schedel is incorrect here, for it is not Eutropius who comments on the rustic hut as Tullus' cradle, but Valerius Maximus ( 3.4.1).], and he herded cattle in his youth but finally wore the purple and the crown jewels. He enlarged the city of Rome so as to comprehend the Caelionian hill (Mons Caelius). After a long period of peace, he warred against the Albans, defeated them and sent them to Rome, and destroyed their city, except the temples. When he had reached his greatest glory in war, he and his entire house were finally destroyed by a flash of lightning.[ Tullus Hostilius (672-640 BCE), third legendary king of Rome, conducted successful wars with Alba, Fidenae and Veii, which mirror the earlier conquests of Latin territory and the first extension of the Roman domain beyond the walls of Rome. During his reign the combat between the Horatii and Curiatii, the representatives of Rome and Alba, took place. He is said to have been struck dead by lightning as punishment of his pride. He is simply the duplicate of Romulus. Both were brought up among shepherds; carried on war against Fidenae and Veii; doubled the number of citizens; organized the army, and disappeared from the earth in a storm. As Romulus and Numa represent the Ramnes and Tities, so, in order to complete the list of the four traditional elements of the nation, Tullus was made the representative of the Luceres, and Ancus, the founder of the Plebs. The distinctive event of his reign is the destruction of Alba, which may be regarded as an historical event. But when and by whom it was destroyed is uncertain – probably by the Latins.]

Ancus (Anchus) Marcius, born of Numa's daughter, the fourth Roman king, received the Roman kingdom in the fourth year of the reign of Josiah (Josia), and reigned 25 years. Among his ancestors he was not the least in the arts and in renown for peace and war. He surrounded the battlements with a wall, and added the Aventine and the Janiculum hills to the city. He threw the first bridge over the Tiber, and built the city of Ostia (Hostia) by the sea, 16 miles from Rome. Finally he was seized by the plague and exchanged life for death.[Ancus Marcius (640-616 BCE.), was the fourth legendary king of Rome. Like Numa, his reputed grandfather, he was a friend of peace and religion, but was obliged to make war to defend his territories. He conquered the Latins, and some of them whom he settled on the Aventine formed the original Plebs. He fortified the Janiculum, threw a wooden bridge across the Tiber, founded the port of Ostia, established salt-works and built a prison.]

Tarquinius Priscus, the fifth Roman king, was elected in the twenty-seventh year of the reign of Josiah (Josia) and reigned 37 years. And although he was a native of the city of Corinth in Greece, nevertheless, by reason of his valor and distinction, he was elevated to the Roman throne. He revived Greek learning and Italian art, and enlarged the number of senators by three hundred. He was better qualified for war than for peace. By force of arms he subdued twelve peoples of Tuscany, and celebrated his triumph in a golden chariot drawn by four horses. Finally, after many strenuous deeds he was slain by the Sons of Ancus.[Tarquinus Priscus, Lucius, (616-578 BCE), fifth legendary king of Rome, is said to have been the son of a Greek refugee who moved from Tarquinii, in Etruria, to Rome. He was appointed guardian of the sons of Ancus Marcius, but supplanted them on their father's death. He laid out the Circus Maximus, instituted the great games, built the great sewers (cloacae), and began the construction of the temple of Jupiter on the Capitol. He successfully warred against the Sabines and subjugated Latium. He was the first to celebrate a roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, in a robe of purple and gold, and was born on a chariot drawn by four horses. He was finally assassinated by the instigation of the sons of Ancus Marcius.]

At this time the kings still used lances instead of a diadem, which the Greeks called scepters. From the beginning the ancients honored the lance as a symbol of the immortal gods; and on account of the memory of this religion, lances are added to the images of the gods.

Phalaris (Phaleris), tyrant and orator of Agrigentum, flourished at this time. To him came secretly from Athens an ingenious artisan. And as this artisan was familiar with the gruesomeness of this tyrant, he made for him, in order to please him, a brazen bull. In its side he made a door by which evil-doers were locked inside it; and they were punished by placing a fire under the bull. The cries of the victims were to imitate the bellowing of the bull. When the artisan asked compensation for his work, the king ordered him locked within the bull. Thus he became the first victim of his own invention. Ovid writes: There can be no more even justice than that one should suffer the same penalty, which by artifice he has prepared for others. And such was the answer of Phalaris to the Athenians who complained to the king of the handiwork of their own artisan.

Phalaris, tyrant of Acragas (Agrigentum) in Sicily, c. 570-554 BCE, was entrusted with the building of the temple of Zeus Atabyrius in the citadel, and took advantage of his position to make himself despot. Under his rule Agrigentum seems to have attained considerable prosperity. He supplied the city with water, adorned it with fine buildings, and fortified it with walls. On the northern coast of the island the people of Himera elected him general with absolute power, in spite of the warnings of the poet Stesichorus. According to Suidas he succeeded in making himself master of the entire island. He was finally overthrown in a general uprising, headed by Telemachus, the ancestor of Theron (tyrant c. 488-472) and burned in his brazen bull.

Succeeding ages have held up Phalaris to infamy for his excessive cruelty. In his brazen bull, invented, it is said, by Perillus of Athens, the tyrant's victims were shut up, and a fire was kindled beneath, and they were roasted alive, while their shrieks represented the bellowing of the bull. Perillus himself is said to have been the first victim.

Later tradition, however, represents Phalaris as a naturally humane man and a patron of philosophy and literature. Plutarch, though he takes the unfavorable view, mentions that the Sicilians gave to the severity of Phalaris the name of justice and a hatred of crime.

This paragraph is switched in order with the one that follows it (on the Erythraean Sibyl) in the German edition of the Chronicle.

The Erythraean (Erithrea) Sibyl, the most celebrated of them all, was a native of Babylonia, and lived at this time. She was dressed in the garb of a monk, wore a black veil, and carried a naked sword in her hand. She was not very old but her countenance was moderately sorrowful. Under her feet was a golden circle set with stars in likeness of the heavens. She speaks thus: In the final age God will be humbled; the divine seed will become mortal; the Godhead will become obedient to mankind; the Lamb will lie in the hay and will be nourished by attendant virgins.


The Lineage of the Roman Kings is here continued from Folio LVI recto, where Rhea, Remus, and Romulus appeared.


The Erythraean Sibyl (Sibilla Erithea) is represented by a woodcut of special design. She wears a monkish robe and black veil; carries the naked sword in one hand and the golden ring studded with stars, in the other. She is a middle-aged woman and rather sad of countenance—all in accordance with the marks given her by the chronicler.