First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LV verso

Zephaniah (Sophonias), the ninth of the twelve prophets, was a son of Cushi (Chus), noblest of men. To the Hebrews he prophesied the destruction and rebuilding of Jerusalem.[Zephaniah, ninth of the minor prophets, was the son of Cushi, and lived in the days of Josiah. His prophecy was uttered in the early part of the ministry of Jeremiah and was mainly designed to excite the Jewish nation to repentance, in view of threatened judgments, and to comfort the people of God with promises of the final triumph of righteousness. The description of the judgment in 1:14, 15, "The great day of Jehovah is near" (in the Latin version, Dies irae dies illa) has furnished the key note to the sublimest hymn of the Middle Ages, the Dies irae, traditionally attributed to Thomas of Celano (c. 1250).]

Uriah (Urias), the prophet, was slain by king Jehoiakim (Jeconia).[Uriah or Urias, son of Shemaiah, a faithful prophet in Judah in the time of Jehoiakim, confirmed the prediction of Jeremiah against Judah; and having fled to Egypt for refuge from the enraged king, and having been sent back by Pharaoh-necho on demand, he was wickedly slain and dishonorably buried (Jer. 26:20-23).]

Minor Prophets

Habakkuk (Abacuck), tenth among the prophets, full of the spirit of prophecy, and held in esteem in Judah, prophesied against Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor) and Babylonia. He also brought food to Daniel while in the lion's den in Babylonia.[Habakkuk, or Habbakkuk (Abacuck) was one of the twelve minor prophets of whose birth we know neither time nor place. He lived in the reign of Jehoiakim, or of Josiah. The prophecy of Habakkuk relates chiefly to the invasion of Judaea by the Chaldaeans, and the subsequent punishment of the Chaldaens themselves, ch. 2. The passage, 2:4, "the just shall live by his faith, " furnished Paul the text for his Epistle to the Romans (Rom. 1:17). The Book of Habakkuk consists of three chapters, which all constitute one oracle. The first foretells the woes which the Chaldaeans would soon inflict on his nation; the second, the future humiliation of the iniquitous conquerors; in the third the prophet implores the aid of Jehovah in view of his mighty works of ancient days, and expresses the most assured trust in him. ]

Baruch was the scribe of Jeremiah the prophet. He made a prophetic book, and in it predicted the return from captivity.[Baruch was the secretary of the prophet Jeremiah, and came of a distinguished Jewish family (Jer. 32:12). His friendship for Jeremiah was strong and constant. At his dictation Baruch wrote the prophecies. These he read before the princes, who rehearsed them to Jehoiakim the king, having previously deposited the writing in one of the offices of the temple. The king ordered the writing to be read in his presence, and he became so exasperated that he destroyed the manuscripts and gave orders to arrest both the prophet and his secretary, but they had concealed themselves. Jehovah, however, repeated the prophecies to Jeremiah with some additions, and Baruch wrote them down a second time. Baruch was falsely accused of influencing Jeremiah in favor of the Chaldaeans, and they were both imprisoned until the capture of Jerusalem in 586 BCE. They were afterward forced to go down to Egypt (Jer. 43:6-7). The Book of Baruch is one of the Apochrypha of the Old Testament, of uncertain date and authorship.]

Jeremiah, the holiest of the prophets, sanctified from his mother's womb (of a race) of priests, began to prophesy against Jerusalem and the temple, when he was still a child and but twelve years of age. And he prophesied for forty years, not including the years during which he prophesied in Egypt. And there, after many daring predictions, he was stoned by the people at Tahpanhes and buried in the same region; and after he drove out the snakes, he was honored.

Jeremiah was one of the four major prophets, the other three being Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel. He was the son of Hilkiah, of Anathoth, in the land of Benjamin, (Jer.1:1) and lived under various kings from Josiah to the Captivity. As Professor Plumptre observes, "there is no one in the ‘goodly fellowship of the prophets' of whom, in his work, feelings and sufferings, we have so distinct a knowledge, although it is derived almost exclusively from his book. He is the great example of the prophetic life. It is not to be wondered at that he should have seemed to the Christian feeling of the early church a type of Him in whom that life received its highest completion." He was not only the prophet of sorrow and public calamity, but also of a new and better covenant of the heart. Jeremiah was very young when called to his prophetic office, and for 42 years he persisted in this arduous service with diligence and fidelity, in the midst of the severest trials and persecutions. It was probably owing to his youth at the time, and his residence in Anathoth, that when the book of the Law was found in the house of the Lord , the king sent to Huldah the prophetess, instead of to him, to inquire of the Lord (II Kings 22:14). During all this time Jerusalem was in a distracted and deplorable state and the prophet was calumniated, imprisoned, and often in danger of death. But nothing could deter him. His exhortations to the king and rulers were to submit at once to the arms of Nebuchadnezzar, for by that means they would preserve their lives, while continued resistance would bring certain and dreadful destruction on Jerusalem. At this time the city swarmed with false prophets who contradicted Jeremiah and flattered the king and his courtiers that God would rescue them from the impending danger; and after the city was taken and part of the population carried to Babylon, these prophets confidently predicted a speedy return. On the other hand Jeremiah predicted that their captivity would be a long one and would endure for seventy years.

The prophecy of Jeremiah is a reflection of his sad and tender character and the calamities of his age. It embraces a period of 40 years. Jeremiah entered upon the office of prophet in the thirtieth year of Josiah, and his prophecy relates to the judgments that were to come in consequence of the gross idolatry and corruption of the people. His end is uncertain. There are indications that he may have reached extreme old age. On the other hand there is the tradition that the long tragedy of his life ended in actual martyrdom, and that the Jews at Tahpanhes, irritated by his rebukes, finally stoned him to death. Most commentators on the New Testament find an allusion to this in Hebrews 11:37.

This paragraph and the one that follows it (on Saraiah) are switched in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Seraiah (Sarayas) was slain by Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah with other advisers of Zedekiah.[Saraiah is the high priest who in the reign of Zedekiah was taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar and killed at Riblah (II Kings 25:18-21; I Chr. 6:14; Jer. 52:24-27).]

Huldah (Olda), the prophetess, was the wife of Shallum (Sellum) the high priest. She was illustrious and prophesied for Josiah (Josia), and particularly concerning the destruction of Jerusalem and the captivity of its people.[Huldah (Olda), a prophetess, wife of Shallum, keeper of the wardrobe under Josiah, and who dwelt in the suburbs, was the most noted person of prophetic gift in Jerusalem while Jeremiah was still at Anathoth. Josiah had recourse to her when Hellish found the Book of the Law, to procure an authoritative opinion on it (II Kings 22:14; II Chron. 34:22).]

These six (referring to portraits of Mizahel, Hananiah (Ananias), Azariah (Azaias) Daniel (the text incorrectly reads David), Ezekiel (Ezechiel), and Merodach (Mardocheus) below the text) all yet children, were, together with Joachim, the king, carried to Babylonia in captivity. Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, 60 cubits high, in a field, and ordered all princes to attend upon its dedication and for the worship thereof. And the herald called out: You shall worship the image, and you who do not do so, will in this same hour be sent to the oven of the blazing fire. And they all worshipped it, except the servants of Daniel. For this they were accused before the king. Whereupon an oven was lighted sevenfold; and in it they were thrown, bound and fully clad. But the flames killed the men who put them into the oven. And the angel of the Lord entered the oven like a blowing wind of mist, and refreshed them. Thereupon the three children praised and sanctified the Lord God, as with a single mouth.[In the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah, Nebuchadnezzar made war on Judah, taking the king prisoner. He besieged and took Jerusalem and carried off many of the people as captives, including Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael and Azariah, all of the royal family. He caused these four to be carefully educated in the language and learning of the Chaldeans, so they might be employed at court. They were also given Chaldaean names: Daniel was called Belteshazzar; Hananiah, Shadrach; Mishael, Meshach; Azariah, Abed-ego. Their education completed, the king communed with them, finding them superior to all the magicians and astrologers of the realm. (Dan. 1:1-20) He made Daniel ruler of the whole province of Babylon, and chief of the governors over all the wise men of Babylon. At Daniel's request the other three were set over the affairs of the province of Babylon; but "Daniel sat in the gate of the king." (Dan. 2:48-49) And Nebuchadnezzar made a golden image threescore cubits in height and set it up in the plain, calling on all the princes, governors, etc., to come together and worship it, under pain of death in a fiery furnace for failure to obey. And at a given sign the multitudes fell down and worshipped; but certain Chaldaeans made complaint against Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-ego for not having done so. Before the king they admitted the charge and told him they would neither serve his gods nor worship his image. The king ordered the furnace to be heated "one seven times more than it was wont to be heated." The accused were thrown into it. The terrific heat killed the men who threw them in, but they themselves remained unscathed, and while in the midst of the flames sang the praises of the Lord (Dan. 3:1-30). The king recognizing the power of their God and released them.]

Jehozadak (Iosedech), the priest, a son of Seraiah (Azaria), was, when the Lord through Nebuchadnezzar destroyed Judah and Jerusalem by force, taken captive with others to Babylonia. Some say he was Ezdra, the writer and priest, or, perchance his brother.[Jehozadek was the son of the high priest Seraiah, who was murdered by Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings 25:21). He was carried into captivity and never became high priest, but his son, Jeshua, attained to this office, and his descendants held it until Alcimus. He is more frequently called Jozadak or Josedech.]

(A) THE PRIESTLY LINE (Continued).

The Priestly Line is here continued from Folio LIII verso, which there ended with Shallum (Sellum, misprinted "Bellum"). We resume:

  1. Hilkiah or Helkias (Elchias), who is not mentioned in the text, was high priest in Josiah's reign. He found "the Book of the Law," the sacred copy of the Pentateuch in the temple, and aided Josiah in his reformation. He was probably an ancestor of Ezra (II Kings 22:8-23, 25; II Chron. 34:14-35). This portrait represented Azariah (Azarias) at Folio L verso; Phinehas (Phinees), at Folio XXXVII verso.
  2. Azariah (Azarias), son of Hilkiah, upon whom the text is also silent. This name was very common among the Jews and was born by many briefly referred to in the Scriptures. Three of them were high priests (I Chron. 6:9, 10; II Chron. 26:17-20; 31:10, 13). This portrait represented Uzzi (Ozy) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Seraiah (Sarayas), referred to in the text, was a son of the above named Azariah, and is here represented by a woodcut that served for Jehoiada (Yoyada) at Folio L verso; for Zadok (Sadoch), at Folio XLVIII recto; and for Abishua (Abysue) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  4. Jehozadak or Jozadak (Josedech) is mentioned in the text, and represented by a portrait used for Azariah (Azarias) at Folio L verso; for Achimas at Folio XLVIII recto; and for Bukki (Boos or Buuzz), at Folio XXXVII verso.

(B) THE PROPHETS (Continued)

The prophets are resumed from folio LIII verso:

  1. Zephaniah (Sophonias), the ninth prophet, was Azariah (Azarias) at Folio XLIX verso, and Ibzan (Abesson) at Folio XLI recto.
  2. Uriah or Urias, a prophet, was Tola (Thola) at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Baruch, the secretary or scribe of Jeremiah.
  4. Habakkuk (Abacuck), the 10th prophet, was Eli (Hely) at Folio XLI verso.
  5. Jeremiah (Hieremias) was Obadiah (Abdyas) at Folio XLIX verso, and Ahijah (Achias) the prophet, at Folio XLV recto.
  6. Huldah (Olda), the prophetess, was Juno at Folio XXXV recto, and Ceres at Folio XXXV recto.
  7. Daniel (mislabeled as ‘David') is portrayed by a woodcut here used for the first time. He is represented as a young man, with long flowing curls, and in medieval robe. He is apparently in the act of prophesying. As he stands waist deep in the cup of a flower, he is gesturing, as is the custom of most of the characters illustrated in the Chronicle.
  8. Ezekiel (Ezechiel), the prophet, also a new woodcut. The subject is an elderly man with long hair and flowing beard. He wears a cap and medieval cloak. He is gesturing, apparently to emphasize some prophecy.
  9. Murdoch (Mardocheus) is also represented by a new woodcut, and appears as a middle-aged medieval character, attired in cap and robe, standing in the cup of a flower and gesticulating.


The Men in the Fiery Furnace--Mizahel, Hananiah (Ananias), and Azariah (Azarias)--are here depicted in the blazing oven or furnace, which among the Chaldaeans was a device used for capital punishment (Jer. 29:22; Dan. 3:19-26; Rev. 1:15; 9:2). Although the intended victims had attained to manhood before they were obliged to undergo this ordeal, they are here represented as three children, neatly clad as choir boys, no doubt to indicate that (according to the text of the Vulgate) they sang the praises of the Lord amidst the flames (see Text and Note, above).