First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO LV recto

Uzziah (Ozias) (in the Year of the World 4388), son of Amaziah (Amasia) and twelfth king of Judah, was a very gentle and worthy man, who did good before the Lord; except that he usurped the office of priest, in this, that he himself, although Azariah was the priest, presumed to make a burnt offering on the altar of incense. Therefore he was smitten with leprosy.[] And an earthquake occurred, in consequence of which half a mountain was torn asunder and the royal garden was sunk.[Amos 1:1; Zech. 14:5.] Yet Uzziah defeated the enemies all about him and beautified Jerusalem; and he rebuilt the walls that Joash (Joas) destroyed. Because of his leprosy he was removed from the city, and Jotham (Joatham) reigned in his stead. Upon his death Uzziah was buried in the sepulcher of the kings of Jerusalem.

Sardanapalus (Sardanapallus) was a depraved, unchaste, and effeminate man. He first introduced the use of the cushion or pillow. He associated with brazen women; and for these reasons loss and death followed him and divided his realm as previously related.[See Folio LIV recto, and note on Sardanapalus.] Terrible times came and these continued almost to the birth of Christ, during which period human blood was spilled like water throughout the world.

Pul (Phull),[Pul was king of Assyria about 765 BCE, when Assyria is first mentioned in the Bible after the time of Nimrod. He invaded Israel but was induced to retire by a present of 1000 talents of silver. (II Kings 15:19, 20; I Chron. 5:26)] the king of the Assyrians, and his successor endeavored to restore the monarchy; and in consequence they distressed the country in no small degree.

Jotham (Joathan) in the Year of the World 4440.[This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the .]

Tiglath-pileser (Thleglathpalazar) captured the countries of Naphtali (Neptalim) and Galilee (Gallilea) and the lands beyond the Jordan, incorporating these into Assyria. Later, at the behest of Ahaz (Achas) he besieged Damascus and slew Rezin (Raasim), the king of Damascus.[Tiglath-pileser II was king of Assyria in the time of king Ahaz (747-729 BCE), Tiglath-pileser I having begun to reign about 1130 BCE, but not being mentioned in the Bible. The latter king, early in his reign, about 741 BCE, made a campaign against Pekah, king of Israel, overran all the northern part of the kingdom, carried away captive many inhabitants of the cities and placed them in various parts of his own kingdom (II Kings 15:29). Some years later the allied kings of Israel and Syria, Pekah and Rezin, having made war against Judah, Ahaz foolishly applied to Tiglath-pileser for assistance. The Assyrian army captured Damascus and slew Rezin (II Kings 16:9). It then ravaged Israel, chiefly east of the Jordan, carried off many captives, and exacted a very heavy tribute from Ahaz and greatly distressed him (I Chron. 5:26; II Chron. 28:16-21). Tiglath-pileser II reigned about nineteen years, and was succeeded by his son Shalmaneser IV.]

Shalmaneser (Salmanasar) besieged Samaria and added Israel to Assyria. The kingdom of Israel ended after enduring for 282 years.[Shalmaneser, king of Assyria, reigned from 727 to 722 BCE, coming between the reigns of Tiglath-pileser and Sargon. He invaded Israel. Hoshea the king had revolted, but he conquered him and exacted a tribute. (II Kings 17:3) He then returned home, but as Hoshea revolted a second time and allied himself with the king of Egypt, Shalmaneser returned; and he ravaged Samaria, besieged Hoshea in his capital; and after three years the city fell. However, during his period a rebellion headed by Sargon broke out in Assyria, and Shalmaneser was deposed. ]

Ahaz (Achas) (in the Year of the World 4466)[ The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .] reigned in Judah after the death of his father Jotham (Joathan). He was the most evil, and zealously addicted to idolatry. Pekah (Phacee) came against him, and in a single day slew in battle 120,000 fighting men of Judah, and carried off 20,000 children, maidens and women as captives. But these he sent home again on the advice of the prophets.[Ahaz, son of Jotham, was the 11th king of Judah. He ascended the throne in his twenties, and reigned 16 years. He was a polytheist and held God in contempt. He made his own children pass through the fire to idols. He introduced the Syrian gods into Jerusalem, altered the temple after the Syrian model, and even closed it altogether. He met various repulses at the hands of Pekah and Rezin. The Edomites revolted and the Philistines harassed him. He sought the aid of Pul, king of Assyria, and in consequence became tributary to him and to his successor Tiglath-pileser. Ahaz was reduced to great extremities in buying off the Assyrians; and yet he became still more infatuated with polytheism. He died in at 36, and was refused burial with the ancestral kings. (II Chron. 28)] At this time Rome was built.[This paragraph and the one that follows it (on Hezekiah) are switched in the German edition of the .]

Hezekiah (Ezechias) (in the Year of the World 4472)[The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .], son of Ahaz (Achab) and 15th king of Judah, was the best and most pious, and he led the people back to the service of God. During his time the kingdom of the ten tribes declined and though Shalmaneser, the king, became part of Assyria. Sennacherib, king of Assyria, overran Hezekiah and his kingdom and besieged Jerusalem; but in answer to prayer and penance on the part of Hezekiah and Isaiah (Ysaye), the angel of the Lord in one night slew 285,000 men of the hosts of Sennacherib; and thus was Hezekiah relieved. Now, because of his boastful pride, or by reason of his ingratitude, Hezekiah was taken deathly ill; but through remorse and atonement he was restored to health. And as a sign of the cure the course of the sun was reversed by ten degrees. To the messengers of the king of Babylon he displayed all his riches; whereupon Isaiah prophesied to him that these same riches would be carried off by the Babylonians.

Hezekiah was a distinguished king of Judah, the son and successor of the apostate Ahaz. He ascended the throne at the age of 25 and ruled 29 years, till 697 BCE. During his reign the temple was repaired, and the Passover celebrated. A proclamation was sent from Dan to Beersheba inviting the tribes to Jerusalem to keep the Passover, and as a result of the convocation a national religious zeal broke out. Hezekiah held Isaiah in high esteem and frequently consulted him. He warred against the Philistines, and regained what his father had lost. He rebelled against the domination of Assyria. Sennacherib invaded his kingdom with an immense army, but was miraculously defeated. In the events of his private life, one is to be noted of peculiar significance.
The king became sick to death, and Isaiah uttered his doom, telling him that he must die (II Kings 20:1-11):

Then he (Hezekiah) turned his face to the wall and prayed to the Lord. . . And it came to pass, before Isaiah had gone out into the middle court, that the word of the Lord came to him, saying, Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus says the Lord, the God of David, your father, I have heard your prayer, I have seen your tears: behold, I will heal you. . . And I will add to your days fifteen years; and I will deliver you and your city out of the hand of the king of Assyria. . . And Isaiah said, Take a lump of figs. And they took and laid it on the boil and he recovered. And Hezekiah said to Isaiah, What shall be the sign that the Lord will heal me. . . And Isaiah said, This sign shall you have of the Lord, that the Lord will do the thing that he has spoken: Shall the shadow go forward ten degrees or go back ten degrees? And Hezekiah answered, It is a light thing for the shadow to go down ten degrees: No, but let the shadow return backwards ten degrees. And Isaiah the prophet, cried to the Lord: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz.

Thus as a sign of the cure the dial was made to go back ten degrees. Another event of note in Hezekiah's life was the punishment pronounced upon his house by Isaiah for the display he made of his riches to the messengers of the king of Babylon, who had come to congratulate him upon his recovery (II Kings 20:15). Hezekiah died in honor and was buried in the "highest of the sepulchers of the sons of David."

Sennacherib (as already stated) disgracefully fled; and he came to Nineveh and tortured the Jews and Tobias. He was finally slain by his own sons.[Sennacherib was the son and successor of Sargon. Judah had paid tribute to Assyria, but under Hezekiah it revolted; and so Sennacherib determined to take revenge on Judah. And so he invaded Palestine on two occasions, on the first of which he was pacified by a tribute. When Hezekiah revolted a second time, Sennacherib sent an embassy demanding submission. In response to which Hezekiah prayed to God for deliverance. In consequence, the Bible claims, 185,000 Assyrians died of the plague in a night, the siege was raised and Sennacherib returned to Nineveh (II Kings 19:35). About twenty years later, while worshipping in the house of his god, Sennacherib was slain with the sword by his own sons. He had reigned twenty-two years, and brilliantly. He crushed the revolt of Babylon, attacked Sidon, made many cities tributary, and as Sargon had done, laid a heavy hand on the neighboring nations. His palaces were large and beautiful, and his monuments exist in unexpected places.]

Manasseh (Manasses) (in the Year of the World 4501)[The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .], son of Hezekiah, reigned after him in Judah for 55 years. He was a very evil man and inclined to idolatry and superstition. He slew the prophets, and Isaiah in particular he ordered to be cut apart with a wood saw. He was taken captive to Babylon, but upon his repentance and humility he received pardon and mercy, and was restored to his kingdom. After him reigned Amon, his son, who followed in the footsteps of his father in matters of sin, but not in repentance. He was slain by his relatives.[Manasseh, successor of Hezekiah, as king of Judah, ascended the throne at the age of twelve. The early parts of his reign were distinguished by acts of impiety and cruelty, and he succeeded in drawing his subjects away from the Lord to such an extent that the only kind of worship not allowed in Judah was that of Jehovah (II Kings 21:2-9). In the end he did much to repair the evils of his former life. (II Chron. 33:1-20)]

(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (Continued).

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LIII recto, where it ended with Amaziah (Amasias). It is here resumed as follows:

  1. Uzziah (Ozias), son of Amaziah, and twelfth king of Judah.
  2. Jotham (Joathan), successor of Uzziah as king of Judah.
  3. Ahaz (Achas), son and successor of Jotham as king of Judah.
  4. Hezekiah, son of Ahaz, and fifteenth king of Judah.
  5. Manasseh (Manasses), son and successor of Hezekiah.


The Assyrian Lineage is here continued from Folio XLII verson (which there ended with Thineus) and is here resumed as follows:

  1. Sardanapalus (Sardanapallus) is represented by a woodcut that is rather distinctive. The portrait is youthful and clean-shaven, with flowing locks of hair. The other two clean-shaven individuals on this page are Uzziah (Ozias) and Pul (Phull), both of whom are of rather portly individuals who have clearly reached (and surpassed) middle age. The remaining portraits are of older, bearded individuals who stereotypically represent the idea of ‘king.'
  2. Pul (Phull) is represented by a woodcut that gazes diagonally across the page to his physical counterpart, Uzziah (Ozias), the only other middle-aged clean-shaven heavy-set figure, who, in turn, looks back at him.
  3. Tiglath-pileser (Theglathphalazar).
  4. Shalmaneser (Salmanasar).
  5. Sennacherib.
  6. Esar-haddon (Assaradan).