First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Here the kingdom of Israel was without a king for 33 years, as is discovered by adding together the kings of Judah.

Amos was the third among the twelve prophets, and he prophesied against many peoples, particularly the ten tribes.[Amos, third of the minor prophets, was a herdsman of Tekoah, a small town of Judah, about twelve miles from Jerusalem. He prophesied concerning Israel, at Bethel, in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and Jeroboam II king of Israel, about 800 to 787 BCE. He was a contemporary of Hosea and Joel, first and second of the minor prophets. The first two chapters of Amos contain predictions against the surrounding nations, enemies of the people of God. But the ten tribes of Israel were the chief subject of his prophecies. Their temporary prosperity under Jeroboam led to gross idolatry, injustice and corruption, for which sins he denounced the judgment of God upon them. His boldness in reproving sin drew upon him the wrath of the priests who labored to procure his banishment. (Amos 7:10-17)]

Obadiah (Abdias) was the fourth of the twelve prophets. He prophesied against Edom. He was quite old when he died, and was buried in the grave of Elisha.[Obadiah (Abdyas), fourth of the minor prophets, is supposed to have prophesied about 587 BCE. He was probably contemporary with Jeremiah and Ezekiel, who denounced the same dreadful judgments on the Edomites, and foretold the ultimate triumph of Zion (v. 17-21). The prophecy, according to Josephus, received its initial fulfillment about five years after the destruction of Jerusalem.]

During this time the Spartans or Lacedaemonians roved about in wars for a hundred years, and they wrote their wives to take other husbands so that the race would not die out.

Jonah (Jonas), one of the twelve prophets, was sent to the people of Nineveh, who heard him.[Jonah was the fifth of the minor prophets. See Jonah, text and note, Folio XLIX verso.]

Micah (Micheas) was the sixth of the twelve prophets.[ Micah, or Micaiah. See text and note, Folio XLIX verso.]

Nahum (Naum) was the seventh of the twelve prophets.[Nahum, the seventh of the twelve minor prophets, was a native of Elkosh, probably a village in Galilee. His prophecy consists of three chapters, in which he foretells the destruction of Nineveh. Opinions are divided as to the time in which he prophesied, but probably in the time of Hezekiah, after the war of Sennacherib in Egypt, mentioned by Berosus. Isaiah and Micah were his contemporaries. Nineveh perished about 100 years later in 606 BCE; and its exhumed remains well accord with his description of it.]

Here the entire imaginary history of Tobias is given.

Tobit (Tobias) died at the age of 102 years. He was a holy man, of good works, and illustrious in the spirit of prophecy; for before the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, he prophesied that future event with a certainty as though it had presently happened. Soon after his death his wife died also. And after the young Tobit (Tobias) with his children left Nineveh, it was destroyed.[The Book of Tobit or Tobias is one of the most interesting of the Apochrypha of the Old Testament. Tobit, or Tobias, was a Naphtalite who remained faithful to the temple service amidst the defection of his countrymen; but, notwithstanding, he shared with them in their misfortunes and was carried to Nineveh by Shalmanezer. His wealth and position at court gave him opportunity to help his people and thus win their regard, and for a time his life was enviable. But a change of rulers changed his fortune. When Sennacherib came to the throne, he was compelled to flee from the king's wrath because he buried the Jews whom the king had killed. All his property was confiscated, but on the entreaty of a nephew, the new king who succeeded Sennacherib allowed him to return to Nineveh. Soon thereafter he lost his eyesight through an injury his opened eyes received from warm swallow's dung which fell upon them, causing albugo, that is, white, hard flakes on the eyes, which are of greater or less extent and not transparent. A quarrel with his wife about a young goat led to reproaches, under which he wept grievously and prayed in sorrow. At this point, the episode of Sarra of Ecbatana, in Media, is introduced. She was the wife of seven men who were successively killed on their wedding night by Asmodaeus. Her prayer for death was made at the same time with Tobit's prayer for the same, "and Raphael was sent to heal them both" – that is, to scale away the white spots from Tobit's eyes" – and "to give Sarra for a wife to Tobias, the son of Tobit, and to bind Asmodaeus the wicked demon." This was brought about thus: Tobit sent his son to Media to recover some money lent out in the days of his prosperity. He improved the occasion to give his son some good advice. The angel Raphael in the guise of "Azarias, son of Ananias the great," saluted Tobias and made the journey in his company. The capture of a fish put in Tobias' hands the means of curing his father and ridding Sarra of the demon. His journey was eminently successful. He recovered the money loaned, married Sarra, to whom Raphael introduced him, and returned home with these treasures, greatly to the delight of Tobit, who had begun to be a little fearful for his safety. The book ends with the restoration of Tobit's eyesight and prosperity, his consequent psalm of gratitude (perhaps the best piece of writing in the book), and mention of the death of Tobit and Tobias.]

Zechariah (Zacharias), the king of Israel, began to reign in the 38th year of Uzziah (Ozia), king of Judah. He did evil, as his forefathers had done. He was the fourth (king) after Jehu.[Zechariah, the 14th king of Israel, was the last member of the house of Jehu to come to the throne and he occupied it only six months. His assassination begins the period of virtual anarchy with which the history of Israel comes to an end (II Kings 14:29; 15:8-12). The name Zechariah, or Zachariah, is a very common one in the Old Testament. There were at least thirty different individuals so named.] He was slain by Shallum (Sellum), who then ruled in his stead.[Shallum I murdered Zechariah, king of Israel, and usurped his throne in 772 BCE. He reigned only one month, and was killed in Samaria by Menahem (II Kings 15:10-15). Shallum was a son of Jabesh, and his murder of Zechariah fulfilled what the Lord had told Jehu, that his children should sit on the throne of Israel to the fourth generation. (II Kings 14:29; 15:8-11)] The latter was soon thereafter slain by Menahem (Manahem), who deprived him of the kingship and of his life.

Menahem began to reign in the 39th year of Uzziah (Ozia) king of Judah. He did evil before the Lord; wherefore God gave him up to the king of Assyria, who required of him a tribute of a thousand talents of silver.[Menahem, the 16th king of Israel, was previously general of the army of Zechariah. When he heard of his master's murder, he immediately marched against the usurper Shallum, who had shut himself up in Samaria. He captured and slew him, and ascended the throne, reigning ten years in Samaria. He was a tyrannical and cruel idolater. Pul, king of Assyria, having invaded Israel during the reign of Menahem, obliged him to pay a tribute of a thousand talents, which he raised by a tax of 50 shekels per head on all his rich subjects. He apparently died a natural death.]

Pekahiah (Phaceya) was slain by Pekah (Phacee), who then reigned in his stead.[Pekahiah, son and successor of Menahem, was also a wicked prince, and he reigned but two years. Pekah, son of Remaliah, conspired against him and slew him in his own palace (II Kings 15:22-25).]

Pekah (Phacee) was slain by Hoshea (Ozee), who then reigned in his stead. He (Pekah) formed an alliance with Rezin (Raasin) the king of Syria, and ravaged Judah; wherefore Tiglath-pileser (Theglatphalazar), the king of the Assyrians, crushed him and carried three of the tribes into Assyria.[Pekah was a general of Pekahiah, king of Israel. He conspired against his master, slew him, and reigned in his place twenty years (II Kings 15:25-28). In the latter part of his evil reign he formed an alliance with the Syrians of Damascus, and early in the reign of Ahaz, Pekah and Rezin invaded Judah and besieged Jerusalem (II Kings 16:1-6). Though unable to take the holy city, the allies killed many warriors of Judah, and took many prisoners (II Chron. 28:5-8), but the Israelites were divinely ordered to restore their captives. Ahaz, seeking the aid of Assyria, Tiglath-pileser defeated Syria and Israel, and deprived Pekah of the country beyond the sea of Galilee. Later Pekah was slain by Hoshea. He was the last of the four kings of Israel assassinated in the troubled times of the prophet Hosea.]

Hoshea (Ozee) was the last king of Israel. He was made prisoner by Shalmaneser (Salmanazar), king of the Assyrians, who carried the Israelites into captivity in Assyria.[Hoshea, 19th and last king of Israel, slew Pekah, and after a 9 years' interregnum usurped the throne (II Kings 15:30). When his land was invaded by Shalmaneser, Hoshea became tributary to Assyria. Because he formed a secret alliance with Egypt, Shalmaneser ravaged Israel and besieged Samaria, and his successor Sargon, more than two years later took the city, imprisoned Hoshea, and carried the Israelites as captives to Assyria and Media.]

Israel is taken over by the Assyrians.

In the eleventh year of Hoshea, which was the 3,151st year of the world, and of the Fourth Age of the World the 261st, the kingdom of Macedonia began. There Cararius, or Carnaus, first reigned, and for a period of 28 years. This kingdom endured until the time of Alexander the Great, through 24 kings. Carnaus began to rule in the 3530th year of the world, and he reigned 12 years and 6 months. After his death the kingdom was largely taken over by the Babylonia.[Caranus (the misspells his name as Carnaus) was a Heracleid (descendant of Heracles) of the family of the Temenidae, and according to some accounts, the founder of the Argive dynasty in Macedonia about the middle of the eighth century. The legend tells that he led into Macedonia a large force of Greeks, and, following a flock of goats, entered the town of Edessa in the midst of a heavy rain storm and a thick mist, unobserved by the inhabitants. Remembering the oracle that had desired him "to seek an empire by the guidance of goats," he fixed here the seat of government; and he named the place Aegae (after the Greek word for ‘goat') in commemoration of the miracle.]

(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (continued)

The Priestly Lineage is here continued from Folio L verso, which there ended with Azariah (Azarias), as follows:

  1. Amariah (Amarias), son of Azariah, the father of Ahitub (I Chron. 6:11). This high priest is not to be confused withAmariah, son of Meraioth, a descendant of Aaron in the line of Eleazar, and who also had a son named Ahitub, and a grandson named Zadok (see Folio XL verso).
  2. Ahitub (Achitob), son of Amariah, and father of Zadok, is not to be confused with Ahitub, son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli (see Folio XLI verso).
  3. Zadok (Sadoch), son of the above Ahitub, is not to be confused with another Zadok, son of another Ahitub and father of Ahimaaz (see Folio XLVIII recto).
  4. Shallum (Sellum) the last portrait in the priestly lineage, was the husband of Huldah (Olda), the prophetess (see Folio LV verso, post), who ranked with Deborah and Hannah among the women prophets of the Old Testament.

NOTE: The author of the Chronicle has avoided considerable responsibility and confusion by total silence as to this portion of the priestly lineage. It is difficult to follow these names through the Bible. They may refer to the same person or to many persons.


The Twelve Minor Prophets of Israel began at Folio LII verso with Hosea and Joel. We now add Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah and Nahum, respectively the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh minor prophets:

  1. Amos, third of the minor prophets of Israel.
  2. Obadiah (Abdias).
  3. Jonah (Jonas), fifth minor prophet.
  4. Micah or Micaiah (Micheas), sixth minor prophet.
  5. Nahum (Naum), seventh minor prophet.


Tobias or Tobit (Thobias), the apocryphal prophet, is represented by the same woodcut which has already been used for Jair (Yair) at Folio XXXVII verso.


The Lineage of the Kings of Israel is here concluded with the following:

  1. Zechariah (Zacharias), the fourteenth king of Israel, who was slain by Shallum.
  2. Shallum (Sellum), the fifteenth king of Israel, who slew Zechariah and was in turn slain by Meneham.
  3. Meneham (Manahen), the sixteenth king of Israel, who was taken prisoner by the Assyrians and compelled to ransom himself with 1000 talents of silver.
  4. Pekahiah (Phacee), the seventeenth king of Israel, who was slain by Pekah.
  5. Pekah (Phacee), the eighteenth king of Israel, who slew Pekahiah, and was in turn slain by Hoshea.
  6. Hoshea (Ozee), the nineteenth and last king of Israel, who lost himself and his kingdom to the Assyrians.