First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Jonas (in the Year of the World 4306)[ This parenthetical phrase is not found in the German edition of the .], when seven years of age, was set up as a king of Jehoiada, the bishop; and he did good in all the days of Jehoiada. After the latter's death, however, Joash was softened by the flattery of the mighty, and his heart became evil; and so it remained to the end. He caused Zecharias (Zacharias), son of Jehoiada, the highest bishop, to be stoned between the temple and the altar in next to the last year of his reign.[This Joash, or Jehoash, was the seventh king of Israel (878-838 BCE). He was the only son of Ahaziah who was not slain by the usurping Athaliah. How he came to be saved and raised to the throne has already been told in the joint note on Jehoiada and Athaliah at Folio L verso (see also II Kings 11:16). While Jehoiada lived, for a period of twenty-three years, Joash served God and prospered. Idols were banished and the temple was repaired. But later Joash followed less wholesome counsel. Idolatry revived. How Zecharias was stoned when he rebuked the guilty people has already been told (Folio L verso, and note; see also II Chron. 24:20-22). Misfortunes soon multiplied. The king was repeatedly humbled by the Syrians under Hazael, and he gave them the temple treasures as a ransom. A loathsome disease embittered his life, which was soon cut short by a conspiracy of his servants (II Kings 11:12; II Chron. 23:24).]

Aremulus (Romulus Silvius) reigned nineteen years in the time of Joash, king of Judah, and he laid the foundation of Alba between the hills were Rome is now located. His sons, Julius and Aventinus, survived him.[Romulus Silvius was the twelfth mythological king of Alba. See note, Folio XLIX recto.]

Amaziah (Amasias) (in the Year of the World 4346)[This parenthetical phrase is not found in the German edition of the .] made a bad end of a good beginning; which has been lamentably and commonly true of the mighty up to our own time. He also crushed many worthy officials, of which there are many examples today.[Amaziah, ninth king of Judah, son of Joash, began to reign at the age of 25, and he ruled 29 years in Jerusalem. The Bible states that he did good in the sight of the Lord, but not with a perfect heart. Having established himself on his throne and slain the murderers of his father, he mustered a host of 300,000 men of Judah and hired 100,000 of Israel for a war on Edom; but the latter he reluctantly dismissed at the command of God, who gave him victory without their aid. Yet he carried home the idols of Edom and set them up as gods. For this he was threatened with destruction by a prophet of the Lord. Soon after he made war with Joash, king of Israel, but was defeated, taken to his own capital a prisoner, and obliged to ransom himself. 15 years later he was slain by conspirators (II Kings 14:1-20; II Chron. 25).] He also worshipped the gods of Seir (Seyr).[Seir probably refers to a chief of the Horites, who early occupied the mountainous region later possessed by the Edomites (Gen. 36:20; comp. Gen. 14:6; Deut. 2:12).]

Aventinus Silvius reigned 37 years; and for him the Aventine Hill at Rome was named after he was buried there.[Aventinus was one of the seven hills of Rome.]

Procas (Prochas), son of Aventinus, ruled 33 years, and whose praises eulogized Vergil extols in this verse: Next is Procas, the glory of the Trojan nation.[The quote is from Virgil's 6.776. The German edition of the removes the poetic citation and simply states that Virgil praised him in his works.] Two sons survived him, Amulius and Numitor, father of Rhea, the mother of Romulus and Remus (Rhemus).[For Proca (Procas = 's Prochas) and Amulius, see table of Silvian kings, Folio XLIX recto and note.]

For 13 years after the death of Amaziah, Judah was without a king. This one must infer by adding together the years of the kings of Israel and Judah; for Amaziah began to reign in the second year of Joash, king of Israel, and Uzziah (Ozias), the son of Amaziah in the 27th year of Jeroboam, king of Israel. This time covers a period of 41 years, and if the years of Amaziah are deducted from that, 13 years remain, during which Uzziah was small and incompetent to rule. However, the Seventy Interpreters and many historians do not have this; they compute it otherwise. In such a manner the matter must be made clear or you will be confused in reckoning the years.

Naaman, a general of the court of Syria, was a leper. To be cured he traveled with letters of recommendation to the king of Israel. When he came to the house of Elisha the prophet, Elisha told him that if he bathed seven times in the river Jordan, he would be cured. And although at first he did not want to do so, yet on advice of his retinue he went there and he bathed, and was cleansed of the leprosy. Then he returned to Elisha, and begged him to accept a present; but Elisha would have nothing. After Naaman had departed, Gehazi (Giezi), Elisha's disciple, came after him and asked a present on Elisha's account. And this he brought back to his house. Elisha discovered his disciple's sinful conduct, and therefore Gehazi was smitten with leprosy.

Naaman was a distinguished Syrian general, but a leper. Hearing through a captive Jewish girl who waited on his wife of the fame of the prophet Elisha, he set out on a journey to Israel with letters from his sovereign to the king of Israel. When the latter read them he was filled with apprehension, probably fearing that the king of Syria intended to find a pretext for a quarrel in his ability to cure his general. In this predicament, Elisha dispatched word to the king to give up his fears, and to send the distinguished stranger to him. Naaman received from Elisha's messenger the prescription to bathe seven times in the Jordan. The leper at first disdained the remedy. It was too simple, and attributed to the Jordan a virtue that he knew Abana and Pharpar, rivers of his own land, did not possess. His retinue wisely advised him not to spurn the remedy. Following their counsel, he bathed seven times in the Jordan and his "flesh became again like the flesh of a child." In gratitude Naaman offered the prophet a present, but he would not take it. Subsequently Gehazi, by uttering a falsehood, secured it, but in turn received Naaman's leprosy.

This paragraph on Naaman and the one that follows it on Amulius are switched in the German edition of the Chronicle—most probably to place the text about Naaman directly above the woodcut illustrating the text.

Amulius deposed his brother Numitor from the kingdom, and killed his son Lausus. In order to destroy all hope of inheritable issue, he gave his daughter Rhea to the goddess Vesta as a perpetual virgin, on the pretense of thus conferring an honor upon her. But after he had reigned seven years Rhea begot twins, Remus and Romulus. After they grew up they slew Amulius, and Numitor was restored to the kingship; for he was their ancestor.[Romulus, founder of Rome, was the figure around whom the Roman people credit their origin. The legend is this: At Alba Longa there reigned a succession of kings descended from Julius, son of Aeneas. One of the last of these kings left two sons, Numitor and Amulius. The latter, who was the younger, deprived Numitor of the kingdom, but allowed him to live in the enjoyment of his private fortune. Fearful, however, lest the heirs of Numitor might not submit so quietly to his usurpation, he caused his only son Lausus to be murdered, and made his daughter Sylvia one of the vestal virgins. Sylvia was raped by the god Mars, and in the course of time gave birth to twins. Amulius doomed the guilty vestal and her babes to be drowned in the river. In the Anio, Silvia exchanged her earthly life for that of a goddess, and became the wife of the river god. The stream carried the cradle in which the children were lying into the Tiber. It was stranded at the foot of the Palatine, and overturned on the root of a wild fig tree. A she-wolf that had come to drink of the stream carried the children into her den and suckled them. There they were discovered by the king's shepherd. He took them to his own house. They were called Romulus and Remus, and were brought up with the other shepherds on the Palatine Hill. A quarrel arose between these shepherds and the herdsmen of Numitor. Remus was taken by stratagem, during the absence of his brother, and carried off to Numitor. This led to the discovery of the parentage of the twins, who now slew Amulius and placed their grandfather Numitor on the throne. ]

This (referring to the woodcut opposite) is Elisha (Heliseus) the prophet, who divided the Jordan with the mantle of Elijah; who with salt made the waters sweet; who cursed 42 children who mocked him and were torn by bears; who supplied the hosts of three kings with sufficient water; multiplied the widow's oil, awakened the son of the Shunamite (from the dead); improved the bitter (soup of) colocynth (colloquintidas);[The wild gourd of which the noxious soup was made is a poisonous plant, conjectured to mean the colocynth (colloquintidas), which has a cucumber-like vine, with several branches, and bears fruit of the size and color of an orange, with a hard woody shell, within which is the white mast or pulp, exceedingly bitter, and a drastic purgative (II King's 4:39). It was very inviting to the eye, and furnished a model for the carved and molten "knops" in Solomon's temple (I Kings 6:18; 7:24). According to Hasting's , (Gourds), the wild gourds were either the common squirting cucumber, one of the most drastic of known cathartics, or more probably the colocynth (citrullus colocynthis), a trailing vine-like plant with rounded gourds, intensely bitter to the taste and an irritant poison. ] multiplied the loaves of barley for the multitude; cleansed Naaman; made Gehazi (Giezi) and his descendants leprous; blinded the hosts of Syria; prophesied the relief of Samaria from siege and starvation; placed Hazael on the throne of Syria and Jehu on the throne of Israel; prophesied that king Joash would three times defeat the Syrians; awakened the dead, etc.[ Prophecies and miracles of Elisha: (1) dividing the Jordan with Elijah's mantle, (II Kings 2:14); (2) sweetening of spring waters (II Kings 2:19-22); (3) cursing children for irreverence, (II Kings 2:23-25); (4) supplying water sufficient for the hosts of three kings, (II Kings 3:16-20); (5) increase of widow's oil, (II Kings 4:1-7); (6) raising the Shunammite's son from the dead, (II Kings 4:18-35); (7) healing the noxious soup, (II Kings 4:38-41); (8) multiplying the barley loaves, (II Kings 4:42-44); (9) cleansing Naaman the leper, (II Kings 5:1-19); (10) making Gehazi and his issue leprous, (II Kings 5:20-27); (11) blinding the hosts of Syria, (II Kings 6:18); (12) prophesying the siege and relief of Samaria, (II Kings 7); (13) placing Hazael on the Syrian throne, (II Kings 8:7-13); (14) placing Jehu on Israel's throne, (II Kings 9:1-6); (15) prophesying three victories for Joash, (II Kings 13:18); and (16) awakening the dead, (II Kings 13:20).]

Numitor was restored to the kingship, and soon thereafter was slain by Romulus.

(A) LINEAGE OF CHRIST (continued)

The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LII recto, which there ended with Ahaziah (Ochozia). We now add:

  1. Joash (Joas), son of Ahaziah, called Ozias in Matthew 1:8, 9.
  2. Amaziah (Amasias), son and successor of Joash.


The Lineage of the Italian Kings is continued from Folio LII recto, which there ended with Agrippa Silvius. We now continue with:

  1. Romulus (Aremulus) Silvius.
  2. Aventinus Silvius.
  3. Proca (Prochas) Silvius, son of Aventius.
  4. Amulius.
  5. Numitor, brother of Amulius.


Elisha and Naaman. By a woodcut 3½" x 3-3/8" the first meeting of Naaman with Elisha is depicted. The prophet stands before the door of his house. Naaman, mounted on a horse and clad in pilgrim's raiment, has just arrived. In his left hand he holds the idle reins of his frisky steed. In his right he holds up an object which may be a leper's rattle, or clapper, and which lepers carried to mark their coming and to warn the healthy from their path. A like object appears in the hands of Rembrandt's "Leper". In some cases the afflicted used a horn or bell. Lepers also work masks to hide their deformities, and it will be noted that the lower part of Naaman's face is covered, probably for the same reason. Leprosy as a public menace did not die out in Europe until the end of the sixteenth century, almost one hundred years after the Chronicle was first published.

In the distance appears the river Jordan, and in it a person holding his hands in an attitude of prayer is seen immersed to the waist. Above him is the inscription "Sirus," probably meaning Syria, or Syrian. This may be one of those unusually sophisticated pictures in which two actions by the same person are depicted. This may represent Naaman after he has finally agreed to try the prophet's remedy.