First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO L verso

Ben-hadad (Benedab), a son of Tab-rimmon (Tabremmon), a son of Hezion (Ozyon), king of Syria, entered into a league with Baasha, the king of Israel. After breaking this alliance, he entered into a league with Asa the king of Judah; since which time the kings of Syria afflicted the kingdom of Israel, etc.[I Kings 15:16-22.] Ben-hadad, the king of Syria, assembled his forces; and he had thirty-two kings to aid him. He joined in battle with Ahab, the king of Israel. The Lord, through a prophet, prophesied a victory (for Israel) and the defeat of the enemy. And so it happened, for the enemy fled. But the king of Syria at the return of the year strengthened himself with a new army, and he came on to give battle to Israel in the plains, saying that the gods of the hills were the gods of Israel; for which reason they (the Syrians) were formerly defeated. But the Syrian army was again routed, and of their number 100,000 were slain and over 47,000 fled to the city, where they were crushed by the falling of the wall. But Ben-hadad the king of Syria concealed himself; and he sent messengers to Ahab in hairy raiment, and with ashes upon their heads, to plead for mercy. And this Ahab granted, and left him free. For this a prophet, clad in disguise, called him to account by means of the parable of the man who was asked to keep another man prisoner, on pain of losing his own life if he escaped. And as Ahab had released Ben-hadad, who was deserving of death, therefore he prophesied that Ahab would lose his own life for Ben-hadad's and his people theirs in lieu of the lives of Ben-hadad's people.[]

Hazael (Asael), king of Syria, was, according to prophecy and by the secret judgment of God, made a king of Syria, to punish the children of Israel. Over him Elisha wept, prophesying that he was a future king of Syria, and would do great evil in Israel. And as a punishment for their sins, the Lord sent him into all the lands of Gilead, Ruben, and Manassa;[Hazael was an officer at the court of Syria, and subsequently its most powerful king. Elijah was to anoint him, but left this duty to Elisha; and so when Hazael was dispatched by the king, Ben-hadad, to Elisha to inquire about the consequences of his affliction, the prophet predicted the elevation of Hazael to the throne of Syria, and that he would fire the strongholds of the Israelites, slay their young men with the sword, dash their children, and rip up their women with child. (II Kings 8:7-13) And so he warred against the kingdom of Israel and Judah. "And he attacked them in all the coasts of Israel; from Jordan eastward, all the land of Gilead, the Gadites and the Reubenites, and the Manassites, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, even Gilead and Bashan." (II Kings 10:32, 33)] and he was a blight all the days of Jehoahaz (Joathas).

Cf. II Kings 13:1-3:

In the three and twentieth year of Joash, the son of Ahaziah king of Judah, Jehoahaz, the son of Jehu, began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned seventeen years. And he did that which was evil in the sight of the Lord, and followed the sons of Jeroboam, the son of Nebat, which made Israel to sin; and he did not depart from there. And the anger of the Lord was kindled against Israel, and he delivered them into the hands of Hazael, king of Syria, and into the hands of Ben-hadad, the son of Hazael, all their days."
The reign of Jehoahaz was disastrous to Israel. The country was pillaged by the Syrians. The army was reduced to but a shadow. When his troubles multiplied, Jehoahaz sought the Lord whom he had forsaken, and the Lord ultimately raised up a deliverer in the person of Jehoash, or Joash, his son.

But by the grace of the Lord God, Joash (Joas), his son, took the cities from the hands of Ben-hadad, the son of Hazael, after Hazael's death.

Ben-hadad was the son of Hazael. Joash, the son of Jehoahaz (Joachas) and the king of Israel, took from the hands of Ben-hadad the cities that his (Ben-hadad's) father Hazael had won by war from Jehoahaz. For Joash defeated him three times.[Hazael oppressed Israel all the days of Jehoahaz. When Hazael died, Ben-hadad his son reigned in his stead as king of Syria. And Jehoash (Joash), son of Jehoahaz, took again out of the hands of Ben-hadad, son of Hazael, the cities which he had taken out of the hand of Jehoahaz his father, by war. Three times Joash defeated him and recovered the cities of Israel (II Kings 13:22-25).]

Jehoiada (Joiada) was a distinguished man. He prevented Athaliah from ruling over Judah, and placed Joash, the son of Jehoram, in her stead. As one reads, he lived, according to Moses, 130 years. Pursuant to divine will he arranged matters so that Athaliah was slain in the house of the king.[Jehoiada was a high priest of the Jews. He was the husband of Jehosheba. His administration was so important to the civil and religious interests of the nation, that when he died at an advanced age he was buried in the royal sepulchers at Jerusalem. Athaliah was the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. She introduced Baal-worship into Judah. She advised her own son in his wickedness, and after Jehu had slain him, she resolved to destroy the children of her husband by his former wives, and then take the throne of Judah. But Jehosheba, a half-sister of Ahaziah, secured Joash, one of the children and heir, and secreted him and his nurse for six years. In the seventh year, everything being prepared for the purpose, Joash, the young prince, was brought out and placed on the throne. Attracted by the crowd of people who had assembled to witness the ceremony, and unsuspicious of the cause, Athaliah hastened to the temple. When the people had assembled, and when she saw the young king on the throne, and heard the shouts of the people, and found that all her ambitious designs were about to fail, she tore her clothes and shouted, Treason! Treason! hoping probably to rally a party in favor of her interests. The priest commanded her to be removed from the temple, and she was slain between the temple and the palace. And Jehoiada made a covenant between the Lord and the king and the people, that they should be the Lord's people; between the king also and the people. (II Kings 11:13-17)]

Rezin (Raasim), the king of Syria, devastated Judah in the time of Ahaz (Achas). For this reason Tiglath-pileser (Teglatphalazar) besieged him at Damascus. He captured the city, and slew Rezin.

Ahaz succeeded his father Jotham as the eleventh king of Judah. He worshipped other gods, and even sacrificed his children to the gods. This course brought upon him and his kingdom severe judgments. God made them flee before their enemies. Their allies often proved unfaithful. Early in his reign, Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin, king of Syria, who just at the close of Jotham's reign had confederated for the destruction of Judah, invaded the kingdom with a powerful army and laid siege to Jerusalem. The allies, though defeated at Jerusalem, captured Elath, wasted Judah, and carried 200,000 into captivity. Ahaz in his extremity made a league with Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria, who freed him from his enemies, but at the cost of the Judaic kingdom, which became tributary, and Ahaz sent him all the treasures of the temple and palace, and appeared before him in Damascus as a vassal. His only permanent service to his people was the introduction of the sun dial, which was probably connected with the Assyrian astrology and necromancy.

This paragraph and the next have their order switched in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Zechariah (Zacharias) the son of Jehoiada, was stoned between the altar and the temple at the command of the king because he upbraided the king for leaving the way of the Lord.[]

Azariah (Azarias), relying on the laws of God, resisted Uzziah (Ozie), the king of Judah, who was about to sacrifice there, etc.[Azariah was the high priest who in the reign of Uzziah resisted with the eighty priests the king's attempt to perform priestly functions. (II Kings 14:21; II Chron. 26:17-20)]

Naboth, an Israelite, had a vineyard by the house of King Ahab. Ahab attempted to purchase the vineyard, in order to make a garden of it. To this Naboth was opposed. And as Jezebel, the king's wife, saw that Ahab was saddened by this, she comforted him, and so arranged matters that Naboth was accused of blasphemy by false witnesses. Although innocent, he was stoned. When Ahab came to take possession of the vineyard, the Lord sent Elijah, the prophet, to him, to prophesy his extermination and that of his house, because of this sin.[This is substantially the story of Naboth and his vineyard as told in I Kings 21.]

(A) PRIESTLY LINEAGE (continued)

The Priestly Lineage is here continued from Folio XLVIII recto (where Zadok and his son Ahimaaz were shown); and now are added the following:

  1. Azariah (Azarias), the son of Ahimaaz, represented by the woodcut which did service for Ozy at Folio XXXVII verso.
  2. Jehoiada (Yoyada), represented by woodcut used for Abishua at Folio XXXVII verso.
  3. Azariah, (designated Asarias).


The Lineage of the Syrian Kings has its inception here with the following:

  1. Ben-hadad I (Benedab).
  2. Hazael (Asael).
  3. Ben-hadad II (Benedab).
  4. Rezin (Raasim).

NOTE: There were two Syrian kings named Ben-hadad (I and II), father and son. The first was hired by Asa, king of Judah, to make war on Baasha, king of Israel (I Kings 15:18-22). The second, his son, made war on Ahab, king of Israel (I Kings 20; II Kings 6:27; 7:6; 8:7-15). There was also a Ben-hadad III, son of Hazael, and who was thrice defeated by Joash and lost all his father had gained (II Kings 13).


Zechariah (Zacharias) son of the high priest Jehoiada, branches out from his father into the midst of the text. It was he who was stoned for rebuking Joash for his idolatry (II Chron. 24:21). It is the same woodcut that served for Yepte at Folio XLI recto.


Naboth, owner of the vineyard coveted by Ahab and his Jezebel, is represented by a portrait in the lower right side of the page. It is the same woodcut that served for Abymelech at Folio XXXVII verso and Achias at XLVIII recto.