First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Hispania had its origin after the time of Tubal, from Peleg, his son.[According to Peleg was not a son of Tubal, but of Heber, the ancestor of the Hebrews. Tubal, on the other hand, was a son of Japheth. Josephus identifies Tubal with the Iberians, who once dwelt between the Caspian and Black Seas. Some of the Iberians settled in the east, some in the west.] For he went out of Armenia and established a seat there. Before that Hispania was also called Iberia. It is the region that begins at the Pyrenees and proceeds about the Pillars of Hercules and reaches up to the northerly sea. Everything within this circumference is considered as belonging to Hispania. Its size is unbelievable (as Apianus, the historian, states), for it is 10,000 eighths of a mile[10,000 furlongs.] wide, and almost as long. Various peoples of different names have lived there. This region also has many navigable waters, and is productive and rich in wheat, wine, oil, metals of all kinds, and animals that are serviceable to man. In particular, it produces an over-abundance of swift and sturdy horses. For three hundred years Hispania was warred upon by Scipio, Gracchus, Albinus, Cato, Metellus, Pompey the emperor, and others, and was by them added to their country.[The Cantabri were a people in northern Spain. The Romans originally gave this name to all the people on the north coast of Spain; but when they became better acquainted with the country, the name was restricted to the people bounded on the east by Astures and on the west by the Autrigones. The Cantaberi were a fierce and warlike people, and were only subdued by Augustus after a struggle of several years (25-19 BCE).] And finally the people called the Cantabri were warred against by Augustus. But as Hispania appeared obedient to the Romans and gave them assistance, the latter never conducted a war of note against the Hispanic knights. And to this day there are still to be seen in Hispania many indications of the presence of the Romans. Many cities in Hispania were garrisoned by the Romans from time to time. From this country we have not only received Quintillian, Seneca, Lucan, Lucius Florus, Pomponius Mela, Silius, Italicus, Martial, Orosius,[ (1) Quintillian, Marcus Fabius (c. 35-95 CE), Roman rhetorician, was a native of Calagurris, Spain, and for 20 years head of the foremost school of oratory in Rome. His greatest work, , is a manual on the training of public speakers. (2) Seneca, Lucius, Annaeus (3 BCE-65 CE) Roman philosopher, statesman and author, and his father, M. Annaeus Seneca, were both natives of Cordova, Spain. (3) Lucan, M. Annaeus, was also born at Cordova, 39 CE His father, L. Annaeus Mela, was a brother of Seneca, the elder. Lucan was a roman poet. His only extant production is a heroic poem in ten books, entitled "Pharsalia." He was sentenced to death by Nero at the age of 26, but followed the example of his uncle Seneca, opening his veins. Both died 65 CE. (4) Lucius (Annaeus) Florus, Roman historian of the time of Trajan and Hadrian, complied, chiefly from Livy, a brief sketch of the history of Rome to 25 BCE, entitled . It is a rhetorical panegyric of Rome’s greatness. Although not accurate, it was much used in the Middle Ages. Florus was of the family of Seneca and Lucan. (5) Pomponius Mela was the author of the first Roman treatise on geography, , a mere compendium of less than a hundred pages, dry in style and deficient in method, but of pure Latinity and occasionally relived by pleasing word pictures. It is the only treatise on the subject in classical Latin. He dives the earth in five zones, only two being habitable, and asserts the existence of indigenous peoples, who inhabit the southern temperate zone, inaccessible to the people of the northern temperate regions by reason of the unbearable heat of the intervening torrid zone. Nothing is known of him except name and birthplace—the small town of Tingentera of Cingentera, Spain. (6) Silius Italicus, Roman poet, was born about 25 CE, but where is not known. His great work was a heroic poem in 17 books, entitled , which has descended to us in its entirety. It is a dull, heavy work, treating of the second Punic war. (7) Martial (M. Valerius), the epigrammatical poet, was born at Bilbilis, Spain, 43 CE. His extant works consist of a collection of short poems, all include under the general appellation . They are a copious source of information on Roman customs and habits during the first century of the empire. (8) Orosius, Paulus, was a Spanish presbyter and Latin historian (c. 390-430 CE) His , and , are still extant. The pagans having been accustomed to complain that the ruin of the Roman Empire must be ascribed to the wrath of the ancient deities whose worship had been abandoned, Orosius composed his history to demonstrate that the world always has been the scene of calamities as great as the Empire was then suffering.] the teachers and writers, but also such most useful and brilliant rulers as Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the Theodosii in pagan times. But to the honor of Christ, Hispania gave birth to St. Lawrence[St. Lawrence (Laurentius) was one of the Christian martyrs. The basilica reared over his tomb is still visited by pilgrims. Deacon of Pope Sixtus II, he was called upon by the judge to bring forth the treasures of the church committed to his keeping. So he produced the church’s poor people. Seeing his bishop being led to punishment, he cried: "Father! Where do you go without your son? Holy priest! Where do you go without your deacon?" Sixtus prophesied that Lawrence would follow him in three days; and so he did, being burned alive on a gridiron. In the midst of his torments he addressed the judge with these ironical words: "Assum est, versa et manduca" (I am roasted enough on this side; turn me round and eat). So says the legend. The date of the martyrdom is usually put during the persecution of Valerian in 258. The punishment of the gridiron and the speech of the martyr are probably a reminiscence of the story of the Phrygian martyrs as related by Socrates (III, 5). But even the fact of the martyrdom is questioned.] and St. Vincent,[St. Vincent (or Vincentius) was also a deacon and martyr. He is said to have been born of noble parents in Spain and educated by Valerius, bishop of Saragossa, who ordained him to the diaconate. Under the persecution of Diocletian, Vincent was arrested and taken to Valencia, tortured and thrown into prison. There the angels visited him, lighting his dungeon and relieving his suffering. Seeing this, his warders became Christians. He died while new tortures were being prepared. His body, exposed to the wild beasts in vain, was thrown into the sea, but was recovered and buried.] Valerius’ deacon, and at almost the same time to Eugracia and other martyrs without number. Ferdinand, the king, and Elizabeth, the queen, have followed in their footsteps, and in the year 1491, in the end of that year, they brought the great city of Granada, called Ilupula, to the worship of Christ and to Christian obedience. [In 1482 Boabdil deposed his father and became the last Moorish sultan of Granada. However, the gradual advance of the Christians under Ferdinand and Isabella (not Elizabeth) forced him to entrust the task of defense to the more warlike hands of Muley Hassan and Ez Zagal (1483-86). Finally in 1491 Boabdil was compelled to sign away his kingdom, and on January 2, 1492, the year before the Nuremberg Chronicle was published, the Spanish army entered Granada and the Moorish power in Spain was ended.]

The kingdom of Bohemia had its origin in the Wendic people,[The term ‘Wendic’ is here used by the chronicler in the sense of Slavic, that is, to designate a class of the northern division of the Aryan family, embracing the Lettic and Slavonic branches or groups. Wends is an early German name applied to the Lusitanian branch of the Slavic race dwelling in Saxony and Prussia.] who left the plain of Shinar and migrated from Asia to Europe. Among them was one Cechus, a Croation of no mean birth, and he made a nation of the Bohemians. At that time Bohemia was not built up, but still consisted of forests and coarse vegetation better suited to wild animals than to man. But as his brother Lech, a companion to misfortune, saw that his brother had become rich in lands and cattle and had grown powerful, he migrated eastward and established his residence in a large open plain. And he called the region Poland.[Cech and Lech were brothers and the original ancestors of the Bohemians (Czechs) and the Poles (Lechs). Bohemia is the Latin name for Cechy.] As their progeny increased they acquired a large amount of territory. After the death of Cechus the people chose Crok as a prince. He built a castle at Stenna, and when he died he left three daughters, Libussa, Brela and Therba. Libussa, the oldest daughter, ruled the land after her father’s death, and she fortified the castle called Vischerat (Wyschehrad). Brela was a physician, learned in herbs and medicines. Therba was a seeress and mistress of good fortune. But the Bohemians thought it unreasonable that so much power and might should be vested in a woman. On a certain occasion Libussa spoke to a large assembly of her people. ‘I have ruled considerately and wisely, and now you shall be free. I will give you a man who will be of service to you. Go and lead my horse into the fields. Follow it where it may go. At least the horse will stop before a man who is eating from an iron table. He shall be my husband and a lawful prince.’ Now as the horse was released, it finally stopped before a plowman, called Primislaus. He had reversed his plow and was eating his meal of cheese on the iron plowshare, which was the iron table. They made him a duke and set him upon a horse. And he took with him his shoes made of flax. When they asked him why he took these with him, he replied and said, ‘I am taking them with me and will keep them at Vischerat so that my descendants may know who, among the Bohemians, received the principality.’ For a long time thereafter this country was ruled by dukes. And thereafter, since the time of the Emperor Frederick the First, of great glory among kings, and until the outbreak of heresy, this country flourished under various kings and emperors.

The early history of the Czechs is very obscure and confused with that of the Slavs in general. Cosmas of Prague (1045-1125), not to be confused with Cosmas of Alexandria, was the earliest Bohemian historian. His Chronicae Bohemorum libri III , which contains the history and traditions of Bohemia almost to the time of his death, has earned him the title of the Herodotus of his country. He relates that Cechus, a noble of Croatia (probably White Croatia or Galicia), having committed a homicide, fled with his followers to Bohemia, and first settled on the Rip Mountain, near Roudnice; that Libussa, the youngest (our chronicler says the oldest) of his three daughters, became ruler of Bohemia, founded Prague, and married a plowman, who became the founder of the Premyslides, or first native dynasty.

It is probable that the Slavs arrived in Bohemia, which was then inhabited by Germanic tribes, not later than the seventh century CE, or perhaps earlier. They are first mentioned in 805 CE, and the first certain historical state in these provinces is the kingdom of Great Moravia, destroyed by the Magyars in 904-905. While Slovakia now passed under Magyar rule, the Czechs founded the kingdom of Bohemia, which for centuries was among the most powerful and glorious in Europe. During this early period the religious movement among the Czechs, under the leadership of John Huss, influenced all Europe.