First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The country which is now called Campania was at one time the Latin kingdom, and, as Virgil and Livy state, it is one of eighteen regions which has many places that were visited by the others. But as more damage occurred here than in other countries or regions, and as it is not now built up, the visitors are fewer here than in any of the other regions. This land or province is called the Latin province because Saturn, the king of Crete, fled from the weapons of his son Jove and lived there in hiding; for such secret and concealed residence is expressed in the Latin by the word latino [The Latin word for ‘hidden’ or ‘concealed’ is lateo, not latino.] (as those learned in the Latin know). And thus Virgil has written and indicated in eight Latin verses. This province was at first small in area; but Servius writes that those are called Latins who live in the inner towns of the Alban Mountains. This province begins at the sea in the region of the Tiber and reaches to the city of Caieta[A town in Latium on the borders of Campania, situated on a promontory of the same name, and on a bay of the sea called after it Sinus Caietanus.]; and here some cities were still in evidence, although others were destroyed. In this region and province were aboriginal peoples, called Rutuli[The Rutuli were an ancient people in Italy who inhabited a narrow slip of country on the coast of Latium a little to the south of the Tiber. Their chief town was Ardea, which was the residence of Turnus. They were subdued by the Romans, and disappear from history.], Volsci[,The Volsci, an ancient people in Latium, but originally distinct from the Latins, dwelt on both sides of the river Liris, and extended down to the Tyrrhene sea. Their language was nearly allied to the Umbrian. They were from an early period engaged in almost unceasing hostilities with the Romans, and were not completely subdued by the latter till 338 BCE, from which time they disappear from history.] Hernici[Hernici, a people in Latium, belonged to the Sabine race, and are said to have derived their name from the Marsic (Sabine) word herna ("rock"). According to this etymology their name would signify "mountaineers." They inhabited the mountains of the Apennines between the lake Fucinus and the river Trerus, and were bounded on the north by the Marsi and Aequi, and on the south by the Volsci. Their chief town was Anagnia. They were a brave and warlike people, and long offered resistance to the Romans. The Romans formed a league with them on equal terms in the 3rd consulship of Sp. Cassius in 486 BCE. They were finally subdued by the Romans in 306 BCE.], Aequiocoli[The Aequi (also called Aequicoli, Aequicolae, and Aequiculani) were an ancient warlike people of Italy, dwelling in the upper valley of the Anio in the mountains forming the eastern boundary of Latium, between the Latini, Sabini, Hernici, and Marsi. In conjunction with the Volsci, who were of the same race, they carried on constant hostilities with Rome, but were finally subdued in 302 BCE. One of their chief seats was Mount Algidus, from which they were accustomed to make their marauding expeditions.] and Marsi

Marsi was the name of a people of the Sabellian race, who dwelt in the center of Italy in the high land surrounded by the mountains of the Apennines, in which Lake Fucinus is situated. Along with their neighbors the Peligini, Marrucini, etc., they concluded a peace with Rome in 304 BCE. Their bravery was proverbial, and they were the prime movers of the celebrated war waged against Rome by the Socii (Italian "allies") in order to obtain the Roman franchise, and which is known by the name of the Marsic or Social War. Their chief town was Marruvium. The Marsi appear to have been acquainted with the medicinal properties of several of the plants growing upon their mountains, and to have employed them as remedies against the bites of serpents, and in other cases. For this reason they were regarded as magicians, and were said to be descended from a son of Circe. Others again derived their origin from the Phrygian Marsyas, simply on account of the resemblance of the name.

Another people called Marsi inhabited Germany, and appear to have dwelt on both sides of the river Ems, and to have been only a tribe of the Cherusci, although Tacitus makes them one of the most ancient peoples in Germany. They joined the Cherusci in the war against the Romans, which terminated in the defeat of the Roman general Varus in 9 CE at the famous Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, but they were subsequently driven into the interior of the country by Germanicus.

; for this region has a large area. Janus, a father and god of the gods, admittedly a gracious and good man and lover of domesticity and hospitality, who came from the East, was the first to reign in Italy. In addition to other acts of virtue, he not only extended hospitality to Saturn, but divided his kingdom with him.

Such is the chronicler’s story of Latium, which he does not specifically name, except as the Latin Kingdom. Latium was inhabited by the Latini, one of the oldest of Italian tribes. Most of the ancients derived the name from a king, Latinus, who was supposed to have been a contemporary of Aeneas; but undoubtedly the name of the people was transferred to this fictitious king. Other ancient writers connected the name with the verb latere ("to hide"), either because Saturn had hidden in the country, or because Italy was hidden between the Alps and the Apennines. The story is that the god Saturn came to Italy in the reign of Janus, by whom he was hospitably received, and that he formed a settlement there. Saturn was suddenly removed from the earth to the abode of the gods; whereupon Janus erected an altar to him in the forum. It is related that Latium received its name from this disappearance of Saturn. According to the Chronicle "This land is called the Latin province because Saturn, the king of Crete, fled from the weapons of Jupiter, and lived there in hiding, for such secret and concealed residence is expressed in the Latin by the word latino."

In very ancient times Latium reached only from the Tiber on the north to the Numicus and the town of Ardea on the south, and from the seacoast on the west to the Alban Mountains on the east. It was considerably extended even before the Roman conquest, and substantially enlarged by the Romans. The new accessions of territory were called Latium novum or adjectum. In its widest extent Latium was bounded by Etruria on the north, from which it was separated by the Tiber; by Campania on the south, from which it was separated by the Livis; by the Tyrrhene sea on the west, and by the Sabine and Samnite tribes on the east. The Latini formed a league of which the town of Alba Longa was the capital. Although Rome was originally one of Alba’s colonies, she became powerful enough in the reign of her third king, Tullus Hostilius, to take Alba and raze it to the ground. Under Servius Tullius Rome was admitted to the Latin League; and his successor Tarquinius Superbus compelled the other Latin towns to acknowledge Rome as the head of the League, and to become dependent on the latter city. In 340 BCE the Latins were defeated by the Romans at the battle of Vesuvius. The Latin League was dissolved, and the Latins became subjects of Rome.

Italy is a region of Europe, and of all the regions of the whole world the most renowned, distinguished and excellent. It derived its name from the bull; and for that reason Plato in the Timaeus called the Italians by the name Tauri; and their country, by reason of its great beauty and productiveness, he called Italia. This country is in the form of a leg, and lies between the Adriatic and the Tuscan Sea. It reaches from the mountains, and rises more and more toward the Apennines until it comes to the Reginian peak; and it stretches out to the Bruttian peninsula. At its extremity it divides itself into two points of which one extends into the Ionian and the other into the Sicilian Sea. In this region is the city called Rhegium. In length this country stretches from the city of Augusta Praetoria, lying at the foot of the mountains, through Rome and Capua, to the city of Rhegium, and (as Solinus states) is ten times one hundred and twenty thousand paces long, four hundred and ten wide at its broadest point, and one hundred and thirty-six wide at its narrowest part. In the region of Rheate it has a navel, and it ends in the river Rubicon which flows out of the side of the upper Adriatic. Formerly this country was called Hesperia, after Hesperus, the brother of Atlantis. Later it was called Oenotria, after the best wine, which grows there. Finally it was named Italia, after Italo, the king of the Sicilians, who came to these parts and lived and reigned there. This region is second to none either in the fertility of its soil, or in the reputation of its arms; and it has many excellent cities.

Italia, from the time of Augustus, signified the country we call Italy, although the name was originally applied to a more limited extent of country. Most of the ancients, according to their usual custom, derived the name from an ancient king Italus; but others connected it with the old Italian word Italus (in Oscan vitlu or vitelu), an ox, because the country was rich in oxen. But there can be no doubt that Italia (or Vitalia, as it was also called) was the land of the Itali, Vitali, Vitelli, or Vituli, an ancient race, who are better known under the name Siculi. This race was widely spread over the southern half of the peninsula. Augustus was the first to extend the name of Italia so as to comprehend the entire basin of the Po, and the southern part of the Alps, from the Maritime Alps to Pola in Istria, both inclusive. The country was called by various other names, especially by the poets. These were Hesperia, a name which the Greeks gave to it, because it lay to the west of Greece, or Hesperia Magna, to distinguish it from Spain (Hesperia), and Saturnia, because Saturn was said to have once reigned in Latium. The names of separate parts of Italy were also applied by the poets to the whole country. Thus it was called Oenotria, originally the land of the Oenotri, in the country afterwards called Bruttium and Lucania.

Italy was never occupied by a single ethnic group, but contained a number of peoples who had migrated into it at very early periods. When Roman history begins, Italy was inhabited by the Estruscans, Umbrians, Sacrani, Casci or Prisci, and Oscan tribes; also the Opici, to whom belong the Volsci, Sidicini, Saticuli, and Aequi, as well as the Oenotrians, the Sabellians or Sabines, the Peligni, Marsi, Marrucini, Vestini, Hernici, and the Daunians or Apulians, Peucetii, Messapii, and Sallentini. They were all eventually subdued by the Romans, who became the masters of the whole peninsula.

1. JanusThe first five ruled 200 years
2. Saturn
3. Picus
4. Faunus
5. Latinus
6. Aeneas3 years
7. Ascanius38 years
8. Silvius29 years
9. Aeneas Silvius31 years
10. Latinus50 years
11. Alba Silvius39 years
12. Egyptus Silvius24 years
13. Capis28 years
14. Carpentus13 years
15. Liberinus8 years
16. Agrippa40 years
17. Aromulus19 years
18. Aventius38 years
19. Procas23 years
20. Amulius44 years
21. Numitor1 year