First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO XL verso

These four (referring to the opposite portraits of Zerahiah (Zaraya), Meraioth (Meyraioth), Amariah (Amarias), and Ahitub (Achitob)), placed in the Priestly Lineage, were not high priests or bishops, but Zadok (Sadoch) descended from them, and was placed in the priestly office by Solomon after the previous deposition of Yathar (Ithamar?) from the priesthood; and therefore he was the last of the line of Ithamar (Ythamar).

The Priestly Lineage, as portrayed and set forth in the Chronicle is based on the text of Ezra 7:1-6:

Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkaiah, the son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub, the son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth, the son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki, the son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the high priest; this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses,

Reversing the order and beginning with Aaron, we have the following: Aaron and Eleazar at Folio XXIX verso; Phinehas (Phinees), Abishua (Abysue), Bukki (Booz or Buuzz), and Uzzi (Ozy) at Folio XXXVII verso; Zerahiah (Zeraya), Meraioth (Meyraioth), Azariah (whom the chronicler omits), Amariah (Amarias) and Ahitub (Achitob), at Folio XL verso. This leaves out of account the initial series of priestly portraits shown at Folio XXV verso, covering Levi and his three sons Merari, Gershon and Kohath.

It will also be noted that the name of Azariah occurs twice in the biblical text; which, however, is not an error or inconsistency, as a succeeding descendant often bore the same name as one of his ancestors. It must therefore be assumed that this is an omission on the part of the chronicler in providing no portrait or text for Azariah.

Jephthah (Iepte), an illegitimate prince of murderers, was made a captain by the Gileadites to fight the Ammonites. So to begin with, Jephthah sent his messengers to the Ammonite king to ascertain why he was coming into the land of the Israelites, which land had been given them by God. But the king would not hearken unto Jephthah. And Jephthah made a vow that whosoever should come forth from his house to meet him in the event of his victorious return, him he would sacrifice (to the Lord). Then he went forth against the Ammonites, and defeated them. When he returned, his virgin daughter came out to meet him with timbrels and dances. But to keep his oath he sacrificed her, acting unkindly and as a fool in the matter of the vow. Jephthah was the seventh judge of Israel, and he judged for six years.[ This is the story of Jephthah as recorded in Judges 11:1-40. He is spoken of simply as "the Gileadite," and as being "a man of mighty valor." He is said to have been "the son of a harlot," for which cause he was driven from his home in Gilead by his brethren. Thereupon he gathered a band of followers and led the life of a freebooter in the land of Tob. When Gilead was threatened by the Ammonites, the people begged him to return and defend his country. This he engaged to do upon condition that he be made a chief or king of the people should he return victorious. And to this the Gileadites agreed. And the "spirit of the Lord" came upon Jephthah, and on his way to battle he made the vow that should he return victorious, he would offer up to the Lord as a thanksgiving, whomsoever should come out of his house to welcome him. Upon his return his daughter came forth to meet him with timbrels and dances. She was his only child. And he was seized with horror and grief, and rent his clothes, for he could not forego his vow. When she learned of this she begged for a respite of two months in order to go into the mountains and ‘bewail her virginity.’ When she returned, Jephthah fulfilled his vow. The story is of interest because it may give some evidence of at least one undeniably repugnant aspect of the ancient religion among the Israelites— the sacrifice of human beings in times of special stress. The words ‘bewailing her virginity,’ are added to the story to lay stress upon the fact that if Jephthah’s daughter had had a husband, or had been a mother, her father would have had no control over her; since in the one case her husband would have been her sole possessor, and, in the other, she could have claimed protection from the father of the child, whether the latter was alive or not.] Thereafter Abesson (Ibzan) of Bethlehem, judged for seven years, and he was the eighth judge; and he had thirty sons and many daughters. Thereafter Abialon (Elon), the 9th judge, was judge for ten years; and after him Abdon for eight years. He had forty sons and was the tenth judge.[This is the Lineage of the Judges according to Judges 12:7-14: And after him Ibzan of Bethlehem judged Israel. And he had 30 sons, and 30 daughters, whom he sent abroad and took in 30 daughters from abroad for his sons. And he judged Israel 7 years. Then died Ibzan and was buried at Bethlehem. And after him Elon, a Zebulonite, judged Israel; and he judged Israel 10 years. . . . And after him Abdon, the son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, judged Israel. And he had 40 sons and 30 nephews that rode on threescore and ten ass colts: And he judged Israel 8 years. ]

Carthage, the greatly renowned city in Africa, derived its name from a little town called Cartha. And among the Greeks it is written ΚΑΡΧΗΔΩΝ. It was first built by Dido Beli (generally known as Queen Dido), daughter of (Belus) the king of Tyre, 73 years before Rome was built. Prior to that time the city was called Byrsa, which signifies bull’s hide. For the said Dido purchased from King Hiarbas for the purpose of building the city as much ground as might be covered by the hide of a bull. As Virgil states, she caused this hide to be cut up into the narrowest strips possible, and with them she enclosed a large area of land. And so this city derived its name Byrsa from this hide. However, later it was called Carthage. Cicero writes that the city was named after a woman whose name was Carthago. Pliny states that the city was at war with Rome for 120 years, and often destroyed and built up again. Because of its antiquity, greatness and splendor, this renowned city is highly regarded among all the cities of Africa and Spain.[ Spain is undoubtedly injected into the text of the at this point in deference to Carthago Nova (New Carthage), a city on the eastern coast of Hispania Terraconensis, founded by Carthaginians under Hasdrubal in 243 BCE, and subsequently conquered by the Romans. It was situated on a promontory extending out into the sea, and in ancient times New Carthage was one of the most important cities in all Spain. The city was most strongly fortified and had in its immediate vicinity the richest silver mines of Spain, employing 40,000 men. The city was one of Ptolemy’s points of recorded astronomical observation.] At the time of its first destruction, Scipio the Younger, stormed the city for six successive days and nights, and finally forced it to capitulate, and upon condition that the survivors might serve as slaves. In this war it is said 25,000 women and 30,000 men were slain. Hasdrubal the king threw his wife, himself and his children into the very midst of the flames, which raged for sixteen consecutive days. And the lamentations and misery were so great (as Livy states from observation) that even the enemy was moved to sympathy. And so was Carthage, together with its walls, destroyed 668 years after it was built. Twenty-two years later the Romans undertook to rebuild the city and many Roman citizens were sent there. But in a short time fire burst from Mount Aetna, and the city was burned by hot ashes. To replace the loss the Romans exempted the city from taxes for a period of ten years. In the course of a number of years, Carthage also suffered greatly at the hands of the Goths. Finally it fell into the hands of the Moors (Arabs), and until this time it has been a royal city. According to their tongue it is now called Tunis (Tunicium).[According to the old chroniclers Dido, or Elissa, the daughter of a king of Tyre, escaped from the power of her brother Pygmalion with the treasures for the sake of which he had murdered her husband, and with a band of noble Tyrians who shared her flight. Having touched at Cyprus, and carried from there eighty maidens to be the wives of her followers in their future home, she arrived at a spot on the coast of Africa marked out by nature for the site of a mighty city. She entered into a treaty with the natives, and purchased from them for an annual tribute as much land as could be covered with a bull’s hide, but craftily cut the hide into the narrowest strips possible, and so enclosed the area on which she built the city, which afterwards as the place grew, became a citadel, and retained in its name Byrsa, the memory of a bargain, which, however mythical, has many a counterpart for deceitfulness in later times. And Carthage grew by the influx of colonists from the surrounding country. Its growing prosperity excited the envy of Hiarbas (Virgil calls him Iarbas), king of the Libyans, who offered Dido the choice of war or marriage. Debarred from the latter alternative by her vow of fidelity to her late husband, but urged to embrace it by the importunities of her people, she stabbed herself to death before their eyes on a funeral pyre that she had erected to her husband’s honor. In Virgil’s (especially books 2, 4, and 6), Dido commits suicide in he same way, but only after being betrayed by Aeneas. Immediately after her death the Carthaginians enrolled her among their deities.]


By a narrow vertical panel four portraits of minor priests or bishops are added to the Priestly Lineage, concerning whom the text has nothing to offer except that they are the lineal bridge to Zadok, of whom we are to hear in the future.


The City of Carthage is represented by a woodcut 4¾" x 6¾". True to actual location the city appears to be situated on a peninsula extending into the Mediterranean Sea. It is surrounded by a wall, whose main gateway is in the foreground. In the background, high up on a hill, is what we may suppose to be the original citadel, or Byrsa, about which the city was originally built in the days of Dido. A temple with a dome appears at the left (probably Roman), while at the right we observe a square church tower and minaret. May we not assume that this diversity in architecture is intended to reflect the succeeding hostile occupations to which Carthage was subjected in her long and unfortunate struggle with her rivals and invaders! In a war beginning in 149 BCE and lasting three years, Carthage was utterly destroyed by the Romans. For thirty years it remained in ruins until a colony was established on the old site by the Gracchi; but this remained in feeble condition until the time of Julius and Augustus, under whom a new city was built south of the former on the southeasterly side of the peninsula, with the name of Colonia Carthago. It rapidly grew in extent and covered a great part (if not the whole) of the site of the ancient Tyrian city. It became the first city of Africa, and it occupied an important place in ecclesiastical as well as civil history. It was taken by the Vandals in 439 CE, retaken by Belisarius (Justinian’s military commander) in 533 CE, and destroyed by the Arab conquerors in 698 CE.