First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

This Troys (Tros; referring to the portrait below), reigned in Dardania and built Troy.

Anchises (portrayed opposite), according to the erroneous idea of the pagans, bore through the goddess Venus a son, Aeneas, who ruled in Italy.

Laomedon (portrayed opposite), the king of Troy, was slain. His daughter Ixiona was taken prisoner and carried to Greece. Out of this a serious war resulted and terrible evils followed.

Troy (Troas) is a region in Asia Minor in which lay the city of Ilion (Ilium). Yet at times Troy was considered the name of the city. According to Homer, Troy was the most celebrated city among all cities under the sun and the heavenly stars. But now great Troy (which was the capital of almost all of Asia) is extinguished, so that hardly a trace of it is to be seen. For now (as Ovid and Virgil write) fields and farms have taken its place, the city having been burned and destroyed. And so end all mortal things. Once upon a time a king’s son, named Troys (Tros), in his old age, it being the 40th year of Aioth (Aiah or Ajah) the judge, came into Dardania and built Troy. He was a fighter and learned in the art of war. He enlarged the kingdom, and the region formerly called Dardania was named Troy after him. One Dardanius came into the land of Phrygia, and he called it Dardania. To this same Dardanius (Dardanus) was born the above named Troys (Tros), who in righteousness and goodness was a praiseworthy man. In his memory Troy was named. He had two sons, Ilium (Ilus) and Astiricum (Erichthonis?). The first and eldest of these ruled Troy and called it Ilium. Laomedon, son of Ilus, was the father of Priam. He restored and rebuilt Troy after its first destruction and made it great. He erected battlements and surrounded its suburbs with a high wall of marble, thus well fortifying it. He organized a large army, so that the city would not be again destroyed (as happened before in the time of Leomedontiades). Item: He there built a royal city, and dedicated columns and a temple to Jove. Through the city flowed the river Xanthus (Scamander), and the river Simois (Satnois), which flowed by Troy and had its source in the Trojan Mount Ida. As this river Simois approached the sea it joined the Xanthus. It flows into the sea near the Sigean mountain (Cape Sigeum). Priam, by his wife Hecuba, bore Hector, the first-born, Alexander or (Paris), Deiphobus, Hellenus, Troilus, Andromache, Cassandra, and Polyxena.

Troas, the territory of Ilium, or Troy, formed by the northwestern part of Mysia, and was bounded on the west by the Aegean Sea, on the northwest by the Hellespont, on the east and northeast by the mountains which border the valley of the river Rhodius, and extend from its sources southwards to the main ridge of Mount Ida, and on the south by the north coast of the Gulf of Adramyttium along the south foot of Ida. The chief rivers were the Satnois on the south, the Rhodius on the north and the Scamander (Xanthus) and Simois in the center. The Scamander and Simois, so renowned in the legends of the Trojan War, flow from two different points in the chain of Mount Ida, and unite in the plain of Troy, through which the united stream flows northwest and falls into the Hellespont east of the promontory of Sigeum.

The mythical account of the origin of the kingdom is briefly this. Teucer, the first king in the Troad, had a daughter, who married Dardanus, the chieftain of the country to the northeast. Dardanus had two sons, Ilus and Erichthonius; and the latter was the father of Tros, Troas and Troes. Tros was the father of Ilus, who founded the city, which was called after him Ilium, and also, after his father, Troja. The next king was Laomedon, and after him Priam. In his reign the city was taken and destroyed by the confederated Greeks, after a ten years’ siege. Ancient chronologers have assigned different dates for the capture of Troy, the calculation most generally accepted placing it in 1184 BCE.

Tros was the son of Erichthonius and grandson of Dardanus. He was the king of Phrygia and father of Ilus.

Anchises was the son of Capys and Themis, the daughter of Ilus, king of Dardanus on Mount Ida. In beauty he equaled the gods, and was beloved by Aphrodite, by whom he became the father of Aeneas. The goddess warned him never to betray the real mother of the child; but as on one occasion he boasted of his intercourse with the goddess, he was struck by lightning and killed, blinded or lamed, depending upon which account one reads. Virgil in his Aeneid makes Anchises survive the capture of Troy, and Aeneas carries his father on his shoulders from the burning city.

Laomedon, son of Ilus and Eurydice, was the father of Priam. Poseidon and Apollo, who had displeased Zeus, were doomed to serve Laomedon for wages. So the former built the walls of Troy, while Apollo tended the king’s flocks on Mount Ida. When they had done their work Laomedon refused them the reward and expelled them from his dominions. Thereupon Poseidon let loose the sea over the lands, and also sent a sea monster to ravish the country. By the command of an oracle, the Trojans were obliged to regularly sacrifice a maiden to the monster, and one occasion it was decided by lot that Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon himself, should be the victim. Hercules promised to save the maiden, if Laomedon would give him certain horses that Tros had once received from Zeus. He promised, but again broke his word. So Hercules, who had killed the monster and saved the king’s daughter, sailed with a squadron of ships against Troy, killed Laomedon, with all his sons, except Pordaces (Priam). Hesione ransomed her brother Priam with her veil. Priam, as the son of Laomedon, is called Laomedontiades.

After this, war was waged against the Trojans by the Greeks for ten years and six months. It occurred in the first year of Esebon (Ezvon), the judge of Israel, and this (as the poets write) was the cause: As Alexander (who is also called Paris) once upon a time went hunting in the forest, and fell asleep, Mercury


The city of Troy is represented by a woodcut 7-7/8" x 8-3/4", which has not, as yet, done service for any other city. There are certain characteristics that indicate that the artist may have had the City of Troy in mind. It is well fortified by high walls, towers and battlements. A river flows along at the left beyond the walls, reaching far out into the mountains. A bridge gives access to the suburbs on the left bank. In the background on a high elevation is the citadel. Two gothic churches with tall steeples, strangely surmounted with a crescent, are rather anachronistic elements.