First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

This Carmentis (referring to a portrait opposite) was a daughter of Evander (Euandri). She invented the Latin alphabet. A b c d e f g h i k l m n o p q r s t v x.[The Carmenae, Camenae, or Casmenae, were prophetic nymphs, who belonged to the religion of ancient Italy, although later traditions represent their worship as introduced from Arcadia. Some accounts identify them with the Muses. The most important of these goddesses was Carmentis, or Carmenta, who had a temple at the foot of the Capitoline Hill. Evander was a son of an Arcadian nymph, Themis, or Nicostrata, and in Roman traditions Carmenta or Tiburtis. About 60 years before the Trojan War, Evander is said to have led a Pelasgian colony into Italy, and there to have built a town on the Tiber, which town was subsequently incorporated with Rome. He taught his neighbors milder laws, arts of peace, and social life, and especially the art of writing, with which he himself had been made acquainted by Hercules. Such is the general tradition, but it differs from the in these respects: (1) Carmentis was not the daughter but the mother of Evander; (2) he, and not she, introduced the alphabet.]

Salmon, the son of Naasson, was born, according to the seventy interpreters, in the 3725th year of the world, which is the 1474th year before the birth of Christ. He was prince in the tribe of Judah. With Joshua he went into the Promised Land and took for wife Rahab, a common woman.[Rahab was a woman of Jericho who kept a public house. She had heard of the Israelites and of their favor with God (Joshua 2:8-11); so when Joshua’s spies came to Jericho to explore the land of promise, she favored them as has been told in a previous note, and she and her family were preserved. It is supposed that she married into a noble family of the tribe of Judah. Under the name of Rachab she is mentioned in the genealogy of Christ. "And Aram begat Aminadab; and Aminadab begat Naasson; and Naasson begat Salmon; and Salmon begat Boaz of Rachab; and Boaz begat Obed of Ruth; and Obed begat Jesse; and Jesse begat David, the king," etc., (Matthew 1:4-6).]

Italus, the king, built a city on the river Tiber, and reigned there. On the same site Rome was built in later times. All Italy was afterwards named for Italus.[Italus was one of the ancient kings of the Pelasgians, Siculians, or Oenotrians, and it is from him that Italy was believed to have derived its name.]

From this Rechab (referring to a portrait opposite) sprang a very spiritual lineage, which is said to have existed at this time. He descended from Jethro, the friend of Moses, and was converted to the Jewish faith.[Rechab, father of Jehonadab, appears in II Kings 10:15-28, as a fervent supporter of Jehu’s attack on the house of Ahab and his endeavor to root out the idolatry which that dynasty had allowed. Neh. 3:14 reports that a son of Rechab assisted in re-fortifying Jerusalem. It is to be noted that later Rabbis found the fulfillment of Jer. 35:19 in those marriages of Rechabite maidens into priestly families from which later priests sprang. Hence the statement of the chronicler that from Rechab sprang a spiritual lineage.]

Tiberias, or Tiberiadis, formerly called Zenreth or Cynaroth, lies in the coast regions, between the east and south, about two miles from Bethulia[Bethulia was a city of Samaria. It is the scene of the Book of Judith.], the mountain, where Judith slew Holofernes. After the city was rebuilt by Herod, the ruler of Galilee, it was named Tiberiadis in honor of the emperor, Tiberius; and now it is called Tiberias.[Tiberias is a city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee. The ancient city was south of the modern one. Herod made it his capital. The town was built on an ancient site, probably Rakkath (Joshua 29:35) and in the course of construction a graveyard was disturbed. In consequence the Jews, fearful of uncleanness, refused to live there, and Herod was forced to use compulsion in order to people his town (Joseph, . XVII, 2, 3). No mention is made of Tiberias in the gospels, except casually in John 6:23. The city was of too recent date and too Hellenistic in outlook to invite attention. It is unlikely that Jesus ever visited it. Christianity found no congenial soil there and made no headway until the 4th century. The Arabs came in 637. When the Crusaders established their kingdom in Jerusalem, Tancred was appointed ruler in Galilee. Tiberias became his capital and was in part rebuilt on the new site farther north. In their advance on Damascus, British troops seized it in October 1918.] Here Christ made an apostle of Matthew, the toll gatherer. At one time there was here a bishop whose jurisdiction comprehended the Sea of Galilee. Near this city (as it is said) are natural warm springs. Here also ends the region called Decapolis[Decapolis was a district of Palestine, so named from the ten cities contained within its limits. The cities are variously given by different writers. According to Pliny there were Damascus, Philadelphia, Rhaphana, Scythopolis, Gadara, Hippos, Dios, Pella, Galasa (Gerasa?) and Canatha.], so called by reason of its ten distinguished cities. In this same region, not far removed from Tiberias, is the sea of Asphaltides,

Asphaltites Lacus. Of all the natural phenomena of Palestine, the Dead Sea is that which ahs attracted the notice of geographers and naturalists both in ancient and modern times, as exhibiting peculiarities and suggesting questions of great interest from a geological point of view. The earliest reference to it is in Genesis (14:3), where it is identified with the vale "of Siddim," and denominated "the Salt Sea." Its common name among the classical authors, first found in Diodorus Siculus, and adopted by Josephus, is "Asphaltites Lacus." The name by which it is best known among Europeans is "Mortuum Mare." Its modern native name is Bahr Lot,’— "The Sea of Lot"— therein perpetuating the memorial of the catastrophe to which legend ascribes its formation. Its waters are very salty and of an extremely noxious odor, so that neither fish nor any of the other marine animals can live in it. Through fresh-watered rivers flow into it, yet by its odor it counteracts their effect. From its center there arises every year a large mass of bitumen. The bitumen floating on the surface appears at a distance like an island. About twenty days before the material rises to the surface its odor spread about the sea with a noxious air, and all the silver, gold and brass in the neighborhood loses its natural color. This returns when the bitumen is ejected. This bitumen is carried off by the inhabitants on large rafts of reeds that they launch in the lake. There is no danger of drowning because the waters support all weight capable of expansion, or which contains air, but not solid substance, which have a density like that of gold, silver, lead and the like.

The dismal associations of the name of the Dead Sea are not borne out by the sea itself. The wild tales of medieval travelers that in its poisonous air no plant could live, that over its dead waters no bird could fly, and that no waves ever disturbed its gloomy surface, are figments of the imagination. The tradition that this sea covers Sodom and Gomorrah dates from Josephus. The site of the overwhelmed cities, whether under the waters of the sea at its north end, or its south end, or on its eastern or western shores, continues to excite the ingenuity of investigators. The Dead Sea lies about 1300 feet below the surface level of the Mediterranean, and is the lowest sheet of water on the earth’s crust.

which, by reason of its size and the immobility of its waters, is called the Dead Sea. Its waters are stiff and tough because of the clay or lime which resists the waves, so that it is not activated by the wind and cannot be used by ships. All inanimate matter sinks to the bottom, and so this sea does not support material of any kind, except such as receives the light of day. Its length exceeds one hundred thousand paces; its width at its greatest point is twenty-five thousand paces, and at its smallest point six thousand paces.[This last sentence relating the Dead Sea’s length and width are not in the German edition of the .]


The following are represented by individual portraits (each 2" square):

  1. Carmentis, daughter of King Evander, portrayed by the same woodcut which represented Zilpah (Zelpha), handmaid of Leah (not of Rachel), at Folio XXVI recto.
  2. Italus Rex, Italy’s first mythical king. The same woodcut was used for Xerxes, Folio XXVI recto.
  3. Rechab, from whom a priestly line was evolved. The same woodcut did service for Sol, the son of Jupiter, at Folio XXV recto.


The Lineage of Christ was brought down to and including Naasson (Naason) at Folio XXX recto, and is here continued; but with only one addition—Salmon, his son. This woodcut, 5" x 2-1/4" is a sturdy piece of work, far superior to many of the portraits in the Chronicle. It is the typical conception of an old Jewish patriarch. This lineage will not be resumed until we reach Folio XXXV recto.


Tiberias (Tyberias or Tyberiadis) is depicted by the same woodcut that was used for Lacedaemonia at Folio XXVIII verso.