First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Aptheros, the king of Crete, was the first to discover the gathering of honey. His daughter conceived through sinful intercourse, and of her some unfavorable things are said. After him (Aptheros) his son Anidis reigned. He also made laws and invented plowing with oxen. Erictonius[The reference is probably to Erichthonius or Erechtheus I, son of Hephaestus and Atthis, the daughter of Cranaus. Athena reared the child without the knowledge of the gods, and entrusted him to Agraulos, Pandrosos and Herse, concealed in a chest. They were forbidden to open it, but they disobeyed. On opening it they saw the child in the form of a serpent, or entwined serpent; whereupon they were seized with madness, and threw themselves down the rock of the Acropolis, or, according to others, into the sea. When Erichthonius grew up he expelled Amphictyon, and became king of Athens. He was the first to use a chariot with four horses, for which reason he was placed among the stars as Auriga (‘Charioteer’), a large northern constellation. He was buried in the temple of Athena, and was worshipped as a god after his death. His famous temple, the Erechtheion stood on the Acropolis.], a prince of the Athenians, was the first to introduce the use of the wagon.

Fenix (Phoenix) reigned in Tyre and Sidon and taught the use of the alphabet, and invented the use of Phoenician or red color with which capital letters are made.[ Phoenix was a brother of Cadmus, and he, like Cadmus, was sent by his father in search of Europa, his sister, whom Zeus had carried off. Phoenix settled in the country, which was later called after him Phoenicia, of which Tyre and Sidon were the most important cities. Purple red was obtained from a sea snail on the Phoenician coasts and was a celebrated article of Phoenician commerce. The name Phoenicia is first found in Greek writers as early as Homer, and is derived by some from the abundance of palm trees in the country; by others from the purple red color, just mentioned; besides the mythical derivation from Phoenix, the brother of Cadmus.] A B C D Alpha vita (Beta) Gamma Delta.

At this point, the German edition includes the following text: "Cadimus (Cadmus) built the city of Thebes in Boeotia, and reigned there himself. He invented the Greek letters, Alpha, Beta, Gama, Delta." The Cadmus here referred to is probably the son of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, and Telepassa, and the brother of Europa. When Zeus carried off Europa to Crete, Agenor sent Cadmus in search of his sister. Unable to find her, he settled in Thrace; but having consulted the oracle at Delphi, he was commanded by the god to follow a cow of a certain description, and to build a town where the cow would sink down with fatigue. Cadmus found the cow in Phocia and followed her into Boeotia, where she sank down on the spot on which Cadmus built Cadmea, afterwards the citadel of Thebes. Athena assigned Cadmus to its government. He is said to have introduced into Greece an alphabet of 16 letters from Phoenicia or Egypt, and to have been the first to work the mines of Pangaeon in Thrace. The story of Cadmus suggests Phoenician or Egyptian immigration into Greece, by means of which the alphabet, the art of mining and civilization, came into the country. But many modern writers deny the existence of such a colony, and regard Cadmus as a Pelasgian divinity. Following this missing text, the German edition also includes the following two short paragraphs:

Under this (referring to the opposite illustration in the Latin edition called Amynthas) Amictus, the 18th king of the Assyrians, Joshua died. At the same time King Corate reigned as the 16th king of Sicyonia.

This Lompares (referring to the opposite illustration named Bellothus in the Latin edition) was the 23rd king of the Assyrians, under whom the history of Deborah (as Augustine states) was written and the kingdom of the Greeks ended.

Nuremberg Chronicle, German Edition

Corinth, the city in the land of Achaia, was quite celebrated. It was first named by Sysiphus[Sisyphus, son of Aeolus, is said to have built Ephyra, afterwards Corinth. For his avarice and deceitfulness in life he was severely punished in the lower world, being obliged to roll a huge block of marble up a hill, which, when it reached the top, rolled back down again.] in the 80th year of Moses, and was built on Mt. Ischmon. It was first called Cerchira, and afterward Ephyra. For this reason Virgil writes of Ephyrian bronzes; for the Corinthians were much praised for their most beautiful and artistic vessels. But the city was thereafter destroyed. It was rebuilt by Corinthus, son of Orestes, and after him it was named Corinth. It was finally set in flames by the Romans, and since then it has never returned to its former prestige. The first ruler of the Corinthians was Athletes[Corinth was originally inhabited by the Aeolic race, and here ruled the Aeolic Sisyphus and his descendants. When the Dorians conquered the Peloponnese, the sovereign power passed into the hands of Heraclid Aletes, whom the chronicler calls Athletes. The conquerors became the ruling class, and the Aeolian inhabitants their subjects. After Aletes and his descendants had reigned five generations, royalty was abolished and followed by an oligarchical form of government confined to the powerful families of the Bacchiadae.], a Greek, and a most successful warrior. Corinth was governed by twelve kings over a period of 323 years. Thereafter it became a government of the citizens. Peloponnesus, the country which the Latins call Norea (Noreia) was a protector and defender of all Greece. But when the Turkish power commenced to oppress Europe, the Greek rulers built a wall from one sea to another through the narrows, and thereby Peloponnesus was separated from the rest of Greece. The holy apostle Paul, with understanding, taught and did wonderful works, drawing the Corinthians from their idolatries to the true Christian religion.[Corinth, which Homer calls Ephyra, was located on the Isthmus of Corinth, and this is what the chronicler may mean when he refers to "Mt. Ischmon." Its territory embraced the greater part of the isthmus. In the north and south the country is mountainous, but in the center it is a plain with a solitary steep mountain rising from it, called Acrocorinthus, which served as the city’s citadel. Corinth was built on the north side of this mountain. Its favorable location raised it to great commercial prosperity and importance, and it became a great sea power. The city was adorned with magnificent buildings, and the fine arts were practiced with vigor and success. With great wealth came luxury and a reputation for licentiousness. The worship of Aphrodite prevailed, and in her temples a vast number of courtesans was maintained. Corinth maintained its independence to the time of the Macedonian supremacy. In the year 146 BCE the city was destroyed by the Romans in a most barbarous manner. Its inhabitants were sold into slavery, and such of its works of art as the soldiery did not destroy were carried off to Rome. Its buildings were razed to the ground, and for a century the city lay in ruins. In 46 BCE it was rebuilt by Caesar, who people it with a colony of veterans and descendants of freemen. It was now called Colonia Julia Corinthus. It became the capital of the Roman province Achaia, recovering much of its ancient prosperity.]


At the top of Folio XXXIIII recto, by a horizontal panel 6-3/4" x 2.5", we are introduced to a gallery of four kings:

  1. Aptheros, king of Crete, who first conceived the idea of gathering honey from the bees. He is represented as any king might be, scepter in hand, and without symbols.
  2. Erichthonius, king of Athens, who holds as symbol the wheel of the chariot, indicative of his invention of that vehicle in his own country.
  3. Phoenix (Fenix), who carries a scepter in one hand and gestures with the other.
  4. Cadmus (Cadinus), the builder of Thebes (in Boeotia) carries the scepter and orb. The text on Cadmus—in which he is described as introducing Phoenician letters to Greece—was inadvertently left out of the Latin edition (a problem fixed in the German edition six months later).


By a vertical panel 2-1/4" x 8.5" on the left side of Folio XXXIIII recto, the Lineage of the Assyrian Kings is continued from Folio XXVII recto as follows:

  1. Ascades (in the German edition called Astades), a king who is not mentioned in the text, appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.
  2. Amynthas (in the German edition named Amictus), appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.
  3. Bellothus (in the German edition named Lomperes), appears in royal form with crown, scepter and orb.


The City of Corinth, represented by the same woodcut as Nineveh (Folio XX recto).