First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

he incited Isaac to idolatry and to worshipping idols that he had made. Sarah saw this and said, Cast out this handmaid and her son. After Ishmael was born and attained his twelfth year, his father had him circumcised, and Sarah loved him as her own son. But when Isaac was born she ceased to love Ishmael, and caused Abraham to send him to another country. And when Ishmael became of age, his mother provided him an Egyptian wife, by whom he had sons who inhabited the entire earth from the Euphrates to the Red Sea.

Now Sarah, Abraham’s wife, bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. And Sarah said unto Abraham, Behold now, Jehovah hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall obtain children by her . . . And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived . . . And Hagar bore Abraham a son. And Abraham was fourscore and six years old when Hagar bore Ishmael

(Genesis 16:1-15).
And Ishmael, his son, was thirteen years old when he was circumcised in the flesh of his foreskin. And the self same day was Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael his son

(Genesis 17:23-26).
And Sarah conceived and bore Abraham a son in his old age, etc. And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bore him, Isaac . . . And Abraham made a great feast on the day Isaac was weaned. And Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, whom she had born unto Abraham, mocking. Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this handmaid and her son; for the son of this handmaid shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac . . . And Abraham rose early in the morning and took bread and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and gave her the child, and sent her away; and she departed, and wandered into the wilderness of Beersheba . . . And God was with the lad, and he grew; and he dwelt in the wilderness, etc. And his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt

(Genesis 21:1-21).
And Abraham took another wife, and her name was Keturah. And she bore him Zimran, Jokshan, Medan, Median, Ishbak, and Shuah. . .

(Genesis 25:1-8).
Now these were the generations of Ishmael by their names according to their generations: Nebaioth, Kedar, Adbeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadad, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah; and these are their names by their villages, and by their encampments: twelve princes to their nations

(Genesis 25: 12-16).

The Chronicle and the text of Genesis do not agree as to the reason why Sarah wished Hagar and Ishmael expelled from the home: (1) The Chronicle states that it was because Ishmael encouraged Isaac to idolatry, and to the worship of idols he had made. (2) The Douay Version of the Bible says that she saw "the son of Hagar the Egyptian ‘playing’ with Isaac her son" (Genesis 21:9), while (3) the King James Version says that she saw Ishmael ‘mocking,’ an expression which commentators have interpreted to imply carnal or lascivious indulgence on Ishmael’s part. However, the real reason is given in the tenth verse: "Cast out this bondmaid and her son; for the son of the bondmaid shall not be heir with my son Isaac."

Because they would not worship fire in Ur of the Chaldees, Abraham and his brother Haran were thrown into the flames. Haran was suffocated, but Abraham was liberated by God, who wished him to bring up Haran’s son Lot, as his own.[According to Genesis 11:28 Haran died before his father Tereh, in the land of his nativity, the Ur of the Chaldees, but the manner of his death is not given. Abraham and his father Tereh lived at Ur before they were called to the land of Canaan. A number of places have been suggested as the site of this old city, such as Orfah, or Urfa, in northern Mesopotamia, some twenty miles north of Haran; Warka, in southeastern Mesopotamia, 120 miles southeast of Babylon; and Mugheir, a ruined site about six miles west of the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris. And it was a Jewish tradition that the descendants of Terah were driven out of Chaldea because they refused to follow the prevalent idolatry. They left the ways of their ancestors and worshipped the God they knew. So the Chaldeans cast them out from the face of their gods, and they fled to Haran, where they sojourned until they received the call to depart for the land of Canaan.] And Abraham took to wife Haran’s daughter, Sarah. Thereafter Abraham, together with his father Terah, and his brother Nahor, and the kindred of his brother Haran, wandered from Chaldea to Haran, in Mesopotamia. When his father Tereh died, Abraham, at the age of seventy-five years, in obedience to the command of the Lord, migrated with Lot, Sarah, and all his kindred, and all his good to the land of Canaan; and he lived in Shechem. There the Lord appeared to him and said, To your seed will I give this land. Thereafter Abraham came to the five cities where the Dead Sea now is; and there he also wandered; and he lived in Damascus. But as there was famine in the land, Abraham went down into Egypt, and back from there to the valley of Mare, near Hebron. The Lord appeared to Abraham in his sleep and told him that his seed would be sojourners in Egypt 430 years; that the fourth generation would return with him to the land of Canaan, and that kings would come out of him.[] In accordance with the Lord’s command Abraham circumcised himself, his son Ishmael, and all his house and kindred. [Genesis 17:23-27]

Memphis, now called Cairo or Alkeyro (Alcairo), the royal city in Egypt, was built by Ogelous,[Probably refers to Aegialeus. ] the king of Egypt, and was named Memphis after his daughter. It is 150 times one eighth of a mile in circumference,[That is, 150 furlongs. A furlong is a measure of length derived from a furrow in an ordinary filed; theoretically the side of a square containing ten acres; one eighth of a mile. A furlong is now legally one eight of a statute mile; that is, 40 rods, or 220 yards (201.16 meters). A square furlong is 10 acres. The area of Memphis, according to Diodorus occupied a circuit of 150 stadia, or at least 15 miles. This included much open ground laid out in gardens and courts for the barracks of the garrison in the quarter called the "White Castle," and which was successively occupied, under the Pharaohs, by the native militia.] and is the most celebrated city in Egypt. It is located in the most convenient part of the region where the river Nile divides into many branches, in the form of the letter d,[The reference is to delta, the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet, which is a triangle and which corresponds to the English and German letter d. For that reason a delta is a triangular alluvial deposit at or near the mouth of a river.] and almost surrounds the city, giving access to shipping. But navigation farther up is prevented by the overflow of water that has deposited large mounds of earth to the south. In other regions it has created large seas that make the city secure and inaccessible. For this reason later kings established their residence there; and they called the city Babylon in Egypt, or Cairo. Osiris was worshipped at Memphis.[Osiris was the greatest Egyptian divinity, and the husband of Isis. Osiris is described by Plutarch, in his treatise , as a son of Rhea and Helois. His Egyptian name is said to have been Hysiris, which is interpreted to mean "son of Isis," though some have said that it meant "many-eyed;" And according to Heliodorus, Osiris was the god of the Nile, as Isis was the goddess of the earth. As he taught the people the use of the plow, so she invented the cultivation of wheat and barley that were carried about in the processions at her festival. She was the goddess of the earth, which the Egyptians called their mother. Being married to Osiris, Isis is the land fertilized by the Nile.] When Osiris inherited the kingdom of Arginorum (Argos) from his forefather, Phoroneus,

Phoroneus, son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia or Archia, was a brother of Aegialeus and the ruler of Argos. He was married to the nymph Laodice, by whom he became the father of Niobe, Apis and Car. According to other writers his sons were Pelasgus, Iasus, and Agenor, who, after their father’s death, divided the kingdom of Argos among themselves. Phoroneus is said to have been the first to offer sacrifices to Hera at Argos, and to have united the people who until then had lived in scattered habitations, into a city which was called after him. The patronymic Phoronides is sometimes used for Argives in general, and especially to designate Amphiaraus and Adrastus.

Apis, the son of Phoroneus and Laodice was also a king of Argos, and from him Peloponnesus was called Apia. He ruled tyrannically and was killed by Thelxion and Telchis.

he sailed over to Egypt in order to enhance his glory. He conquered it; and he married Isis. After he taught the barbarous people many useful things, they honored him as a god; and they changed his name and called him a bull.


7" x 6-9/16"

There are two woodcuts at Folio XXII recto—one of Abraham, already described, and the other of "Memphis or Cairo," our present subject. Here we have another general landscape doing special service, as occurred in the previous cases of Themiscyra (Folio XIX verso) and Nineveh (Folio XX recto). There is nothing ‘eastern’ about this scene, and certainly nothing Egyptian. The artist has selected his favorite promontory as a civic site. The town is securely girded about, with the usual battlements, turrets, towers and gates. To the left is a stream, which we must assume to be the Nile. On its bank grows an iris, or other member of the lily family; but we see no reeds or rushes in which a little Moses might be concealed.

Within the walls the usual gothic church is prominently silhouetted against the sky.