First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

And so at this time the kingdom of Greece sprang up under Inachus; and it endured through fourteen reigns, up to the time of Baroch (Barak)[Barak lived at a time when the Canaanite kingdom of Hazor, having recovered from its overthrow by Joshua, was taking vengeance by oppressing Israel. He is called from his home by Deborah to deliver Israel. He gathers an army of ten thousand men from the tribes of Naphtali and Zebulun. With this force, accompanied by Deborah, without whom he refuses to go forward, he encamps in Mt. Tabor, while the enemy under Sisera lies in the plain on the banks of the Kishon. At the word of Deborah, Barak leads his men down to battle, and completely defeats Sisera. The latter flees; Barak pursues him, but on reaching his hiding place finds that he has already been slain by Jael, the wife of Heber. The glory of the victory, therefore, does not lie with Barak, but with Deborah, who was the guiding spirit, and with Jael, who slew the enemy’s leader. (Judges 4:5).] and Delbore (Deborah),[Deborah is the fourth of the leaders or "judges" of Israel. The term "judge" had a special significance among the Israelites. The judicial authority was primarily administered by the elders, and by the heads of families. There were also others called "judges," whose history is given in the book of that name, but they were a class of persons raised up in special emergencies. Deborah was such a judge. She was also called a prophetess, that is, an inspired woman—one of the four mentioned in the Old Testament. Her home was between Bethel and Ramah in the hill country of Ephraim. She had her judgment seat under a palm tree, which from this circumstance, is spoken of as "the (well-known) palm tree of Deborah." Here the Israelites came to her for counsel and guidance. She was the real deliverer of the Israelites who had sunk into a state of feebleness under the oppressive bondage under Jabin, a Canaanitish king of Hazor. Deborah was a personality of great power and was looked upon as a ‘mother in Israel.’]a judge of Israel. And as at this time Criseus (Acrisius) was unwittingly slain, Perseus through fear left Greece and turned the kingdom over to the Mycenaens; so thereafter Aretius Acreus ruled.

Perseus, the famous hero of Argos, was a son of Zeus and Danae, and a grandson of Acrisius. Having no male issue, Acrisius consulted the Pythian oracle and received the answer that if Danae should give birth to a son, he, Acrisius, would perish at his hands. So he shut up his daughter in a subterranean apartment of brass or stone. But Zeus, having metamorphosed himself into a shower of gold, came down upon her through the roof of the apartment, and became by her the father of Perseus. When Acrisius discovered that his daughter had given birth to a son, he threw them both into a chest, and put them out to sea; but Zeus caused the chest to land on the island of Seriphos, one of the Cyclades, where Dictys, a fisherman, found them, and carried them to his brother, King Polydectes. This king made Danae his slave, and courted her favor, but in vain. In order to obtain the undisturbed possession of her, he sent off her son, Perseus, in the meantime grown to manhood, to the Gorgons, to fetch the head of Medusa. Another account states that Polydectes married Danae, and caused Perseus to be brought up in the temple in Athens. When Acrisius learned this he went to Polydectes who, however, interfered on behalf of the boy, and the latter promised not to kill his grandfather. Acrisius, however, was detained in Seriphos by storms, and during that time Polydectes died. During the funeral games the wind carried a discus, thrown by Perseus, against the head of Acrisius and killed him. Immediately thereafter Perseus proceeded to Argos and took possession of the kingdom of his grandfather.

According to the common tradition, Perseus brought back the head of the Medusa in a bag, and on his return visited Ethiopia, and there married Andromeda. His adventures concluded, he returned to Argos to visit his grandfather; but Acrisius, remembering the oracle, fled to Larissa. Perseus followed, intending to persuade him to return. The common tradition relates that when the king of Larissa celebrated games in honor of his guest Acrisius, Perseus took part and accidentally killed his grandfather with a discus.

At this time also Phoroneus first gave laws to Greece, and ordained that matters in controversy between the parties should be handled and decided by a single judge. Therefore the jurists say that the court in which legal matters were considered (in Latin called the ‘forum’) was named after Phoroneus. Item: Isis, his sister (as they say) was married to his son, named Apis. He was also regarded as a god by the Egyptians.

Inachus, the first king of Greece, began to reign in the 60th year of Isaac; and he reigned 50 years. At his death he left behind Isis, the queen of Egypt, and Phoroneus his son, who ruled after him.[Inachus (See earlier note to Folio XXVII verso)]

Isis, the daughter of Inachus, was first called Io (Juno). She went to Egypt, invented the alphabet, or writing, and taught the laws. There she was called Isis, which, in the Egyptian tongue, is equivalent to ‘earth.’ Because of her noble ways, great virtue and learning, she was held in great esteem and honor, and the Egyptians believed that she had fallen from the sky. They considered her a goddess, for she taught the crude people how to till the soil, plant seed, and to make bread from the grain.[Io, or Isis, daughter of Inachus, king of Argos, was loved by Zeus, but on account of Hera’s jealousy he metamorphosed her into a white heifer. The goddess was aware of the change, obtained the heifer from Zeus, and placed her under the care of Argus Panoptes; but Zeus sent Hermes to slay Argus, and to deliver Io. Hera then tormented Io with a gadfly, and drover her, in a state of frenzy, from land to land, until at length she found rest on the banks of the Nile. Here she recovered her original form, and bore a son to Zeus, called Epaphus. The wanderings of Io were very celebrated in antiquity, and were extended and embellished with the increase of geographical knowledge. The Bosphorus is said to have derived its name from her swimming across it. According to some traditions Io married Telegonus, king of Egypt, and was afterward identified with Isis. Her connection with Egypt seems to have been an invention of later times, and was probably suggested by the resemblance which was found to exist between Argive Io and the Egyptian Isis.]

Phoroneus, as already stated, established courts in Greece, and he wrote its laws. He had a brother who taught the people how to observe the months and years. To the honor of the pagan gods he erected temples and altars. For these reasons he was considered a god, and oxen were sacrificed to him. He was also known as Phegeus.[Phoroneus, son of Inachus and the Oceanid Melia or Archia, was a brother of Aegialeus and the ruler of Argos. He was married to the nymph Laodice, by whom he became the father of Niobe, Apis and Car. According to other writers his sons were Pelasgus, Issus, and Agenor, who, after their father’s death divided the kingdom of Argos among themselves. Phoroneus is said to have been the first to offer sacrifices to Hera at Argos, and to have united the people, who until then had lived in scattered habitations, into a city which was named for him. The patronymic Phoronides is sometimes used by Argives in general.]

A great flood occurred in Thessaly. It was called the Deucalion Flood because in that kingdom it was the most severe.[Deucalion, king of Phthia, in Thessaly, was a son of Prometheus. When Zeus, for the treatment he received from Lycaon, resolved to destroy the degenerate race of men, Deucalion and his wife Pyrrha, were, on account of their piety, the only mortals saved. On the advice of his father he built a ship in which he and his wife rode out the nine-day flood in safety; but all the other inhabitants of Hellas were destroyed. When the waters subsided, Deucalion offered up a sacrifice to Zeus and consulted the oracle at Themis as to how the race of man might be restored. The goddess told them to cover their heads and to throw the bones of their mothers behind them; which they interpreted to mean the stones of the earth. And so they did. The stones thrown by Deucalion became men; those thrown by his wife Pyrrha became women. By his wife, Deucalion became the father of Hellen.]

In the flourishing days of King Serapis a bull came out of the river and ascended into the air. And he came down again into the water and disappeared. The foolhardy people considered him to be a god.

Serapis, the third king of Greece, sailed to Egypt. He died there, and the benighted people made him the greatest god of Egypt.[Serapis or Sarapis, was an Egyptian divinity, whose worship was introduced into Greece in the time of the Ptolemies. His worship was introduced into Rome with that of Isis.] At this time they also worshipped a garlanded bull of various colors, whom they called Apis; and when he died, the Devil put a calf in his place, thereby to deceive the people.[ At Folio XXII recto (see Memphis) the chronicler stated that Osiris was worshipped at Memphis; that when he inherited the kingdom of Argos from his forefather, Phoroneus, he sailed to Egypt, and married Isis; that after he taught the people many useful things, they honored him as a god, and changed his name and called him a bull and that from this arose the custom that when a beautiful bull unexpectedly appeared, they detained him, and for a time worshipped him. See also at the same folio, notes on Osiris, Phoroneus, Apis his son, and on the Bull of Memphis. Compare also with text at Folio XXVI recto where Apis appears in the . And now, in conclusion of that lineage, we here find another reference to the Bull of Memphis, but none to Apis, son of Phoroneus. We are told that ‘when the bull died the Devil put a calf in his place in order to deceive the people, this being the reason why the children of Israel worshipped a calf at Horeb.’ What a confusion of Egyptian and Greek mythology, and Genesis thrown in for good measure! In the pictorial we have Inachus, Phoroneus, Serapis, and Argus. And finally, in the account of the Deucalion Flood, we come upon another bull story to the effect that a bull came out of the river, ascended into the air, returned and disappeared; as a result of which the foolhardy people regarded the bull as a god.] Following this custom, the children of Israel, in their folly, also worshipped a calf in Horeb. There is nothing more pitiable than a sensible being discovered in such a folly.

Argus was the fourth king of the Greeks, and after him the kingdom of Argos was named. After his death he was held to be a god and was honored with temples and sacrifices. In this period the Greeks commenced to grow grain, for seed was brought there from other regions.[Argus, son of Zeus and Niobe, is generally called the third king of Argus, and from him the place is said to have derived its name. In reckoning him as the third king we count Inachus and Phoroneus, his son, as his predecessors, omitting Serapis, to whom the chronicler assigns third place. The descendants of Inachus, who may be regarded as the Pelasgian kings, reigned over the country for nine generations, but were at length deprived of the sovereignty by Danaus, who is said to have come over from Egypt.]

Job, a very holy man and praiseworthy example of patience, was born to Zareth, his father and Bosra, his mother, in the regions of Judea and Arabia. He was just, upright, kind, intelligent and brave, useful to his times, moderate and wisely patient. Among those who lived in his time in the East he was regarded a very rich man. He owned 7000 sheep, 3000 camels, 500 oxen, 600 asses, and had many servants. By his wife he had six sons and three daughters, and the Lord protected him against the temptations of the Devil. His estates and his wife and children were taken from him, and he was laden with sores. But in spite of all he did not sin, but said, The Lord gave it, and he has taken it away. However, the Lord made him two-fold restoration, and he lived thereafter 140 years, and saw his children multiplied to the fourth generation. He died old and full of years.


Here beings the Lineage of the Kings of Greece, portrayed in a panel about 2" wide and extending for almost the full length of the page. They appear in the following order: Inachus, Phoroneus, Serapis and Argus. Crown, orb and scepter are present in each case, and the regal robes are medieval.


Isis is the usual type of medieval woman, and she appears in the bonnet and veil, without royal attributes or Egyptian characteristics. The woodcut is 2" x 2.5".


The Deucalion Flood is represented by a sort of cloudburst, in consequence of which large drops of rain are precipitated. This woodcut is about 2" square.


Here sits Job, the famous patriarch of Uz, whose sorrows are recounted in the book of his name. He lived in very primitive times, unacquainted with the Mosaic Law and the Jewish worship—a holy outsider, who was yet, like Melchizedek, a worshipper of God. He was a prince of great wealth, piety, integrity and happiness; but now he appears before us with no other possession than a loose mantle that barely covers his nakedness. His hands are held together in an attitude of prayer. By God’s permission Satan tested him, destroying his property, his children and his healthy, and visiting him with the most loathsome form of leprosy. And here the Devil is at him again—a horned demon, with a long tail, curled into the form of a figure 8, and with ornate flaming wings and long claws. He is fluttering about the old patriarch with devilish glee, tormenting him and making a vigorous effort to disturb his meditations.

And these pious meditations continued. Job remained faithful to the Lord, who reversed the sentence of the Devil, and restored to Job all he had lost and more. With daughters renowned for their beauty, with sons to perpetuate his name, with fullness of days and abundance of honor he passed away, 140 years after his great trial. Hales places him before the birth of Abraham, Usher about 30 years before the Exodus (traditionally dated to 1521 BCE).