First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Esrom, in the year of the world 3496.

Aram, in the year of the world 3544.

Here begins the kingdom of Greece (the Argives), where Inachus, a son (as they say) of the sea and the earth, began to reign in the 60th year of Isaac, as the first king of the Greeks in Thessaly.[Inachus, son of Oceanus and Tethys, and father of Phoroneus and Aegialeus, was the first king and most ancient hero of Argos; whence the country is frequently called the land of Inachus. The ancients made several attempts to explain the stories about him. Sometimes they looked upon him as a native of Argos, who, after the flood of Deucalion, led the Argives from the mountains into the plains; and sometimes they regarded him as the leader of an Egyptian or Libyan colony, which settled on the banks of the river, to which this first king also gave his name.] This kingdom endured 544 years. However, Cecrops, the Egyptian, left the kingdom in the 94th year of the Hebrew bondage, and ruled for 50 years as the first king of the Athenians.[Cecrops, a hero of the Pelasgic race, is said to have been the first king of Attica. His son, Erysichthon, succeeded him as king of Athens. In his reign Poseidon and Athena contended for the possession of Attica, but Cecrops decided in favor of the goddess. Cecrops is said to have founded Athens, the citadel, which is called the Cecropia (Acropolis) after him. It is also said that he divided Attica into twelve communities and introduced the first elements of civilized life. He instituted marriage, abolished bloody sacrifices and taught his subjects how to worship the gods. Later Greek writers describe him as a native of Sais in Egypt, who led a colony of Egyptians into Attica, and thus introduced Egyptian art and civilization.]

Athens was a celebrated city in Attica. Cicero says it was first built by Abalandus. Plato says Amasis, the Egyptian king, built it, and that according to the Egyptian tongue he gave it a name, which in Greek is Athena. Some say that king Cecrops built it, and after the miraculous appearance of an olive tree, called it Minerva, whom the same tree symbolizes, and in the Greek tongue is called Athena. But others say it was not built by him, but came about of its own accord with increase in the population, during which time Athena was worshipped as a goddess among the people. This city was a fosterer of the liberal arts, and of many philosophers and lovers of wisdom; but through the spawning of the devil, she was a worshipper of idolatry. Augustine, in his City of God, book 18, writes sundry things about it; for instance, that while King Cecrops was building the city, water burst forth in one place, and at another an olive tree appeared. Now when Apollo, the idolatrous god,, was consulted as to the meaning of this miracle, he answered that the olive tree meant Minerva, and that the water meant Neptune; and that the citizens were free to call the city after either. So the people assembled, and the men favored Neptune, and the women, Minerva; but the women succeeded, and so the Greeks called the city Athena, which in Latin is equivalent to Minerva. This enraged Neptune, and he despoiled the land with a flood. In making their peace with Neptune the Athenians were compelled to inflict a triple punishment upon their wives: Firstly, that they should never again be present in the common councils; secondly, children born thereafter should not be named after their mothers; thirdly, no one should name his daughter Athena. Their seventeenth and last king was Cordus, in the time of Samuel. And although this city was once upon a time very mighty and celebrated, it is now a little city without distinction, which a Florentine surrendered to Mohamed; for although he long sought the aid of Italy, he did not succeed in getting it.


A small portrait of Inachus, about 2 inches square, appears in the upper lefthand corner. He wears a crown and has his scepter in hand. There is nothing distinctive about it; but then, who can say how a mythical Greek king should look?


At Folio XXVII recto, Pharez, the fourth son of Judah, was cut off without issue. But as already noted, Pharez (or Perez) had two sons, Hezron and Hamul. The importance of Pharez lies in the fact that he was the ancestor of David through Boaz and Ruth, and then of Christ. His descendents were in all probability the most numerous among the families of Judah; hence the blessing of the elders on Boaz: ‘Let thy house be like the house of Perez’ (Ruth 4:12). From Hezron, his first son, came Jerahmeel, Ram and Caleb, and through Ram was traced the line of the royal house of David.

So now, to continue the lineage of Pharez, we have here (Folio XXVII verso) Esrom (Hezron), his first born, and Aram (Ram), the first born of Hezron. Hamul, the second son of Pharez, has been discarded; as have also Jerahmeel and Caleb, the other sons of Hezron.


The City of Athens is here represented by the same woodcut that has already done service for the city of Themiscyra, the capital of the Amazons (Folio XIX verso); and of course we look in vain for the Acropolis, and the numerous temples, buildings and monuments that reflect the splendor of the ancient city.