First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Moesia,[Moesia, an ancient Roman province; the modern Bulgaria and Serbia.] Pannonia,[Pannonia, an ancient Roman province between the Danube and the Save rivers.] Rhaetia,[Rhaetia, an ancient Roman province, conquered in 15 BCE, embracing part of modern Tyrol and the Grisons, and later extended to the Danube.] then Thrace,[Thrace, a region of indefinite extent in northeastern Macedonia. Roman Thrace extended as far north as the Balkan mountains.] with Constantinople to the east, and Macedonia to the west—in these countries various people lived: the Moesians, the Getae,[The Getae were related to or identical with the Dacians; a Thracian nation or tribe. Originally occupied the territory between the Haemus and the Ister, but crowded to the north side of the river by the Macedonians.] the Sarmatians, the Scythians, and others. Item: Greece has on the east, Dalmatia, Epirus, Hellas, Thessaly, Macedonia, Achaoa, and Illyria. And all Greece and Dalmatia was named after Delim,[Delim, probably refers to Dalminium or Delminium. It was the capital from which Dalmatia derived its name. In ancient times the country nearly corresponded to the modern Dalmatia.] the largest city of these provinces. In Epirus lies Chaonia, formerly called Molossia. Item: Bellas, also called Attica, is the real Greece, and Athens, the city, is the mother of letters and the nourisher of the wise. But Hellas consists of two provinces, Boetia and Thessaly, wherein golden coins were first minted, and the taming of horses was first conceived of. Item: Macedonia, formerly called Emathia,[The original Emathia, as mentioned by Homer, is coupled with Pieria as lying between the Hellenic cities of Thessaly and Paeonia, and Thrace.] is near Media which is to the north. It was the country of Alexander the Great’s father.[Philip of Macedon.] It is rich in veins of gold and silver. In it is Mt. Olympus, which is so high that on its peak are found neither air nor clouds. Item: Achaia is almost an island, and in it lies the capital city of Corinth, an honor to Greece. Item: Arcadia, or Sicaonia, has the mineral asbestos, which when once ignited, can never be extinguished.[According to Pliny, “Asbestos is found in the mountains of Arcadia, and is of an iron color,” (, XXXVII. c.54). At another place Pliny calls it amianthus, and says that it resembles aluminum in appearance, and that it suffers no diminution from the action of fire (Book XXXVI). And he adds, “This substance effectually counteracts all noxious spells, those wrought by magicians in particular.” It is apparent that Schedel had no personal knowledge of asbestos. He states that once ignited, it can never be extinguished. Of course, we know that asbestos does not burn, and we can account for Schedel’s misinformation by calling to mind the asbestos wicks of the inextinguishable lamps of the Middle Ages, the existence of which was generally believed in at the time.] Item: Pannonia, so called from the Italian mountains which divide it from Italy, is a powerful country, and a good and happy land. Istria is named after the river Danube, which is also called the Ister. Pannonia is north of the river. Italy was once called Magna Graecia, and later on Latium. Finally it was called Italia, being named after Italus, its king.[Italus, a king of the Pelasgians, after whom, according to Roman mythology, Italy was named. At the time of Augustus the chief divisions of Italy were (1) Upper Italy, (2) Central Italy, or Italia Propria, and (3) Lower Italy, called Magna Graecia. At this time Latium was but one of the five provinces of Central Italy.] This country is most beautiful in every respect; it is fertile, and productive of wholesome and agreeable foodstuffs. It has three seas, Benacus[Lake Garda.], Alumnus,[Probably Lemanus Lacus, or Lake Leman (Lake of Geneva).] and Lucerne. It also has two rivers, the Eridanus, also called Padus,[Eridanus is the mythical and poetical name of the Po, Italy’s largest river.] and the Tiber. Italy produces precious stones, pearls, silks, corals, ligures, and snakes which are called boas. Italy and Spain are also called Hesperia.[Hesperia means Western Land. The name was given to Italy by the Greek poets because it lay west of Greece. In imitation the Roman poets gave the name of Hesperia to Spain, which they sometimes called Ultima Hesperia, to distinguish it from Italy, which they occasionally called Hesperia Magna. Hesperus is the evening star.] Tuscany is a part of Italy, and Umbria is a part of Tuscany; and Tuscany lies on the heights of the Italian mountains in the southern part of Italy. Etruria is a part of Italy. Item: Apulia. Item: Campania is a province of Italy which is verdant in summer and winter; for there the sun is bountiful, the climate temperate, and the air clear. Item: Gaul is protected on the east by high mountains, and it has the sea on the west. To the south are the Pyrenees and Spain; to the north are the Rhine and Germany.

It begins at Belgica,[In Caesar’s time Gaul was divided into three parts, Aquitania, Celtica and Belgica, according to the three different races by which it was inhabited. The Aquitani dwelt in the southwest between the Pyrenees and the Garumna, now the Garone; the Celtae, or Galli proper, in the center and west between the Garumna and the Sequana (now the Seine) and the Matrona, now the Marne; and the Belgae in the northeast, between the two last mentioned rivers and the Rhine.] and extends to Aquitania. This region is fertile, produces good food and fodder, and is well watered by rivers and springs. There are two rivers, the Rhine and the Rhone. Belgica is a state in Gaul, from which the country of Belgium derived its name. Hispania was first called Iberia after the river of the same name, and was thereafter called Hispania.[The name in general used among the Greeks during the historical period was Iberia, which was understood to be derived from the Iberus (now the Ebro), the principal river in northeastern Spain. It rises among the mountains of the Cantabri, flows southeast through a great plain, and falls into the Mediterranean near Dertosa, after forming a delta. This Iberia is not to be confused with the ancient Iberia in Asia, conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century, and which is now the country of Georgia. The name Hispania, for Spain, came into use after the Romans began to have a direct connection with the country, and this has remained the prevailing appellative ever since. The genuine form of the name is probably Span or Sapan, the vowel sound being prefixed for easier pronunciation, as is common in southern and eastern languages when and initial “s” is followed by another consonant. The origin of the name is uncertain. One author derives it from the Phoenicin and Hebrew word tsapan , which means a rabbit; and arguments are adduced in favor of this etymology from the numerous testimonies of the ancients to the abundance of these animals in the country (Strabo III. pp. 144, 168; Pliny VIII. c. 58, and XI. c. 37), as well as from a medal of Hadrian, on the reverse side of which is seen a female figure, as the personification of Spain, with a rabbit at her feet. W. von Humboldt, in his invaluable essay on the primitive history of Spain, maintains that it was a native name, and that its genuine form, vowel prefix and all, is preserved almost unaltered in the modern native name España, which he derives from the Basque Ezpaña, a border, margin, edge, denoting that the peninsula was the margin of Europe toward the ocean. The old Greek name Hesperia, chiefly used by the poets, was also used in connection with the notion that the world consisted of four parts: Libya, the southern; Asia, the eastern; Europe, the northern; and Hesperia, the western.] It lies between Gaul and Africa, and is bounded on the west by the Pyrenees, and at all other points by the sea. It has a clear atmosphere and good climate, produces all kinds of fruits, and is rich in precious stones and metals. Through it flow the rivers Baetus, Minius, Iberus, and Tagus.[The Baetus is now the Guadelquiver; the Minius is now the Minho, or Mino; the Iberus is the Ebro, while the Tagus has retained its ancient name.] It has six provinces, Tarraconensia, Carthaginiensis, Lusitania, Gallaecia, Baetica, and across the straits in Africa, Tingitana. There are two Hispanias—Hispania Citerior, and Hispania Ulterior.[Spain’s provincial constitution under the Romans dates from the year of the expulsion of the Carthaginians in 205 BCE; and at the same time the division of the peninsula into two parts was made a part of the political constitution; so that the peninsula formed, from the first down to the time of Augustus, two provinces, the eastern, called Hispania Citerior, and the western, called Hispania Ulterior, the river Ebro (Iberus) being adopted as the natural boundary between the two. This boundary varied at different times. Polybius, having in mind the old Greek distinction between the country of the Celts and that of the Iberians, calls the eastern province Cetiberia and the western Iberia. Other writers use Celtiberia as a synonym for Hither Spain, as distinguished from Further Spain. Lastly, some late writers used the terms Great and Little Spain as equivalent respectively to Hither and Further Spain. Hispania Ulterior included Baetica and Lusitania.]

Some hold that Africa derived its name from the fact that it is favorably situated with reference to the heavens and the sun, and does not suffer through frost. Others say it is named after Affer, a descendant of Abraham.[ No authoritative origin has been given for the name Africa. It was first used by Aeneas before the Second Punic War and was applied only to Carthage and its environs. However in the time of the Empire, the name meant the entire continent, which the Greeks had designated by the Semitic name Libya, by which was at one time meant only the northern rim of Africa. According to Genesis 26:1-3, Abraham took another wife named Keturah, and she bore him a number of sons, among them Midian; and to Midian sons were born, among them one Epher. Josephus (I. c. 25, s. 1) gives the same genealogy with a variation in the spelling of the manes, and calls Epher Ophran. He relates that his grandchildren, when they inherited it, called it from his name Africa. Citing other authorities, Josephus says: “Cleodamus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a history of the Jews in agreement with the history of Moses, their legislator, relates that there were some sons born to Abraham by Keturah: Nay, he names three of them, Apher, Surim, and Japhran. That from Surim was the land of Assyria denominated; and that from the other two, Apher and Japhran, the country of Africa took its name, because these men were auxiliaries to Hercules, when he fought against Libya and Antasus.”] It begins at the border of Egypt and extends southerly through Ethiopia to the Atlas Mountains. On the north it is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore these lands are called Libyan Cyrenaica, and they are so called from the name of its capital city.[Cyrenaica was the name of the district, which, from the time of the Ptolemies, was called Pentapolis because it included the five cities, Cyrene, the capital, and Apollonia, Ptolemais, Arsinoë, and Berenice.] Item: Pentapolis has been so-called because of its five cities. One of these cities is Ptolemais, and another is Berenice; their names are derived from their rulers.[Pentapolis is a name for any association of five cities and was applied specifically to two groups: The first has already been mentioned (Folio XIII verso, and note). The second group consisted of the five great cities of Cyrenaica in N. Africa, namely, Cyrene, Berenice, Arsinoë, Ptolemeita, and Apollonia. Arsinoë was the daughter of Ptolemy I (Lagi) and Berenice. She married Lysimachus, king of Thrace in 300 BCE; after the death of Lysimachus she married her half-brother, Ptolemy Ceraunus, who murdered her children by Lysimachus; and lastly she married her own brother, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus). He gave her name to several cities. She was exceedingly beloved of him though she gave him no children, and he also named a district of Egypt after her. Cyrene, the chief city of Cyrenaica in North Africa was founded by Battus (631 BCE) over a fountain consecrated to Apollo, and called Cyre, which supplied the city with water. Berenice was named after Berenice, the mother of Ptolemy II and his sister-wife Arsinoë. This Ptolemy built the city. Ptolemeita took its name from one of the Ptolemys, but which one is not known. Apollonia was the harbor of Cyrene and no doubt its name has some connection with the fountain of Apollo over which Cyrene was founded.] Item: Tripoli, Bizancius, Carthago, Numidia and Mauretania, or land of the Moore. Tingitania, and in the heat of the sun, Ethiopia. Tingitania is named after the capital city (Tingis) of the province.[Bizanoius, more correctly Byzacium, or Byzacena Regio, was the south portion of the Roman province of Africa. It corresponds to the southern part of Tunis. Carthago (Carthage) was one of the most celebrated cities of the ancient world, and lay N.E. of Tunis on a large bay. In ancient times it stood upon a peninsula surrounded on all sides, except by the west, by the sea. The coast of this part of Africa has been much changed by the deposits of the river Bagrades and the sand driven seaward by the northwest winds. Numidia, a country in N. Africa, lay on the Mediterranean, between Mauretania on the west and the territory of Carthage on the east. On the south it extended to the Atlas Mountains. Mauretania was the most westerly of the principal divisions of Africa. It lay along the Mediterranean and extended like a marrow band from the Atlantic on the west to Numidia on the east.] This region[Tingis is a place of very great antiquity on the south coast of the Straits of Gibraltar. Augustus made it a free city. Claudius made it a colony and the capital of Mauretania-Tingitania.] abounds in wild apes, dragons, ostriches, and some elephants, but at present these are found only in India. Item: Garrania is a province, and therein is a spring, cold in the heat of the day and warm in the cold of the night.[Possibly Garimantes, in the interior of Africa, to the east of the Libyan desert, and inhabited by a powerful tribe. Pliny, in speaking of Cyrenaica (V. c. 5), says: “Beyond it is the desert, and then Talgae, a city of the Garamantes, and Debris, at which place there is a spring, the waters of which, from noon to midnight, are at boiling heat, and then freeze for as many hours until the following noon; Garana too, that most famous capital of the Garamantes; all which places have been subdued by the Roman arms.”] Ethiopia is so called from the heat[No doubt the chronicler refers to the name Ham, or rather Cham, which is from a single root signifying to by hot, and hence burnt, black. The Hamites are dark-skinned people, dwelling mainly in the torrid zone. The first three sons of Ham settled in northern Africa.] suffered by the people, who suffer by reason of the nearness of the sun; for there the heat is constant. Here are many people of different features and of wonderful physique. The country is full of wild animals and snakes. There are also one-horned animals, cameleopards, basilisks,[Basilisk, a fabulous serpent, lizard or dragon, whose hissing would drive away all other serpents, and whose breath and even look was fatal. Today the term is applied to any of several tropical American lizards of the genus basiliscus.] and great dragons. Gems, iacinctus[Hyacinth, a precious stone of the ancients, of a blue color, perhaps the sapphire.] and chrysoprase,[Chrysoprase, an apple-green variety of chalcedony, of a dull, flinty luster, esteemed in jewelry.] and also reeds of cinnamon are found there. There are two Ethiopias, one to the East, the other to the West, in Mauretania. Now in addition to the three parts of the world above described there is a fourth one within the inner (Mediterranean) sea, which, because of the heat, is unknown to us. There, according to various writers, are said to live the people who turn their feet against us. [Antipodes is a term applied strictly to any two people or places on opposite sides of the earth, so situated that a line drawn from one to the other passes through the center of the globe and forms a globe diameter; derived from the Greek words anti (opposed) and podes (feet). Any two places having this relation must be distant from each other by 180 degrees of latitude, and one must be as many degrees north of the equator as the other is to the south; in other words, the latitudes are numerically equal, but on is north and the other south. At the antipodes the seasons and day and night are reversed, but in calculation of days and nights, midnight on the one side may be regarded as corresponding to noon either of the previous or following day. People living in opposed regions of the earth, like these, are said to have their feet turned toward each other, the zenith of the one being the nadir of the other.]