First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Nimrod, a man with a strong hand, was, after the death of Noah, his lord, fired with a desire to rule. His kingdom had its beginning in the field of Shinar. There this same most indigent and talkative man held a meeting. And in order to draw the people away from their fear of God, he advised them to bake bricks and to erect a tall tower whose steeples should touch the sky, so that they might ascend to heaven thereby. Now, as they were building the tower and thus raising themselves against God, the Lord struck down their folly and pride with a single punishment, whereby the seventy-two peoples who had gathered together there, and who descended from the three sons of Noah and spoke one tongue, were divided into as many tongues; and they could no longer understand one another. And so the assembly was dissolved, and the people were scattered upon the face of the earth. Where this tower once stood is clear to but few people. They say that in the beginning, a noble commercial or manufacturing city of the Chaldeans, called Baldach, stood upon the banks of the Euphrates. Its inhabitants say that not far from this city is to be seen a large rock pile, inaccessible because of the sharp rocks and poisonous animals. And there they say the tower stood, and from hence all things were carried out of Babylonia into their city. Bede says that this tower was 1174 paces high. And it was called Babel, that is, division or dispersion; for although there was one language throughout the world until then, the Lord thus scattered the people through all parts of the earth.[The Tower of Babel is named in the Bible but once, and is then referred to as incomplete (Genesis 11:4-5). It was apparently built of burnt bricks and bitumen was used for mortar. Jewish traditions and early profane writers say that the tower was destroyed. The captive Jews at Babylon thought they recognized it, however, in the famous Temple of Belus, which some would identify with the temple of Nebo at Borsippa, the modern Birs Nimrud. The Birs Nimrud is one of the most striking ruins on the plain and is six miles southwest of Hillah, on the Euphrates. This great mound is about 2300 feet in circumference and 250 feet high, and was built of burnt bricks, each 12 inches square and 4 inches thick. Several of these bear the inscription of Nebuchadnezzar. The tower is represented as in the form of a pyramid, built in seven receding stories, each of the first three being 26 feet high, each of the last four being 15 feet high. On the seventh story was a temple or ark, perhaps with a statue of the god Belus. The Birs Nimrud is most probably the Tower of Babel of , and seems to have been a temple dedicated to the heavenly bodies.]

The kingdom of Scythia (Scytharum) had its beginning in the region toward the north. There first ruled Tanai (Thanay), after whom was named the great river, Tanais, which flows into the swamps called Palus Maeotis. And this region is divided by that same river. A portion of the region is in Europe, while the rest extends into Asia.[The river Tanais rises in the north of Sarmatia Euopaea (about the center of Russia) and flows to the southeast till it nears the Volga, when it turns to the southwest, and falls into the northeast angle of the Palus Maeotis (Sea of Azov) by two principal mouths and several smaller ones. It was usually considered the boundary between Europe and Asia.] The European part ends at Thracia.[ Thracia, in early times, was a vast space of country bounded on the north by the Danube, on the south by the Propontis (Sea of Marmora) and the Aegean, on the east by the Pontus Euxine (Black Sea) and on the west by the river Strymon and the most easterly of the Illyrian tribes. It was divided into two parts by the Haemus mountains (Balkans) running from east to west. At a later time the name Thrace was applied to a more limited area.] It contains but a small amount of animal life and is uninterrupted by water-ways. But the part which stretches eastward into Asia is inhabited by various peoples. In general all Scythians use the bow, ride horses, and sustain themselves, not with the plow, but by the chase. Although this land is the oldest, yet as its people are coarse, it is not reckoned as one of the four principal and more advanced countries. Yet these Scythian people never allowed themselves to be subdued in battle. They drove off Darius, the king of Persia. They killed Cyrus. They destroyed Syphirionas, the general of Alexander the Great; repulsed and drove to flight the king of Egypt and his army with all its implements of war. They defeated Asia three times and compelled it to pay tribute for many years. Out of these Scythians came many who accomplished great things. Firstly, the Amazons, the highly celebrated women, who apparently performed great deeds in battle. Bactria and Parthia came out of them; also the great Attila (and others), who subjugated Pannonia, and sacked Aquilaeia, and committed much waste in Germany, also descended from them. Zeliorbis, the Hungarian king, who rose up against Emperor Justinian, had his origin in Scythia. The Hungarians, Catalauni, and all the Goths also had their origin there, as did the Dani and the Turks. The country had its beginning in Magog, the grandson of Noah. Its people are coarse and have no regard for justice or equality. They worship snakes and are idolatrous, and are involved in many indecent cravings.[Scythia is a name applied to very different countries at different times. The Scythia of Herodotus comprises the southeastern parts of Europe between the Carpathian mountains and the river Tanäis (Don). Herodotus believed these people to be of Asiatic origin, and his description of them leaves no doubt that they were a part of the great Mongol race who wandered from unknown antiquity, over the steppes of Central Asia. He further states that they were driven from Asia by the Massagetae. The Scythians were a nomadic people (shepherds or herdsmen), with no fixed habitation. They roamed over great areas living in covered wagons. They kept large troops of horses and were extremely skilled in cavalry exercises and archery. When Darius invaded their country he found it almost impossible to act against them due to their shifting tactics. Their government was a sort of patriarchal monarchy or chieftainship.]

The kingdom of the Assyrians, in the East, had its inception in the 25th year of the life of Baruch[The amanuensis of Jeremiah (Jeremiah 36:4).] (as Eusebius states),[Eusebius, surnamed Pamphili, to commemorate his devoted friendship for Pamphilus, bishop of Caesarea, was born in Palestine about 264 CE, was himself made bishop of Caesarea in 315, and died about 340. He was a man of great learning. His of five volumes from the creation of the world, which he places at 5499 BCE to 221 CE, has been lost. This first volume of Eusebius gives lists of kings and other magistrates, with short accounts of remarkable events from the creation to his own time. The second book consists of synchronological tables, with similar catalogues of rulers and striking occurrences, from the time of Abraham to the celebration of Constantine’s Vicennalia, 327-8 CE, held in commemoration of the twentieth year of his reign. The Greek text of the is lost, but a Latin translation of part of it by Jerome survived. It was published at Leiden in 1616, and an enlarged edition at Amsterdam in 1658. There is also an Armenian translation, discovered at Constantinople, and published at Milan in 1818. Eusebius wrote other important works, such as his , in 15 volumes, a collection of facts and quotations from old writers, and by this it was supposed the mind would be prepared to receive Christianity. This book is almost as important in the study of ancient philosophy, as the is with reference to history, for in it are preserved excerpts from the writings of every philosopher of note whose works are not now extant. Eusebius supplemented this 15-volume work with his in 20 books (of which only 10 remain). It was addressed principally to the Jews. He also wrote an Ecclesiastical History in 10 books, containing the history of Christianity from the birth of Christ to 324 CE. His is an account of the persecutions under Diocletian and Maximin from 303 to 310.] and among all others, it was the most eminent and renowned. The time from Belus, its first king, to Sardanapolis, its last one, is 1302 years. During this period it had 37 kings. Assyria lies in Asia. The Euphrates is on its east, and it extends west to our (Mediterranean) sea and Egypt. To the north are Armenia and Cappadocia. On the south is Arabia. And this is Syria.