First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…
FOLIO XV verso

Shem, the first son of Noah, was born in the 50th year of his father and in the 2244th year of the world, and 2957th year before the birth of Christ; and he lived 600 years, and bore Arphaxad two years before the Flood; and it is said he was Melchisedek, who firstly after the Flood built Salem, that is, Jerusalem. And twenty-seven peoples sprang from him. But Shem bore five sons of whom five separate peoples sprang. The first was Elam, progenitor of the Elamites, the princes of Persia. And Shem in his hundredth year bore Arphaxad and other sons and daughters, and died.

This Aeshur, the second [referring to the accompanying woodcut] of whom the kingdom of Assyria originated, declined to join Nimrod in striving against God in the building of the Tower of Babel. And he fled from the land of Shinar far into an uninhabited region, which from his name was called Assyria. And thereafter he built the city of Nineveh, the capital of the kingdom of’ Assyria. This people stand accused of great cruelty.

Aram, the fourth son of Shorn, had four sons, and in him Syria originated. Of this Damascus is the capital. Therefore, in the Hebrew Syria is called Aram.

The first son of Aram was Uz of the land of Traconida, which lies between Palestine and Coele-Syria.[ “Hollow Syria” is properly the great hollow running N. and S. between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges.] In this Judean land lay Uz, out of which came Job, the prophet.

Arphaxad, the third son of Shorn, was born in the 2344th year of the world, according to the seventy interpreters, and he lived 338 years and died. Of this Arphaxad came the Chaldaeans, after whom the land of Chaldaea was named. It lies in Asia, borders on Arabia, is level and arid. It was the great Babylonia.

Shem, who is the progenitor of the Semitic or Asiatic branch of the human race, had five sons: Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram. Elam represents the Elymaeans, who originally peopled the country west of Persia, between it and Mesopotamia, Elymaia, stretching from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf. The old geographers called it Susiana; Herodotus calls it Cissia. It became important in the time of Abraham. Asshur is the eponym for Assyria. The name Arphaxad has been interpreted to mean fortress or country of the Chaldees. Others have identified the name with Arrapachitia, a region on the east band of the Tigris, north of the primitive Assyria and joining Armenia. Lud is supposed to stand for the Lydians, a warlike race that spread westward into Asia Minor, and there founded a powerful kingdom, which was conquered by Cyrus, and swallowed up in the Persian Empire. But the matter is uncertain. The Arabic historians assign to Lud the Amalekites and the primitive Arabs, being younger branches of the nation. It is possible that the primitive Amorites and Philistines were Semitic people of the stock of Lud. Aram represents Aramea, or Syria, especially that part north of Palestine. Mesopotamia is the Aram of the two rivers, that is, Euphrates streams. The Semitic languages, Syraic and Chaldee, originated in Aram.

Uz gave name to the country of Job, in the north of Arabia Deserta. Hul, Gether and Mash are not identified to any degree of certainty.

Noah planted a vineyard, and after he drank of the wine he became drunk and lay uncovered in his tent. Now when Ham saw the nakedness of his father, he told his two brothers about it. But they laid upon his shoulders a garment to cover his nakedness, and turned away their eyes and they did not see their father’s nakedness. Now as Noah wanted to curse Ham, whom God had blessed, he cursed Canaan, the son of Ham, because Ham had laughed at his father, as has previously been written. [The narrative is not exactly in accord with the text of Genesis 10:20-26.]