First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

It also has elegant houses, beautiful streets, and well adorned church edifices; also five markets, five town-halls, and as many councils. From this city the dukes of Braunschweig obtained their name and title, the noblest throughout Germany. I am content to mention the daring deed of just one person from this place,- a man named Cuntz von Kauffen, born in a noble region of Saxony. He was experienced in military affairs, quick in action, and unafraid. He felt that he had been unjustly deprived of his paternal inheritance through Duke Frederick of Saxony, and on that account committed an unbelievable offense in this manner: There is a castle in the country of Meissen situated on a sharp and craggy rock, called Altenburg, and below it lies a beautiful and secure little town of many people. In this castle, Ernest and Albert, the two young sons of Duke Frederick, were being reared. Pursuant to information given him by the preceptor of the two young princes, Cuntz von Kauffen entered the castle during the night by means of ladders and seized the two youths while asleep; and when they awoke he threatened them with death should they cry out. He secured them with cords and led them away, confidant that once in Bohemia with them, he could sell them for a large sum of money and thus avenge himself. When he reached the Bohemian forest with the two lads, he believed himself beyond all danger. When the youngest of the two princes, weary and hungry, desired rest and food, the robber was so moved by his plea that he went to a charcoal burner and requested him to take bread and beer to the lad. In the meantime this new event caused a hue and cry at Altenburg. The burghers speedily followed the footprints of the robber and fortunately came upon the path which led directly to the charcoal burner. And there Cuntz von Kauffen was seized while handing the food to the youth; taken to the duke, and beheaded for his avaricious misdeed. Only a small part of Saxony proper is subject to the jurisdiction of the duke of Saxony; for in this province are many other princes, many imperial cities, and many bishops with their own estates. But Meissen and the greater part of Thüringia and many cities in Lausitz and Franconia are subject to this duke and prince. The right to vote as elector for a Roman emperor is vested in the dukes of Saxony through a small principality lying between Meissen and Silesia; and therein lies the capital city of Wittenberg or Weiszberg. At Goslar, in Saxony, silver mines were discovered by the emperor Otto I. Saxony also has many salt springs, from which pure salt is obtained. Near Lüneburg are mines rich and abundant in salt, from which many abbots and prelates secured a living; but those of Lüneburg obtained control over them by force.


To the north are three kingdoms that adjoin one another, Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Denmark, a part of Germany, was at one time in the possession of the Saxons. Here originated the invasion of the barbarians, who were bent on overrunning Italy and destroying Rome. They were extirpated by Marius Arpimus.


SWEDEN is surrounded by the sea on all sides and includes many islands, among which one called Scandania has been long remembered by the ancient historians. From this island a countless multitude of people at one time went forth, depressing all Europe with war. They fought against the Goths and Huns, besieged Pannonia, Moesia, Macedonia, and the entire region of Illyria, and devastated all Germany, Gaul and Italy. They finally settled down in Spain; and from hence was their origin.


NORWAY (which derived its name from north) extends northward into an unknown region, or as some conjecture, into the Frozen Sea. To the west and south is the German Sea, and to the east the English Sea. It is thought that those who took possession of the region and places in Saxony came from Norway. Before these times Valdemar (III) ruled in Sweden, while “the great Aquinus" reigned in Norway. Of the latter it is said that he was a devout person, and that he was honored by his subjects with remarkable affection and subservience. His wife Margrete was the daughter of Valdemar, and to her was born Olaf, who succeeded his father. But he did not live long, and he left the kingdom to his mother. When her father died, she also inherited his kingdom. But when "Aquinus" died in Sweden, "Albert the duke, of Naupolensis” received the crown at the behest of the people. He disdained the rule of his neighbor because the ruler was a woman, and undertook a war against Denmark and Norway. And Margrete mustered her forces and engaged Albert in a large field, fighting with the courage of a man. She defeated and captured Albert and deposed him from his throne. This illustrious woman, Margrete, reigned with honor for three years until her old age. Bowed down in years, and no longer able to govern alone, she chose Duke “Henry” of Pomerania, then fourteen years of age, as an adopted son and sovereign of the kingdom; and she espoused him to Philippa, daughter of the English king. When "Henry's" (Erik’s) wife died without issue,