First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

We will now permit the regions of Germany to rest, and consider the Sarmatian or Polish people, to the East and North. Poland is a large extensive region, bordering on Silesia on the West, and also on Hungary, Lithuania, and Prussia. Therein lies Cracow, most distinguished city of the kingdom. With this exception the cities of Poland are not illustrious, nearly all the houses being built of wood and coated with lime; and there are other characteristics already noted in this book. The antecedent kings divided this country into four parts. The king makes the circuit of these four parts every year, holding court in each, free of expense to himself; but if he remains in one place more than three months, he does so at his own expense. When the Polish king died, before our time, he left a daughter who was espoused to Duke William of Austria; and this duke was made king. But the German king was not acceptable to the Poles, and they called in Ladislaus of Lithuania, ejected William, and gave his spouse and the kingdom to the new king. Ladislaus was a heathen and a worshipper of idolatrous gods, but he received baptism with the kingdom. After his conversion to Christ he conducted himself like a spiritual prince, drawing many Lithuanians to the Holy Gospel, erecting several episcopal churches, and conferring great honors on the bishops. If while out riding he saw a church steeple, he always removed his hat and bowed his head in honor of God. He success fully fought against the Tartars and other infidels, and won a great victory over the Prussians. By his second wife, who was almost ninety years of age, this Ladislaus begot two sons, Wladislaus and Casimir. Upon his death Wladislaus received the Polish kingdom, while Casimir secured the duchy of Lithuania. Before that time Ladislaus had been chosen king of Hungary. He was slain in the war against the Turks. The Estates of Poland called in as king, Frederick the margrave of Brandenburg, who had spent the days of his youth in the Polish kingdom, and knew the language and customs of the people. But it was asserted that since Casimir, duke of Lithuania, brother of the deceased king, had the first right as heir, it was only proper that he should be first consulted to ascertain his wishes and intentions; and should Casimir be willing to accept the kingdom as his brotherly and paternal inheritance, the margrave Frederick would not consider it proper to hinder him therein. The same prudence had been employed by Albert, duke of Bavaria, toward Ladislaus, in refusing the Bohemian kingdom whom offered to him. And so the emperor Frederick, when the Hungarians and Bohemians offered him the inheritance left by King Ladislaus, would hear no more of it. And although the Lithuanians were not willing to give up Casimir, he went to Poland, accepted the sovereignty, and ruled in peace. Ere long he espoused King Ladislaus’ sister, and he became involved in much strife with the Teutonic Knights.