First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

In Dalmatia King Stephen harassed those of Ragusa with great battles; for he had a duchy between the Bosnians and the Dalmatians. He was tainted with the poison of the Manichaean heresy, and secretly kidnapped Christians and sold them to the Turks; yet he sent emissaries to Rome asking assistance from the papal see, thus seeking from Christians the funds he expended in making war against the Christians.


In the land of Croatia an Austrian woman of mean birth, but excellent morals and good standing, was recompensed in being espoused by a count. While riding from one castle to another, she was surprised by the rapid approach of the Turks; she was taken prisoner and detained by them for a long time. Her husband, becoming impatient, secured her release from imprisonment by the payment of a large sum of money. Now some one may ask where we have left the country of Liburnia; but the boundaries and extent of the lands, provinces and regions are so doubtful and confused that it is impossible to distinguish the modern regions from one another, and the possibility of distinguishing and locating the very ancient ones is still more remote. Pliny, the historian, says that Liburnia ends where Dalmatia begins.


The ancient teachers say that Istria is a part of Italy, and in it are situated the cities of Parentium and Pola. Justantinopolis is the capital. It borders on Italy in a recess of the Adriatic, extending into the sea in the form of an island. This region is mountainous and rocky. The ancients call it Albania. Pliny said that Istria borders on Liburnia. In consequence it is apparent that the Croatians came into the land of the Liburnians. The Istrians are now Wendic, but the cities on the seacoast speak Italian, and know both languages. That part of the country which lies along the seacoast and is now subject to the Venetians, is the beSt. The interior is in the possession: of the Austrians. There also is the city of St. Veit, 1,000 stadia from Aquileia. In our times nothing memorable occurred in this country, although the Austrians and Venetians often warred with one another in consequence of boundary disputes. From time to time the emperor sent emissaries to settle these controversies, and although new truces were made, the wars never ceased entirely.


The Carniolans follow the Istrians. The Wends, whose language the country retains, divide the land into two parts. One is arid and in need of moisture, and therein, between Laibach and Triest live the Istrians and the Carsii, inhabiting the mountains as far as the river Timavus. The other is well watered by various rivers, particularly by the Save and the Laibach, from which the city took its name. While Emperor Frederick was on his way to be crowned at Aix-la-Chapelle, the city of Laibach was besieged and attacked by Count Ulrich of Cilli and Duke Albert, the emperor’s brother, and their allies; but the siege was finally raised by the knights of the emperor and many valuable weapons and implements of war were captured.