First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

includes Attica, Boeotia, Phocis, Thessaly, Magnesia, Aetolia, and Acarnania. But in another place Ptolemy states that the cities of Elix (Helice), Bura, Helena, and Pherecia are in Achaia. The district of Acarnania, between Epirus and Boeotia, is now absorbed in Aetolia, at present a duchy. John Vintimilius, a native of Sicily, espoused his daughter to the despot of Acarnania. Later, when the Turks brought distress upon Arcanania and besieged the son-in-law, John came over the sea with a small expeditionary force, pursued the besiegers, and secured a memorable victory over the Turks, thus relieving his son-in-law, who however, was later taken prisoner by the Turks through treachery and deprived of his sovereignty.


This region begins at the Acroceraunii, the mountains on the west, and extends eastward to the Ambracian valley for a distance of 1300 stadia. It borders on Macedonia on the north, and on Achaia on the east to the river Achelous. On the west it extends to the Ionian Sea. Theopompus writes that there were 24 tribes in this region, and historians state that this land sea was prosperous and productive, and once possessed many secure cities and castles. However, because of the enmity of these people against the Romans, the province was destroyed. And as Polybius states, 20 cities of Epirus were leveled to the ground by the emperor Aemilius Paulus, after the defeat of the Macedonians and the king of Persia. In this region occurred the widely celebrated naval battle of Actium, wherein the emperor Augustus triumphed over Mark Anthony and Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. In commemoration thereof Augustus built in the Ambracian valley the city of Nicopolus, which name signifies victory.


Albania at one time belonged to and was part of Macedonia, wherein the two aforesaid cities of Dyrrachium and Apollonia were situated. The language of this people is understood neither by the Greeks nor the Wends. We believe that the people at one time came from the Albania near Chalcide, in Asiatic Scythia, when the barbarian nations overran Greece and Italy. In this country was the mighty Chamusa, who, though born of Christian parents, denied the Christian faith and turned to the Mohammedan folly. But just as readily as he forsook Christ, so he scorned the Moha mmedan idolatry and returned to the ancestral law. Although he ignored both beliefs, he preferred to die as a Christian rather than as a Turk. He died soon after the fall of Constantinople. George Skanderbeg, born of noble parents, and his successor, devoted all his days to arms and war in defense of Christianity. He defeated and destroyed vast hordes of Turks, and alone maintained this land in the Gospels of ChriSt. But it is said that the greater part of this region has now been devastated by hostile arms. King Alphonso often sent troops into Albania. He took the city of Kroja, and protected it against the Turks. The aforesaid Skanderbeg's brother’s son, who favored the Turks, was captured by his said uncle, sent to King Alphonso, and placed in a cell. Pope Calixtus gave Skanderbeg much financial assistance.


After Albania come the Illyrians, to the west and north. We now call these people Wends. Some are called Bosnians, some Dalmatians, some Croats, some Istrians, and some Carniolans. The Bosnians are in the interior, near Hungary, toward the north, while the others, situated on the sea, extend as far as the Timavian springs, facing Ansonia on one side and Hungary on the other. But the river Timavus runs into it as far as the innermost gulf of the Adriatic. Although King Stephen of Bosnia followed the Christian faith, he held himself aloof from the sacrament of baptism for a long time. Later he summoned John, Cardinal of St. Angelo, from whom he received holy baptism; and then he began a war against the Turks. In this region live many Manichaean heretics, who hold that there were two beginnings, one good, the other evil; and they have no regard for the supremacy of the Roman Church. Nor do they recognize that Christ is of the same nature as God, and coexistent with him. Their cloisters are in remote and secluded places between the mountains. When the women become ill, they obligate themselves to serve these same monks as holy men for a certain period. And when they are restored to health, they fulfill their vow, with the consent of their husbands, by living in promiscuity with the monks for a fixed period of time. Neither the laws of the Roman See nor Christian arms have been able to remove this blot; for the Almighty God permits this heresy to prevail for our discipline.