First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

MACEDONIA, the country that once ruled the world, borders on Thrace from the west and south, and extends from the Aegean Sea to the Adriatic. To the south, at its back, are Thessaly and Magnesia; and to the north Paeonia and Paphiagonia. These regions were later added to Macedonia. Epirus and Illyricum also border on Macedonia, one on the south, the other on the north. On the shores of the Adriatic lies the ancient city of Dyrrachium (now Durazzo) of the Cheronese (Peniscola) in which it is located, and from whence it derived its name. It was formerly called Epidamnus, and was first built by those of Corcyra (Corfu). Not far below was the city of Apollonia (Polina), established under good laws, and memorable for the fact that the emperor Augus tus studied Greek there. On the other shore is Thessalonica, once a mighty city, celebrated through the epistles of St. Paul, and by the devastations and irreconcilable wrath of Theodosius the Great; for, although at times he was a most kind emperor, he was so enraged by the slaying of the judges in the city that he ordered all the inhabitants put to death; and thus about 11,000 men perished. St. Ambrose, bishop of Milan, would not permit such an inhuman deed to pass unpunished; and he forbade the emperor’s entry into the churches, and compelled him to do penance. From henceforth a law was enforced that a sentence of death should not be carried out for thirty days. Pliny states that this was a free city. Strabo says that Philip, the father of Alexander the Great, built it. Both ascribe this city to Macedonia. Andronicus, son of Emanuel, the Constantinopolitan emperor, acquired this city as a portion of his inheritance, but later, through hatred of his brother John, who succeeded his father as emperor, he surrendered it to the Venetians, from whom it was taken by the Turkish sultan Amurate. This sultan also brought under his sway the remaining Macedonian districts as far as the Paeonian mountains, a region now called Albania. O what wonderful changes have taken place in worldly affairs, and how transitory man's authority has been! At one time this Macedonian region, while under the two kings, Philip and Alexander, (and after the subjection of Greece and Thrace), extended into Asia, Armenia, Iberia, Albania, Cappodocia, Syria, Egypt, and as far as Mount Taurus and the Caucasus, and over the Bactrians, Medes and Persians. But in our time it is unfortunately subject to the vile Turks, to whom it has become tributary and subservient.


Magnesia and Thessaly were overrun by the Turks in our time. The most noble mountains, Olympus, Pieris, Pindus, Ossa and Othrys, once belonging to the Lapithae, are now subject to the power of the Turks. Here, Pliny states there were once upon a time seventy cities. The Justeagoniphus is the most celebrated river of Thessaly. It arises between mounts Ossa and Olympus in a wooded valley, and is navigable in various places. Through this region, also flows in the same direction the river Peneus, passing through a green swamp. Grass is abundant on its banks and there the sweet notes of birds are heard. It approaches the rivulet of Orchon, but does not reach it. Once upon a time there lived in Thessaly a king named Grecus from whom Greece derived its name; also king called Helenus, after whom Helen was named. Homer, the poet and historian, called this land by three names - Mirmidona, Helena and Achaia. And although these people withstood the might of Persia, they were unable to hinder the Turks from passing through the Philarian narrows.


After Thessaly comes Boeotia, extending from east to west, touching the Euboean Sea (on the east), and the Crissaean Gulf (on the west). Boeotia is renowned among historians, and was the native land of Pater Liber and of Hercules. Therein lay a city called Epaminundum, of no less renown than Athens; but in our time it is just a small citadel and, together with other Boeotian districts, in the possession of the Turks.


Hellas, by us called Greece, was called Acte by our forefathers, and later the name was changed to Atice. Homer called all the inhabitants of Attica Athenians; for at that time the city of Megara had not yet been built. Attica extended from Boeotia to the mountains, where there is a district called Megaris. By these same Corinthian mountains was a column, and on the side thereof toward the Peloponnesus were inscribed the words: This is Peloponnesus and not Ionia; while on the side toward Megara were the words: This is not Peloponnesus, but Ionia. The Atticans and the Ionians are one people; and as they very often quarreled with the Peloponnesians as to the extent of their lands, they finally reached a common accord and erected this column. Although Attica is mountainous, rocky, and unproductive, many have praised it and have called it a household god. In this region was the once most celebrated city of Athens, lacking neither in praise nor renown; but in our own time it has the appearance of a small insignificant village. On the elevation on which the ancient temple of Minerva stood, is now a castle or fortress, celebrated throughout Greece for its dimensions, structure, and defenses against attack. This city was surrendered to the Turks by a Florentine after his calls for assistance were ignored by the Latins; wherefore he was given several villages in which to spend his time ignobly.


The Peloponnesus lies in the vicinity of Attica, once the citadel of all Greece; for in addition to the nobility and might of its people, the location of its towns and regions prove it a principality and. sovereignty. There are many valleys and mountains in this country. It has a breadth from east to west of 1400 stadia, and a circumference of 4,000. Two seas, the Ionian and the Aegaean, adjoin it. According to Anthemidorus, in this region lay the noble city of Corinth. At present the Latins call this region Morea; and therein lie Achaia, Messinia, Laconia, Argolis, and, in the midst of these, Arcadia. After making war on Thessalonica, Boeotia, and Attica, Somirates proceeded as far as the city of Examilium, whose walls he destroyed;