First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

The Sixth Age of the world began with the birth of Christ Jesus Christ, being in the beginning of the forty-second year of the reign of Augustus Octavian; the thirty-first year of the reign of Herod the foreigner; in the third year of the one hundred and ninety-third Olympiad; from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) 759 years;[Jesus was born in the year from the founding of th city of Rome 749 (not 759), that is, four years before the beginning of our era (i.e., 4 BCE). Herod the Great died in the same year, but after the birth of Jesus, for it was he who, according to Matthew 2.16-18, ordered the massacre of the innocents.] from the Captivity of the Jews 545 years; from the reign of David 1029; from the birth of Abraham 2,015 years; from the Flood of Noah 2957 years; from Adam 5,199 years; from the conception of John the Baptist, in the sixth month; and it continues through the entire period called grace, and extends from the sanctified birth of Jesus Christ to the present time, 1492; and it will take its course to the time of Anti-Christ, or the end of the world. Some (as already stated) take the incarnation of Christ as the beginning of this age; others calculate it from the baptism of Christ, because of the power given the waters; or from the time of the circumcision; some compute it from the suffering of Christ for then the gate of Paradise was opened, and the seventh age of the dead began. And so with this Sixth Age, the Christian Empire and the highest papal authority originated and became established.

Mariamne (Mariannes), a queen of the Hebrews and a daughter of Aristobulus, was slain through jealousy by Herod, her husband; for (as Josephus says) she was of such great and excelling beauty that she was taken for a celestial being, exceeding all other women of her time in personal stature. Finally she was accused before Herod by her mother and sister, of having sent Octavianus a portrait of herself to arouse in him a passion for her. This Herod believed and caused her to be slain.

Until this time the Jews did not lack for princes; but now they accepted this foreign Herod. For it was the time when he came who was promised, and who is praised in the new law as the expectation of the nations.[Cf. Genesis 49.10.] And so their anointing (that is, kingdom) deservedly came to an end; for according to the prophecies of Daniel there came the holiest of the holy.


Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and our Savior and Redeemer, was born at Bethlehem, in Judea, in the forty-second year of the reign of Augustus and when Quirinius (Cirino) was governor, and the whole world was at peace. He was born of the Virgin Mary, who according to the annunciation of an angel, conceived him of the Holy Spirit, to redeem the human race from the fall which was due to the disobedience of the first pair. It was he who by his birth, by his life, by his death, by his resurrection, by his ascension to heaven, and by many unheard-of miracles gave testimony of his divinity. For, firstly, his birth was miraculous, and so the angels in heaven sang that he was God in the Highest; and they gave the shepherds great joy in announcing to them the birth of the Savior of the World. Afterwards, on the eighth day, he was carried to the temple to be circumcised; and he was called Jesus. Later, on the thirteenth day the Wise Men, guided by a star in Syria, came with three gifts to worship him. On the fourteenth day his mother brought him to the temple, and Simeon (Symon) the Just took him up in his arms and pronounced him the Savior, saying, Lord, now allow your servant to depart in peace, according to your word, etc. Afterwards, Joseph, according to a warning from the Lord, fled from Herod into Egypt, together with this child and its mother. There he remained until Herod's death. Then lived in the city of Nazareth, on account of which he was called a Nazarene. The rest (of the incidents in his life) are well known from the very familiar history of the gospel.

For the angelic annunciation to the shepherds, see Luke 2:8-14; the circumcision, Luke 2:21; the visit of the Magi, Matthew 2:1-11; the prophecy of Simeon, Luke 2:25-32; the flight to Egypt, Matthew 2:13-15; and the return to Nazareth, Matthew 2:19-23.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, reigned 9 years after his father. Augustus, because of love for his father, held him and his brothers in high esteem. But later, on a certain charge, Augustus banished him to Vienna in the country of the Allobroges.[Archelaus, son of Herod the Great, was appointed by his father as his successor, and received from Augustus the provinces of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, with the title of Ethnarch. In consequence of his tyrannical rule, the Jews accused him before Augustus in the 10th year of his reign (6 CE), and Augustus banished him to Vienna, in Gaul, where he died. The Allobroges were a powerful people of Gaul, whose chief town was Vienna on the Rhone. They dwelt between that river and the Isara as far as Lake Geneva, consequently in the modern Dauphine and Savoy. They were first mentioned in Hannibal’s Invasion 218 BCE, and were conquered by the Romans in 121 BCE; but they bore their yoke unwillingly and were always disposed to rebellion.]

Jesus Christ at the age of twelve years went to the feast at Jerusalem with his parents; and there he went among the teachers of the Holy Scriptures, asking them questions and solving doubtful ones; for this reason they regarded him not as a god, but as a child of marvelous understanding. When his parents were returning to their home, and did not see the child following them, they returned to the temple with much anxiety; and they found the child in discussion with the learned; but at the request of his parents he went home and was obedient to them.[ Luke 2:41-51.]

Componius, who was the colleague of Quirinius[A clause not in the German edition of the .], was sent to Judea to succeed Archelaus as procurator.

After Judea became a Roman province, governors, proconsuls or procurators were sent there from Rome. This was the office held by Pilate at the time of Jesus’ crucifixion. In the strict sense of the word a procurator was a Roman official in charge of the collection of the revenues in a province—a provincial administrator. A proconsul was usually an ex consul who exercised consular authority in one of the provinces or as commander of an army.

Unusually for the German edition of the Chronicle, it adds the following text to the single sentence of the Latin edition: "and during his rule, the Samaritans, on the day of the unleavened bread, secretly came to Jerusalem and threw out the bones of the dead. From this point on greater care was taken of the temple."

Marcus was the successor of Componius. During his rule, Salome, the sister of Herod died.

Annius Rufus followed Marcus. During his rule Augustus died in the 15th year of the Lord.

Jesus, our Lord, at the age of 30 years, in order to open the door to everlasting life, wished to be baptized in the Jordan by John. And a voice was heard from heaven: This is my beloved Son, etc. And the Holy Spirit, in the likeness of a dove, lighted upon him.[Matthew 3:13-17; Mark 1:9-11; Luke 3:21-22; Cf. John 1:31-4.] After that he fasted in the wilderness for forty days and nights; and he was hungry. After being tempted of the devil,[Matthew 4:1-11; Luke 4:1-13.] he returned to the temple and drove out from it the sellers and the buyers, etc.[Mark 11:15-17; Matthew 21:12-13; Luke 19:45; John 2:13-16.]

Valerius the Roman, from the famous family of the Grati (Gracchorum)[This clause and the preceding word ‘Roman’ are not in the German edition of the .], in the first year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, was sent to Judea to succeed Annius as procurator. He ruled nine years, and was the first who dared sell the priestly office among the Jews.

Pilate, a native of Lyons, in Gaul, a sly and dangerous man, was in the 13th year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar (Ce) sent by Tiberius to Judea as procurator to succeed Valerius Gratus (Gracchus) who had been deposed. And he ruled 10 years. This Pilate, by crafty means, suppressed the turbulence of the Jews. Afterwards, at the instigation of the Jews, he nailed Jesus to the cross. Fearful of the consequences, he sent a report to Tiberius the emperor to acquaint him with the teachings and death of Christ. When this event was reported to Tiberius he decided to place Jesus in the list of the gods. But after Pilate had reported these things to Tiberius and then to the Senate at Rome, the senators would not permit this. Finally, on the complaint of the Jews, Pilate was deposed and banished to perpetual exile in his native town of Lyons, to the curse of his own people. He came to an evil end.[Pontius Pilatus (Pilate) was the sixth procurator of Judea and the successor of Valerius Gratus, and held the office for ten years in the reign of Tiberius, from 26 to 36 CE, and it was during his government that Jesus taught, suffered and died. By his tyrannical conduct he excited an insurrection at Jerusalem, and at a later period commotions in Samaria also, which were not put down without the loss of life. The Samaritans complained of his conduct to Vitellius, the governor of Syria, who deprived him of his office and sent him to Rome to answer before the emperor the accusations brought against him. Eusebius states that worn out by the many misfortunes he had experienced, Pilate put an end to his own life. The early Christian writers refer frequently to an official report, made by Pilate to Tiberius, of the condemnation and death of Christ; but it is very doubtful whether this document was genuine; and it is certain that the , as they are called, are the production of a later age.]


Certain events in the life of Jesus are here portrayed in a vertical panel of four small woodcuts, which we may regard as a continuation of a like series of events in the life of Mary (Folio XCIV verso). The present woodcuts are as follows:

  1. "The Birth of Christ, Year of the World 7200." Thus the first woodcut is entitled. The naked little child lies on its back on the ground in a blaze of light. Beside it, to the right, kneels Mary in an attitude of adoration, with hands clasped. Joseph, at the left, assumes a like attitude. Behind Mary, to the right, appears the ass, and between Mary and Joseph the ox looks out upon the scene. The background may be divided into two parts: (1) behind Mary is a base of a huge structure, apparently a church; (2) to the left, a valley, running off into the distance. During the Middle Ages the ass and ox were invariably introduced in these representations of the Nativity, not merely as natural accessories in a stable, but also for their symbolic significance; for ox and ass respectively symbolize the Jews and the Gentiles. In a general sense this presence of man and beast represents the homage due to God from all the creatures of his hand.
  2. "In the Year of the World, 7211; Year of Christ, 12." So the second woodcut is entitled. It represents Jesus among the doctors in the temple. He is seated on a throne, apparently engaged in dispute with the doctors, seated or kneeling at his feet; and if gestures mean anything, all are talking at the same time. The anxious Mary peers in at a window to the left.
  3. "In the Year of the World, 7229; Year of Christ, 30." In the waters of the river Jordan appears the naked figure of Jesus. He wears a loincloth, and the waters reach above his knees. His hands are clasped in devotion, an ornate halo about his head. To the right stands an angel holding his robe. At the left kneels John the Baptist performing the rite of baptism. The Holy Spirit, in likeness of a dove, is about to alight on the head of Jesus.
  4. "In the Year of the World 7233; Year of Christ 34." This woodcut represents the crucifixion. It is the usual portrayal of Jesus nailed to the cross, in this case a low structure. At its foot lies a skull, emblematic of death. To the left of the cross stands Mary; to the right his disciple John.


Tiberius Claudius Nero, the third Roman emperor, reigned 23 years and some days. He was the son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, as well as the latter’s stepson and heir. He was born of the the aristocratic (patricia) Claudian family, and was surnamed Nero. In childhood he was precocious and crafty. He was nine years of age when his father died. On attaining manhood he married Agrippina, the daughter of Marcus Agrippus. Though not very much disposed to leave his wife (for she was pregnant), he was compelled to marry Julia, the daughter of Augustus. He lost his brother Drusus in Germany, and was given the power of tribune for five years in which he was to conquer that country. Believing that the defeat of Varus resulted from lack of forethought and through negligence, he did not act without counsel and consideration. After the expiration of two years Tiberius marched out of Germany to Rome, where he was given a triumph. Although for some time he refused the sovereignty, and sought to live an honest and industrious life, he finally accepted the office of emperor. When some of his officers advised him to burden the land and the people with tribute and taxes, he replied: It becomes a good shepherd to shear his sheep, but not to swallow them. He suppressed the customs and manners of the Egyptians and the Jews, expelled the sorcerers and soothsayers, and scrupulously did away with turmoil, murder and robbery. For a period of two years after assuming the rule he did not set foot beyond the gates, and in the following year, not beyond the suburbs. However, as he was afterwards deprived of his two sons, namely, Germanicus in Syria and Drusus at Rome, he went to Campania; and as he now embraced the freedom of private life and removed himself from the eyes of the city, he now poured forth his long concealed lust; and because of his excessive drinking of wine, he was considered a drunkard and an alcoholic by the masses. He was of an ungenerous and jealous disposition, and filled with excessive pride. He had no paternal love, either for his natural son Drusus, nor for Germanicus who had been adopted by him. Tiberius had a large strong body, not ill built; his chest and shoulders were broad, and his limbs down to his feet were regular, well proportioned, and white. His hair was long, reaching beyond the nape of his neck, which gave him a barbarian appearance. He had an earnest expression and large eyes, and carried his head erect as he walked. He was often calm and silent. He was very fond of the liberal arts and wrote several poems. At the end of a reign of 23 years, during which he was neither reckoned among the very good nor the very bad, he finally died in the village of Lucullus at the age of seventy-eight. Some say that he died of a mild and enervating poison administered by Caius. The people rejoiced in his death.

Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar, son of T. Claudius Nero and Livia, was born 42 BCE, before his mother married Augustus. He was tall and strongly made, handsome, and had large eyes. He was carefully educated in Greek and Latin. Though not without military courage, he was timid of character, jealous and suspicious, and cruel in consequence after he acquired power. In later life he indulged his lust in every way imaginable, although he affected a regard to decency and externals. Much against his will Augustus compelled him to divorce Vipsania Agrippina, and to marry Julia, widow of Agrippa and daughter of the emperor. With her Tiberius did not, however, live long in harmony. Augustus employed him in various military campaigns. In 15 Drusus and his brother Tiberius engaged in warfare with Rhaeti. In 13 Tiberius was consul with P. Quintilius. In 11, the same year in which he married Julia, and while his brother Drusus was fighting against the Germans, Tiberius was warring against the Dalmatians and Pannonians. In the year 9 Drusus was mortally wounded by a fall from his horse, and Augustus sent Tiberius to him. Tiberius returned to the war in Germany, and in the year 7 he was consul a second time. In the year 6 he obtained the tribunitia potestas for five years; but in this year he retired with the emperor’s permission to Rhodes, where he spent 7 years. He returned to Rome in 2 CE, his troublesome wife Julia, who had been banished, dying in the meantime. After the death of his two sons, Augustus adopted Tiberius, with the view of leaving him the imperial power; but at the same time he required him to adopt Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus, though Tiberius had a son Drusus by his wife Vipsania. From the year of his adoption to the death of Augustus, Tiberius was in command of the Roman armies, though he visited Rome occasionally. In the year 12 he was given a triumph at Rome for his German and Dalmatian victories. On the death of Augustus, Tiberius at once went to Rome, taking up the imperial power without opposition, though affecting some reluctance. The death of Germanicus in the east later relieved him of all fear of a rival claimant to the throne. Many believed that Germanicus was poisoned by his order. The tyranny of Tiberius increased, and many distinguished senators were put to death on charges of treason. He gave his complete confidence to Sejanus, who for many years possessed the real government of the state. In 26 Tiberius left Rome, never to return. He withdrew into Campania to escape criticism and to indulge his propensities in private. In order to give still greater secrecy to his conduct, he took up his residence in the island of Capri, a short distance from the Campanian coast. In the meantime his mother Livia died, leaving Tiberius almost entirely without restraint; but he finally turned on Sejanus, whom he caused to be executed and dragged about the streets. For the remainder of his reign, Rome continued to be the scene of tragic occurrences. Tiberius died on the 16th of March in the year 37 at the Villa of Lucallus, in Misenum. He was 78 years of age and had reigned 22 years. He was succeeded by Caius (Caligula), son of Germanicus. Tiberius wrote a brief commentary of his own life, the only book that the emperor Domitian studied; Suetonius made use of it for his life of Tiberius. Tiberius also wrote Greek poems, and a lyric poem on the death of L. Caesar. (The preceding note on Tiberius was excerpted by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith’s 1870 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Vol. 3, pp. 1116-1122 s.v. Tiberius).

This entire paragraph is a massive abridgment of Suetonius’ Life of Tiberius.

Valerius, the Roman procurator sent to Judea by the emperor Tiberius, was the first to begin the sale of the high-priestly office. While procurator he appointed and deposed one high priest after another. First he deposed Annas (Amanum) and put Ismael (Hismaelis) the son of Jabus (Iabi) in his place; but not long afterwards he also deposed the latter, and appointed Eleazar, son of Annas the priest, as high priest. After the expiration of his year he deposed him also, and appointed Simon, son of Cemithis, to the position; but he also remained in office only one year. Having deposed him, Valerius finally appointed Caiaphas (Caypham), a haughty, proud, strange, fortunate and envious man. The evangelist has two of these bishops in mind when he says: Jesus was seized in the garden; and shortly the servants brought him before Annas,[Annas was a high priest of the Jews along with Caiaphas, his son-in-law. He was first appointed to that office by Cyrenius, proconsul of Syria, about 7 or 8 CE, but was afterwards deprived of it. After various changes the office was given to Joseph, also called Caiaphas, son-in-law of Annas, about 25 CE, who continued in office until 36 or 37 CE. But Annas, being his father-in-law, and having great influence and authority, could with propriety be still termed high priest along with Caiaphas. It was before him that Jesus was first taken on the night of the seizure.] the father-in-law of Caiaphas. And Annas sent Jesus to Caiaphas. And when Jesus testified that he was the same as God, Caiaphas said: He has blasphemed God. And to make this confession of Christ appear even more wicked, Caiaphas tore his own garments. Moreover, in order to arouse the people to condemn Jesus, Caiaphas cried, He is guilty of death! By his persuasive speaking (as the sacred history of the Gospel holds) Christ our Lord was condemned to death.[John 18:1; Matt. 26; Mark 24;Luke 22. ]

Jesus Christ suffered in the 5230th year of the world and in the 18th year of the reign of Tiberius while two Roman consuls governed; being in the month which the Hebrews call Nisan, and we call April. To satisfy the envy of the priests, he was sold by Judas, one of his disciples; after which he was seized, accused, and, at the instance of the judge, was mocked and scourged. And they spit in his face and struck him; crowned him with thorns, and finally nailed him to a cross. And they reproached him with bitter words. And when he cried with a loud voice and willingly gave up the Spirit, the earth quaked, the sun darkened, and the veil of the temple was torn asunder. And when Longinus, the soldier, pierced the breast of the deceased with his spear, a mixture of blood and water flowed from the wound; from this the sacrament of the church in general had its beginning and origin. Christ was then taken from the cross and buried, and as Jonah came forth from the belly of the whale, so Jesus rose from the dead out of the bowels of the earth on the third day. He often appeared to his disciples, and in their midst and in their presence he ascended to heaven. And not without reason did Christ suffer at Jerusalem; for this was the city ordained for the sacrifice, in the center of the inhabited world; but he also suffered outside its walls, so that he made the sacrifice of his body not alone for his people, but for the pagans as well.[ John 19:1-42.]


Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, governed Galilee, after his brother Archelaus; and he ruled for 24 years. After the expulsion of Archelaus, the kingdom of the Jews was divided into four parts, and Galilee was given to Herod. He was a most unkind and cruel man, and showed a murderous disposition toward the citizens. He was a murderer of the nobility, and a savage toward his associates, a robber toward the inhabitants; and in the extermination of the people he spared neither his own children nor strangers, nor his own people. He ignored and dishonored everything; for he abolished the priesthood of the Jews and destroyed their laws and ordinances. And when he espoused the wife of his brother Philip, contrary to the law, and Saint John the Baptist reproached him for it, he wanted to kill him; but he feared the people, for John, as the evangelist states, was regarded by many as a true prophet. However, he caused him to be seized and imprisoned, and not long before the death of Christ he caused him to be beheaded. This is the Herod to whom Jesus was sent by Pilate, and by whom he was mocked and sent back to Pilate, because Jesus, as Luke writes, would not answer Herod’s questions. Finally he was ordered to come to Rome by Caius the emperor, and was found guilty of many penal offenses, and was banished to Lyons, in Gaul. There he ended his life in misery; but his wife, who was a sister of Agrippa, and whom Caius loved very much, was given her freedom and was given permission to return home; but she followed her husband into exile, saying she did not want to leave her husband after having lived happily with him. And afterwards Caius gave the country of Galilee to Herod Agrippa, who from that time on held three fourths of the divided region.[Herodes Antipas, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan, obtained the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea, on his father’s death, while the kingdom of Judea devolved upon his elder brother Archelaus. He married Herodias, the wife of his half-brother Herod Philip, after she had divorced her first husband. He had been previously married to a daughter of the Arabian prince Aretas, who left him in disgust at this new alliance. Aretas then immediately invaded the dominion of Antipas, and defeated the army that was opposed to him. In 38 CE, after the death of Tiberius, Antipas went to Rome to solicit from Caligula (Caius) the title of king, which had just been bestowed upon his nephew Herod Agrippa; but through the intrigues of Agrippa, who was high in the favor of the Roman emperor, Antipas was deprived of his dominions and sent into exile at Lyons in 39 CE. He was subsequently removed to Spain where he died. It was Antipas who imprisoned and put to death John the Baptist, who had reproached him for his (in John’s opinion) unlawful connection with Herodias. It was before him also that Jesus was sent by Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, as belonging to his jurisdiction, on account of his supposed Galilean origin.]

In the land of Judea there were three sects of Jews, separated from the common life and thought of the others.

One of those sects was the Pharisees, which originated in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and which in these times (as we may infer from the Gospels) was, by reason of its profound sanctity, held in high esteem by the Jews at Jerusalem. They were called Pharisees, that is the ‘separated’ ones, because they were much more rigid than the rest in their spiritual practices and their diet. They wore parchment inscriptions on their foreheads, while on their left hands they wore the Ten Commandments, written in commemoration of the Law. They also wore a wide band of thorns, designed to prick them as a reminder of the divine commandments. They attributed God and his divine Providence to their forebears and ancestors, and acknowledged no contradictions.[That is, between the law itself and oral traditions. They devised ways to harmonize apparent inconsistencies between the Law and the Prophets, assigning to the oral traditions a place of authority side by side with the written law, regarding the former as an interpretation of the latter.] They believed in a future judgment (of reward or punishment), and in the immortality of the soul; hoped for, and predicted the resurrection of the dead. They were very much opposed to our Lord Christ, and were accessories in his death.

The Pharisees formed one of the most conspicuous and powerful sects among the Jews in the time of Jesus. Under foreign rule, and more especially under the Syrian (i.e., Macedonian) government, which left no means unemployed in order to effect an amalgamation of the different nationalities under its sway, it was natural that there should arise among the Jews a party which opposed this influence, and labored to preserve the national integrity. The Pharisees were this party, and as their name implies, separated themselves from the rest. Much of their influence with the people was no doubt due to their political position. On Herod’s accession 6000 of them refused to take the oath of allegiance, and were consequently put down with a strong hand. It was the Pharisees who organized desperate resistance against the Romans, which finally led to the dispersion of the whole nation. As the Pharisees were national in politics, so they were orthodox in religion; and in opposition to the other two sects, the Sadducees and the Essenes, they stood among the people as the true expounders of the Law. In the time of Jesus, however, their orthodoxy was considered by some to have devolved into mere formalism.

The principal points of difference between the Pharisees and Sadducees were the doctrine of the immortality of the soul and the future reward or punishment; the doctrine of the divine Providence acting side by side with the free will of man; and the doctrine of an oral tradition descending from Moses and involving the same authority as the written law—all of which doctrines the Pharisees accepted and the Sadducees rejected. Teaching that God had given to Moses on Mount Sinai an oral explanation of the proper application of the written Law, and had commanded him to transmit this explanation by work of mouth, the Pharisees ended by placing the oral explanation above the written law. And thus they preferred the tradition to the law itself. They were also particular in avoiding anything that the law declared unclean.

The Sadducees were the second sect, but not of the same sanctity nor held in as high esteem as the Pharisees. They did not believe in divine Providence, but said that God is an observer of all things, and that it rested in the will of man to do good or evil. They denied the incarnation and the existence of angels, and believed that the soul died with the body. They accepted solely the five books of Moses. The Sadducees were serious and strict, but not spiritual among themselves. Because of their seriousness they were called Sadducees, that is, ‘the just.’[The origin of the term Sadducees is obscure. The best theory is that the sect was derived from Zadok, the famous high priest whom Solomon appointed to succeed the deposed Abiathar. The Sadducees were a small party of limited influence, and a rationalistic turn of mind. They were men of position, and probably of wealth—world-minded, and with a superficial interest in religion. They were forerunners of the modern reform Jews. Their theology embraced four principal tenets: (1) Denial of the divinity, and consequent authority of the oral law; (2) acceptance of the teachings of Moses alone, and rejection of the later books of the Old Testament; (3) death of the soul with the body, in consequence of which they denied the resurrection, the doctrine of future rewards and punishments, and belief in angels or spirits; (4) that man had the most absolute moral freedom, for upon this was dependent the moral quality of his actions. They were also, according to the gospels, determined foes of Jesus. Annas and Caiaphas were Sadducees.]

The Essenes were the third sect. In all respects they led the lives of monks or hermits; and avoided wedlock, not because they disapproved of it or attached no importance to childbearing, but to avoid the lasciviousness of women, believing that none of them are faithful to their husbands. They associated with each other in friendship, disparaging wealth and holding their possessions in common as brothers, as though they were sharers in one common patrimony. They did not respect anointing, considering it uncleanly; for they always wore clean white clothing. They had curators and stewards who administered their common property; but no certain abode, dwelling in any place. They did not change their clothes nor shoes until entirely torn or worn out by time. They were opposed to spiritual exercises and divine worship. They did not speak of profane matters before sunrise. At sunrise they prayed, and until the fifth hour they labored. After that they assembled in their white linen clothes, washed in cold water, and went to their meals, of which they did not partake without a prayer having been first offered to God. Grace was repeated after the meal. They operated their establishment with great industry, and no clamor, disturbance, or noise was heard while they worked, for they observed strict silence. They considered an oath perjury, and admitted no one to their sect except on one year’s probation, when the applicant took an obligation of piety toward God, justice toward his fellow men, and obedience to the authorities; if placed in a superior position, he agreed never to employ his authority unjustly against those below him. Their court was attended by no less than 100 persons. Its judgment was final and conclusive. They held the day of rest inviolate; made no fire, nor cooked on that day, nor moved any vessel from its place; nor evacuated their digested food. On other days, when about to free themselves of digested food, they dug a hole into the earth with an axe, and covered themselves round about with their lowered garments so that they might not offend the divine rays of the sun with indecency. Having eased themselves, they filled the hole with the earth they had dug up. While he lived, Herod Antipas honored these Essenes or Essei.

This is an abridgment from the Works of Flavius Josephus, the historian of the Jews (See Vol. V, chap. VIII, pars. 2-13, pp. 75-84; translation of William Whiston; Thomas Tegg, London, 1825). The Essenes are not mentioned in the Old Testament, for they lived in isolated communities, and thus Jesus and his apostles did not encounter them. They represent the mystic and ascetic forms of Judaism, while the Pharisees represented the orthodox, and the Sadducees the rationalistic forms. Their name has never been sat (in office)isfactorily explained. Some believe it means "the retiring," or "the Puritans;" others, "the healers." In Josephus’s day they lived in small colonies or villages at long distances from the towns, principally in the neighborhood of the Dead Sea, although some lived in the cities. They believed in an unconditional Providence and the immortality of the soul, but not in the resurrection of the body; in future rewards to the righteous and the future punishment of the wicked. Their celibacy, sun-homage, and abstinence from sacrifice, were their non-Jewish qualities derived from the Zoroastrian religion; to these must be added their magical rites and intense striving after purity. In their life they were noted for their kindness to the sick and the poor. They opposed slavery; made medicines from herbs which were healing; and were modest and retiring in manner. According to Philo their general conduct was directed by three rules – "the love of God, the love of virtue, and the love of man." They disappear from history after the destruction of Jerusalem.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle. In fact, it is followed by another sentence, also not found in the German edition, which the current editor cannot quite make sense of. It runs in Latin thus: nec inhonestus ?mo de eis in scripturis habetur. Hoc de prophetis Judeorum (‘Nor is he considered (?mo) in the writings about them disgraceful. This thing concerning/from the prophets of the Jews.’).


Veronica, a woman of Jerusalem, disciple of Christ, and esteemed for her piety and virtue, was at this time called to Rome with the handkerchief of Christ by Tiberius the emperor, through his strongest man, Volusianus. For this same emperor (as some relate) had been seized with a serious malady. As soon as he had received this holy woman and had touched the picture of Christ, he was cured of all illness. For this reason the emperor afterwards held this Veronica in great esteem, and she remained at Rome with the apostles Peter and Paul to her end. Pope Clement erected church to her. This is the woman who suffered with an issue of blood (as the Gospels state), and was cured of it by the Lord after touching the hem of his garment. At the time of his suffering she received from him as a token of his love this picture of his face. This same picture, impressed on cloth, Veronica bequeathed to Pope Clement and his successors in her will. To this day it is viewed with great devotion and contemplation at St. Peter’s Church by people of the Christian faith, and much has been found written in praise of it.[It is an ancient tradition that when Jesus was on the way to Calvary, bearing the cross, he passed by the door of a compassionate woman, who, beholding the sweat of agony upon his brow, wiped his face with a napkin, or, as others say, with her veil, and the features of Jesus remained miraculously impressed upon the linen. To this image was given the name Vera Icon, ‘the true image’ (Latin vera = ‘true’ and Greek eikon = ‘image’). The name of the image was insensibly transferred to the woman of whom the legend is related. According to the active imagination of the people, she was Veronica, or Berenice, the niece of King Herod, being the daughter of his sister Salome, who had been devoted to the pomps and vanities of the world, but on witnessing the sufferings and meekness of Jesus, was suddenly converted. The miraculous power of the sacred image impressed upon her napkin being universally recognized, she was sent for by the emperor Tiberius to cure him of a mortal malady; but since the emperor had already died by the time she arrived, she remained at Rome with Peter and Paul until she suffered martyrdom under Nero; or, according to another legend, she came to Europe in the same vessel with Lazarus and Mary Magdalene, and suffered martyrdom either in Provence or Aquitaine. According to Anna Jameson (from whose work the above is taken), these legends have been rejected by the Church since the eleventh century; but the memory of this compassionate woman, and the legend of the miraculous image, lingered on in the imagination of the people.]

Xenarchus, a peripatetic philosopher, worthy of commemoration, and whom Strabo the historian heard in his youth, died at Seleucia in Cicilia during the time of the emperor Tiberius. And, as it is said, he did not reside there for long but went to Alexandria, Athens, or Rome to study. To old age he was always held in great esteem. Augustus the emperor favored him. But not long before this time and since his death, his works were lost.[ Xenarchus of Seleucia in Cicilia (c. 50 BCE-c. 25 CE), was a Peripatetic philosopher and grammarian, in the time of Strabo, who heard him. He taught successively at Alexandria, Athens and Rome, where he enjoyed the friendship of Augustus.]

Philo the Jew, a native of Alexandria, and a highly educated man, was held in great esteem during these times. He wrote many excellent and daring things, and with his skill and versatility he silenced the evil writings of Appianus (Appionis) against the Jews. Many have spoken of his versat (in office)ility, saying that either Philo followed Plato, or Plato followed Philo. He finally came to Rome and had speech and dealings with Saint Peter. By him he was so well instructed in the faith that he afterward wrote much in praise of the Christian religion and practices; and these writings (as Jerome attests) are reckoned among the books called Ecclesiastes. And foremost of all he wrote enlightening interpretations upon the five books of Moses, and many other works.[Philo Judacus, the Jew, was born in Alexandria, and was descended from a priestly family of distinction. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome (40 CE) on an embassy to the emperor Caligula in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor. His most important works treat of the books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Hebrew Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two. He maintained that the fundamental truths of the former were derived from the Mosaic revelation, and to work out an agreement, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses.]

Agrippina was born to Marcus Agrippa by Julia, the daughter of the emperor Octavian. She was the mother of the emperor Caius Caligula and was esteemed among the intelligent and renowned women. She was, in those times, deliberately caused so much sorrow by the emperor Tiberius, that she starved herself to death. She was married in her youth to Germanicus, a handsome and virtuous youth, whom Tiberius had been obliged to adopt. She bore him three sons. One, called Caligula, afterward ruled over the Romans. She also bore him three daughters, one of whom was called Agrippina and was the mother of Nero. Her husband was done away with by poison through Tiberius; and because she mourned the death of her husband with great lamentations, as was the custom of women, Tiberius therefore hated her, and those of his people who held her by the arms increased her sorrow by mockery and unbecoming conduct. She determined to escape his haughtiness by starvation, and soon she refrained from eating her food. When Tiberius learned of this, being accustomed to compel women to eat by threats and beatings, he caused her to be fed by force. But being still more embittered against Tiberius in consequence, she gradually accomplished her own death by this means. And as by her death she earned much praise on the part of her own people, so she at the same time caused Tiberius much harm and ill repute.[Agrippina, daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and of Julia, the daughter of Augustus, married Germanicus, by whom she had nine children, among whom was the emperor Caligula, and Agrippina, the mother of Nero. She was distinguished by her virtues and heroism, and shared all the dangers of her husband’s campaigns. On his death in 17 CE she returned to Italy; but the favor in which she was received by the people increased the hatred and jealousy which Tiberius and his mother Livia had long entertained toward her. For some years Tiberius disguised his hatred, but at length under the pretext that she was forming ambitious plans, he banished her to the island of Pandataria (30 CE), where she died three years later, probably by voluntary starvation.]

Agrippa the Great, son of king Aristobulus, succeeded his father and ruled over the Jews for seven years. He was by nature a good man, and he adorned the city of Jerusalem at his own expense. But the son of Aristobulus, whom the father of Herod killed, came to Tiberius; but as the latter would not entertain his complaint, he stayed at Rome to secure assistance by various means. Now Agrippa was very friendly with Caius (Caligula), the son of Germanicus, and after he said that Germanicus should be emperor, he was accused before Tiberius, and by him imprisoned and held in severe confinement for six months, until the death of Tiberius, when he was liberated by Caius, who gave him the region called Philippi, and so made him a king. In lieu of the iron chain that he wore in prison, Caius gave him a golden one. When he left Rome and came to Jerusalem, he went into the temple and made a sacrifice, and there hung up the same chain as a perpetual memorial. But as he finally went to Caesarea, and permitted himself to be called a god, he was slain by an angel, and with a bloated body he said: I was formerly called a god, so now here I lie in the bondage of death. He died at the age of 57 years, and left a seventeen-year-old son Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Maria, and Drusilla. He had a brother named Herod, king of Chalcis, who acted as regent for the young king.[Agrippa Herodes, called "Agrippa the Great," son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great, was educated at Rome with the future emperor Claudius, and Drusus the son of Tiberius. Having given offense to Tiberius, he was imprisoned; but Caligula, on his accession, released him, and gave him the tetrarchies of Abilene, Batanaea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. On the death of Caligula, Agrippa, who was at the time in Rome, assisted Claudius in gaining possession of the empire. As a reward for his services Judea and Samaria were annexed to his dominions. His government was mild and gentle, and he was exceedingly popular among the Jews. It was probably to increase his popularity with them that he caused the apostle James to be beheaded, and Peter to be cast into prison. The manner of his death that took place in the same year at Caesarea (44 CE) is related in Acts 12. By his wife Cypros he had a son, Agrippa, and three daughters, Berenice, Mariamne (called Maria in the ), and Drusilla. According to Acts 12:21-23 "upon a certain day Herod, arrayed in royal apparel, sat upon his throne, and made an oration to them. And the people gave a shout, saying, It is the voice of a god and not of a man. And immediately the angel of the Lord struck him, because he gave not God the glory; and he was eaten by worms, and gave up the Spirit."]


Regensburg (Ratisbona), the celebrated and memorable free city on the Danube, was built by Tiberius Nero in the year Jesus Christ suffered for the salvation of the human race; and at one time it was the capital city of Bavaria. In ancient times this region was occupied by the Norici, for which reason a portion of it is still called Norica to this day. After the Norici came the Baioaria; and it is now called Bavaria. This same Bavarian name originated from the Boii,[Boii, one of the most powerful of the Celtic people, said to have originally dwelt in Gaul (Transalpine), but in what part of the country is uncertain. At an early time they migrated in two great swarms, one of which crossed the Alps and settled in the country between the Po and the Apennines; the other crossed the Rhine and settled in that part of Germany called Boihemum (Bohemia) after them, and between the Danube and the Tyrol. The Boii in Germany were subdued by the Marcomanni, and expelled from the country. We find 32,000 Boii taking part in the Helvetian migration; and after the defeat of the Halvetians (58 BCE) Caesar allowed these Boii to dwell among the Aedui, a powerful people in Gaul, who lived between the Liger (Loire) and the Arar (Saone).] a Gallic people who (as Strabo states), having been driven out of their country by the Romans, migrated to the Danube and lived with the Taurisci.[The Taurisci were a Celtic people of Noricum, and this was probably the old Celtic name of the entire population of the country. They were subsequently called Norici by the Romans after their capital Noreia.] They also lived in Pannonia, from whence they probably extended themselves into the neighboring region of Norica. Although, according to Strabo, this region was at one time a wilderness, it is now built up, and has renowned cities and noble fortifications. But of these Regensburg excels all others in beauty. In Bavaria there are five episcopal cities. The capital is the archi-episcopal city of Salzburg, so called from the river on which it lies. The ancients called it Juvanum (or Juvavia), that is, Helffenburg. The bishopric of Regensburg was very celebrated, and all of Bohemia was subject to it. The city has seven names: Firstly, it is named Tiberina, or Tiburina, after its builder; for Tiberius, son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, and step-son of Augustus, was sent by Augustus with a great army against the Norici, or Bavarians, and against the Vindelici. He subdued them; and he built the city; and after him it was called Tiberina. Secondly, for some time the city was called Quadrata, the square city; for it was built in that form and was surrounded by a wall of large square stones, of which remains may be seen behind St. Paul’s Church. Thirdly, it was called Hyatospolis or Hyaspolis, because of the coarse rustic speech of the people in the neighborhood, who pronounced their words with wide-open mouths;[After ‘hiatus,’ a ‘gap’ or ‘opening’ in Greek; grammatically the strained pronunciation arising when one vowel immediately follows another without being combined with it, as if we should saw "a apple"; a hiatus within a word being called internal, between words external.] but also because of the manner in which the rivers here spread out and flow together again. The Danube, Nab, and Regen flow into one another toward the north. Fourthly, it was called Germansheim, after the German people who frequented the city; or after Germanicus, who ruled over the city. Fifthly, Reginopolis, or Koenigsburg, because kings and princes assembled there, as the palatial towers and tall buildings of the lords indicate. Sixthly, it was named after the river Imber (in German, Regen);[Imber, the Latin for rainwater; water or liquid in general; a rain cloud or storm cloud. The German regen means rain.] that is, Imbripolis, or Regensburg; for the river Regen flows into the Danube to the north of the city, and there the city was begun. For it the city was named Regensburg, which name has remained to this day. Seventhly, it is called Ratisbona, after the small merchant vessels or boats that came there, and the vessels that during the war laid about it for protection in the time of Charlemagne. And the city was strengthened with fortifications, and is to this day is called Ratisbona in the Latin. The Danube,


the great river of Germany, originates in the German mountains, and sixty navigable rivers flow into it. It flows by this renowned city, and over it is a very strong bridge with many arches built in the year of the Lord one thousand one hundred and fifteen. The most Christian emperor, Charlemagne (Karolus Magnus), subjugated the whole of Bavaria by force of arms; but Taxillo (Taxilo), the Duke of Bavaria, together with his neighbors, the Huns, made war against Charlemagne. Before long he made peace with them, receiving a number of hostages. And he turned against the city of Regensburg and the unbelievers in it, capturing the city and compelling them to accept the Christian faith. In the same war a great number of unbelievers and Huns were slain before Regensburg. Charlemagne lost a number of men there, who lie buried in the Basilica of St. Peter outside the city. Afterwards this city greatly prospered and increased, and was thereafter adorned with an episcopal church dedicated to St. Peter. Before that time it was called the church of St. Remigius.[Remigius, also called Remi or Remy (c. 437-533), was bishop of Reims and the friend of Clovis, whom he converted to Christianity. According to Gregory of Tours, 3,000 Franks were baptized with Clovis by Remigius on Christmas Day, 496, after the defeat of the Alamanni. Many fictions have grown up around his name; for example, that he anointed Clovis with oil from the sacred ampulla, and that Pope Hormisdas had recognized him as primate of France.] This celebrated structure has not yet been completed. The city is also adorned with a large cloister, that of St. Emmeran, of the Benedictine Order. Here also are two abbeys to Our Lady, an upper and a lower, and in the lower, Bishop Erhard lies at rest. Many houses in this city have consecrated churches and their own priests. Emperor Arnolfus, out of particular affection for this city above all other cities of the realm, enlarged it with a wall, comprehending the cloister of St. Emmeran, which he beautified. Then, as he returned from battle between the Normans and the Bavarians, he gave the relics of St. Dionysius the Areopagite to this cloister in his old age, together with a beautiful book of Gospels written in letters of gold; and finally he was buried there. This city is glorified by the esteemed martyr St. Emmeran, the bishop, and with St. Wolfgang, the eleventh bishop of the city, who worked wonders there and built St. Paul’s Cloister. So also Albertus Magnus, a man highly informed in learning and all the arts, officiated here as bishop.

Rejoice, Regensburg (Ratisbona), for your excellent gifts:
You enclose four bodies of saints in yourself,
Bodies that are most pleasing to us. There is the holy Dionysius,
First in the number of these; Emmeran (Emerammus) praise no less;
Wolfgang and Erhard, neither of whom is slow in providing a cure.
With the prayers of these four and of others
We are led from here to the stars of the happy heavens.

Regensburg, or Ratisbona, a very ancient city in that part of Bavaria, formerly called Rhaetia secunda, is a city and Episcopal see of Germany, and the capital of the government district of the Upper Palatinate. It is situated on the right bank of the Danube, opposite the influx of the Regen, 86 miles northeast of Munich, and 60 miles southeast of Nuremberg. The pre-Roman settlement of Radespona was chosen by the Romans, who named it Castra Regina, as the center of their power on the upper Danube. It was made an Episcopal see in the eighth century by Boniface, and from the eleventh to the fourteenth century it was one of the most flourishing and populous cities of Germany. It became the seat of the dukes of Bavaria and was the focus from which Christianity spread over southern Germany. Emmeran founded an abbey here in the seventh century. Regensburg acquired the freedom of the empire in the thirteenth century. It became the chief seat of the trade with India and the Levant, and the boatmen of Regensburg are frequently heard of expediting the journeys of the Crusaders. Numerous imperial diets were held here in the Middle Ages, and from 1663 to 1806 it was the permanent seat of the Imperial Diet. The Reformation found only temporary acceptance at Regensburg, and was met by a counterreformation inspired by the Jesuits. Before this time the city had almost wholly lost its commercial importance owing to changes in the great highways of trade. Regensburg is said to have suffered in all no fewer than 17 sieges. By the peace of Luneville it was adjudged to the primate Dalberg, and in 1810 the town and bishopric were ceded to Bavaria, after the disastrous defeat of the Austrians beneath its walls the preceding year, when part of the town had been reduced to ashes.

St. Peter’s Cathedral at Regensburg is one of the principal Gothic edifices in Bavaria. Its foundations were laid in 1275, but the building was not completed until 1524. The two towers, each 303 feet high, according to the woodcut, were in course of construction when the Chronicle was issued and were not completed until 1869. The structural arrangement of the interior resembles that of the Strasbourg Minster. The sumptuous high altar is entirely covered with silver. In the cloisters, adorned with ornate windows, are the tombs of cannons and wealthy citizens.

The oldest Christian structures date back to the Carolingian period, and for the student of the art history of the early Middle Ages Regensburg is almost as important as Nuremberg is for the subsequent centuries. Some of the numerous ancient owners, and the mansions of the old patrician families, with their towers of defense, dating from the 13th century, are a reminiscence of early German civic.

On the north side of the cathedral is the Bishop’s Palace, built about 975 by Wolfgang, eleventh bishop of the city, of whom the Chronicle makes mention as having worked wonders here and as the builder of St. Paul’s cathedral.

The Dominican Church, begun in 1273 and completed in 1400, is a well-proportioned early Gothic edifice; while the former old Benedictine Abbey of St. Emmeran is one of the oldest in Germany. Built in the 13th century, and remarkable as one of the few German churches with a detached belfry, the beautiful cloisters of the ancient abbey, one of the oldest in Germany, are still in fair preservation. In 1809 its conventual buildings were converted into a palace for the prince of Thurn and Taxis, hereditary postmaster-general of the Holy Roman Empire. Next to it is the Church of St. Emmeran, with the tombs of the martyr St. Emmeran (c. 700 CE), Emperor Henry the Wrangler, who died in 995, and the Blessed Aurelia.

In place of the seven-line poem that concludes the description of Regensburg in the Latin text of the Chronicle, the German edition offers the following sentences (in prose): "As the holy relics of four saints—St. Dionysius, St. Emmeran, St. Wolfgang and St. Erhard, are here treasured up. Thus this city may indeed be deservedly happy in its possession of these holy patrons and fathers before the Almighty God."

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A large two-page woodcut. In the foreground is the Danube, on which the city is located at the influx of the Regen. It is a well-fortified place. Shipping is indicated by a number of flat-bottom boats loaded with merchandise in barrels. Two bridges mentioned in the text. To defend the Danube the Romans extened a line of fortifications—the limes, as they were called, which began at Regensburg, and keeping well to the north of the river, were carried to the neighborhood of Stuttgart. A circular stonewall on this side of the river contains a drawbridge which leads to a gate, above which are the armorial bearings of the city—keys crossed in a field of red. The unfinished church of St. Peter appears in the center of the city. From one point of the wall chains extend to a peculiar side-wheeler, apparently used for stretching these chains across the river for defense.


Vienna of Pannonia is a widely celebrated city in Austria, and is situated on the river Danube. This same river divides Bavaria, Austria and Hungary. It passes through Rascia[Raška (alternative spellings have included Raschka, Rascia and Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into a main medieval Serbian state in the Balkans.] and Bulgaria, has sixty navigable tributaries, and terminates in the Euxine after touching many distinguished cities. Among these cities none are as wealthy, well populated or ancient as Vienna, the principal city and capital of the country. The city was formerly (as one discovers in the ancient ducal privileges) called Flavianum, after Flavius, the prefect who governed this region and began the city; or, after Flavius, the emperor, who proceeded to the Danube to establish the boundaries of the Roman Empire; and, in part the city is said to have received its name from him. Now when the Germans speak of Flavianum, they use the abbreviated form, Flavienn. And so, not without reason, the first syllable Fla (as otherwise often written), was discarded, and so Vienn (Wienn) remained. For that reason this city was accordingly called Vienna. But some are of the opinion that the city was named after the little river Vienna which flows between it and the suburbs. This great and mighty city, according to the circuit of its walls, has a circumference of two thousand paces, and has large and spacious suburbs, protected by moat and mound. The city has tall stout battlements and is provided with many towers and defenses against war. Here are also large and beautiful residences of its citizens, secure, strong and tall; but many of the houses are roofed with unsightly shingles, and but few with tiles. The other buildings are of stone masonry. Some are painted, so that they shine inside and out. Every house as you enter it gives the impression of a princely residence. The houses of the nobles and the church officials are public. Here also are to be seen large and illustrious buildings of stone erected to the honor of the Almighty God and the saints; and wonderful consecrated church edifices containing statuary. Many costly relics are covered with gold, silver and precious stones; and there are highly ornate churches. The city is located in the bishopric of Pataviensis;[The German edition of the says Passau.] and the daughter is greater than her mother. Here also are the four orders of the Mendicants; also the Scottish brothers and St. Augustine’s Regular Canons, who are greatly respected. Also the Cloister of the Virgin, and that of St. Jerome, in which are received common sinful women who have been converted, and who day and night sing the praises of God in the German tongue. Those who relapse into sin


are thrown into the Danube. But here they lead a virtuous and holy life, so that evil report or slander is seldom heard against them. In this city there is also a university of the liberal arts; and for the study of the Holy Scriptures and the canon law, newly established by Pope Urban VI. Here assemble a remarkable number of students from Hungary and Upper Germany. It is estimated that about fifty thousand attend Holy Communion. Eighteen men are elected to the Council; also a judge to preside over court matters and legal transactions, and a mayor who assumes civic responsibility. There are no other officials, except those who collect the tax on wine. They are consulted in all matters, and their tenure is from year to year. An incredible variety of things necessary to human sustenance are brought to this city daily. Many wagons and carts arrive with eggs and crabs; baked bread, meats, fish and fowl, without number, are brought there; but by vespers the supply is exhausted. The grape harvest extends over a period of forty days. Two or three times daily at least three hundred wagons loaded with grapes are on their way, and about twelve hundred horses are employed in the grape harvest daily. An incredible amount of wine is brought to this city daily, and either consumed or shipped with great care and labor up the Danube, against the current of the river. The wine cellars are so large and deep that it is believed the buildings at Vienna are more underground than above it. The streets and avenues are paved with hard stones, and the pavement is not easily injured by the wheels of the heavily loaded wagons. In the homes clean household utensils are found in great number. Here also are large stables for horses and all kinds of animals; arcades and vaultings everywhere, and large quarters and rooms where one may be secure against the inclemency of winter; everywhere there are transparent windows. The doors are generally of iron. The songs of many birds are heard. Old families are seldom found among the Viennese; for most of them immigrated here, or are foreigners. While in his younger days the Emperor Frederick III was at enmity and war with Matthias (Mathia), the king of the Hungarians, the city of Vienna, the emperor’s most distinguished inheritance, suffered great harm and injury at the hands of the said Hungarian king; for he subjected the Viennese to much damage, caused the emperor embarassment, and finally deprived him of the city. But after King Matthias died, the emperor Frederick, now well along in years, recovered Vienna through his son, King Maximilian.

Vienna was originally the ancient town of Vindobona, or Vendobona, located on the Danube in Upper Pannonia. Although originally a Celtic place, it afterward became a Roman municipum, as we learn from inscriptions. According to Ptolemy, for some time the town bore the name of Juliobona. It was situated at the foot of Mount Cetius, on the road running along the right bank of the river, and in the course of time became one of the most important military stations on the Danube; for after the decay of Carnuntum it was not only the station of the principal part of the Danubian fleet, but also of the Legio X Gemina (the twin legion, was one of the four legions used by Julius Caesar in 58 BCE, for his invasion of Gaul) in the 2nd century CE. The emperor Marcus Aurelius died at Vendobona 180 CE.

During the period of the Great Migrations and the succeeding centuries the traces of Vienna are lost; but tradition ascribes the foundation of St. Peter’s Church to Charlemagne (800 CE), the Church of St. Rupprecht being older still. After the establishment of the Ostmark (Austria) it revived. In 1137 "Wienne" is mentioned as a "small civitas." In the same year the cathedral of St. Stephen (Stephansdom) was founded, and a commercial town grew up about it. Later, under the Babenberger, Vienna became an important trading center, as well as the center of a brilliant court life and an important school of lyric poetry. The great epics of the Niebelungen and Gudrun were composed near its walls. Many monastic orders were established and many churches built.

Albert, the first Habsburg to enter Vienna, came into immediate conflict with the city, which he invested and forced to capitulate, annulling many of its privileges. The era of the earlier Habsburgs was generally unfortunate; the plague, the visitations of robbers and mercenary soldiers, the financial crisis and monetary depreciation, and the ceaseless internecine wars of the Habsburgs, hit the city very hard; yet it remained a wealthy and important center, and some of the Habsburgs were its generous patrons, notably Rudolph IV who founded the university in 1356, and did much toward the reconstruction of the cathedral of St. Stephen. Under Frederick IV Vienna at first preserved neutrality; but it was the center of the movement against Frederick led by Eiczing, and after Archduke Albrecht had twice stormed the city in 1458, a radical opposition was formed, and Frederick was besieged in the Hofburg (1462). Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, after taking Vienna, made it his residence. In 1529 Vienna had to stand a siege from the Turkish troops. The suburbs were deserted, and more and more of the inhabitants crowded into the old town.

The second siege of Vienna by the Turks, in 1683, was the indirect cause of the appearance of the characteristic Viennese coffee houses or cafes, almost simultaneously with another less characteristically Viennese product of the Orient – the lilac, planted in Vienna, to spread from there over western Europe. The disappearance of the Turkish danger ushered in a time of rapid expansion. The Hofburg was rebuilt, its library and stables constructed, together with a number of buildings in sumptuous baroque style. The architecture of the later 18th century is by comparison sober and practical.

The reign of Francis I created the typical Viennese of tradition: frivolous, non-political, discontented, easy-going ("Alt-Wien" with its waltzes). Then came the Revolution of 1848. Again Vienna suffered a siege; this time from the troops of its own emperor, by whom it was quickly reduced. The modern period under Franz Joseph saw another transformation. The old ramparts were leveled, the great Ringstrasse built in their place. A great number of new buildings were erected. In the latter half of the 19th century the population increased rapidly. The municipality again became a powerful political and cultural force.

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The city is represented by a large two-page woodcut extending over FOLIO XCVIII verso and XCIV recto. In the foreground is the Danube, not depicted as a great river, but as a sluggish little creek, in which two geese are disporting themselves. The water cannot be very deep, for their entire bodies appear above the surface of the water. They look stolid enough to be wooden decoys. Beyond a wild scrubby shore is the city wall, rather shy of turrets and towers. The houses are closely set together, and beyond it appears the open country, hilly and rocky. A tall church steeple appears at the right, surmounted by a sketchy figure resembling an eagle with outspread wings. To the right is a church, whose steeple is surmounted with a nondescript figure. Except for the churches, the architecture is decidedly monotonous. Of the vineyards, concerning which the text has so much to say, there is not a sign, and there is no commerce on the meager river. The vegetation along the river is sparse and blasted, and most of the trees about the landscape resemble puffballs.

FOLIO XCIX verso and C recto

We have before us one of the most important woodcuts in the entire Chronicle. It covers two full pages, verso and recto. And here, of course, we have a right to expect the designer to be perfectly at ease in his own hometown. In the lower right hand corner, on the banks of the river Pegnitz, is Ulman Stromer’s paper mill. Stromer was Germany’s first paper-maker, and it is at this mill that the paper for the Chronicle was made. As we proceed to the left we meet a pedestrian, staff in hand, and burdened with a large basket that is strapped to his back, such as was used in those days and for centuries later in the delivery of wares or merchandise. He is approaching three wayside crosses—the central one representing the cross upon which Jesus was crucified, as is indicated by the symbolical spear and sponge. The circle in the center of the cross no doubt represents the crown of thorns, and above it is the board upon which the inscription was placed. On either side is a T-shaped cross upon which Jesus’ two fellow crucified victims suffered, and hanging from each of these is a cudgel representing the instrument with which their bones were broken. Beyond this is a wayside shrine—a stone monument inscribed with a suggestion of the crucifixion. Further on we meet a man in armor whose steed prances along in the direction of the city gate, probably bound for the Castle. As we anticipate his course, we come upon a bent old lady, hobbling along by the aid of a walking stick, under her heavily loaded basket. As we approach the city gate, we note the coat of arms of the city of Nuremberg above it. This portal is reached by means of the rather flimsy wooden bridge over the moat that surrounds the walled city. Looking closely, we note that there are two walls, both bristling with towers, bastions and other defenses. We may not be able to count 365 towers with which the Chronicle credits the city, but the woodcutter has given us the idea that there must have been a great number of these, many square, some round.

To the right the river Pegnitz enters through another gate, which is protected by a portcullis. As we gaze upon the city we see that it is built upon a slope, in fact a series of slopes, in the midst of a sandy plain, which is some 900 feet above the sea. The moat that we must cross was originally 100 feet wide and 50 feet deep. As we pass through the gate we come upon numerous steeply gabled buildings, most of which are covered with red tile. We enter a labyrinth of crooked narrow streets, and feel an ambition to climb the hill that culminates in a varied group of buildings on the Castle rock. We regret that we are not able to identify the Albrecht Dürer house, nor the Koberger establishment in which the Chronicle itself was printed. But we are certain of the old Castle on the summit of the hill, with its formidable outbuildings and towers. To the left, silhouetted against the horizon, are the twin spires of the churches of St. Lorenz and St. Sebald, of which something is said in the succeeding text and the accompanying notes.

At the inception of their career as city builders the Germans settled about isolated strongholds, or fastnesses. Until the Carolingian period agriculture and the chase sustained them and sat (in office)isfied their needs. They had little or no trade, nor were they much interested in commerce. Even much later than the Roman incursions they were rather averse to living in walled-up towns. Although they had before them the Roman colonies and their foundations, such as Cologne (Colonia), Mainz (Maguncia), Metz (Metis), Augsburg (Augusta), and Regensburg (Ratisbona), only few of the inhabitants in earlier times decided to stay or live there. They called the inhabitants of these towns burghers, and the place a burg: And the former is even today the German word for ‘citizen’; while the word burg has attached itself to the names of many places, such as Hamburg, Regensburg, Salzburg, etc. The word stadt (city) would appear to have been used for the first time in the Niebelungen, Germany’s great national epic.

The 500-year period from the 10th to the 14th century was one of great civic activity for German-speaking lands. No less than 2000 cities sprang up within that time. Many castles had been built by the nobility, and in the wake of Christianity came bishoprics, monasteries, churches and shrines, all of which attracted multitudes and stimulated the creation and growth of communities about them.

The development of the medieval city was not according to any fixed plan. Although in the 18th century and later it was considered preferable to locate towns in level country, the medieval builder preferred a rugged and picturesque topography, showing a decided preference for elevated ground. No doubt greater security was also a factor in this choice. The old city of Nuremberg slopes up to considerable heights on either side of the river.

These cities were often massively circumscribed with their walls and fortifications. The residences and places of business are closely crowded together about the public buildings and churches—a point emphasized by our woodcut.

FOLIO C verso

Nuremberg is a city very much celebrated throughout Germany, as well as among foreign people; and it is extensively visited. It is a celebrated manufacturing center of Germany, and is adorned with beautiful public and private buildings. A very old royal castle, located on a hill (or mount) dominates the city, and from it one has a view of the city and beyond. Some are of the opinion that the city has its name from this castle.[Castle in German is ‘burg.’] Some say that the city was built by Tiberius Nero, the emperor, after Regensburg was built; or that it was called Neronesberg after Drusus Nero, his brother, who fought the Germans; for Tiberius the emperor’s paternal line, is from the family of Tiberius Nero.

The origin and name of Nuremberg are both involved in obscurity. The forms of the name – Nourenberg, Nourimperc, Nuernberg, Nuremberc, etc. – have resulted in many speculations as to origin and history. Our author has drawn upon the name of Drusus Nero (Neronesberg); and, enlarging upon the probable origin of the city, states that it has been attributed to a camp or citadel established there by Tiberius Claudius Nero (Neronesberg), and named for himself. However, there is no evidence of Roman colonization. The Nero’s castle (or Norix Tower) theory is but another speculation. The Heidenturm – the Pagan Tower of the Castle – is so called from some carvings on its walls, which were once called idols. One writer maintains that this was an ancient temple to Diana, insisting that the carvings are figures of dogs and two male figures with clubs, who must be Hercules and his son Noricus—hence Norixberg. However, the figures are not dogs but lions, and the male figures are saints or Israelite kings, and not pagan images. Others suggest that Noriker, driven out by the Huns, settled here and laid the foundation of the city. There is no authority to support these speculations, many of which are forced and unnatural. Chroniclers seem to have proceeded on the theory that origins must be accounted for in some manner, though the question may be of little consequence and the facts of history offer no solution.

As Cecil Headlam, in The Story of Nuremberg, observes, the history of the city begins in the year 1050, the silence regarding the place indicating that the castle did not exist until 1025 and was probably built between that year and 1050. On the latter date Henry III called a council of Bavarian nobles "in fundo suo Nourinberc."

As Suetonius Tranquillus writes, Livia was pregnant by Tiberius, and had also born him a son before that, when he was obliged to give her up at the request of Octavian. He died soon thereafter. Two sons survived him, namely Tiberius and Drusus, surnamed Nero after him.[Livia Drusilla, daughter of Livius Drusus Claudianus, was married first to Tiberius Claudius Nero and afterwards to Augustus, who compelled her husband to divorce her in 38 BCE. She had already born her husband one son, the future emperor Tiberius, and at the time of her marriage with Augustus she was six months pregnant with another child, Drusus. She had no children by Augustus, but retained his affections until her death. It is believed she caused the two grandsons of Augustus to be poisoned to secure the succession for her own children. She was even suspected of having hastened the death of Augustus. When her son Tiberius took the throne she attempted to secure an equal share in the government, but this he would not brook. He commanded her to retire from public affairs, and soon even displayed hatred toward her. She died in 29 CE.] According to the Sabine tongue, Nero means strong or strenuous. Afterwards Tiberius conducted successive wars against Burgundy and France, which had become restless through the incursions of the barbarians and the dissensions among their own rulers, and against the Rhaetians (Rheticum) and the Vindelici, and in Pannonia and in Germany. In the same wars he defeated the Alpine nations of the Rhaetians and the Vindelici, and in Pannonia the Brenni and the Dalmatians. In the German wars he carried off into Gaul forty thousand who had surrendered, settling them permanently on the shores of the Rhine. For these achievements he joyfully returned to Rome to celebrate his triumph with all the evidences of victory. His glory and might were thus greatly enhanced. He subjugated all Greece, the interior of Italy, the kingdoms of Noricum, Thrace, and Macedonia, and the lands lying between the Danube and the Adriatic. Claudius Tiberius Nero (as Eutropius[Eutropius, the Roman historian, held the office of secretary under Constantine the Great. He was patronized by Julian the Apostate, whom he accompanied in the Persian expedition. He is the author of a brief compendium of Roman history in ten books, from the foundation of the city to the accession of Valens in 364 CE. He appears to have drawn on the best authorities, and he executed his task with care. His work was much used by medieval historians and compilers (e.g., our chronicler, Hartmann Schedel).] states) was a man of ability in the art of war, and was fortunate before he assumed the throne. He contrived to have the cities named after himself.[For Tiberius Claudius Nero see Folio XCVI recto.] The most ancient books of history call this citadel a Norican castle. The Romans, in order to avoid being overrun by their enemies, who maintained themselves in the mountains, built citadels and castles on the mountains in Noricum and in many regions of Germany. The city has a single elevation, upon which the castle was built for its protection. And although (as the highly celebrated Pope Pius II writes of the city), there is a doubt whether it is Franconian or Bavarian, yet its name indicates that it belongs to Bavaria, for it is called Noremberg, the equivalent of Norixborg, and the region between the Danube and Nuremberg is called the "Norckaw." However, the city lies in the bishopric of Bamberg, which belongs to Franconia. Nevertheless the Nurembergers neither wished to be considered Bavarians nor Franconians, but a distinct people. The city is divided into two parts by a river called the Pegnitz. We pass from one part to the other by beautiful stone bridges erected over the river. The city is built on sandy arid soil, and in consequence its people are industrious craftsmen. All are either ingenious workmen, inventors, and masters of various wonderful and subtle arts and crafts, useful and ornamental, or are enterprising merchants and manufacturers. The city is by some regarded as modern, for little is found about it in the writings of the ancients, and no manner of foot prints or indications of age appear in it except the aforesaid citadel and some houses, which are not a matter of wonder to anyone. This is also true of many other cities, not only in Germany but in Italy and other countries, and of Rome, the most celebrated city in the world, of whose origin, age and founders much of a doubtful nature appears to have been written by the historians. However, it is known that Nuremberg flourished in the time of Charlemagne. For later Charlemagne, king of the Franks, determined to elevate and increase the churches, and to enlarge the Roman Empire. And he subdued the Saxons, brought the Britons and Gauls into alliance, and made peace with Tassilo, the Bavarian duke, according to the wishes of Pope Adrian. But as Tassilo would not appear in person, nor send citizens as sureties, Charles declared war against him, leading his forces into Bavaria, and dividing the people into three regions; and he ordered the Austrians (Austrasios), Thueringians (Turingos), and Saxons to encamp on the Danube, while his son Pepin (Pipinus) remained with the Italian forces at Trient (Tridentum). But Charles kept ward with one-third of the forces at Nuremberg and the vicinity; and he built a small chapel, which Pope Leo III (who followed him to Paderborn (Padebrunam) in Saxony), on his return to Rome, dedicated in honor of Saint Catherine the virgin and martyr; and it is now called after the old prince.[Charlemagne (724-814), was king of the Franks from 800-814 CE, and so we must regard the statement that Nuremberg flourished in his time as merely legendary. There is a story that he visited Nuremberg, but as suggested by Cecil Headlam, "He, you may be sure, was lost in the woods while hunting near Nuremberg, and passed all night alone, unhurt by wild beasts. As a token of gratitude for God’s manifest favor, he caused a chapel to be built on the spot. The chapel stands to this day – a twelfth-century building – but no matter! For did not Otto I, as our chroniclers tell us, attend mass in St. Sebald’s Church in 970, although St. Sebald’s Church cannot have been build till a century later?"] Some say that once upon a time this city was under the power of the noble lord, Albrecht, a count of the Francks, and that after his death (for he was slain by the emperor Ludwig (Ludovico) pursuant to the treachery of Hatto, bishop of Mainz) it became subject to Rome. Since that time it remained attached to the Roman Empire with great fidelity and without dissension; and it served the Roman kings with a high degree of faith and loyalty. The city suffered heavy oppression and damage during the quarrels of the Roman emperors, particularly in the reign of Henry (Heinrico) the Fourth, whose son through divine vengeance (as one says), persecuted him with war. As the Nurembergers remained loyal to the father,

FOLIO CI recto

they were besieged and taken by the son with the help of his supporters, as the trustworthy historians Otto Friesingen and Gotfried Viterbius write. The same King Henry marched against Würtzburg (Herbipolim), deposed the bishop Erlongus and installed Robert. Afterwards he permitted the Saxons to return home, and with the Bavarians he captured the citadel at Nuremberg. After besieging it two months or more, he proceeded against Regensburg (Ratisbonam), the capital city of the dukedom of Noricum. He was followed by his father, who drove out the bishop Robert, and reinstated Erlongus. And he proceeded to Regensburg, and with assistance, drove his son out of that city, and installed Bishop Ulrich. With the Bohemians he destroyed the march of Theobaldus.[Henry IV frequently honored Nuremberg with his presence. This is the sovereign, who as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, waited three days in the snow to kiss the excommunicative Gregory’s foot. On his last visit to Nuremberg Henry found his son in rebellion; and here the old king stopped to gather his forces. Nuremberg remained loyal to him and took his part, and for that reason the city was oppressed with a siege by the younger Henry in 1105. The citizens held out for two months; then came orders from the old emperor to capitulate. He had given up the struggle, and his son, as Henry V, succeeded to the Holy Roman Empire and to the possession of Nuremberg.] King Conrad the Swabian, who after the death of Lothair (Lothario) was declared Roman emperor, and who upon the advice of Saint Bernhard (Bernardi) undertook a campaign against the unbelievers, again built up the city; and he erected the estimable monastery and abbey of Saint Aegidius (Egidium), order of Saint Benedict, in one of the suburbs of the city. And through the subsequent help, revenues, and privileges of King Conrad and other Roman emperors the city again prospered.[With the death of Henry V in 1125 the Frankish line ended, for the Empire, though elective, always had a tendency to become hereditary. But now Lothair, Duke of Saxony, of another family, was chosen. He in turn was succeeded by Conrad in 1138. It is to the latter that the chroniclers attribute the foundation of the monastery of St. Aegidius on the site of the chapel said to have been built by Charlemagne.] But it is not to be understood that when first rebuilt, it was as large and beautiful as now; for later, in the time of Charles the Fourth, Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia, it was surrounded with more expansive walls, now battlements, and a deep moat; and three hundred and sixty-five towers, together with bastions and additional defenses, were added to the two inner walls. The city was also adorned with substantial residences. Nuremberg is in the heart or Germany. Under imperial laws it has the benefit of a council and a mayor, distinguished from the commons; for citizens of ancient and honorable ancestry have the care of civic matters, and the community awaits their judgment. It has large and elegant church edifices; two parish churches, St. Sebald[Sebald’s history and even his name are unfamiliar except to Nurembergers, of whose city he is the patron saint. Legend relates that he was born in the beginning of the eighth century, a son of an unnamed Christian king. In his youth he learned to love and fear Jesus, and at 15 enrolled at Paris as a student of theology, there eclipsing his older classmates. He returned home full of wisdom and honors, and was betrothed to a beautiful and virtuous maiden. But he left her and his parents for the life of a hermit. Fifteen years passed and he went to Rome from where the pope dispatched him to preach the gospel with Saints Willibald and Wunibald. And it came to pass that they were hungry and weary, exhausted by storm and wind. But on the prayers of Sebald an angel brought them bread. They journeyed to Vicenta, when Sebald, moved by the Holy Spirit, would go no farther, but abode as a hermit in the wood. His fame spread and people flocked to hear the Word of God from his lips. When an unbeliever scoffed at him, Sebald prayed for a sign, and the earth opened and the scoffer sank up to his neck. The hermit interceded for him and he was delivered, he and many other unbelievers immediately afterwards embracing the faith. Sebald left Italy for Ratisbona (Regensberg), bringing the gospel into the wilds of Germany; and there he stayed for a short time. As last he came to Nuremberg and settled there in the forest, in the heart of the Franconian people, teaching the Word of God and working miracles. At one time he sought shelter in the house of a poor but churlish craftsman. It was winter and the wind howled over the frozen marshes of the Pegnitz. He asked the man’s wife to bring in more wood for the fire, but she refused. Finally he asked her to bring the cluster of icicles that hung from the roof and to put them on the fire, if she would not bring the bundle of twigs to start the fire. This she did, and in answer to Sebald’s prayer, the whole bundle of ice was quickly ablaze. In the sight of this miracle the host gave the hermit a warmer welcome, and to make amends, left and bought some fish in the market, contrary to the regulations of the authorities, and, being caught, was blinded; but the hermit restored his sight. Many other miracles were attributed to the ashes and relics of this saint, which lie in the beautiful shrine of St. Sebald’s church. As Mr. Headlam in his observes, "Nothing in the Middle Ages was more conducive to the prosperity of a town than the reputation of having a holy man within its borders, the possession of miracle working relics of a saint. Just as St. Elizabeth made Marburg, so St. Sebald proved a potent attraction at Nuremberg . . . As early as 1070 and 1080 we hear of pilgrimages to Nuremberg in honor of her patron saint."] and St. Lorenz (Laurentio),[ St. Lorenzkirche (Church of Saint Lawrence), according to tradition, stands on the site of an older Romanesque chapel that bore the name of Holy Sepulchre. It was erected for the spiritual needs of the inhabitants whose houses first began to be built on this side of the Pegnitz. As it now stands, the church dates almost entirely from the latter part of the Middle Ages. It was begun in 1278 but not compuntil 1477. Its two towers are 250 feet in height and terminate in octagonal stories and spires. As the tope of the square portions of the towers are wide openings, divided by many mullions, suggesting the gridiron on which Lawrence was roasted. It is not clear why this church was dedicated to a Spanish saint.] as well as four well built monasteries of the order of the Mendicants, erected by the citizens at various times. The pious virgins have two cloisters here, dedicated to Saint Catherine and to Saint Clara. The German lords also have a large area in this city. Here is also a Carthusian monastery, large and magnificent; also a regal well-adorned structure to the most Holy Virgin Mary; and there is a beautiful spring in the marketplace. The city enjoys the patronage of St. Sebald, who in his lifetime brightened the city with his miracles. It is also fortunate in its possession of the royal robe, swords, scepter, and orb, and crown of Charlemagne, and which having been used in the crowning of a Roman emperor, inspire faith through their holiness and because of their antiquity. The city is also particularly fortunate in its possession of the unreplaceable divine spear with which the side of Jesus Christ was opened while on the cross; also with a remarkable piece of the cross, and with other relics esteemed by the entire world, and which, on the thirteenth day after the joys of Easter, have been seen for so many years by crowds of people from various provinces with the highest devotion. And so in its praise are added:

O extraordinary glory of Noricum[Noricum is the Roman name of the province in which Nuremberg is located. It is, of course, northeast of Italy.], peaceful Nuremberg,
As a city you are excessively celebrated, royal, and heavenly.
You are populated with men; you are the fairest of all things
And the parent of the virtues; you are a lover of religion.
You draw near to justice, sacred faith, and peace.
You guard before everthing else the ancient laws of your fathers.

Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is today the second town in Bavaria in size, and the first in commercial importance. It lies in the district of Middle Franconia in a sandy, well-cultivated plain, 124 miles by rail northwest from Munich. The city stands on the river Pegnitz, which is here crossed by 14 bridges. The first authentic mention of Nuremberg, which seems to have been called into existence by the foundation of the castle, occurs in a document of 1050; and about the same period it received from the emperor Henry III permission to establish a mint and a market. It is said to have been destroyed by the emperor Henry V in 1105, but in 1127 the emperor Lothair took it from the duke of Swabia and assigned it to the duke of Bavaria. An imperial officer, styled the burggrave of Nuremberg, became prominent in the 12th century. The town was ruled by patrician families. German monarchs frequently resided and held diets here, and in 1219 Frederick II conferred upon it the rights of a free imperial town.

Like Augsburg, Nuremberg attained great wealth as an intermediary between Italy and the East on the one hand, and Italy and northern Europe on the other. Its manufacturers were well known. The town gradually extended its sway over a territory nearly 500 sq. miles in extent, and was able to furnish the emperor Maximilian with a contingent of 6,000 troops. But perhaps the great glory of Nuremberg lies in its claim to be the principal fount of German art. Adam Krafft, Veit Stoss and Peter Vischer are famed as sculptors. In painting Nuremberg claims Wohlgemuth and Dürer. A large proportion of the old German furniture, silver-plate, stoves and the like was made in Nuremberg workshops. Its place in literary history it owes to Hans Sachs and the other meistersänger (master singers). The inventions of its inhabitants include watches, the air gun, gunlocks, the terrestrial and celestial globes and the art of wiredrawing.

Nuremberg was the first imperial town to embrace Protestantism (about 1525). The first blow to its prosperity was the discovery of the sea-route to India in 1497; the second was inflicted by the Thirty Years’ War, during which Gustavus Adolphus was besieged here for ten weeks by Wallenstein. The downfall of the town was accelerated by the illiberal policy of its Patrician rulers. In 1803 the city was allowed to maintain its nominal position as a free city, but in 1806 it was annexed to Bavaria.

A considerable section of the ancient walls and moat still remain; of the 365 bastions which formerly strengthened the walls, nearly 100 are still in situ, and a few of the old gateways have also been preserved. The general type of architecture in the city is Gothic. Most of the private dwellings date from the 16th century, and there are practically none of earlier date than the 15th century. The roofs are of red tile. The old castle is on the rock on the north side of the town and it dates probably from the early part of the 11th century.

The German edition of the Chronicle replaces everything from the phrase "on the thirteenth day…" until the end of the six-line poem in praise of Nuremberg with the following text: "and which are publicly exhibited at Easter time with great solemnity."

The foundation of the holy militant Church upon which the entire superstructure securely rests consists of the holy apostles, whom God chose as the first sacrifice for the salvation of all the people. They are the basic pillars of the Church, upon which rests that foundation of which Christ is the chief corner-stone; and without these no one can lay any other foundation. Thus the truth, formerly proclaimed by the law and the prophets, was now apostolically trumpeted forth for the salvation of the entire world. For it is written: Their voices have gone forth to all the world. From them the Church sprang and has been proclaimed to the ends of the earth in the words of the annunciation. By their teachings, miracles, examples, and by their blood they have established the church. For this reason they are deservedly called fathers, founders, builders, ordainers, shepherds, bishops, and pathfinders of the Catholic Church. And although the Lord intended to bestow the sacrament of this gift on all the apostles, he singled out the blessed Peter, and poured forth his bounty upon him as upon a single body; for Peter understood the secret intentions of God, who had revealed to him the indivisible unity. And so the Lord said, You are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my Church. And so the building of the eternal temple, with its wonderful endowments and the grace of God, rested upon the blessings bestowed upon Peter. With this sanction he so enlarged the church that no human folly or daring has been able to circumvent it; and the gates of hell have not been able to prevail against it.

He (Jesus) said to them, But who do you say I am? And Simon Peter answered and said, You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. And Jesus answered and said to him, Blessed are you, Simon Bar-jona: for flesh and blood have not revealed it to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I say also to you, that you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it. And I will give to you the keys of the kingdom of heaven; and whatsoever you shall bind on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

(Matthew 16:15-19)

With this new apostleship Jesus gave him a new name – Peter, Greek for ‘stone’ or ‘rock.’

The expression "upon this rock I will build my church," has received many contradictory interpretations through the ages. The Church of Rome has made these words the basis of its claim that Peter was the first pope, and that the long line of popes created by it were his direct successors. It affirms that the rock is Peter individually; that the commission made him supreme apostle, with authority inherited from him by the bishops of Rome. But this is answered by the contention that each apostle was a rock and a recipient of the keys, and that all were co-equal in power; that were the authority given Peter alone, it must still be shown that this personal prerogative was among the successional attributes conferred upon him. Of course, there is no historical foundation for the claim that Peter was ever a bishop of Rome, and the pretense of a succession from him is mythical.

FOLIO CI verso

This woodcut covers an entire page. In the upper center sits Jesus in a robe of ample folds, with the orb (surmounted by a cross) held on his left knee. His head is encircled by a cruciferous nimbus, that is, one inscribed with a cross, which is a form especially devoted to Christ. Examples where he is without it, or others are with it, are comparatively few. Jesus is at once distinguished from his disciples by its presence. In the illustration before us the cross within the nimbus is floral in detail, the terminals being in the form of lilies, which may have been introduced as symbols of the resurrection. Note that the nimbi about the heads of the apostles are plain, except that their names are inscribed in them as a convenient form of identification. During the fourteenth century the custom arose of thus placing the name of the wearer within the edge of the nimbus. This practice continued for about 200 years, and may be seen alike in Greek, Italian and German art, except that in the Greek examples the monogram of the person, or some other abbreviated form of his name, is used. The orb, surmounted with the cross, is introduced as a symbol of spiritual sovereignty. The globe and cross were first introduced as ensigns of authority in Western Europe by Pope Benedict VIII. Almost all the English kings, from Edward the Confessor, have the globe in their left hand on their coinage or great seals.

The apostles are seated about their Master in a circular group. To his right is Peter, whose name in the Greek (Petros) signifies ‘rock.’ He is portrayed, according to iconographic tradition, with bald head and short rounded beard. To the left of Jesus sits Peter’s brother Andrew, portrayed (also according to iconographic tradition) with a long flowing beard. It was the custom to thus bestow a certain personality upon such of the apostles. Thus Philip was portrayed as a man of advanced years, John as a youth. But it was no doubt found impossible by such means to clearly distinguish one from another among twelve or more distinct persons; for which reason symbols were assigned to them. These symbols were often the instruments by the use of which the saint suffered martyrdom. No attempt is made by the woodcutter to distinguish any other persons in the picture than Jesus, Peter and Andrew. And so we must rely upon the inscribed nimbi for the identification of the rest of the apostles. Proceeding downward from St. Peter on the left are John, unbearded, but not as young as he might have been; Thomas, with tousled head and forked beard; Philip, correctly represented as fairly aged; Matthew, a rather stern and haughty looking man; and Jude, designated "S. Judas," who appears rather elated in his devotions. We know that this is not Judas Iscariot for a number of reasons. In the first place the latter was not a saint. Secondly, because Judas Iscariot, after betraying Jesus, hanged himself, thus eliminating himself from the present occasion. Thirdly, because Matthias was chosen in his place (Acts 1:15-26), and we find Matthias seated at the right. Had Judas Iscariot been introduced there would have been thirteen disciples present. Jude’s surname was Thaddeus (Mark 3:18). In the Revised Version only the name Thaddeus is retained; but Luke calls him Judas (Luke 6:16; Acts 1:13).

Proceeding downward from Andrew on the right are James (Jacobus) the Greater (Major) and James (Jacobus) the Lesser (Minor), Bartholomew, Simon, and Matthias.

The four corners of the woodcuts are filled in with the symbols of the Evangelists—the angel for Matthew, the lion for mark, the ox for Luke, and the eagle for John.

At the head of the page on a broad scroll is the inscription:

Data est mihi potestas
in caelo et in terra:
"Power is given to me
in heaven and on earth."

The complete verse according to the Latin Vulgate is: Et accedens Iesus locutus est eis dicens data est mihi omnis potestas in caelo et in terra.

And Jesus, coming, spoke to them, saying: All power is given to me, in heaven and on earth.

(Matthew 28:18).

The inscriptions on the scrolls that circle and wave round about the head of Jesus and the heads of the apostles contain the following
Latin version of the Apostolic Creed:

Credo in Deum Patrem Omnipotentem, Creatorem caeli et terre. Et in Ihesum Xpm, Filius ejus unicum dominum nostrum; qui conceptus est de Spirito Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine. Passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, (mortuus et sepultus, omitted); descendit ad inferna (inferos), tertia die resurrexit a mortuis; ascendit ad caelos; sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis; inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos. Credo in Spiritum Sanctum, Sanctam ecclesiam Catholicam, sanctorum communionem, remissionem peccatorum, carnis resurrectionem, et vitam aeternam. Amen.
I believe in God the Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth. And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten son, our Lord, conceived of the Holy Spirit, and born out of Mary the Virgin; he suffered under Pontius Pilate, and was crucified, (dead and buried); descended into hell; on the third day he rose from the dead, ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of God the Father, from where he shall come to judge the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Spirit, the holy Catholic Church, the communion of saints, the remission of sins, the resurrection of the flesh, and in life everlasting. Amen.

It is a tradition that before the apostles dispersed to preach the Gospel in all lands, they assembled to compose this declaration of faith, and that each of them furnished one of the twelve propositions contained in it, in the following order:

  • St. Peter: Credo in Deum Patrem omnipotentem creatorem caeli et terrae.
  • St. Andrew: Et in Jesum Christum Filium ejus unicum, Dominum nostrum.
  • St. James Major: Qui conceptus est de Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Maria Virgine.
  • St. John: Passus sub Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus et sepultus.
  • St. Philip: Descendit ad inferos, tertia die resurrexit a mortuis.
  • St. James Minor: Ascendit ad caelos, sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris omnipotentis.
  • St. Thomas: Inde venturus est judicare vivos et mortuos.
  • St. Bartholomew: Credo in Spiritum Sanctum.
  • St. Matthew: Sanctam ecclesiam Catholicam.
  • St. Simon: Sanctorum communionem.
  • St. Simon: Remissionem peccatorum.
  • St. Matthies: Carnis resurrectionem.
  • St. Thaddeus: Et vitam aeternam.

In the illustration the twelve propositions of the Creed are not attributed in the same order to the various apostles.


The highest God and Parent of all things gave a new law to the new believers, and sent a teacher of righteousness from heaven. This new teacher (as has already been stated) allowed himself to be nailed to the cross, and there he gave up the spirit. But as he had prophesied that on the third day he would arise from the dead, the Jews feared that the disciples might secretly remove the body and give currency to the belief that Christ had arisen. Therefore they took him from the cross, sealed him in a sepulchre and guarded it securely with soldiers.[Matthew 27:62-66.] But on the third day before dawn, after an earthquake, the sepulcher opened, and a great fear took hold of the guards;[Matthew 28:2-4.] and the Lord came forth from the grave, living and entire. And he wandered into Galilee and revealed the letter of the Holy Scriptures and the secrets of the prophets, which were before that time not understood by his disciples.[Matthew 16:20.] And so they proclaimed him and his sufferings. Now after the Lord had given them the gospels, and had ordered the same to be taught in his name, he was surrounded by a cloud that lifted him up into heaven on the fortieth day after his suffering.[Acts 1:9.] By divine omnipotence the Temple of God, which had been released from the ill will of the Jews in three days, was now continued in the flesh for forty days as a sign, and to make the belief in the Resurrection secure. Now as the apostles and disciples, after the ascension (as Luke relates of the apostles) came down from the Mount of Olives and arrived at Jerusalem, they went up into an upper room, and there remained in prayer and supplication with the women and Mary, the mother of Jesus, and with his brethren; and day and night they pondered the laws of the Lord and his commandments until they were invested with virtue from on high.[Acts1:12-14.] In these days, between the time when the Lord arose from the dead and his ascension, the motive of his bitter death, and the immortality of not only the soul but also of the body was revealed; and the Lord breathed the Holy Spirit into his apostles;[John 20:22.] And to the apostle Peter were given the keys of the kingdom[Matthew 16:19.] and he was charged with the care of the sheepfold of the Lord. During all this time the eyes and hearts of the Lord’s own were opened by divine foresight, so that it should be acknowledged that the Lord who was born, martyred and died, had really arisen. But ten days after his ascension (which was the fiftieth day after he arose from the dead), when the disciples were gathered together, they received the blessed gift of the Holy Spirit, which they craved; and soon a voice came from heaven and filled the entire room in which they sat ; and cloven tongues "like as of fire" appeared to them, and all were filled with the Holy Spirit; and they began to speak in various tongues.[] And just as the Israelites (following their release from bondage) were given the law on Mount Sinai fifty days after the sacrifice of a lamb, so (after the suffering and slaying of the Lamb of God) the Holy Spirit was poured forth upon the apostles and believers fifty days after he arose from the dead. By virtue of the gift thus received, the apostles fully understood all the things which the prophets had written of Christ, and by common counsel formulated the articles and foundations of our faith. And Peter, the prince of the apostles, spoke according to the prophecies of Jeremiah, Isaiah and David: I believe in one God, Father Almighty, Creator of heaven and earth. (Andrew and Habakuk). And in Jesus Christ, his only begotten son, our Lord, (John) who was conceived of the Holy Spirit out of Mary the Virgin (as Isaiah prophesied: Truly, a virgin will bear a son. James confirmed the prophecy of Iaaiah); suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified and buried (Thomas attested the prophecy of Hosea); descended into hell; on the third day he rose from the dead; (James the Greater) ascended into heaven, and sits on the right hand of God, the Father Almighty; (Philip) from where he shall come to judge the living and the dead. (Bartholomew) I believe in the Holy Spirit, (Matthew) the holy Christian Church, (Simon, Jude and Matthias) the communion of saints, the remission of sins, resurrection of the flesh, and life everlasting. Amen. Afterwards the apostles ordained many things in all churches, and made James, the brother of the Lord, a bishop at Jerusalem; for he was a holy man from birth. He began by celebrating mass in a simple manner by saying the "Our Father," etc. (Lord’s Prayer). Christian life increased among men and women, and St. Peter chose seven deacons, that is, servants of the Faith—Stephen, Philip, Prochorus (Procorus), Nicanor, Timon (Tymon), Parmenas, and Nicholas Antiochus—who undertook the tasks assigned to the servants of the church.[Acts 1:1-5.] After that the apostles dispersed into all parts of the world. Thomas went among the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hircanians, Bactrians, and into India interior; Matthew went into Macedonia and Ethiopia; Bartholomew into Liconia and India exterior; Andrew into Achaia and Scythia; John, after the death of the Virgin Mary, into Asia; Peter into Pontus and Galatia, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and finally to Rome; James the Greater into Spain; Judas into Mesopotamia; Simon into Egypt; and Philip into Gaul; just as was later written of the apostles. And so they dispersed themselves into these countries, and laid the foundation of the church. In the name of God, their Master, they performed great and incredible miracles. And he strengthened them in virtue and power in order to augment the establishment and promulgation of the new faith.


The Virgin Mary is seated on a throne surrounded by the apostles, among whom we are able to identify Peter, with rounded beard and bald head, on her left, and possibly Andrew with flowing and divided beard, on her right. The smooth-shaven man in the right foreground is probably the youthful John. Mary appears to be reading and interpreting the Scriptures to the apostles who listen in an attitude of reverence. The Holy Spirit, symbolized by a dove with outspread wings, appears above the head of the Virgin and immediately below the canopy of the throne. According to the Bible (Acts 1: 12-14), the apostles left the scene of the Lord’s ascension, and coming down from the Mount of Olives to Jerusalem, they put up in an upper chamber, and "all continued with one accord in prayer and supplication with the women and Mary, the Mother of Jesus, and with his brethren."

Whether or not the artist here intended to comprehend the subject known as the Descent of the Holy Spirit is not clear. The latter event is recorded in Acts 2:1-4, and the Bible does not state that Mary was present, nor that the Holy Spirit descended in the form of a dove, but in cloven tongues of fire which set upon each of the apostles. Nor is the interpretation of the Scriptures by Mary born out by the text. The designer was of course influenced by the Maryology of the Middle Ages. In the Venice Academy is a 14th-century work of art depicting the apostles and the Virgin seated in an enclosure, tongues of fire descending from heaven. A painting in the Vatican attributed to Raphael also shows the Virgin and the apostles seated, with flames of fire standing on their heads.


Mary, most glorious and eternal virgin and chaste Mother of God, after the ascension of the Lord Jesus (as Luke states in the Gospels), lived a human life in communion with the apostles until they were filled with the spirit of the Holy Spirit. But after the descent of the Holy Spirit and the dispersion of the apostles (as St. Jerome says), the archangel Gabriel, as a celestial emissary, preserved this Holy Virgin untouched in mind and body; while John the Evangelist (commended to her by her Son from the cross),[] was kind to her and dutifully protected this Virgin, the patroness of all virgins, to the end of her life, as her adopted son; and thus she was given an opportunity of seeing all the places where her Son had suffered. On Mount Zion is shown a cave where she lived and where John read the Mass. Although Christ is to be loved by all the people, he was more intensely loved by her whose Lord and Son he was. She was downcast with much sorrow; and after his ascension, as she quietly and alone contemplated what she had heard, seen and experienced, the intensity of her love for her Son increased. Finally, full of grace, and enlightened by all the virtues, she went to rest in peace in the sixty-third year of her age, and forty-nine years after the birth of Jesus Christ her Son. She had abundantly earned for herself the grace of eternal purity; and this was fully bestowed upon her by her Son, Jesus Christ. According to the pious writers, all the apostles were present at her burial, according to the will of God; and it is to be believed that our Lord Jesus Christ, together with the entire heavenly host, came forth in jubilation to meet her, and with joy of soul and body took her up into heaven and seated her beside his throne. She lived sixteen years after her Son’s death, at which time she was forty-seven years of age. No one should doubt that the entire heavenly Jerusalem exulted in unspeakable joy and with immeasurable love upon her worthy reception and coronation. This should not be a matter of amazement, for out of her was born the one whom all the orders in heaven honor and worship. And she was elevated above them into the seat of the majesty of the Lord. Thus the chaste Mother and Virgin was led forth to the throne on high, and with sublime glory was seated next to Christ on the throne of the kingdom.

Peter, the first pope, prince of the apostles, by birth a Galilean of Bethsaida, a son of John,[John, or Jonas, a fisherman.] and a brother of Andrew the apostle, occupied the bishop’s chair in the city of Antioch for the first time seven years after the Lord’s ascension. This is the Peter to whom the Lord said: Blessed are you, Simon Bar-jona; for flesh and blood have not revealed it to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church. And I will give to you the keys to the kingdom of heaven, and also the power to bind and to loose.[Matthew 16:17-19.] Now after Peter with all zeal had sufficiently established the church in Asia, and had overcome the errors of those who held to the rite of circumcision, and had preached the abolition of the rite in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia, and was released from Herod’s prison, he came to Italy and established and held the first see in the second year of Claudius at Rome, taking into consideration that Rome was the capital city of the world, and as such would also be suitable as the proper place for the bishop’s chair; and on it he sat for 25 years and 7 months.[This is the assertion of papal writers, but the evidence is strongly against this assertion. There is no evidence in the Bible that Peter had any supremacy over the other apostles, or any successor in that influence naturally accorded to him as one of the oldest, most active, and most faithful of those who "had seen the Lord."] Now Peter at that time came to Rome, because he understood that Simon the sorcerer, a Samaritan, was there, and with his sorceries was now leading the Roman people into error; for they believed him to be a god; for at Rome a memorial plaque was dedicated to him and placed between two bridges, on written was written in Latin letters ‘Simon the Holy God.’ While in Samaria, Simon maintained his faith in Christ until he was baptized by Philip the deacon; but afterwards he made misuse of his baptism, causing much heresy in conjunction with Helena (Selene), an unchaste woman who was associated with him in evil. This evil man confronted Peter by a miracle, causing a dead child to appear to move as a consequence of his sorceries; but the child nevertheless remained dead until, at the command of Peter, in the name of Jesus, it arose. This enraged Simon and he promised the people that in their presence he would fly from the Capitoline to the Aventine Hill; and when Simon thus flew, he fell down, in accordance with Peter’s prayers, and broke a leg; and of this injury he died at Arezzo not long afterwards. From him came the Simonian heretics who pretended to purchase and sell the gift of the Holy Spirit, etc.

Cf. Acts 8:9-20:

And there was a certain man called Simon, who formerly in the same city used sorcery and bewitched the people of Samaria, giving out that he himself was some great one. To him they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying, This man is the great power of God. And to him they had regard because for a long time he had bewitched them with sorceries. But when they believed Philip preaching the things concerning the kingdom of God, and the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women. Then Simon himself believed as well; and when he was baptized he continued with Philip, and wondered, beholding the miracles and signs that were done. Now when the apostles which were at Jerusalem heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent to them Peter and John, who, when they had come down, prayed for them in order that they might receive the Holy Spirit. (For as yet he had fallen upon none of them—they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.) Then they laid their hands on them and they received the Holy Spirit. And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles’ hands the Holy Spirit was given, he offered them money, Saying, Give me also this power, that on whomever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Spirit. But Peter said to him, Let your money perish with you, because you have thought the gift of God may be purchased with money.

Simon Magus holds the unique position of being branded the one outstanding heretic in the New Testament. Later centuries used the word simony to indicate the crime of procuring a spiritual office by purchase. Justin Martyr states that Gitta, a village in Samaria, was his birthplace, and speaks of him as visiting Rome and being so successful in his impostures as to have secured for himself worship as God, and to have been honored with a statue inscribed Simoni Deo Sancto (‘to Simon the Holy God’). He also adds that Helena, a fallen woman who accompanied him, was ‘the first idea generated by him.’ The story that he broke a leg during flight, pursuant to the prayers of Peter, is purely traditional, and is not the only tradition as to how he met death.

After that Peter instituted the fast of forty days, and wrote two epistles called Canonicas. And as there were many things to which he could not attend, confining himself to prayers and sermons, he ordained two bishops, Linus and Cletus, who performed the priestly office among the Romans and other people.


This series of woodcuts would appear to be a continuation of those found at Folio XCV verso:


Mary reclines on a bed, propped up against a pillow. Her head is surrounded by a simple nimbus, and she already holds a sceptre in anticipation of her reception in heaven. The hard square bed would appear to be out in the open. The apostles are gathered about Mary according to the text of the Chronicle. One of them, a rather diminutive figure, is seated on the floor in the foreground, with book in hand and apparently meditating on the Scriptures. The youthful figure beside Mary is probably John; next is Andrew, of the long flowing beard; then Peter, with rounded beard and bald except for the usual forelock. The woodcut is inscribed, "The Assumption of Mary, Mother of God."


The crowning of Mary is in progress. The Lord is seated on his throne, and Mary kneels beside him, about to receive the crown upon her head. Above and between them is the symbolic dove, with wings outspread, attesting the presence of the Holy Spirit. The woodcut is inscribed, "The Coronation of the Glorious Virgin Mary in Heaven."


Peter, in full pontificals, as Rome’s first pope, is seated in a narrow gothic chamber. He wears the triple crown and holds a crozier in his right hand. On his lap is an open book, and his look is one of meditation. The woodcut is inscribed, "In the year of the World 7223," and "In the Year of Christ, 34."


Caius, surnamed Caligula, son of Drusus Augustus, stepson of the emperor and grandson of Tiberius, was the fourth Roman emperor. At the age of twenty he was sent to Capri in Cantania, where he was invested with the robe of peace by Tiberius for several days. He served in the senate four times, completed the half-finished buildings begun under Tiberius, namely the Temple of Augustus and the Market of Pompey. He also started the aqueducts of Tiburti, and built many cities in his name. He was tall, pale of complexion, ungainly in body, had thin legs and neck, hollow eyes and temples, broad forehead, little hair, and none at all where the hair parts. His look was dark and terrifying, an appearance he deliberately maintained. He wore neither the dress nor the footwear of his ancestors, nor that of the citizenry, but dressed in clothes embroidered with pearls and gems. His bitter, cruel words resulted in tragedies, and he was considered a most outrageous man. He did nothing praiseworthy or chivalrous at home or abroad, but destroyed all things in a spirit of avarice. He was so sexually debased that he took advantage of his own sisters, and so gruesome that he is often said to have remarked, "I wish that the Roman people had but one neck." He was so envious of persons of renown that he caused their writings and images to be removed from the libraries. He appointed Agrippa king of Judea and exiled Herod to Lyons. Caligula was slain by his own people in the tenth month of the third year of his reign, at the age of 29 years. His body was secretly carried off, burned, and buried.[Caligula, Roman emperor, 37-41 CE, was the son of Germanicus and Agrippina. He was born in 12 CE and brought up among the legions in Germany. His real name was Caius Caesar, and he was always called Caius, Caligula being a nickname given him by the soldiers because as a small boy he wore little caligae, or soldiers’ boots. He gained the favor of Tiberius, who raised him to offices of honor and held out hopes to him of his succession. On the death of Tiberius he succeeded to the throne. His first acts promised a just and beneficent rule. He pardoned those who had appeared against his family, released state prisoners, restored the power of the magistrates and promised to govern according to law. He behaved with generosity toward foreign princes and restored them to their thrones. But after a serious illness that probably weakened his mental powers, he appears in the literary record as a madman. He put to death Tiberius, grandson of his predecessor, compelled his grandmother and other members of his family to do away with themselves, often causing persons of both sexes and of all ages to be tortured to death for his amusement at meals. On one occasion he ordered a great number of spectators at the circus to be thrown to the wild beasts. Suetonius relates his famous wish that the Roman people had but one head, that he might cut it off at one blow. His marriages were disgracefully contracted and speedily dissolved. He considered himself a god, built a temple for himself, and appointed priests to attend to his worship. Sometimes he officiated as his own priest, making his horse, Incitatus, which he afterward raised to the consulship, his colleague. He exhausted the state treasury with fantastic projects. He built a bridge on which he gave a splendid banquet, concluding the entertainment by throwing a number of guests into the sea. The Roman world at length grew tired of this madman, and four months after his return to the city he was murdered.]

Claudius, cousin of Caius Caligula, was the fifth Roman emperor, receiving the office (as Josephus states) through the help and zeal of Agrippa, king of Judea, Claudius was born at Lyons on the day that a temple was there dedicated to the emperor Augustus; and he was called Tiberius Claudius Drusus. From early age until he became fifty he was zealously devoted to the liberal arts. In perception and judgment, he showed an uncertain disposition. He subjugated Britain, a feat that no one had attempted either before or after Julius Caesar. He also subjugated the Orkneys to the Roman emperor. He constructed buildings larger than necessary. Through a mountain he built a canal three thousand feet in length; and in the course of eleven years, by the employment of thirty thousand men without interruption, built the port of Ostia on either side of the inlet as a protection to Rome. He espoused Aelia Paetina (Eliam Petinam), but divorced her on trivial grounds. Later he married Messalina, who had been previously engaged to another. For this and other misdeeds he caused her to be executed. Then he married Agrippina who enticed him by her studied affections. Claudius was well formed in body, long but not thin, and his hair was white. He was thick-necked, and a glutton for food and wine. He was finally poisoned by Agrippina at the age of sixty-four, in the 14th year of his reign. A comet foretold his death.[Claudius I, Roman emperor 41-54 CE, (whose full name was Tiberius Claudius Drusus Nero Germanicus) was the younger son of Drusus, the brother of the emperor Tiberius and Antonia, and was born 10 BCE at Lyons in Gaul. In youth he was weak and sickly, and was neglected and despised by his relatives. When he grew up he devoted the greater part of his time to literary pursuits, but was not allowed to take any part in public affairs. He had reached the age of fifty when he was suddenly raised by the soldiers to the imperial throne after the murder of Caligula. He was married four times. At the time of his accession he was married to his third wife, the notorious Messalina, who governed him for some years, together with the freedmen Narcissus, Pallus, and others. After the execution of Messalina in the year 48, Claudius was still more unfortunate in choosing for his wife his niece, Agrippina. She prevailed upon him to set aside his own son, Britannicus, and to adopt her son Nero, that she might secure the succession for the latter. He soon after regretted this step, and was in consequence most likely poisoned by Agrippina in the year 54.]

Nero, stepson of Claudius, and a legitimate son of Agrippina and Gnaeus Domitius, her husband, was the sixth emperor of the Romans, and was born nine months before Tiberius died. His own name was Domitius, as was that of his father. But when the emperor Claudius gave him his own daughter Octavia in marriage, he called him Nero. From youth he loved horses. From time to time he secretly indulged in youthful errors, wantonness, selfishness, and cruelty; but as his vices increased in course of time, he openly committed great evils. He indulged in gluttony from noon to midnight, and in all things became more evil and wanton than the above named Caligula. He caused a great number of the senators to be slain, and proved a wreckless squanderer of wealth. He caused himself to be anointed with cold creams, and went fishing with golden nets with purple cords. These vices he concealed at the beginning of his reign, thus making all men hopeful as to his future conduct. He was a man of medium stature, bodily odors, yellow hair, a beautiful countenance, but more devoted to his body than to customs and manners. His eyes were dark, his neck thick; he had a protruding belly and thin legs, and his body was probably in good health. In his time a fire occurred at Rome which lasted for six days, and for which he was blamed. However, to avoid responsibility, he suborned witnesses to say that the Christians were the cause. And so a great number of Christians were made prisoners and were slain. Some say that Nero burned the city in order to see a fire like that which destroyed Troy. He employed his raging cruelties against Seneca, Lucan, his own mother, his wife, and all persons who were held in esteem at Rome. At last he succumbed to the hatred of the Roman people, and being sought for punishment, he fled and killed himself at the age of 30, in the fourteenth year of his reign.

Nero (Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), emperor of Rome from 54 to 68 CE, was the son of Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Agrippina the younger, and his name was originally L. Domitius Ahenobarbus. His father died when he was scarcely three, and in the previous year his mother had been banished by order of her brother Caligula. Nero early found shelter in the house of his aunt Domitia. The emperor Claudius recalled Agrippina, who spent the next thirteen years in a struggle to obtain the succession of the throne for Nero. She married Claudius in 49, and in 50 he adopted Nero as his son, recalling Seneca from exile to be his tutor. On his fourteenth birthday he assumed the toga virilis (A plain white toga worn on formal occasions by most Roman men of legal age, generally about 14 to 18 years) and was introduced to the Senate by Claudius with the title of princeps iuventutis (‘leader of the youth’). This made his succession almost certain, Britannicus, the son of Claudius by Messalina notwithstanding. In 54 Claudius died, most likely poisoned by Agrippina’s orders, and Nero took the throne, only a few voices being raised for Brittanicus, whom Agrippina, by playing on Nero’s fears, induced him to poison at a banquet. It is this Britannicus who is the subject of a tragedy by Racine.

Agrippina’s maneuvering was a complete success, and Rome welcomed the new emperor with enthusiasm, as his prestige and good qualities, carefully fostered by Seneca, had made him popular, while his darker passions were as yet unsuspected. But Seneca saw from the first that the real danger with Nero lay in his savage temper and passions, which he made it his chief aim to stave off by every means in his power. During the first five years little occurred to dampen the popular enthusiasm. Nero’s promises were fulfilled and the Senate found itself free to discuss and decide important administrative questions. Even the murder of Britannicus was accepted as a measure of self-defense.

In 58 Nero was enslaved by Poppaea Sabina, a woman of a very different stamp from her predecessor. By rousing Nero’s jealousy she induced him to seek the death of Agrippina. Accordingly, she was invited to Baiae, where, after an affectionate reception, she was but on a vessel constructed to fall apart at a given signal. Agrippina saved herself by swimming, but later her villa was surrounded by soldiers who murdered her in her own chamber. The public was made to believe the murder justified because of treacherous designs on the part of the victim. On Agrippina’s death Nero’s advisers Burrus and Seneca were replaced by Poppaea and the infamous Tigellinus. Her triumph now complete, Poppaea became the wife of Nero.

A number of disasters occurred in Nero’s reign, but none produced a greater impression than the burning of Rome in 64. After six days it was finally quenched, but only a few sections of the city remained untouched. Nero is (probably unjustly) blamed for having deliberately caused it, and this undoubtedly told against him. The disaster was widely regarded as evidence of the wrath of the gods. The cost of reconstruction was enormous and the tax burden in consequence extremely oppressive. Poppaea died in 65, and the general gloom of the times was increased by a pestilence that followed the fire. Revolts occurred in Spain and Germany. When the palace guards finally left their post Nero fled for shelter to a freedman’s villa some four miles out of Rome. There he heard the senate’s proclamation of Galba as emperor, and of the death sentence passed on himself. On the approach of his executioners he mustered up sufficient courage to commit suicide. He died in the year 68 CE, at the age of 31, and in the 14th year of his reign.


Stephen, the first martyr, and a native of Jerusalem, was the first of the seven deacons. He was elected to the office of deacon and servant of the Faith by the Apostles because of his piousness and virtue. He began to strengthen the Christian religion (as Luke writes) among the Jewish people by many signs and miracles. Although many Jews opposed him, they were unable to withstand his wisdom and spirit; for his face appeared unto them as that of an angel.[Acts 7:15.] After he triumphed over their errors they cast him out of the city and stoned him to death. To prevent hindrance in their work they laid their outer garments down at the feet of a young man whose name was Saul. While being stoned Stephen kneeled down and looked into heaven, and he saw Jesus, and zealously pleaded to him on behalf of those who were doing the stoning.[Acts 7:57-60.] And while this Stephen, a living image of virtue, was being crushed with stories, and the stones were whizing about his head, he remained steadfast and calm in the hope of setting an example of patience for the future. When his prayer was ended he fell asleep in peace. He was stoned in the month of August of the year in which Christ was crucified. His body was found by Saint Lucian, the priest, in the time of Honorius, the pope, in the Year of the Lord 407. At this same time (as Augustine states) six persons awoke from the dead, and seventy were cured of various maladies. The body was taken to Constantinople, and from there to Rome, where it was buried in a more diginified place.

With Stephen we enter upon the martyrologies. With very few exceptions nearly all of the material concerning these individuals is legendary.

Stephen, generally known as the first martyr, was one of the seven of honest reputation elected at the suggestion of the apostles to relieve them of certain labors. He was a forerunner of the apostle Paul and argued for the new faith. He was arrested and brought before the Sanhedrin. As he made his defense he awed his judges. He was calm and his proofs were: (1) God had not limited his favor to the Holy Land or to the Temple; (2) The Jews had always opposed to this free spirit of their God a narrow bigoted spirit. The manner in which Stephen’s quiet words were received caused him to break off abruptly into fiery reproach; but so direct was its appeal to the conscience of the people that they were excited to madness (Acts 7:54), and they fell upon Stephen like wild beasts, shouting and stopping their ears. After they had forced Stephen beyond the walls of the city they stoned him to death, Saul being present and conspicuous in this tumultuous transaction. The last breath of Stephen was spent in prayer for the forgiveness of his murderers. His death occurred about 37 CE.

Philip, the second deacon, after preaching in Samaria, came to Caesarea (Cesarea) and there became known for his virtues and miracles. He had three daughters who were filled with the spirit of prophecy and who were buried in his grave. He died in the time of Nero, and was esteemed a saint by many.[Philip, the evangelist, was one of the seven deacons of the primitive church at Jerusalem (Acts 6:3-5). He went down to Samaria and preached Christ. The people gave heed to those things that Philip spoke, hearing and seeing the miracles he did. "For unclean spirits, crying with loud voice, came out of many that were possessed with them: And many taken with palsies, and that were lame, were healed." (Acts 8:5-8). At Samaria Philip received divine intimation to go to Gaza. He is next found at Azotus, 40 miles away, in Caesarea. He had four daughters, reputedly endowed with the gifts of prophecy (Acts 21:8-9).] Prochorus (Procorus), the third deacon, zealously multiplied the churches begun at Antioch by the Apostles; and there he received the martyr’s crown. Nicanor, the fourth deacon, flourished in grace of faith and virtue at Jerusalem to the time of Vespasian and was martyred there. Timon (Tymon), the fifth deacon, first officiated at Beroaz, and later proclaimed the word of the Lord at Corinth, where he was thrown into a fire that failed to consume him. He was finally crucified. Parmenas, the sixth deacon, fulfilled his office in the completeness of his faith, and was martyred in the time of Trajan. Nicholas, the seventh deacon, did not remain in the faith; but from him the heresy of the Nicolaitanes originated.[]

Paul, one of the most worthy apostles of Jesus Christ, was of the tribe of Benjamin, of the city of Giscalis. While a child he was taken prisoner by the Romans, and emigrated with his parents to the city of Tarsus[ Tarsus was the capital of Cilicia in Asia Minor. It lay in the center of a fertile plain twelve miles north from the Mediterranean and about the same distance south from the Taurus range. The city stood on both banks of the Cydnus, which has since changed its course. At the mouth of the river were docks, and the port of Tarsus was a place of much commerce. It suffered severely during the civil wars following the death of Caesar. Augustus made it a free city and it became famous as the seat of one of the three great universities of the pagan world, ranking next to Athens and Alexandria.] in Cilicia. There his father received Roman citizenship; for this was the Roman custom as they brought the whole world under their dominion: Those people who came to the Romans in peace acquired Roman citizenship, and the Romans called them brothers. Now, when the Romans with their forces marched into Cilicia, the father of Paul, together with other notable men of Tarsus, went forth in peace to meet them. And by that action he earned the official toga, so that he was accounted a Roman citizen. In consequence Paul was also a Roman citizen. But when the Christian faith began to grow throughout the land of Judea, Paul, while still a youth, carried letters from the Temple priests for the persecution of the Christians. But he had been present at the stoning of Stephen, where he had taken charge of the clothing of all those who stoned him; and Stephen had prayed for him and had raised him from the earth. And not long after that when Paul went to Damascus (as Luke states) he was touched by the Holy Spirit and impelled to the Christian faith and chosen as one of its vessels; and this all happened in the year in which Christ suffered. Soon afterwards Paul was called and the Gospel of Christ was revealed to him; and he was commended to the highly learned Gamaliel at Jerusalem.[Gamaliel, a distinguished Rabbi, was a prominent member of the Sanhedrin, and for thirty-two years its president. We come upon him in the earlier attempts made at Jerusalem, in 33 CE, to intercept the progress of the gospel. On one occasion, when the apostles aroused the feelings of the Sanhedrin to a high pitch and that body discussed measures for putting them to death, Gamaliel counseled more moderate and prudent action. His words on this occasion are among the most famous that the opponents of Christianity uttered in the early church: "And now I say to you, Refrain from these men, and let them alone; for if this counsel or this work be of men, it will come to nought: But if it be of God, you cannot overthrow it; unless by chance you are found even to fight against God" (Acts 5:38-39). Gamaliel was Paul’s teacher at Jerusalem.] After his conversion he, together with the Apostles, wandered through many cities. Returning to Jerusalem with Peter, John and James, he collected the Gospels of Christ. And he was pronounced an apostle to the pagans (Gentiles). He sailed to Spain in order to preach there; and he made many converts at Narbonne. He returned to Jerusalem a second time, and was sent to Rome as a prisoner. There he remained under free parole for two years, daily disputing with the Jews. After Nero released him he preached many sermons and wrote much.

Paul, "the Apostle of the Gentiles," was the first Christian missionary and theologian, and holds second place in Christianity (behind Jesus). Paul was born and bred a strict Jew. In course of time he came to distinguish clearly between Judaism and the gospel of Christ, and presented Christianity as the universal religion for man as man, not merely a sect of Judaism with proselytes of its own. This was the issue between Christianity and the Jewish Law, and Paul settled it for all time. With him it was Pharisaism or Jesus—law or love, as the ultimate revelation of God. As Saul the Pharisee, he had taken the Mosaic Law in the strict sense, as one demanding perfect obedience; and he had relied on it utterly for the righteousness it was held able to confer.

"Saul, who is also Paul," was reared amid the Diaspora, at Tarsus in Cilicia, the son of a Roman citizen named Paulus. His original Hebrew name was Saul, but in his intercourse with the Gentiles he later changed it for the Hellenistic or Latin form, ‘Paul.’ He had knowledge of the Greek language and literature. Indeed, Greek may hae been his first language, and he probably studied at a Greek (Cynic?) school. As a Jew, born in the city of Tarsus, and a Roman citizen, he combined three of the more prominent nationalities of the Roman Empire, and was eminently prepared for his apostolic mission among the Jews and Gentiles, Greeks and foreigners. He mastered Jewish law, and, according to the custom of the Rabbis, was taught a useful trade. His residence at Jerusalem commenced at an early period, and he was probably twenty when Christ entered upon his public ministry. In the beginning he was a strict Pharisee. He was present as a spectator and promoter of the stoning of Stephen, and his fanatical temperament fitted him to become a leader in the persecution of the Christians. He even sought authority to go to Damascus, to which many of the disciples fled after Stephen’s death, in order to bind and drag to Jerusalem such followers of Christ as he might discover. Just before reaching Damascus he was, according to the Bible, arrested by a miraculous light, intense enough to blind him (Acts 9:8-9), in which Jesus revealed himself as the real object of the persecution (Acts 26:15). From this point on Paul became a different man, having believed that he received from the lips of Jesus himself his commission as an apostle of the Gentiles (Acts 26:16). The miraculous restoration of his sight, his baptism, and the gift of the Holy Spirit followed in quick succession, and we soon find him zealously preaching the New Faith. To this he devoted the remainder of his life with energy and fanatic devotion.

Acts trace his career to the time of his first imprisonment at Rome, which lasted for two years, and left him free to labor for his new religion. After this we are left in the dark. Some say he suffered martyrdom in the persecutions of Nero in 64 CE; others, that he was freed from the first Roman imprisonment, made new missionary tours in the East, and possibly also in the West as far as Spain, was taken prisoner to Rome a second time, and suffered martyrdom in 67 or 68 CE.


We enter upon the martyrology:


The Stoning of Stephen is based on Acts 7:57-60. The first martyr is shown in priestly garb, his head encircled by a nimbus. Stephen has been dragged to a place outside the city walls, and his execution is in progress. He has fallen upon his knees in an attitude of prayer as the stones fly about him. Saul (Paul) clad in a flowing robe and wearing an oriental headdress, stands at the right, abetting the conduct of the mob by holding the outer garments and weapons of the participants, in order that they may be more free and effective in their deadly business. Only two of these, one of whom is ‘crying out with a loud voice,’ are comprehended in the woodcut. They are vigorous and vicious in their work, while their victim remains calm and resigned. At the left stands an old patriarch, staff in hand, looking on. Is he the high priest of the Sanhedrin before whom Stephen made his defense, or merely an idle bystander? The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Stoning of Saint Stephen."


The Conversion of Saul (later called Paul), former persecutor of the Christians, is a woodcut of what happened on his punitive expedition to Damascus. A burst of blazing light strikes him from the heavens at the right. He and his steed are sinking to the ground as he tries to shield his eyes. "And he fell to the earth, and heard a voice saying unto him, Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me? And he said, Who are you, Lord? And the Lord said, I am Jesus whom you persecute. . . And he, trembling and astonished, said, Lord, what should I do? And the Lord said to him, Arise, and go into the city, and it shall be told to you what you must do. And the men who journeyed with him stood speechless, hearing a voice, but seeing no man. And Saul arose from the earth. And when his eyes were opened he saw no man. But they led him by the hand, and brought him into Damascus. And he was three days without sight, and neither did he eat nor drink. . . . And when he had received food, he was strengthened. Then was Saul certain days with the disciples who were at Damascus. And immediately he preached Christ in the synagogues, that he is the Son of God." (Acts 9:1-8 and 19-20). The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Conversion and Life of the Apostle Paul."


Mark, the evangelist, born of the tribe of Levi, and a priest, went from Antioch to Rome with Peter, his master, to spread the word of the Lord. There he heard Peter, and at the request of his brethren he wrote a short gospel. When Peter heard it, he authorized it to be read in the churches. When Peter noted this man’s qualifications, he sent him to Alexandria. Before that time Mark, by his preaching, had converted the people of Aquileia to the Christian faith, and more particularly, one Hermagoras, a highly learned man and citizen there. With him Mark returned to Peter, who made him an Aquileian bishop. From there Mark went to Alexandria and proclaimed Christ, and there he founded the first church with such learning and moderation of conduct that he drew all the followers of Christ to him. He was so humble that he cut off his own thumb in order to disqualify himself for the priesthood. After he had held the congregation together for a long time by his learning and writings, he was made prisoner by the priests of the temple in the eighth year of Nero, while he was performing the mass at Easter time. With a rope about his neck he was dragged through the streets and finally put to death. He was buried at Alexandria. Amanus became his successor. In the Year of the Lord 829, when Justianus Patricius was Duke of Venice, the remains of Mark were brought to Venice. In the following year, which was 471 years after Venice was built, the church of St. Mark, which may now be soon there, was begun, and Saint Mark was made the patron of the city. His image is in its coat of arms, and the book of his Gospel was procured from Aquileia with other costly gifts, and was deposited in this same church.

The founding of the church by Mark at Alexandria is traditional, as is also the securing of his remains by the Venetians by a pious stratagem. In fact, nearly everything (all?) the stories told about Mark are legendary. Venice claims him as its patron saint. Mark is believed to have been born of Jewish parents, deriving their origin from the tribe of Levi, and of the line of the priesthood. His name, Roman in form, was probably assumed by him according to the usual custom of the Jews on moving to Italy, as in the case of Paul. He was perhaps converted by Peter whom he constantly attended in his travels, acting as his secretary and interpreter. He is said to have founded the church in Aquileia, and there to have written the Gospel which bears his name (the author of the Gospel of Mark, like all four gospel texts in the Bible, is anonymous, and it is only later Christian tradition that assigns the Mark referenced here in the Chronicle to the actual biblical text that currently bears his name). From Aquileia he sent Hermagoras, its first bishop, to be ordained by Peter.

Tradition then states that Mark was sent into Egypt to plant Christianity there, and fixed his main residence at Alexandria. From there he moved westward toward Libya where he made many converts among various people.

Returning to Alexandria, he preached freely, and wisely provided for the perpetuation of the church by appointing governors and pastors. And the season of Easter came, at which the great solemnities of Serapis were celebrated, when the minds of the people being excited to a passionate vindication of the honor of their idol, the mob broke in upon Mark, then engaged in the solemn celebration of divine worship, and binding his with cords, dragged him through the streets until his blood ran out, his spirit failed and he died. Then they burned his body; but the Christians collected his bones and ashes and buried them near the place where he was accustomed to preach. His relics were removed with great pomp from Alexandria, in the beginning of the 9th century, to Venice, where they are greatly venerated, and where the saint is adopted as the patron of the state, and where one of the richest and stateliest churches in the world was erected in his honor.

Mark is symbolized by the Lion, because he has set forth the royal dignity of Christ; or, according to others, because he begins with the mission of John the Baptist, "the voice of one crying in the wilderness," which is figured by the lion; or, according to a third interpretation, because of a popular belief in the Middle Ages that the young of the lion were born dead, and after three days were awakened by the breath of their sire. Some authors, however, represent the lion as vivifying his young by his roar. The revival of the young lions was considered symbolic of the Resurrection, and Mark was commonly called the "Historian of the Resurrection" (which is ironic, since in this gospel alone there is no resurrection actually depicted; Mark 16:9-20 are a later addition that attempt to supply a resurrection narrative.).

The phoenix, the most noble and singular bird in all the world (as Cornelius Valerianus writes) and which flew in Egypt, was brought to Rome during the consulship of Q. Plautius and Sex. Papinius in the 800th year of the city. Before that time this bird is said to have been seen in Arabia. It was as large as an eagle, golden about its neck, and otherwise purple. Its tail was dark green interspersed with red feathers containing eyes. Upon its head was a crest or crown of feathers. Manilius, the Roman consul, states that although no one ever saw this bird eat, it lived six hundred and sixty years. When it became old, it built a nest of aromatic branches, filling it with incense; and in that nest it died. Afterwards a small worm or grub issued from the ashes, which later became a small bird.

This account of the Phoenix would appear to be based on Pliny (Natural History 10.2):

Ethiopia and India, especially, produce birds of diversified plumage, and such as quite surpass all description. In the front rank of these is the phoenix, that famous bird of Arabia; though I am not quite sure that its existence is not all a fable. It is said that there is only one in existence in the whole world, and that that one has not been seen very often. We are told that this bird is of the size of an eagle, and has a brilliant golden plumage around the neck, while the rest of the bird is of a purple color; except the tail, which is azure with long feathers intermingled of a roseate hue; the throat is adorned with a crest, and the head with a tuft of feathers. The first Roman who described this bird, and who has done so with the greatest exactness, was the senator Manilius. He tells us that no person has ever seen this bird eat, that in Arabia it is looked upon as sacred to the sun, that it lives five hundred and forty years, that when it becomes old it builds a nest of cassia and sprigs of incense which it fills with perfumes, and then lays its body down upon them to die; and from its bones and marrow there springs at first a sort of small worm, which in time changes into a little bird. That the first thing it does is to perform the obsequies of its predecessor, and to carry the nest in fire to the city of the Sun near Panchaia, and there deposit it upon the altar of that divinity; that the revolution of the great year is completed with the life of this bird, and that then a new cycle comes round again with the same characteristics as the former one, in the season and the appearance of the stars; and he says that this begins about midday of the day on which the sun enters the sign of Aries . . . Cornelius Valerianus says that the phoenix took its flight from Arabia into Egypt in the consulship of Q. Plaudius and Sextus Papinius. This bird was brought to Rome in the censorship of the Emperor Claudius, being the year from the building of the City, 800, and it was exposed to public view in the comitium. This fact is attested by the public Annals, but there is no one that doubts that it was a fictitious phoenix only.

According to Egyptian mythology the phoenix came every five hundred years out of Arabia to Heliopolis, where it burned itself on the altar and rose again from its ashes, young and beautiful. The myth was firmly believed in by the ancients, and Ovid and many other writers besides Pliny give full details of its mysterious existence. The ancients believed that the phoenix after attaining the age of five hundred years committed itself to the flames that burst at the fanning of its wings, from the funeral pyre of costly spices that it had itself constructed, and that from its ashes a new phoenix arose to life. Tertullian, one of the earliest writers of the Christian church, in all good faith accepts it as a most marked symbol of the resurrection and of eternity. The phoenix is represented in some of the earliest Christian mosaics, and often has a star-shaped nimbus.

James the Greater (Iacobus Maior), an apostle of the Lord, son of Zebedee by Mary Salome, and a brother of John the Evangelist, is called the greater because he was selected as an apostle before James the Lesser, and was martyred and attained to the kingdom of heaven first. The Lord selected him with John, saying, Follow me, and I will make you fishers of men. And they abandoned their nets and followed him. After the advent of the Holy Spirit James went to Spain to preach. Having wandered all over Spain preaching, and only making nine new disciples, and having noted the coarseness of the people, he returned to Judea. There he was beheaded by Herod, brother and governor of the king, and thus he attained the crown of martyrdom; and this just one year after Christ was martyred. And while he was being led to his death by Josias, a very learned man, and on his way cured a sick man, Josias believed also, and being first baptized, was beheaded with James. But his disciples took his sacred body away by night, and brought it from Jerusalem to Spain, into the place called Galicia Compostella, in the furthermost regions of Spain. And there he is constantly held in great veneration by the inhabitants and by strangers from all over, for the extent that Christians make pilgrimages there is really wonderful; and because of the love of making these pilgrimages there it is not necessary for the Papal See to grant dispensation on that condition. And so what this apostle, as compared with other apostles, lost in honor and esteem by reason of the shortness of his life, was made up to him in an abundance of veneration accorded him after his death. [James the Greater, or Elder, was closely related to Jesus, and with his brother John (the evangelist) and Peter, he seems to have been admitted to particular favor, traveled with Jesus, and was present at most of the events recorded in the gospels. He was one of the three who were permitted to witness the glorification of Jesus on Mount Tabor, and was one of those who slept during the agony in the garden. After the ascension nothing is recorded concerning him except the fact that Herod killed him with the sword. The Middle Ages, however, have added many legends. According to these, James, after the Jesus’ ascension, preached the gospel in Judea, then traveled over the whole world, at last coming to Spain, where he made very few converts by reason of the moral and intellectual ignorance of the people. The Virgin appeared to him and directed him to build a chapel to her; and this he did. He then founded the Christian faith in Spain, and returned to Judea, where he preached for many years and performed many miracles. But the Jews, being more and more incensed, found James and arrested him; and they brought him before the tribunal of Herod Agrippa; and one of those who dragged him along, touched by the gentleness of his demeanor, and by his miracles of mercy, was converted, and supplicated to die with him. Then the apostle gave him the kiss of peace, after which they were both beheaded. The disciples of James came and took away his body, and for fear of the Jews, carried it to Joppa; and they place it on board a ship which angels conducted to the coast of Spain; and sailing through the straits, called the Pillars of Hercules, they landed at length in Galicia, at a port called Ira Flavia, now Padron. But in later days the body of the saint was lost; and it was not recovered till the year 800, when it was transported to Compostella, as a place of pilgrimage that is renowned throughout Europe.]

The first persecution of the Christians began in the thirteenth year of the reign of Nero, when various persons at Rome and elsewhere, other than Peter and Paul, mentioned hereafter, were martyred, among them forty-seven who were baptized by Peter while in prison, and then died by the sword of Nero, after confessing their faith.


St. Mark is portrayed in medieval cap and gown, seated in a chair. He is pointing to a passage in a book that he has in hand, probably his own Gospel. To the right is his symbol, the winged lion, which is looking out over a wall in the foreground. Both saint and lion are shown with a nimbus. The use of the lion as an emblem of strength, majesty and fortitude, naturally arises from many passages in the Scriptures. By medieval writers it was believed always to sleep with its eyes open; hence the idea of watchfulness. Durand in his Rationale Divinorum Officiorum[The is arguably the most important medieval treatise on the symbolism of church architecture and rituals of worship. Written by the French bishop William Durand of Mende (1230-1296), the treatise is ranked with the Bible as one of the most frequently copied and disseminated texts in all of medieval Christianity. It served as an encyclopedic compendium and textbook for liturgists and remains an indispensable guide for understanding the significance of medieval ecclesiastical art and worship ceremonies.], has a rubric on the Evangelists, in which he states that Mark’s type is the roaring lion, "because his aim is chiefly to give a description of the resurrection of Christ, and for this reason his Gospel is read at Easter. For it is stated that the lion by its tremendous roar calls to life its whelps on the third day, and thus God the Father, by his immense power, called to life his Son on the third day." (E. P. Evans, Animal Symbolism, p. 85). The inscription over the woodcut reads: "Saint Mark, the Evangelist."


The Phoenix, a fabulous bird, has gathered together for a nest branches of aromatic wood, upon which it is angrily striding. With its outspread wings it is fanning the nest into flames, for this is its own funeral pyre. Here it will be reduced to ashes, and from the ashes will spring another phoenix, to repeat the same scene in another 500 years. The phoenix has been introduced at this point of the text, probably in relation to St. Mark, the Evangelist of the Resurrection. The inscription over the woodcut reads: "Phoenix (Fenix), a Unique Bird."


St. James the Greater is undergoing martyrdom. He is kneeling in an attitude of devotion, praying for his persecutors as long as life lasts. Behind him stands the strident medieval executioner, about to decapitate him with a huge sword. To the right are two men, one no doubt representing Herod, or Herod’s brother (as the text states), who ordered the execution. The second man I am unable to identify. The sentence is being carried out in the open country. The victim wears a peculiar felt hat, covering the nape of his neck, and rakishly turned up on the forehead to accommodate the shining star that the artist has inscribed on it. The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Apostle James (Jacobus) the Greater."


James (Iacobus), the apostle, surnamed the Just, and called the Less in deference to the Greater, (not on the score of piety, but because of his call as an apostle), was a brother of the Lord, having been born of the sister of the Lord’s mother. After the ascension of the Lord he was appointed the first bishop of the Church at Jerusalem; and he was in office for 30 years and until the seventh year of Nero. This James was holy by the body of his mother. He did not drink wine, or intoxicating drink, nor did he eat meat. Metal never came upon his head, nor was he ever anointed with ointment. He did not bathe, and he wore linen raiment. He entered the sanctum sanctorum (‘holy of holies’) alone, and constantly and industriously prayed for the welfare of the people on bonded knee. Therefore he was called the Just; and (as Ignatius states), in countenance and demeanor he was so much like the Lord as though they were twins. He was taken prisoner by Annas (Annanus), the priest of the Jews, and he was asked to deny the Lord. He was taken to the highest point of the Temple, and thrown down from there and stoned. Yet he raised his hands toward heaven as much as he could and prayed for his persecutors. While still conscious he was struck upon the head with a fuller’s club, and died. The Lord appeared to him after his ascension, and he blessed his bread, saying: My brother, eat your bread, for the Son of Man is risen from the dead; for he did not like to eat bread until he had first seen him. He was so holy, as Josephus states, that it was believed Jerusalem was destroyed because of his death.[James the Less, also called the Just, was a brother of Christ, being the son of Mary, for which reason he is styled the "Lord’s brother." Nothing in particular is related of him until after the ascension. Some regard him as the first bishop of Jerusalem, and he is venerated for his piety, wisdom and charity. These qualities are conspicuous in the pseudonymous epistle bearing his name. By the fervor of his teaching he excited the fury of the Scribes and Pharisees, and particularly the enmity of Annas, the high priest. They flung him down from the terrace of the Temple, one of the populace beating out his brains with a fuller’s club, which later became his symbol. According to tradition he closely resembled Christ in appearance and conduct. Legend says "The Holy Virgin herself, had she been capable of error, might have mistaken one for the other." This exact resemblance, it has been suggested, may have rendered necessary the kiss of Judas in order to identify the victim to the soldiers.]

Now when Peter, the holiest of men, had made a name for himself among all the people, and was highly regarded, Nero became angry and sought to slay him. Having been warned of Nero’s wrath by his friends, Peter fled from Rome; and he met Christ, whom he worshipped; and he asked him, Where are you going? And Christ answered, To Rome, to be again crucified. Therefore Peter also returned to the city, and appointed Clement as bishop. Not long after that, upon the orders of Nero, Peter and Paul were slain, after much torture. For Peter (as he wished) was nailed to a cross with his head to the earth and his feet upward. He was buried in the Vatican. He held his office for twenty-five years. Paul was beheaded on the same day and buried near the Ostian Gate thirty-seven years after the death of Christ. And when they were about to part Paul said to Peter, Peace be with you, you rock of the Church and shepherd of all the lambs of Christ. And Peter said, Go forth in peace, you preacher of the good, you intermediary and sufferer for the salvation of the righteous. Marcelius and Apuleius, their disciples, anointed them with well smelling herbs and buried them. Even today the heads of Peter and Paul are ornamented with gold, silver, and precious stones, and are shown to the people in the Church of St. John Lateran.


The Martyrdom of James the Less, as based on the traditional account, shows James in the act of falling, or being thrown from the parapet of the Temple—although he has not fallen very far! A man leaning over the parapet has just released his hold on the apostle’s garments. Another, who contrary to the traditional account is wielding an implement resembling a mace instead of a fuller’s club, is about to give the victim the deathblow. Below the parapet a number of people, apparently the Temple congregation, are seated and looking on in astonishment. And thus we see what is going on within the temple as well as without. The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Apostle James the Just (and) Lesser."


Peter is being martyred by crucifixion, his head downward, as he himself desired it, so that his death might be even more painful and ignominious than that of his Divine Master. The cross has been erected beside a brick or stone wall, beyond which is seen the open country. Peter has been placed upon the cross in a long shirt or robe modestly fastened about his ankles. Two executioners are busily engaged tightening his bonds. The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Crucifixion of the Apostle Peter."


The third woodcut shows the execution of Paul completed. His body is still in a kneeling posture before the block. His head lies on the other side, looking (perhaps) slightly peeved. A medieval executioner is deftly wiping the blood from his sword with a cloth resembling a napkin. Apparently the execution has taken place at the foot of a hill in the open country. The inscription over the woodcut reads: "The Beheading of Paul."

Although accurate portraiture is a matter of indifference to the artist of the Chronicle, we may here note an observance, though slight, of the traditions. Peter is represented as bald on the top of his head (except for the forelock), the hair growing thick about his ears and in a circle somewhat resembling ‘priestly features,’ and an open undaunted countenance. His beard is short and curly; and so tradition has learned to picture him. Paul was a man of short and meager statue, high forehead, aquiline nose, and sparkling eyes. In his case the artist has not done so well.

According to tradition Peter suffered martyrdom in the Circus of Caligula, at the foot of the Vatican, and was crucified between two goals or terminals, around which the chariots turned in the races. According to another tradition his death occurred in the courtyard or military station on the summit of Mons Janicula, the eminence above the site of the Circus.

FOLIO CV recto

Seneca, also called Lucius Annaeus, a Stoic philosopher, born in Cordoba, was the tutor of Nero the emperor. He was held in esteem at Rome, and was an uncle of Lucan the poet. Of him the pious Jerome writes that he led a most temperate life; and he placed him in the book of the saints because of the numerous epistles that Paul wrote to Seneca, and Seneca to Paul. Among his other virtues God blessed him with such a memory that he was able to repeat two thousand names in proper order as soon as they were pronounced, and could repeat two hundred verses spoken by two hundred students, beginning with the last and ending with the first. It is said that two years before the slaying of Peter and Paul, Seneca was put to death by Nero, his very savage, for having opposed him. For when Seneca was well along in years he was suspected of being a party to the Pisan conspiracy; or, as some say, Nero, recalling the discipline to which he was subjected in his youth, and being born with a hatred of virtue, ordered Seneca to choose the manner of his own death. When Seneca learned of this, he asked to be placed in lukewarm water and all his veins opened until he gave up the spirit, believing this to be an easy manner of death. And so he ended his life. Being a highly learned man, he wrote many works, both human and divine.[Seneca (L. Annaeus), son of the rhetorician, M. Annaeus Seneca, was a philosopher. He was born at Cordoba, probably around 4 BCE, and was brought to Rome by his parents when a child. From his youth he ardently devoted himself to rhetoric and philosophy. He was made the tutor of Nero, and when the latter ascended the throne upon the death of Claudius, Seneca became his chief adviser. He exerted his influence to check the young emperor’s vicious propensities, but at the same time enriched himself through his position. He supported Nero in his conflicts with his mother Agrippina, and was a party to her death. After that Nero completely abandoned himself to his vicious propensities, and the presence of Seneca became irksome to him, while his wealth excited his greed. Seneca’s exclusive claim to eloquence, and his disparagement of Nero’s skill in driving and singing, were urged against him by Nero’s favorites. Seneca heard of the charges. He was rich and knew that Nero wanted money. Offering to surrender his fortune, he asked permission to retire. Nero affected to be grateful for his services, refused the proffered gift, and sent him away with perfidious assurances of his respect and affection. But the conspiracy of Piso gave Nero a pretext for putting his old tutor to death. Although there was no conclusive evidence that Seneca was implicated, Nero sent a tribune to him with an order of death. Without showing any signs of alarm Seneca cheered his friends by reminding them of the lessons of philosophy. His wife chose to die with him, and the same blow opened the veins of both. Seneca died with the courage of a Stoic. His fame rests on his numerous writings, both philosophical and literary (his tragedies in particular had a significant impact on the young Shakespeare).]

Lucan (Lucanus) Annaeus, son of the brother of the aforesaid Seneca, was a highly celebrated orator, poet and historian. Although younger than his uncle, he was his equal in intelligence and moderation. He first studied at Rome under Cornutus, and at the same time Persius and Bassus were his colleagues. And although, by reason of his talents, he was called to court by Nero and was in favor with him for a long time, and for that reason attained to the office of revenue collector and priest, he was accused of conspiracy as Seneca had been, and was put to death, according to his own choice, by the opening of his veins.[M. Annaeus Lucanus (usually called Lucan), the Roman poet, was born at Cordoba in Spain in 39 CE. His father, L. Annaeus Mella, was a brother of Seneca, the philosopher. At an early age he was brought to Rome, and his education was superintended by the most eminent teachers of the day. His talents aroused the jealousy of Nero, who, unable to endure competition, forbade him to recite in public. This injustice caused Lucan to join the famous conspiracy of Piso. But he was betrayed, and on the promise of pardon, he turned informer. After the more important victims, whose names he had disclosed, were dispatched, he also received an order of death, and he chose his veins to be opened. Lucan wrote various poems, the titles of which have been preserved, but the only extant production is his great epic poem (‘The Civil War’; aka ), a work that blends fact and fiction in ten books depicting the struggle between Julius Caesar and Pompey the Great for possession of the Roman world.]

Persius Flaccus Aulus—his father was Flaccus, his mother Fulvia—a native of Volaterrana in Etruria, was a person of medium stature, pleasing appearance, good habits, and exceptional intelligence and learning. He first studied grammar, then rhetoric, and finally philosophy under Cornutus.[L. Annaeus Cornutus, a distinguished Stoic philosopher, was born at Leptia in Libya. He came to Rome, probably as a slave, and was emancipated by Annaei. He was the teacher and friend of Persius, the poet, and left him his library. He was banished by Nero for having too freely criticized the latter’s literary attempts. He wrote a large number of works, all of which are lost.] He died of a disease of the stomach at the age of twenty-nine years, while Nero still reigned. He was buried on his estate at Rome. At this time Cornutus, the philosopher and poet, was also sent into exile by Nero on various accusations. Because of his devotion to his disciple Persius, he collected a library. He left his earnings to his sisters as an inheritance.[A. Persius Flaccus, the poet, was a Roman knight, connected by blood and marriage with persons of the highest rank. He was born at Volaterrana in Etruria on December 4, 34 CE. He received his early education in his native town. At the age of twelve he was sent to Rome, where he studied grammar and rhetoric under celebrated masters. He was afterwards the pupil of Cornutus the Stoic, who became his guide, philosopher and friend, and to whom he firmly attached himself. He died of a stomach ailment on November 24, 62 CE, before he had completed his twenty-eighth year. He wrote seldom, and then slowly. His extant works consist of six short satires, and these were left in an unfinished state.]

Philip was one of the twelve apostles of the Lord Jesus Christ, who called upon Philip to follow him. Philip enlisted his brother Nathanael, a doctor of law, in whom there was no guile in favor of anyone not called as an apostle, so that the conversion of the people to the faith should not be subordinated to human wisdom. Now after the apostle had preached for twenty years through the land of Scythia, and had converted all the Scythians to faith in Christ, he came to Hierapolis,[ Hierapolis, a city of Great Phrygia, near the Maeander River. Like the neighboring cities of Colossae and Laodicea, it was an early seat of Christianity, and is mentioned in Paul’s Epistle to the Colossians (4:13).] in Asia. There he extinguished the heresy of the Ebionites,[The Ebionites were an ultra-Jewish party in the early Christian Church, between the second and the fourth century, chiefly made up of Pharisees and Essenes, and characterized by a denial of the divinity of Christ and rejection of the Pauline epistles. While they admitted the world to have been made by the true God, they held that Christ was a miraculously endowed man, and rejected Paul as an apostle from the Mosaic Law to the customs and ordinances of which, including circumcision, they steadily adhered. Origen divides the Ebionites into two classes in accordance to their acceptance or rejection of the virgin birth of Jesus, but says that all alike reject the Pauline epistles. Eusebius is of the same opinion. They kept both the Jewish Sabbath and the Christian Lord’s Day. The names Ebionites and Nazarenes both refer to the Jewish Christians of Syria, whose origin is obscure.] who did not believe in the divinity of Christ. Afterwards he was taken prisoner and was led to a statue of Mars, an idolatrous god, to worship it. But a dragon came out from under the image and slew the son of the high priest who attended the altar fire, as well as two tribunes whose servants held the apostle. And the dragon made many people ill. Yet after the apostle’s prayers, the dragon disappeared, and the people became well again. In the seventy-eighth year of his age, because of his preaching, he was nailed to a cross by the unbelievers, like his master was; and so he was made a martyr to Christ. This Philip left two daughters, who were virgins and who were buried beside him, one to his right and one to his left.

Philip the Apostle, was a native of Bethsaida, the city of Peter and Paul (John 1:44), and apparently was among the Galilean peasants of that district who came to hear the preaching of John the Baptist. To him first, in the whole circle of disciples, did Jesus speak the words, "Follow me." (John 1:43). And as soon as he had learned to know his master, he was eager to communicate his discovery to another who had also shared the same expectations. "Philip finds Nathanael, and says to him, We have found him of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph. And Nathanael said to him, Can any good thing come out of Nazareth? Philip says to him, Come and see. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and says of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!" (John 1:45-47). Philip apparently went with the first company of disciples who accompanied Jesus on his ministry, and he is with the company of disciples at Jerusalem after the Ascension (Acts 1:13) and on the day of Pentecost. After this all is uncertain and apocryphal. He is mentioned by Clement of Alexandria as having had a wife and children.

The apocryphal Acta Philippi (‘Acts of Philip’) are utterly wild and fantastic, and if there is any truth in them, it is probably the bare fact that the Apostle or the Evangelist labored in Phrygia and died at Hieropolis. He drew the people there away from the worship of a great serpent. The priest and the proconsul seized on the apostles and tortured them. John suddenly appeared with words of counsel and encouragement. The tortures that Philip had suffered ended in his death. Another tradition represents Scythia as the scene of his labors, and places the guilt for his death on the Ebionites.

Barnabas, one of the seventy-two disciples, and a native of Cyprus, was given to Paul as an associate to preach to the pagans, and at Peter’s command he wandered through the entire Longobardian country, preaching and teaching. He and his disciples converted all Cisalpine Gaul to the Christian faith. He erected the first cathedral at Milan (Mediolanum) and left a bishop there. He returned to Cyprus with the Gospel of Matthew and there he healed many. He earned the crown of martyrdom at Salamina not long before Peter was martyred.[Barnabas was a Levite of Cyprus. He sold his property and placed the proceeds at the disposal of the apostles (Acts 4:36-37). When Paul came to Jerusalem after his conversion, Barnabas introduced him to the other apostles (Acts 9:26-27). Five years afterward the church at Jerusalem, being informed of the progress of the Gospel at Antioch, sent Barnabas there (Acts 11:20-24). He later went to Tarsus to seek Paul and bring him to Antioch where they lived together for two years and made many converts. They left in 45 to convey alms from this church to Jerusalem, but soon returned bringing John and Mark (Acts 11:28-30). They then separated for the labors to which they had been appointed—the planting of new churches among the Gentiles, and thus the missionary cause was instituted. They visited Cyprus and some cities of Asia Minor (Acts 13:2-14). After another three years they returned to Antioch, gathered the church and rehearsed all that God had done by them. They again separated, Paul going to Asia, and Barnabas with Mark to Cyprus. Nothing is known of his subsequent career.]


Seneca, depicted in a large wooden bath tub of the medieval type, is seated in water to the waist. He wears a bath cap resembling a fez. Blood is streaming in fountains from the arteries in his arms, and he appears to be going to sleep in death.


The Martyrdom of the Apostle Philip—a woodcut 4¼" by 5½". The apostle is tied to a T-shaped cross, hand and foot, his feet almost touching the ground. He is fully robed and wears a halo. Two rough looking men in medieval dress are stoning him as he hangs on the cross.

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Year of the World 5273

Year of Christ 73

Linus succeeded St. Peter in the pontificate in the last year of Nero, and held office to the time of Vespasian. Some assign this position to Pope Clement, foregoing Linus and Cletus. However, history, as well as the writings of Jerome, are to the contrary. Jerome states that Clement was the fourth bishop of Rome after Peter, while Linus was the second, and Cletus the third. Some Latin writers place Clement immediately after Peter, but it is known that Clement compelled Linus and Cletus to precede him in the papal office; for succession to this coveted princely position was not a matter of consequence to him. Linus was a Tuscan by birth. He was a man of good morals and piety, and at the command of Peter ordered that no woman should enter church with uncovered head. Twice he consecrated eighteen priests and eleven bishops in this city. He described the works of Peter, particularly his contest with Simon the Magician. After having driven the devils out of the people and brought the dead back to life, he was slain by Saturninus, then consul, whose daughter he relieved of the devil. He was buried in the Vatican beside the body of Peter on September 21. St. Gregory, bishop of Hostia (Ostiensem), as it is said, removed his remains to that city, interring them in the Church of St. Lawrence. Linus occupied the papal see eleven years three months and twelve days.[Linus, a Christian at Rome, known to Paul and Timothy (2 Tim. 4:24), is said by Irenaeus to have been the first bishop of Rome. He is corroborated by Eusebius and Theodoret, and all ancient writers agree that the first bishop of Rome after the Apostles was named Linus. The date of his appointment, duration of his episcopate, and extent of his Episcopal jurisdiction are unsettled. Eusebius and Theodoret state that he became bishop of Rome after the death of Peter. Eusebius gives the duration of his episcopate as 68-80. According to the , Linus suffered martyrdom, and was buried in the Vatican.]

Year of the World 5284

Year of Christ 84

Cletus, a pope, by birth a Roman, reluctantly accepted the pontificate at the request of Clement. He was highly respected as a good and holy man on account of his learning, behavior and worthiness. He left nothing undone that might promote or augment the Church of God. After he had well ordered the churches and had consecrated twenty-five priests at the command of Peter, he received the crown of martyrdom under Emperor Domitian and was buried in the Vatican beside the remains or St. Peter on the 27th day of April. He was the first, as they say, to incorporate salvation and papal blessing in the apostolic letters. He held office during the times of Vespasian and Titus, and until the time of the consuls Domitian and Rufus, as Damasus writes. He occupied the papal see 11 years, 1 month and 11 days. The office was vacant for 20 days after his death.[Cletus, Anecletus, or Anacletus, appears as the second bishop of Rome, occupying the see for twelve years (c. 77-88). It is uncertain that Linus, Cletus and Clement were the first three bishops of Rome. Cletus and Anecletus/Anacletus are identical; the former was the Greek, the latter the Latin form of the same name, signifying ‘the blameless.’ The body of Cletus is said to be preserved in the Vatican Chapel.]

Bartholomew, the apostle, and such by the advice of heaven, after the descent of the Holy Spirit, and after he had preached the gospel of Christ in Lycaonia and India, came to the city of Albana[ Albana, or Albanopolis, is probably the modern Derbend, on the shores of the Caspian, north of the Caucasus. Martyrologists believe that this is the site of Bartholomew’s martyrdom.] in Greater Armenia. And he entered the temple in which Ashtaroth (Ascaroth), the pagan god, was worshipped, and so contrived that the devil made no response to his worshippers. On account of that they went to a city nearby, where another idolatrous god told them that their own god had been enslaved by the presence of Bartholomew; and he identified Bartholomew by describing him as having black curly hair, a fair body, large eyes, regular nose, long beard, and a few gray locks, a smooth person, wearing a white robe without sleeves, and a cloak with jewels at all the corners, and that he was accustomed to pray one hundred times daily on bended knees, etc. And there Bartholomew preached the Gospel, converted Polymius (Polemium), the king, and his queen, and twelve cities, to Christ, and exposed the devil. For that reason the priests of the temple became angry; and they caused Astyages, brother of Polymius, to beat Bartholomew, to torture him, and finally to behead him; and thus he attained heavenly bliss. He was buried at the same place by the faithful with every honor. From there his body was removed to Lipari, later to Beneventum, and finally, as some say, to Rome. Bartholomew was born of noble parents, and came to Jerusalem where he became attached to Christ after witnessing his divine works and miracles.[Bartholomew, one of the twelve Apostles, is mentioned only in the catalogues of Apostles (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:14, and Acts 1:13). According to Jerome, he wrote a Gospel, preached in India, and died at Albanopolis, in Armenia. He was the son of Talmai, and Bartholomew is really a patronymic – Bar Talmai, that is, ‘son of Talmai.’ He is named in connection with Philip, and seems to have been the same person whom John calls Nathanael (John 1:45-51). His correct title would appear to be Nathanael bar Talmai. He is said to have been flayed alive by Polymius, the Armenian prince, or by Astyages, the brother of Polymius. When flayed, Bartholomew was suspended on a cross, and left to die in agony, exposed to the flies. Tradition has it that the king at Derbend, in order to make sure that the Christians would not recover the body, enclosed it in a leaden coffin and threw it into the Caspian Sea; but the coffin floated like wood all the way to the island of Lipari, near Sicily. From there in 839 CE the body was brought to Beneventum, which was elevated into an archbishopric in 969 by John XIII, in honor of the sacred body it contained; and indulgences were granted to those visiting and venerating the relics. But another body of the same saint was found by Pope Paul IV, in 1560, in the church of that dedication in Rome, which had been ruined by a flood in 1557. The church of Beneventum, however, produces bulls from five popes confirming their claim to the true body. The Romans produced two. Bartholomew’s peculiar emblem is the butcher’s flaying knife, which he holds in his hands; sometimes he carries on his arm the skin of a man with the face attached to it, and frequently he has in one hand the Gospel of Matthew.]

Apollinaris, bishop of Ravenna, and a very pious man, was consecrated by St. Peter and sent to Ravenna. He was frequently punished with cruel lashes and his old body torn by gruesome tortures. However, in order that the faithful would not fear his hardships, he worked apostolic miracles, raising a girl from the dead, making the blind to see, the dumb to speak, and finally casting down an idol and its temple. After suffering torture he went to glorious martyrdom in the same city on the 23rd day of July.[Apollinaris (c. 75 CE) was the first bishop of Ravenna, sent there by Peter, according to the apocryphal . He has been styled a martyr, not because he died for Christ, but because on several occasions he shed his blood in testimony of his faith. It is said that on the feast of Apollinaris such swarms of ravens arrived at Ravenna that the people kill and throw out a horse to feed these black pilgrims. This saint is usually represented as a bishop holding a club or sword; and in Germany, with a raven at his side, though not so portrayed in the .]


Galba, a man of ancient noble lineage, was the seventh Roman emperor. Although the royal line ended with Nero, and this Galba was in no degree related to the imperial family, nevertheless he was chosen emperor by the army in Iberia. When he learned of Nero’s death he journeyed to Rome. In the beginning he was assiduous in the study of the liberal arts and the furtherance of justice. During his singular career he was esteemed for his knowledge of military and home affairs. He was often in the consulship, and many times a leader in the weightiest engagements. He was erect in stature, bald headed, had dark green eyes and a curved nose. He was awkward in hands and feet, and could not endure any footwear, nor turn over the pages of a small book, nor hold it. A hump grew out of his right side. He was accustomed to eat much food, and in the wintertime ate before daybreak. He was inclined to licentiousness. He offended everyone by his avarice and lack of consideration. He was secretly ambushed by Otho (Ottonis) at Rome, and together with his adopted son Piso, a noble youth, was strangled near the Lacus Curtius, in the seventy-third year of his age and the seventh month of his reign. It was Galba who brought Marcus Fabius Quintilianus, the celebrated rhetorician, from Spain to Rome.[Ser. Sulpicius Galba was Roman emperor from June 68 to January 69 CE. He was born near Terracina on December 24, 3 BCE. Both Augustus and Tiberius are said to have told him that some day he would be at the head of the Roman world; from which we must infer that he was a young man of more than ordinary talents. From his parents he inherited great wealth. He was invested with the curule offices before attaining the legitimate age. He was praetor in 20 CE and consul in 33. After his consulship he had the government of Gaul, where he carried on a successful war against the Germans, and restored discipline among the troops. On the death of Caligula many of his friends urged him to seize the empire, but he preferred to live in private station. In 45 Claudius entrusted him with the administration of Africa, which he governed with wisdom and integrity. In the reign of Nero he lived in retirement for several years through fear of being the victim of the tyrant’s suspicion; but in 61 Nero gave him the government of Hispania Terraconensis, where he remained for eight years. In 68 Vindex rebelled in Gaul. About the same time Galba was informed that Nero had sent secret orders for his assassination. For that reason he at once resolved to follow the example of Vindex; but he did not assume the imperial title, and professed to act only as the legate of the Roman senate and people. Shortly afterwards Nero was murdered. Shortly after that Galba proceeded to Rome, where he was acknowledged as emperor. But his severity and avarice soon made him unpopular with his new subjects, and especially with the soldiers. His power had also become enfeebled by age, and he was completely under the sway of favorites, who perpetrated many enormities in his name. Perceiving the weakness of his government, he adopted Piso Licinianus, a noble young Roman, as his successor. But this only hastened his ruin. Otho, who had hoped to be adopted by Galba, formed a conspiracy among the soldiers, who rose in rebellion. Galba was murdered and Otho was proclaimed.]

Otho, the eighth Roman emperor, was born of a noble father and a lowly mother. Yet by his mother he was nobler than through his father. From youth he was of profligate and immoderate ways. By the grace of Livia Augustus, in whose house he grew up, he was made a consul. He was a relative of Nero and participated in his councils; and so in the course of revolts and dissensions he secretly aspired to the empire. And although in three engagements he was victor over Vitellius, who in Germany had been proclaimed emperor, he was defeated in the fourth. In despair he laid hands upon himself. He wounded himself below the nipple of his left breast, and died. In accordance with his wishes he was buried in Volaterrana, in Etruria, in the thirty-eighth year of his age and the ninety-fifth day of his reign. He was (as one finds) a small person, deformed in his legs, bald, and of feminine fastidiousness; but others write that he was a strong man and a singular ruler in military affairs.[M. Otho was Roman emperor from January 15th to April 16th 69 CE. He was the younger son of L. Otho and was born in the early part of 32. He was one of the companions of Nero in his debaucheries; but when the emperor took possession of his wife, the beautiful but profligate Poppaea Sabina, Otho was sent as governor to Lusitania, which he administered with credit during the last ten years of Nero’s life. Otho attracted hope of being adopted by him and succeeding to the empire. But when Galba adopted L. Piso, Otho formed a conspiracy against Galba, and was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers at Rome, who put Galba to death. Meanwhile Vitellius had been proclaimed emperor at Cologne by the German troops, and his generals immediately set out for Italy to place their master on the throne. When the news reached Otho, he marched into the north of Italy to oppose the generals of Vitellius. The fortunes of war were at first in his favor, but his army was subsequently defeated in a decisive battle. For that reason Otho put an end to his own life at the age of thirty-seven.]

Vitellius, the ninth Roman emperor, of honorable rather than noble offspring, came to Rome, where he spent his childhood and early youth among the unchaste Tiberine women, marring his subsequent years with every vice. He was a favorite of Caius as a result of prophecy, of Claudius as a devotee of the gaming board, and to some extent of Nero. Through the graces of these three princes he attained to great honors, to the consulship of Africa and the office of public works. Galba afterwards sent him into Lower Germany; and there, in civilian garb, he was greeted as an emperor because he denied no one in the encampment anything. When he became emperor he sank into all manner of wantonness, cruelty and gluttony, for he was such a gourmand that he frequently ate during the day. At one evening meal two thousand fish and seven thousand birds were served up at his command. They say he had a very florid face and a fat belly. He burned Sabinus, the brother of Vespasian in the capitol at Rome with the Flavians. Therefore Vespasian ordered Vitellius to be cut up into small pieces and thrown into the Tiber, and he, together with his brother, passed away in the fifty-seventh year of his age.[A. Vitellius, the ninth Roman emperor, of honorable rather than noble lineage, held office from January 2, to December 22, 69 CE. He was the son of L. Vitellius, and was consul during the first six months of 48. He had some knowledge of letters and possessed some eloquence. His vices made him a favorite of Tiberius, Caius Caligula, Claudius, and Nero, who loaded him with favors. People were much surprised when Galba chose such a man to command the legions in Lower Germany, for he had no military experience. His great accomplishments were eating and drinking. The soldiers proclaimed him emperor at Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) on January 2, 69. His generals marched into Italy, defeated Otho’s troops at the decisive battle of Bedriacum, and thus secured for Vitellius the undisputed command of Italy. Vitellius reached Rome in July. Though he showed moderation toward his enemies, he showed none in his expenses. He was a glutton and an epicure, and his chief amusement was the table, on which he spent enormous sums. Meantime Vespasian, who had at first taken the oath of allegiance to Vitellius, was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria. He was speedily recognized by the entire East; and the legions of Illyricum entered northern Italy and declared for Vespasian. Vitellius dispatched powerful forces under his generals, one of whom proved unfaithful. The Vitellians were defeated in two battles, and Primus at the head of the troops of Vespasian marched into Rome. Vitellius was seized, led through the streets, and dragged to the Gemoniae Scalae, where he was killed with repeated blows. A few days before his death, the Capitol had been burnt by his soldiers, and it was there that Flavius Sabinus, Vespasian’s brother, had taken refuge.]

Vespasian Flavius was the tenth Roman emperor. Although the empire, in consequence of dissension and war between the three princes, was in a doubtful and uncertain state, it was finally reestablished by the Flavians. Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla, and of her were born to him Titus and Domitian. Before he became emperor, Claudius sent him into Germany and Britain. Two years before his (Nero’s) death he was sent forth by Nero to conquer the land of Judea. There he conducted many battles; and, therefore, on the death of Nero the army proclaimed him emperor. He ordered his son Titus to continue the war, while by way of Alexandria he returned to Rome. And this same city of Rome (whose customs, laws and public works he found in disorder), he embellished. He was a mild and gifted man, and when he received the empire, which had declined in public welfare, he again restored it. He was cherry-red in complexion, strong and pronounced in limb, and of a smooth and shining countenance, thoughtful not to give offense, but too assiduous in the accumulation of money. Although he did not take it from strangers, yet he used it liberally and generously. Finally he died of diarrhea of the stomach. He said that it becomes an emperor to die standing. And as he stood up he died in the hands of those who held him, at the age of fifty-nine years, being the tenth year of his reign.[T. Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus, Roman emperor, 70-79 CE, was born in the Sabine country on the 17th of November 9 CE. His father came from Reate, in the country of Sabini. His mother, Vespasia Polla, was the daughter of a praefectus castrorum (‘camp prefect,’ the rank above a centurion) and the sister of a Roman senator. She was left a widow with two sons, Flabius Sabinus and Vespasian. Vespasian served as tribunus militum (‘tribune of the soldiers,’ a senior legionary officer) in Thrace, and was quaestor in Crete and Cyrene. He was afterwards aedile and praetor. About this time he married Flavia Domitilla, the daughter of a Roman eques, by whom he had two sons, both of whom succeeded him. In the reign of Claudius he was sent into Germany as legatus legionis (‘general of the legion,’ an ex-praetor given command of one of Rome’s elite legions); and in 43 he held the same command in Britain, and reduced the Isle of Wight. He was consul in 51, and proconsul of Africa under Nero. He was at this time very poor, and was accused of getting money by dishonorable means. But he had a great military reputation, and he was liked by the soldiers. Nero afterwards sent him to the East to conduct the war against the Jews. His conduct of the Jewish war had raised his reputation when the war broke out between Otho and Vitellius after the death of Galba. He was proclaimed emperor at Alexandria on the 1st of July 69, and soon after all through the East. Vespasian came to Rome in the following year, leaving his son Titus to continue the war against the Jews. Titus took Jerusalem after a siege of five months; and a formidable insurrection of the Batavi, headed by Civilis, was put down about the same period. Vespasian, on his arrival at Rome, worked with great industry to restore order in the city and in the empire. He disbanded some of the mutinous soldiers of Vitellius, and maintained discipline among his own. He cooperated in a friendly manner with the senate in the public administration. The simplicity and frugality of his mode of life formed a striking contrast with the profusion and luxury of some of his predecessors, and his example is said to have done more to reform the morals of Rome than all the laws that had ever been enacted. He lived more like a private person than a man who possessed supreme power: he was affable and easy of access to all persons. The personal anecdotes of such a man are some of the most instructive records of his reign. He was never ashamed of the meanness of his origin, and ridiculed all attempts to make out for him a distinguished genealogy. When Vologeses, the Parthian king, addressed to him a letter commencing in these terms, "Arsaces, king of kings, to Flavius Vespasianus," the answer began, "Flavius Vespasianus to Arsaces, king of kings." If it be true, as it is recorded, that he was not annoyed at satire or ridicule, he exhibited an elevation of character almost unparalleled in one who occupied such a position. He knew the bad character of his son Domitian, and as long as he lived he kept him under restraint. The stories that are told of his avarice and of his modes of raising money, if true, detract from the dignity of his character; and it seems that he had a taste for little savings, and for coarse humor. Yet it is admitted that he was liberal in all his expenditure for purposes of public utility. In 71 Titus returned to Rome, and both father and son triumphed together on account of the conquest of the Jews. The reign of Vespasian was marked by few striking events. The most important was the conquest of North Wales and the island of Anglesey by Agricola, who was sent into Britain in 78. The next summer Vespasian, whose health was failing, went to spend some time at his paternal house in the mountains of Sabini. By drinking cold water excessively, he damaged his stomach, which was already disordered. But he still attended to business, just as if he had been in perfect health; and on feeling the approach of death, he said that an emperor should die standing; and in fact he did die standing in this attitude, on the 24th of June 79, being 69 years of age. According to Suetonius ( 23.4), his last words were: Vae, puto, deus fio (‘Dammit – I think I’m becoming a god.’).]


Andrew (Andreas), a brother and associate of Simon (Symonis) Peter in suffering on the cross, was at first a disciple of John the Baptist, and later a follower of Jesus. Pointing to him, John said, Behold the Lamb of God. After the descent of the Holy Spirit, and while Vespasian still reigned, and after Andrew had preached the Gospel to the Scythians, he traveled in Achaia, a region of Greece. And there he converted many people to the faith, particularly Maximilla, the wife of Aegeus. After a lengthy disputation concerning the faith, Aegeus (Egee) imprisoned him at Patras in Achaia. Later he was severely beaten by twenty youths of the court, and finally was tied to a cross with cords. And when the people murmured against Aegeus, the proconsul, Andrew earnestly urged them not to prevent his martyrdom, for Jesus, his Master, had also shown patience while suffering. When Andrew beheld the cross, he saluted it, saying, "Hail, precious Cross, that has been consecrated by the body of my Lord, and adorned with his limbs as with rich jewels." He lived on the cross for two days. Finally a glory appeared about him, and he fulfilled his martyrdom on the last day of November. Maximilla took his body and interred it with aromatic herbs. In the twenty-first year of the reign of Constantius, the emperor, the remains of Andrew, together with those of St. Luke, were taken from the aforesaid city to Constantinople. Afterwards Pope Pius II brought the head of Andrew from the Peloponnesus to Rome, placing it in St. Peter’s Church.[Andrew, brother of Simon Peter, was the first to be called to the apostleship. The Bible says little about him. Legendary history tells us that after Jesus’ ascension he traveled in Scythia, Cappadocia, and Bithynia, everywhere converting multitudes. The Russians believed that he was the first to preach to the Muscovites in Sarmatia, and from there he has been honored as titular saint of Russia. After many sufferings he returned to Jerusalem, and from there traveled in Greece, coming to Patras, a city of Achaia. There he converted Maximilla, wife of the proconsul Aegeus. The proconsul commanded him to be seized, scourged and crucified. This was done on a peculiar form of cross resembling the letter X, on which he was fastened with cords in order to make his suffering longer. His address to the cross, as given in the , is of course also legendary. Andrew is also the patron of Hungary, Burgundy and Scotland.]

Qunitilian, celebrated orator and philosopher, a native of Spain, was held in high regard at this time. He was brought to Rome by the emperor Galba, and there established a school. He was a very learned and courageous man. He wrote eight books on the art of oratory; also another on useful matters, containing this excellent and memorable saying: God willed that we do not neglect the teachings of our books. We easily proceed from infancy to pleasures, and a weak or neglectful rearing breaks up the arterial system of mind and body. The book on oratory, lost for nearly six hundred years, was discovered in its entirety about the Year of the Lord 1414 (during the Concilium at Constance) in a monastery by Pogio Florentino, a very learned man, and was transcribed by him and brought into Italy.[M. Fabius Quintilianus, the most celebrated of Roman rhetoricians, was born at Calagurris (Calahorra), in Spain, in 40 CE. If not raised at Rome, he must at least have completed his education there, for he himself informs us that, while yet a very young man, he attended the lectures of Domitius Afer, who died in 59. Having revisited Spain, he returned from there in the year 68 in the train of Galba, and immediately began to practice the law, where he acquired considerable reputation. But he was chiefly distinguished as a teacher of eloquence, bearing away the palm in this department from all his rivals, and associating his name, even to a proverb, with pre-eminence in the art. Among his pupils was Pliny the younger. He was invested with the insignia and title of consul (consularia ornamenta) and is, moreover, celebrated as the first public instructor, who, in virtue of the endowment by Vespasian, received a regular salary from the imperial goverment. After having devoted twenty years to his profession, he retired to private life, and is supposed to have died about 118. The work of Quintilian is a complete system of rhetoric in twelve books, entitled , or sometimes , dedicated to his friend Marcellus Victorius, himself a celebrated orator, and a favorite at court. It was written during the reign of Domitian, while the author was discharging his duties as teacher to the sons of the emperor’s niece. There are also extant 164 declamations under the name of Quintilian, but no one believes these to be the works of this great orator.]

Thomas Didymus, also called Geminus, one of the twelve apostles, was he who doubted the ascension of Christ; and, more than the Magdalene, he confirmed us in our faith, for he was a witness of the ascension, not only by seeing and hearing but also through touch. He preached the gospel to the Parthians, Medes, Persians, Hyrcanians and Brachmanians,[Hyrcania, a province of the ancient Persian Empire on the shores of the Caspian or Hyrcanian Sea, and separated by mountains from Media, Parthia, and Margiana. It flourished most under the Parthians, whose kings often resided there during the summer months. The Brachmanae is a name used by the ancient geographers, sometimes for a caste of priests in India (the Brahmins), sometimes, apparently, for all the people whose religion was Brahminism, and sometimes for a particular tribe.] and he converted many people in Upper and Lower India. He baptized Migdonia Carithius, a friend of the king’s wife, and he founded many churches that are still to be seen. From there, as Chrysostom says, he went to the country of the three kings who came to worship Christ; and he brought them to baptism and took them on as associates to assist in the Christian faith. And at last he was cast into a burning oven by the unbelievers, but he emerged from it unscathed. He was then led forth to worship the idol of the sun; at which the apostle, on bended knee, said: I pray to my Lord Jesus Christ. I pray to you who here lies hidden to destroy this idol. And when that happened the priest of the devil was very angry and he stabbed the apostle with a spear. Before long his body was taken to the city of Edessa. It is thought that Thomas was not present at the death of Mary, and he doubted the ascension of her soul and body. Therefore the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to him and gave him her girdle as evidence. Of this there is no credible writing at hand.[Thomas was one of the twelve apostles. He was also called "Didymus" ("the twin"). We know little of his history. He seems to have been of singular temperament, cautious, skeptical, thoughtful, and gloomy, yet holding fast what he once believed (John 11:16; 14:5; 20:20-29). He represents the honest, truth-loving skepticism among the apostles. He would not believe in the resurrection until he had tangible evidence of it—until he was allowed to touch Jesus’ pierced hands and side. There are various traditions in regard to his history after the ascension of Jesus. The earliest represent him as preaching in Persia; the later, in India. Legend reports that he suffered martyrdom.]


Matthew, a highly renowned apostle and evangelist, was called by Christ from the sinful occupation of a tax-gatherer. After the Lord’s ascension he preached the Gospel of Christ in Judea. Contemplating a sojourn with the foreign nations of Ethiopia, land of the Moors, he first wrote a Gospel in the Hebrew tongue for the converted Jews, and left it as a memorial with his fellow-disciples, particularly Barnabas. In the beginning of this Gospel he treats of the incarnation; in the middle, of the ministry; and at the end, of the Passion of Christ. This Gospel the apostle Barnabas used and carried about with him in his ministry in a number of places; and he placed it on the sick, and with it he healed them. Matthew wandered through all of Ethiopia, preaching and converting countless Ethiopians to Christian submission; and he washed them in the font of baptism, turning them from dark into a very beautiful people. And he dedicated churches to Christ. But when he consecrated to Christ the Lord the noble virgin Epigenia, with two hundred other maidens, the king sent to the Apostle of God an executioner, who, while Matthew was holding mass with hands uplifted to God at the altar, ran him through with a sword, and killed him on the 21st day of September. And immediately afterwards the king was plagued with a leprous disease, which made him despondent and caused him to kill himself. By means of an apparition the Apostle admonished the people to set up as king the brother of Epigenia; and he reigned 70 years afterwards, establishing many churches and making Ethiopia a Christian country. Eunuchus, whom Philip had baptized, then undertook the rule of Ethiopia.

Matthew, the apostle and evangelist, is the same as Levi, the Publican (Luke 5:27-29), the son of a certain Alphaeus (Mark 2:14). He was a publican and was ‘sitting at the place of toll,’ near Capernaum, which lay on the road from Damascus to the Mediterranean. Here he collected dues for Herod the tetrarch. The publicans, properly so called, were persons who farmed the Roman taxes, and they were usually, in later times, Roman knights, and persons of wealth. They employed under them lower-ranking officials, natives of the provinces where the taxes were collected, called portitores, to which class Matthew belonged. Nevertheless, he must have been rich and had much to give up in following Jesus. The call is followed by a great feast given to Jesus himself, which roused the anger of the ‘scribes of the Pharisees.’ We have no trustworthy information as to his later career. Eusebius says that after Jesus’ ascension Matthew preached in Judea, and then went to foreign nations. Socrates Scholasticus says that it fell to the lot of Matthew to go into Ethiopia. Heracleon, disciple of Valentine, living in the second century, and the earliest and most trustworthy authority, says that Matthew died a natural death. The story of his martyrdom originated much later. The gospel traditionally ascribed to Matthew is, in fact, anonymous. In art he is usually portrayed as an old man with a long beard, holding his gospel in his hand. He is also represented with a purse or moneybox, in allusion to his worldly calling.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Processus and Martinian, Roman soldiers, were baptized in prison by the divine Peter. At the command of Nero they were tortured with thorns, fire, clubs, and scorpions[Scorpions: Not only with smooth rods were the ancients accustomed to punish offenders, and the Christians among the rest, but likewise with knotty and prickly ones, which they appropriately named "scorpions." ], and finally received the crown of martyrdom.[Processus and Martinian were guards in the days of Nero, deputed to watch over the imprisoned Christians. Peter and Paul were thrown into the Maritine prison by order of Paulinus, a magistrate, and by them Processus and Martinian were converted to the Christian faith. The guards in turn released Peter and Paul. Paulinus having learned that these guards were Christians, called upon them to give up the new faith, and refusing to do so, they were tortured, and finally beheaded. The two saints are usually represented in Roman armor, with swords and palms.] The brothers Nereus and Achilles (Archelaus),[Nereus and Achilles, according to the Acts, are said to have been eunuchs; but eunuchs were not introduced into Roman families until later. The festival of Nereus and Achilles was kept at Rome with great solemnity in the sixth century, and their relics are preserved in the church of their names at Rome. Garraye, anciently Numantia, in Spain, also claims to possess their bodies, while the heads are pretended to be shown at Ariano, near Benevento.] during the persecution at Rome suffered martyrdom there; likewise did Torpetus, Torquatus, and Cecilius Euphrasius, among the Spaniards.[In the German edition, the order of this paragraph and the next (on Thecla) are switched.]

Thecla (Tecla), a highly renowned virgin and disciple of Saint Paul, was cruelly tortured with clubs, wild beasts and fire, because she confessed the Christian faith. She was born at Iconium, and came to rest in the Lord at Seleucia on the 23rd day of the month of September.[Thecla, according to her acts, composed by a priest in Asia Minor to do honor to Paul, but not at all reliable, was the daughter of pagan parents in Iconium. She heard Paul preach as she sat at her chamber window, and afterwards refused to listen to the advances of her betrothed, Thamyris. She ran away from home and followed Paul to Seleucia. A native of that place tried to kiss her in the street, and she tore the clothes off his back. The man accused her before the governor, and she was exposed to wild beasts, which however, would not touch her. She then jumped into a pond filled with seals and porpoises, and baptized herself. All the sea-monsters in the pond died when she jumped in. After that she escaped, and, dressed in boy’s clothes, followed Paul everywhere. When he left for Rome, a shining cloud led her to a cave, where she spent seventy years.]

Judas Thaddaeus (Thadeus), a brother of Simon (Symonis) the Canaanite and James (Iacobi) the Less, and a son of Mary Cleophas and Alphaeus, first preached the Gospel in Mesopotamia and the lower regions of the Pontus, after the descent of the Holy Spirit; and he pacified the barbarous people by his pious teachings. Later, with Simon (Symone) the Apostle, he sojourned in Persia. According to ecclesiastical history he came to King Abagarus, in the city of Edessa, who then wrote a letter to Christ before he suffered; and Christ answered it in writing. Abagarus was suffering from an incurable disease of the stomach, and Judas Thaddaeus cured him of it. Afterwards Judas Thaddaeus, together with Simon, was martyred, and they were buried in the city of Netruo (Netri), in Armenia. Their day is observed as the 28th day of October.[Judas Thaddaeus, surname of the Apostle Jude (Mark 3:18).]

Dioscorides (Diascorides), a Greek physician and a military man, skilled in the knowledge and use of herbs, was greatly renowned at this time. With much industry he wrote upon the power, effect, and virtues of herbs, trees and stones. Concerning himself he said, What I have stated, I have not discovered by mere good luck, but have learned through research and experience. He is also mentioned by Pliny.[Dioscorides (Pedacius or Pedanius), of Anazarba, in Cicilia, a Greek physician, pharmacologist, and botanist, who probably lived c. 40-c. 90 CE. His masterpiece, , in five books, was a work of great labor and research, which for nearly 15 centuries was considered standard. It is a precursor to all modern pharmacopeias, and is one of the most influential herbal books in history.]


Matthew the Apostle, who according to tradition was martyred at the altar, here appears as being done to death in the open country—surprised not by one, but by two henchmen of the king. One has already forced his sword into the apostle’s side, while the other is about to run him through the back.


Processus and Martinian are presented in a dual portrait, each subject carrying a palm as a symbol of martyrdom.


Thecla, the Virgin Martyr, is portrayed in medieval costume, and carrying a palm. The palm, symbol of victory, is one of the earliest Christian symbols, and commemorates, times without number, in the Catacombs, the triumph of the martyrs for the faith. In the darkness of the subterranean vaults, to the survivors it bore testimony of conflict past and death vanquished. It was an ancient belief that the palm tree would always grow erect, no matter how it might be weighted or pulled aside; hence it was a favorite emblem in the Middle Ages of triumph over adversity.


Judas Thaddaeus (Jude) is being clubbed to death by two vicious executioners. As he sinks to his knees, a column surmounted by a devil is being shattered and falling to the ground, no doubt through Jude’s influence; for by his prayers he has caused Christ to destroy the idol—a feat often credited to the saints.


Simon (Symon), son of Cleophas, was an apostle of Christ Jesus Christ, and was his cousin. He was called "the Canaanite" and was said to have been a brother of Judas Thaddaeus. Because of his zeal for the Lord he was surnamed Peter. In the division of the ministry Egypt fell to his lot. As he preached the Gospel of Christ everywhere, so upon the martyrdom of James the apostle he ruled the church at Jerusalem with the consent of the apostles. And when he attained the age of one hundred twenty years, he, together with Judas (Jude) the apostle, was brought before the image of the sun-god to worship it; but they showed that the idol was full of devils; and they ordered the devils to break up the idol; immediately after which black Ethiopians[The German edition replaces ‘black Ethiopians’ with ‘black Moors.’] came out of it and broke it up. Then the high priests immediately fell upon the apostles and punished them. Some hold that this Simon was accused of heresy by Atticus, the consul, and was brought to his death by means of many cruel tortures such as Christ suffered. And all the people were astounded that so old a man could endure such suffering. Others said that Simon was the son of Cleophas, and a bishop of Jerusalem. His day is the 28th of October, on which Saint Jude is also honored.[Simon: There appears to be some confusion in this text. Of the original twelve apostles one was originally called Simon, and later Peter (the rock), or Simon Peter. He has already been spoken of in the martyrology at Folio CIV verso, and there disposed of by crucifixion with his head downward. The present Simon was no doubt the other apostle of that name. He is to be distinguished as "the Canaanite" (Matt.10:4) or "zealot" (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13). The "zealotes" of Luke is the Greek equivalent for the Chaldee term used by Matthew and Mark, which has no reference to Canaan, or Cana, but is as a member of the faction of Zealots, fierce defenders of the Mosaic law and ritual.]

Petronilla (Petronella), that holiest of virgins and daughter of St. Peter, was a beautiful woman. By the volition of Peter she was troubled with a languishing illness or cold fever. And when the disciples asked him why he did not cure his sick daughter, although he had healed many other persons, he answered it was good for her. Yet he asked her to serve him and then return to her sick bed. And when she began to acquire a fear of God, she received healing medicine from her father. But now, against her inclinations, a count named Flaccus, desired her for wife. She asked three days grace in which to think about it. These three days she spent in fasting and prayer, and on the third day she died, as soon as she had received the last sacrament of Christ our Lord from Nicodemus. So Flaccus, seeing that he would be instantly mocked, took her companion, Felicola, (as his wife), and caused Nicodemus to be put to death with various tortures. Her body was buried at Rome, and her day is the last of May.[Petronilla is said (according to legend) to have been a daughter of Peter the apostle. He took her with him to Rome, where she became paralyzed; but Peter restored her to full health. A certain officer, named Flaccus, having greatly admired her beauty, sent soldiers to her to ask her to become his wife; but she replied, "If he wants me to marry him, let him not send rough soldiers to woo me, but respectable matrons, and give me time to make up my mind." At this response the soldiers immediately withdrew abashed. But before Flaccus had obtained matrons to convey his offer, Petronilla had starved herself to death. At Rome is a catacomb named after her, a church, and an altar in the Vatican that enshrines her body. According to some she was only the spiritual child of Peter.]

Lazarus, brother of the two sisters, Martha and Magdalen, was a bishop at Massilia.[Massilia, an ancient city, now Marseilles.] He was raised from the dead by our Lord Jesus Christ in the thirteenth year of the reign of Claudius. His sister Martha, according to the Lord’s prophecy, lived a whole year with a cold fever, and then rested in peace. Saint Frontinus buried her body. In memory of brother and sister a church was later built not far from Bethany. Marcella, her next of kin (as it is said), described her life, and afterwards converted to the faith many people in Sclavonia.[Slavonia (Sclavonia) (‘land of the Slavs’) is a historic region, part of modern Croatia, was in the ancient world part of the Roman province of Pannonia. The German edition translates Slavonia as ‘land of the Wends,’ who were one of the Lusatian branches of the Slavic race dwelling in Saxony and Prussia. Wend is an early German name for any Slav.] Ten years after the death of Martha, she too rested in peace in the Lord. The relics of this man Lazarus and his sister are held in particular veneration in the city of Massilia.[Lazarus was a citizen of Bethany residing with his two sisters, Mary and Martha. Of this household Jesus seemed to have been a friend. Lazarus was raised from the grave by Jesus in the presence of the family and a number of Jews after he had been dead four days; and so incensed were the Jews at this that they sought to kill not only Jesus, but even Lazarus. The story of this greatest of miracles performed by Jesus is recorded in John 11; 12:1-11. "Jesus therefore again groaning to himself comes to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay upon it. Jesus said, Take away the stone. Martha, the sister of the one that was dead, says to him, Lord, by this time he stinks: for he has been dead four days. Jesus says to her, Didn’t I tell you that if you would believe, you should see the glory of God? Then they took away the stone from the place where the dead was laid. And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank you for hearing me . . . . And when he thus had spoken, he cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. And he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes," etc. (John 11:38-44).]

Matthias, the apostle from Bethlehem and born out of the tribe of Judah, was, after the Lord’s ascension, chosen by lot by the apostles to become one of their number (as Luke testifies). After the descent of the Holy Spirit, it fell to his lot to preach in the land of Judea. Some say, according to his history that is said to be at Trier[Trier, the German for Treves.], that he was highly educated in the law of the Lord, pure of body, intelligent in mind, a circumspect counsellor, and of understanding speech. The Jews charged him with blasphemy and ordered two men to stone him. Within the course of his martyrdom he was slain with an axe, and with uplifted hands he gave up the Spirit. Some say his body was brought to Rome, some to Padua, some to Trier. His day is celebrated on the 24th of February. Although various opinions are held as to the time of his martyrdom, yet it is known that by divine direction the apostles elected him to succeed Judas Iscariot the betrayer.[Matthias, a disciple of Christ, and a constant attendant on his travels and ministry from their commencement until his ascension, was appointed by lot to supply the vacancy in the company of the twelve apostles occasioned by the apostasy of Judas (Acts 1:21ff.). Of his after life and ministry nothing is known with certainty. According to one tradition, he preached in Ethiopia and suffered martyrdom there; according to another, he labored in Judea and was stoned by the Jews.]


Martyrdom of Simon (Symon) the Apostle: A hillside. In the foreground kneels Simon in an attitude of prayer. On his right an energetic executioner holds him by the hair and is about to give him a blow with a cudgel. Behind him is another with a huge sword (a scimitar) raised over his head with both hands, and which is about to descend upon the apostle’s head. Stones lie about to indicate that operations began with stoning. In the background is the usual broken column, surmounted by a dancing demon—no doubt one of the "black Ethiopians" whom Simon conjured out of the image in order to destroy it. The artists (perhaps following the peculiar use of the word "column" in the German translation [s̈aule]), have represented every pagan image or idol as a "column," from which a devil emerges or upon which he dances.


Martyrdom of Matthias the Apostle: We seem to be on the roof or upper story of a medieval structure, where we note an altar built adjacent to the parapet. The altar is surmounted by a "column," from which a horned devil with cloven hoof, and spear in hand, is falling to the ground. In the foreground kneels the martyr in an attitude of prayer. Behind him stands the executioner with a huge axe uplifted and ready to descend upon the head of Matthias. Another man, apparently intended for a high priest, kneels beside the idol (a column) and observes the fall of the devil.


Luke, the evangelist and a disciple of Christ, and a native of the city of Antioch, in Syria, was a physician, and not unfamiliar with the Greek tongue. He was a follower of Paul the apostle, and his inseparable companion during all his pilgrimages. Having learned that two gospels were available through Matthew in Judea, and through Mark in Italy, Luke, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, wrote a gospel in Achaia according to what he had learned from St. Paul. And of him St. Paul said, We have sent with him (i.e., Titus) the brother, whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches.[II Cor. 8:18.] At another place St. Paul says, Luke the physician, my most beloved, greets you. But Luke did not derive his gospel from St. Paul alone, but, as he himself states, from other apostles, just as those taught us who were in the service of the ministry and had seen it from the beginning. They say that he was also instructed in it by the Blessed Mother Mary, of whose friendship he availed himself; and that later he was also instructed in the art of painting. And as he had many dealings with the Virgin Mary, and lived there, therefore (as Damascenus states) he often painted her portrait. Of these same portraits there are two at hand in Rome. One of these, at St. Mary of the People[The church of St. Mary of the People (Santa Maria del Popolo) was built in 1099, at the very northern edge of the city center, on a site of a grove of walnut trees said to be haunted by the ghost of Nero.], is preserved with great veneration. After having lived his life without a wife for seventy-four years, Luke died at Bithynia on the 18th day of October. In the twentieth year of the reign of Constantius his remains were brought to Constantinople. They now rest in the Basilica of St. Justina at Padua.[Luke was not an apostle, and like Mark, appears to have been converted after the death of Jesus. According to tradition he was the beloved disciple of Paul. Legend relates that after the martyrdom of Peter and Paul he preached the gospel in Greece and Egypt; but whether he died a natural death, or suffered martyrdom, is not clear. The gospel (actually a two-volume work, Luke-Acts) ascribed to his authorship is, like the other gospels of the New Testament, written anonymously (it was only later Christian tradition that assigned the four authors’ names to the gospels). Some say he was crucified with Andrew at Patras. There is some ground for the supposition that he was a physician. Thus Paul, in his Epistle to the Colossians, states, "Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas, greet you" (Col. 4:14), which may be the remark to which the chronicler refers in the text. But the legend that makes Luke a painter, and represents him as painting the portrait of the Virgin, is unsupported by any of the earlier traditions. It is of Greek origin and still universally received by the Eastern Orthodox Church. It was introduced by Greek painters who claim that Luke painted many portraits of the Virgin, finding delight in the repetition of this subject.]

Evax, king of Arabia, a celebrated philosopher, physician and rhetorician, was in renown at this time. Among other works of his art he wrote a very good book on medicine and sent it to Nero. In it he not only described all the species and colors of medicinal herbs, but also the minerals, and in what regions they are to be found.[Evax is said to have been a king of Arabia. He is mentioned in some editions of Pliny ( 25.4) as having written a work , addressed to Nero, that is, the emperor Tiberius 14-37 CE; but this reference has been omitted in most modern editions of Pliny. He is said by Marbodus, in the prologue to his poem on precious stones, to have written a work on this subject addressed to Tiberius, from which his own is partly taken. The work of Marbodus has been published and quoted under the name of Evax.] Vectius, a Greek physician, after the civil wars in Rome, set up a new system, opposing both the ancients and the moderns by frivolous aspirations, claiming that it had supplanted the system of Hippocrates. But Galen (Galenius) exposed his ignorance.[ Vectius Valens remains a bit of a mystery. ]

Mary Magdalene, the most distinguished apostle of Christ, was from youth (as the sacred history of her records) the most beautiful among all maidens. By the wishes of Martha, her sister, and Lazarus, her brother, she was given a husband at the castle of Magdala, but soon afterwards she was misled by wantonness and empty happiness. This Magdalene, being unmindful of her family, became a sinner; but through the sermons and teachings of Christ she was reformed. At the house of Simon (Symonis) the leper she fell at His feet. Weeping, she washed His feet and dried them with the hair of her head, and she kissed them, and anointed them with costly ointment.[ Matthew 26:6-13; Mark 14:3-9; John 12:1-8.] And the Lord said, O woman, your many sins are forgiven. Go forth in peace. Afterwards, during all her life, she was zealously attached to Christ, and because of her devotion her brother Lazarus was raised from the dead; and she chose the best part. After the ascension of the Lord, she became a strict hermit at Marseilles (Massilia), and without the knowledge of the people she lived in one spot for thirty years. Every day of the week she was raised up into the air by angels, and her earthly ears were restored by the pleasant song of the celestial choir; and for that reason she was sat (in office)iated to such an extent that she required no bodily nourishment. Finally, through a hermit, she was revealed to the bishop Maximinus. He looked for her at sunrise on the Sunday morning she was to die; and she appeared two cubits above the earth in the midst of angels surrounded by a great light, and fortified with the Holy Sacrament in tears she gave up the Spirit to God the 22nd day of the month of July.

Mary Magdalene is, in Christian tradition, the paradigmatic example of the penitent sinner absolved through faith and love. According to legend (nearly everything about her is legendary) she was of the district of Magdala, on the shores of the Sea of Galilee, where stood her castle, called Magdalon. In some traditions she is equated with the sister of Lazarus and Martha, and they were children of parents reported to be noble, or, in some way, of royal race. On the death of her father, Syrus, they inherited vast riches, equally divided between them. Lazarus took up a career in the military. Martha managed her possessions with discretion, and was a model of virtue and propriety, though a little too much addicted to worldly cares. Mary abandoned herself to luxurious pleasures and fell into a dissolute life, becoming known throughout the country as "The Sinner." At Martha’s request she listened to the exhortations of Jesus, through which her heart was touched and converted. When he supped at the house of Simon the Pharisee, she followed him there, "and she brought an alabaster box of ointment, and began to wash his feet with tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head, and kissed his feet, and anointed them with ointment; and He said to her, Your sins are forgiven." She afterward became the most devoted of his followers; "ministered to him of her substance;" attended him to Calvary, and stood weeping at the foot of the cross. The old Provençal legend then continues the story.

After the ascension Lazarus with his two sisters, Mary and Martha, together with Maximin, one of the seventy-two disciples, from whom they had received baptism, and Cedon, the blind man whom Jesus had restored to sight, and Marcella the handmaiden, who attended on the two sisters, were sent by the pagans adrift in a vessel without sails, oars, or rudder; but guided by Providence, they were safely born over the sea and landed at Marseilles, in the country now called France. The people of the land were pagans, but were converted by the preachings and miracles of the Magdalene and her sister. After the death of Maximin, Lazarus became the first bishop of Marseilles.

These things accomplished, Mary Madgalene retired to a desert not far from the city; and here for thirty years she devoted herself to a life of solitary penance. During her long seclusion she was never seen nor heard of, and she was supposed to be dead. She fasted so vigorously that if it were not for the occasional visits of the angels, and the comfort bestowed by celestial visions, she would have perished. Every day during the last years of her penance the angels came down from heaven and carried her up in their arms into regions where she was ravished by the sounds of unearthly harmony, and beheld the glory of joy prepared for the sinner that repents. One day a certain hermit who lived in a cave in one of the mountains, having wandered farther than usual from his dwelling, beheld this wondrous vision – the Magdalene in the arms of ascending angels, who were singing songs of triumph as they bore her upwards. The hermit returned to the city of Marseilles, and reported what he had seen. (Jameson, Sacred and Legendary Art, I, 4th edition; London 1863; pp. 339-76.)


Saint Luke is portrayed in the garb of a monk. He is seated at his easel, painting a portrait of the Virgin and Child. The winged ox, emblem of St. Luke, is also introduced, and the animal looks out at us, with forefeet over a ledge. Both saint and ox are given a nimbus.


The Assumption of Mary Magdalene is represented by a large woodcut. In the foreground is a cluster of buildings, probably Marseilles. In the desolate background is Mount Pilon, above the summit of which the Magdalen is born upward by four angels. Her hands are in an attitude of prayer, and there is a nimbus about her head. She has no other veil than her redundant hair, flowing over her person, exposing nothing but her face, breasts, hands and feet. We miss the alabaster box of ointment, often placed in the hands of one of the angels as her symbol; also missing is the hermit who is sometimes shown as looking up at the vision. This was a very popular theme even in the earlier days, and there was little variety in its treatment.

In a hymn to the Magdalene, by an old Provençal poet (Valthazar de la Burle), there is a passage describing her ascent in the arms of angels, which to some extent fits this woodcut: "The day came when the angels bore her far above the rock-cave. Through storm and cold, she had no other clothing than her hair, which covered her from head to feet like a mantle, it was so beautiful and blonde."


Year of the World 5294

Year of Christ 94

Clement, a Roman by birth, lived in the time of the Emperor Domitian (Domiciani), and occupied the papal chair after Pope Cletus, for 9 years and 10 days. He was the fourth Pope of Rome after Peter, although others say he was the second. He was a most kind and gentle man, and voluntarily requested that the two popes Linus and Cletus should precede him in the work. However, he was held in esteem for his spiritual learning and virtue; and he wrote several epistles in the name of the church, and ordered that a single bishop should not hold mass without the deacons; nor a layman lay charges against a cleric; and he appointed seven notaries to industriously write the complete history of the martyrs. This Clement daily converted many people to the Christian faith by his spiritual learning and virtue. On that account P. Tarquinius and Mamertinus, the Romans, incited the Emperor Trajan against the Christians. At his command Clement was taken to an island, where he found two thousand Christians hewing marble. And the people there were ill and in need of water, which they had to bring there from a distance of six miles. So Clement was moved by the wants of the people; and he went to a hill not far off, and there he saw a lamb under whose right foot was a miraculous spring giving forth an abundance of water. With this all the people were refreshed and many were converted to the faith. This enraged Trajan and he sent one of his officers, who tied an anchor about his neck and threw him into the sea on the 23rd day of the month of November. Before long his body was washed ashore, and was finally buried, and in that place a spring came up. After death the chair was vacant for 22 days.[Clement I, generally known as Clement of Rome, or Clemens Romanus (fl. c. 96 CE), was one of the "Apostolic Fathers," and in the list of bishops of Rome is given the third or fourth place – Peter, Linus (Anacletus), Clement. He is commemorated on November 23rd. The writings attributed to him are generally given the name Clementine Literature. Eusebius states, "In the twelfth year of the same reign (Domitian’s), after Anencletus (Anacletus) had been bishop of Rome twelve years, he was succeeded by Clement, who, the apostle, in his Epistle to the Philippians, shows, had been his fellow laborer, in these words: ‘With Clement and the rest of my fellow laborers, whose names are in the book of life.’ Of this Clement there is an epistle extant, acknowledged as genuine, of considerable length and of great merit, which he wrote in the name of the church at Rome to that of Corinth, at the time when there was a dissension in the latter. This we know to have been publicly read for common benefit, in most of the churches, both in former times and in our own; and that at the time mentioned a sedition did take place at Corinth, is abundantly attested by Hegesippus." ( 15-16)]

Year of the World 5303

Year of Christ 104

Anacletus was by birth a Greek of Athens, and a successor of Clement in the papacy in the time of Nerva and Trajan. Eusebius foregoes this Anacletus and says he was Cletus, but there is a difference between the dates of birth and death of these two; for Cletus, a Roman, died under Domitian (Domiciano), while Anacletus of Athens died under Trajan. He collected the reminiscences of Peter; and he also assigned certain places for the burial of the martyrs. And once, in the month or December, he consecrated five priests, three deacons, and in various places six bishops. And he decreed that a bishop was not to be consecrated by less than three bishops; but a bad priest by one bishop; and that a bishop should not undertake to consecrate foreign subjects. Finally he was slain under Trajan; and the chair was vacant for 13 days. He sat 9 years, two months and 10 days.[ Anacletus (rarely Anencletus), ranks as the second bishop of Rome. About the fourth century he is treated in the catalogue as two persons – Anacletus and Cletus. According to these same catalogues he occupied the papal chair for twelve years (c. 77-88). Of him Eusebius writes: "After Vespasian had reigned about ten years, he was succeeded by his son Titus, in the second year of whose reign Linus, bishop of the church at Rome, who had held the office about twelve years, transferred it to Anencletus. But Titus was succeeded by Domitian, his brother, after he had reigned two years and as many months." ( 13)]

Evaristus, the pope, by birth a Greek, was born of a Jew named Judas, a native of Bethlehem. He was a just and fall man. He was the first to assign titles to the clergy at Rome. He appointed seven deacons to hold the preaching bishops to the faith. He also ordered that the charges of the people against a bishop should not be recognized. He forbade secret marriages, and decreed that bride and groom should be blessed by a priest. He held three consecrations in December, and consecrated six priests, two deacons, and in various places five bishops. As some say, he was martyred in the last year of Trajan the Emperor; but it is likely that he was martyred under Hadrian (as others say), while that emperor was not yet reconciled to the Christians. For he sat nine years, ten months and two days, and was buried beside the body of St. Peter; and at that time the chair was vacant for 19 days.[Evaristus, fourth pope (c. 98-105) was the immediate successor of Clement I, as bishop of Rome.]

The second persecution of the Christians after Nero was put into effect by the Emperor Domitian (Domicianus) in the 12thyear of his reign. In the course of these persecutions John the apostle and evangelist was brought to Rome by Domitian the Emperor and placed into a kettle of boiling oil, but from which he came out unharmed. Therefore he was sent to the island of Patmos; but after the death of Domitian he was released from exile, and went to Ephesus. Domitilla (Domicilla), a very holy virgin, was in the course of this persecution brought to the island of Pontia, and after enduring much suffering, was, together with Euphrosina, Theodora, and other virgins, burned in her bedchamber by a tyrant. Nicomedus, a Roman priest, Hermocoras, the Aquilaean archbishop, a disciple of Mark, together with Fortunatus, his archdeacon, earned the crown of martyrdom in this persecution. And so Cletus and Anacletus, the popes, and also many others suffered.[ According to Eusebius, Domitian having exercised his cruelty against many, at length established himself as the successor of Nero in his hatred and hostility to God. "He was the second that raised a persecution against us, although his father Vespasian had attempted nothing to our prejudice." According to tradition, the apostle and evangelist John, who was yet living, in consequence of his testimony to the divine word, was condemned to dwell on the island of Patmos. At the same time, for professing Christ, Flavia Domitilla, the niece of Flavius Clemens, one of the consuls of Rome at that time, was transported with many others by way of punishment, to the island of Pontia. ( 17-18)]


In the foreground are two caldrons of oil, each upon a fire. The martyr kneels in one, in prayer. The executioner is pouring the heated oil over the victim. According to legend this was the evangelist’s fate as decreed by Domitian. It is said to have taken place outside the Latin gate at Rome. In Dürer’s famous woodcut John sits in the boiling oil, while one executioner blows the fire and the other pours the oil over John’s head. According to Greek legend John died without pain or change, and immediately rose again in bodily form, and ascended into heaven.


Titus, first son of Vespasian, the eleventh Roman Emperor, began his reign after the demise of his father. By nature he was of a most benevolent disposition. Now Vespasian thought so much of his son’s virtue that when some fostered revolt and dissension in their zeal to rule, he said no one other than his son should aspire to reign; and not without reason, for Titus, because of his virtue and perfect disposition, was respected as a loving and benevolent member of the human race. He was the most eloquent in peace, the strongest in war. He was so kind and generous that he denied no one anything; and when his friends held this against him, he answered, No one should leave the presence of the emperor in sorrow. One day, after the evening meal, it occurred to him that on that day he had done nothing for anybody, and he said: Friends, I have lost this day through forgetfulness of my benevolence. He was highly learned in the Latin and Greek tongues, and therefore held in favor the highly learned man Asconius Pedianus.[Asconius Pedianus, born at Patavium (Padua) about 2 BCE, was a Roman grammarian. He lost his sight at 73 in the reign of Vespasian, and died at 95 in the reign of Domitian. His most important work was a commentary on the speeches of Cicero, and we still possess fragments of others. They are written in a very pure language.] He warred in Judea, took Jerusalem and raised the temple to the ground. He killed six hundred thousand persons, and, as Josephus states, who was taken prisoner in the same engagement, eleven times one hundred thousand persons perished by hunger and the sword, while another hundred thousand were taken prisoners and publicly sold. On account of this victory over the Jews, Titus and his father, seated in the same chariot, celebrated a triumph at Rome, while Domitian followed them on a white horse. To this day one may still see at Rome evidences of this siege, and so the engraved candlestick and tables of laws which were taken from the Temple. He died in the same village as his father, in the forty-second year of his life, and was buried with public lamentations by all the people as though they had been deprived of a father.[Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus was Roman emperor from 79 to 81 CE. He was a son of Vespasian and his wife Domitilla. He was born December 30, 40 CE. When a young man he served as a military tribune in Britain and Germany with great credit. Later he commanded a legion and served under his father in the Jewish wars. Vespasian returned to Italy after being proclaimed emperor on July 1, 69 CE; but Titus remained in Palestine to prosecute the siege of Jerusalem, in which he showed the talents of a general and the daring of a soldier. He captured Jerusalem on September 8, 70 CE, and returned to Italy in the following year, triumphing at Rome with his father. He also received the title of Caesar, and became the associate of Vespasian in the government, succeeding him in 79. His brother Domitian was accused of having designs against him, but Titus urged him not to aspire to honors that some day would be his through legitimate means. During his whole reign he displayed a sincere desire for the happiness of the people, and did all he could to relieve them in times of distress. He assumed the office of Pontifex Maximus after his father’s death, and with the purpose, as he declared, of keeping his hands free from blood—a resolution he kept. He died September 2nd 81 CE, after a reign of two years, two months and twenty days, at the age of 41. Domitian, who was suspected of his death, succeeded him. Titus is said to have written Greek poems and tragedies.]

Domitian (Domicianus), a brother of Titus and son of Vespasian, was the twelth Roman emperor, and in the interval up to the time of his rule, he daily resorted to secret places of lechery and did nothing but catch flies and stabbed them with a sharp stylus. He resembled Nero and Caligula more than his father Vespasian and his brother Titus. In his earlier years he was more temperate, but he soon fell into gross vices, voluptuousness, neglect, ill temper and cruelty. He killed many distinguished persons, and also sent many into exile. However he rebuilt many buildings that had burned down, but all in his own name and without regard for the memory of their original founders. Yet he judged justly, and restored the burnt libraries at great cost. But finally, through his misdeeds, he aroused so much enmity that he fairly obliterated the names of his father and brother. He conceived the idea of calling himself a god and decreed that he be honored as such. He was finally slain in his bedchamber and his body infested with bats. He was disgracefully buried at the age of 35 in the fifteenth year of his reign.[T. Flavius Domitianus Augustus, younger son of Vespasian and born at Rome in 51 CE, was Roman emperor from 81 to 96. When his father was proclaimed emperor by the legions in the East, Domitian, then at Rome, narrowly escaped being murdered by Vitellius, and concealed himself until the victory of his father’s party was decided. After the fall of Vitellius, Domitian was proclaimed Caesar, and obtained the government of the city until his father’s return. During the ten years of his father’s reign, Domitian lived as a private person on an estate near the Alban mount, surrounded by a number of courtesans, and devoting a great part of his time to poetry. During the reign of his brother Titus he was also not permitted to participate in public affairs, but on his death was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. In the early years of his reign he kept strict superintendence over the governors of the provinces, enacted some useful laws, endeavored to correct the licentious conduct of the higher classes, and although he indulged himself in strange passions, his government was much better than had been expected. But he soon changed to the worse. His wars were mostly unfortunate, and this excited his fears and wounded his vanity. In 83 he undertook an expedition against the Chatti, which had no definitive outcome, though he celebrated a triumph on his return to Rome, and assumed the name of Germanicus. In 85 Agricola, whose success excited his jealously, was recalled to Rome. From 86-90 he had to carry on a war with Decebalus and the Dacians, who defeated the Roman armies, and at length compelled Domitian to purchase a humiliating peace. It was after the Dacian war especially that he gave full sway to his cruelty and tyranny. No man of distinction was safe, unless he would degrade himself to flatter the tyrant. All the philosophers who lived at Rome were expelled. Christian writers attribute persecutions to him, but there is some doubt in this matter. At length three officers, assisted by Domitia, his wife, had him murdered by Stephanus, a freedman, on September 18th, 96.]

Nerva, the thirteenth Roman emperor, was at an advanced age, elected after Domitian, and was an ordinary man of moderate habits. He placed himself on a level with the commonality and proved very useful. After everything pertaining to the empire was ruined or destroyed through the tumults of his predecessors, by his industry the actions and transactions of Domitian were nullified and repealed by the senate, and many who had been sent into exile were recalled, and the estates and property which had been forfeited were returned to them. And as he was now burdened with years and felt his end near, he took the precaution, for the common good, of adopting Trajan as his son. He died at the age of seventy-two, in the first year and four months of his reign. By approval of the senate he was given the rank of a god.[M. Nerva, Roman emperor from 96-98 CE, was born at Narni, in Umbria, in 32 CE. He was consul with Vespasian in 71, and with Domitian in 90. On the assassination of Domitian in September 96, Nerva, who had probably been aware of (and possibly involved in) the conspiracy, was declared emperor at Rome by the people and the soldiers, and his administration at once restored tranquility to the state. He stopped proceedings against those who had been accused of treason, and allowed many exiled persons to return to Rome. At the commencement of his reign he swore he would put no senator to death; and he kept his word even when a conspiracy had been formed against his own life by Calpurnius Crassus. Though virtuous and humane, he did not possess much energy and vigor. Nerva was aware of his own weakness, but showed his noble character and good sense by appointing as his successor a man who possessed both vigor and ability to direct public affairs. Without regard to his own family he adopted as his successor M. Ulpius Trajanus, who was then at the head of an army in Germany. Nerva died suddenly on January 27, 98 CE, at the age of 65.]

Trajan, by birth a Spaniard, and surnamed Ulpius Crinitus, was the fourteenth Roman emperor and successor to Nerva in the empire. By his reputation as a warrior, his nobility and moderation, he excelled all the other emperors; for he extended the Roman Empire far and wide. He restored Germany beyond the Rhine to its former status, and brought under Roman subjection Dacia and many peoples beyond the Danube. He retook the Parthians, and gave the Albanians a king. He made a province of the Euphrates and Tigris, and marched as far as the limits of India and the Red Sea. Yet his conduct so commended him to mankind that up to the time of Justinian, upon election of a Roman emperor the people cried out that their choice would be as fortunate as Augustus and even better than Trajan. In addition, he was so good and magnaminous in visiting the sick and in the greeting of friends, that it was regarded as one of his failings. And thus the proverb originated, That the emperor must so conduct himself to other persons, that others will cleave to him. Honor and riches, gifts and rewards he impartially distributed among the deserving. He did nothing in his lifetime that was not for the common good. He died at Selinus (Seleucia) in Cilicia (Isauria) of diarrhea of the stomach after having reigned eighteen years and six months. His remains were brought to Rome and there buried under a column 140 feet high, which may still be seen there.[M. Ulpius Trajanus (Trajan), Roman emperor from 98 to 117 CE, was born at Italica, near Seville, the 18th of September, 52. He was trained as a soldier, and served with distinction in the East and in Germany. He was consul in 91, and at the close of 97 he was adopted by the emperor, Nerva, who gave him the rank of Caesar and the names of Nerva and Germanicus, and shortly after the title of imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Augustus. He was the first emperor who was born outside of Italy. Nerva died in January, 98, and was succeeded by Trajan who was then at Cologne. His accession was hailed with joy, and he did not disappoint the expectations of the people. He was a man born to command. He was strong and healthy, of a majestic appearance, hardworking and inured to fatigue. Though not a man of letters, he had good sense, a knowledge of the world, and a sound judgment. His mode of living was very simple, and in his campaigns he shared all the sufferings and privations of the soldiers, by whom he was both loved and feared. He was a friend to justice, and he had a sincere desire for the happiness of the people. Trajan did not return to Rome for some months, being employed in settling the frontiers on the Rhine and the Danube. He entered Rome on foot, accompanied by his wife, Pompeia Plotina. This lady is highly commended by Pliny the Younger for her modest virtues, and her affection for Marciana, the sister of Trajan. Trajan left Rome for his campaign against the Daci. Decebalus, king of the Daci, had compelled Domitian to purchase peace by an annual payment of money; and Trajan determined to end the payments and conquer the Daci. This war employed Trajan between 2 and 3 years; but it ended with the defeat of Decebalus, who sued for peace at the feet of the Roman emperor. Trajan assumed the name of Dacicus, and entered Rome in triumph (103). In the following year Trajan commenced his second Dacian war against Decebalus, who, it is said, had broken the treaty. Decebalus was completely defeated, and put an end to his life (106). In the course of this war Trajan built a permanent bridge across the Danube at a place called Szernecz. The piers were of stone and of an enormous size, but the arches were of wood. After the death of Decebalus Dacia was reduced to the form of a Roman province; strong forts were built in various places, and Roman colonies were planted. It is generally supposed that the column at Rome called the Column of Trajan was erected to commemorate his Dacian victories. On his return Trajan had a triumph, and he exhibited games to the people for 123 days. 11,000 animals were slaughtered during these amusements; and an army of gladiators, 10,000 men, gratified the Romans by killing one another. About this time Arabia Petraea was subjugated to the empire by A. Cornelius Palma, the governor of Syria; and an Indian embassy came to Rome. Trajan constructed a road across the Pontine Marshes, and built magnificent bridges across the streams. Buildings, probably mansions, were constructed by the side of this road. In 114 Trajan left Rome to make war on the Armenians and the Parthians. He spent the winter of 114 at Antioch, and in the following year he invaded the Parthian dominions. The most striking and brilliant success attended his arms. In the course of two campaigns (115-6) he conquered the greater part of the Parthian empire, and took the Parthian capital of Ctesiphon. In 116 he sailed down the Tigris and entered the Erythraean Sea (the Persian Gulf). While he was thus engaged the Parthians rose against the Romans, but were again subdued by the generals of Trajan. On his returned to Ctesiphon, Trajan was determined to give the Parthians a king, and placed the diadem on the head of Parthamaspates. In 117 Trajan fell ill, and as his complaint grew worse he set out for Italy. He lived to reach Selinus in Cilicia, afterwards called Trajanopolis, where he died in August, 117, after a reign of 19 years, 6 months and 15 days. His ashes were taken to Rome in a golden urn, carried in triumphal procession, and deposited under the column that bears his name. He left no children, and he was succeeded by Hadrian. Trajan constructed several great roads in the empire; he built libraries at Rome, one of which, called the Ulpia Bibliotheca, is often mentioned; and a theater in the Campus Martius. His great work was the Forum Trajanum, in the center of which was placed the column of Trajan. Under the reign of Trajan lived Sextus Julius Frontinus, C. Cornelius Tacitus, the Younger Pliny, and various others of less note. Plutarch, Suetonius, and Epictetus survived Trajan.]


Timothy (Timotheus), a disciple of Paul, the apostle, was a bishop at Ephesus. He was the son of a pagan father and of widowed mother, a woman of religious faith. He was called by Paul, and after suffering many dangers, received the martyr’s crown. However, some say he suffered under Nero, and that two angels appeared to him during his martyrdom, saying, Lift your head to heaven and see. And he saw heaven open—and Jesus holding a costly crown. Jesus said, This crown you will receive by my hand. This was also seen by a man named Appollinaris, who permitted himself to be baptized; immediately after which the judge caused them both to be beheaded.[Timothy was a disciple and companion of Paul. He was a native of Lystra, or perhaps Derbe, both cities of Lycaonia. His father was a Greek, and his mother a Jew. The instructions and prayers of his pious mother, Eunice, and grandmother Lois, and the preachings of Paul during his first visit to Lystra in 48 CE (Acts 14:6) brought about his conversion and his introduction into the ministry. He had witnessed the sufferings of Paul and loved him as his father in Christ (I Tim.1:2; II Tim. 3.10). When the apostle returned to Lystra, about 51 CE, the brethren spoke highly of the merit and good disposition of Timothy, and the apostle determined to take him along with him, for which purpose he circumcised him at Lystra, to disarm the prejudices of the Jews; and he was set apart to the ministry by the laying on of the hands of the elders (I Tim. 4:14; II Tim. 1:6; 4:5). Timothy applied himself to promoting Christianity, and rendered Paul very important service through the whole course of his preaching. He was selected by Paul as his chosen companion and labored zealously. For a time he shared Paul’s imprisonment at Rome. The last mention of him is in Paul’s request that he go to Rome with him during his second imprisonment.]

Titus, also a disciple of Paul and a bishop of the Cretans, after faithful service as a preacher, came to a blessed end; and he received an epistle from Paul out of the city of Nicopolis.[Titus, a distinguished Christian of Greek origin, was converted by the preaching of Paul, whose fellow-laborer he became. He joined Paul and Barnabus in the mission from Antioch to Jerusalem, and was subsequently sent to Corinth, where he labored with success. Paul afterward left him at Crete to establish and regulate the churches of that island. There he received the Epistle to Titus, then at Ephesus, inviting him to Nicopolis; from there he went to Dalmatia before Paul was finally imprisoned at Rome. He labored for many years at Crete and died there at an advanced age. ] Crescens (Crescentius) was another disciple of Paul, and by his preaching converted many people to the Christian faith in Galatia.[Crescens (Crescentius), assistant to Paul, probably one of the 70 disciples. He was said to have exercised his ministry in Galatia (II Tim. 4:10).]

Dionysius the Areopagite, a highly renowned philosopher, together with Eleutherius the priest, and Rusticus the Deacon, was martyred at Paris in the persecution by Domitian. For when Pope Clement at the request of Peter, sent him to preach to the Gauls, and he performed the required work of the Lord with zeal, he and his associate, now ninety years of age, were flogged, spit upon, ridiculed, stretched naked upon a grill over the fire, tortured by other means, and finally beheaded in a kneeling posture. Thereafter he carried his head in his arms with the guidance of angels to the place where he finally rested. This is the Dionysius who at Athens spoke of the passion of the Lord Jesus: Either the God of nature suffers, or the whole structure of the world will be ruined. And him also, Paul the apostle afterward baptized, industriously instructed, and ordained as bishop at Athens, where he brought many persons to the Christian faith; as also in Gaul. On the ninth day of October he suffered martyrdom. Being a highly learned man, he left many excellent and enlightening writings. And as he states in one of his books, he was one of the witnesses to the demise of Mary, the mother of God. And when he there after heard that Peter and Paul, the apostles, were taken by Nero, he went there himself to see them. And thereupon he was ordained (as aforesaid) by Pope Clement.[Dionysius, surnamed ‘The Areopagite’ (Areopagita), because he was one of the Council of the Areopagus, was converted by Paul’s preachings at Athens. There are extant several works under his name, which, however, could scarcely have been written before the fifth century of our era. This Dionysius was later confused with another of the same name, also known as Denis, the patron saint of France.]

Victorinus, esteemed for his piety and miracles, and a worthy bishop of the city of Emiterna, was taken as a Christian from the city and led to the Emperor Nerva, and by his order he was hanged with his head downward in a region where stinking and sulphurous water flowed. And after he had endured such martyrdom in the name of Jesus for three days, then, so crowned (with martyrdom) he gave up his Spirit to Christ on the 5th day of the month of September. Eutyches (Eutices) and Marcus were also martyred under the Emperor Nerva; for when Aurelian saw that Domitilla, his betrothed, loved these pious men more for their faith and virtue, and Nereus and Achilleus[Nereus and Achilleus are two saints peculiar to Rome. They were the chamberlains of Flavia Domitilla, grandniece of the Emperor Domitian, and daughter of Flavius Clemens and the elder Domitilla, both of whom had suffered martyrdom for adhering to the Christian faith. Flavia Domitilla was betrothed to Aurelian, son of the consul; but her two chamberlains, zealous Christians, prevailed upon her to refuse this union with an idolater; for which cause they were beheaded, and Domitilla was at the same time put to death at Terracina.] were about then also martyred, he assigned these holy men, with the permission of Nerva, as slaves to do the ploughing on his estates. But as they were looked upon with favor by all and worked miracles, they too were finally slain on the 16th day of May.[Saints Victorinus, Maro (here called Marcus) and Eutyches lived in Italy at the end of the first century. For their faith they and Flavia Domitilla were exiled to the island of Ponza. They were afterward released by the Emperor Nerva. However, in the persecution by Trajan they suffered on various days, in various ways, and in different places.]

John (Iohannes), the apostle and evangelist, brother of James (Iacobi) the Greater, and the most beloved of Jesus Christ, was called as a disciple in his younger years. They say this pious man lived until the time of Trajan the Emperor. After establishing the Asiatic church he wrote his gospel, being the last; and he confirmed what Matthew, Mark and Luke had written. And, as they say, he nullified the teachings of the Edionite heretics who falsely claimed that Christ did not exist before Mary. For John announced his godly nature, saying: In the beginning was the Word, etc. He also wrote many other things, namely, the Book of Revelation when exiled to the Island of Patmos by Domitian. After the latter’s death and the nullification of his decrees, John returned to Ephesus. Up to the time of Trajan he sustained churches there with his counsel and writings. Burdened with years, he rested in the sixty-eighth year after Christ suffered. Then at ninety years he went to church early one Sunday morning and preached to the people; and he climbed into a square crypt that he had caused to be made in the church. And a great light appeared so he could not be seen. When the light disappeared his body was gone, but the crypt was filled with heavenly bread (manna).[John, apostle, and son of Zebedee, was a native of Galilee. Zebedee and his sons, John and James, were fishermen, apparently fairly well off. John and Peter followed Jesus, and were seized by the Jews when the other disciples fled. He was early at the tomb of the Jesus, and after his ascension boldly proclaimed the gospel at Jerusalem (Acts 4:13), though scourged, imprisoned and threatened with death. He is supposed to have been the youngest of the apostles. Jesus is said to have had a particular affection for him and, while on the cross, according to John’s gospel, he committed his mother, Mary, to John’s care. Legend relates that about 95 CE he was banished to the Island of Patmos where he had the visions described in the Apocalypse. He afterward returned to Ephesus where he lived to a very old age. The Gospel of John, the Apocalypse, and the three Epistles that bear his name, are by at least two different authors, neither of which is likely to be the John who was the disciple of Jesus (all five of these texts were written at the end of the 1st century). And only the author of the Apocalypse (whose prose is very different from the other four texts) tells us his name (John).]


Dionysius is depicted with his decapitated head that rests on a book he holds in both hands. The head on the book symbolizes that he sacrificed his own head for the Church of Christ. The head is mitred and surrounded by a nimbus. Sometimes the nimbus is placed not about the head, but about the place where the head originally was. St. Denis, patron saint of France, is usually thus depicted.


St. John, the apostle and evangelist, is seated in the open country. His left hand firmly grips an inkpot, while with his right he is writing in a book on his lap, probably his Gospel. At his left an eagle, his symbol, is about to take flight. In the sky John sees a vision of Mary and the Child. John is depicted as young, beardless, and with flowing locks. He has a nimbus, the eagle none. This is the same John who is depicted at Folio CVIII verso, undergoing martyrdom.

FOLIO CX recto

The third persecution of the Christians occurred because the Christian faith spread very rapidly. Although Trajan was an emperor of singular justice and goodness, in the tenth year of his reign certain impious and wicked peoples caused him concern as to whether the Roman Empire might not suffer by secessions in consequence. Therefore he caused a third persecution of the Christians, in which many were slain; so that Pliny the Second, who governed the provinces, moved to compassion by the great number of deaths, wrote to Trajan, the Emperor, that countless thousands of people were being slain daily, who neither violated the Roman law nor committed any other misdeeds, being guilty of nothing more than singing hymns to a certain Christ, as to a god; while they considered adultery and such vices unseemly. And as a result of that Trajan was moved and decreed that the Christians should not be sought out, but that when they presented themselves they should be punished.[]

Ignatius, a bishop of Antioch, the third bishop there after Peter, and a disciple of St. John the Evangelist, after having governed the church for many years, was taken prisoner at Antioch and sentenced to be thrown to the wild animals. And while being carried to Rome, on the way he fortified all Christian people in the faith with prayers or with letters, saying: So that I may find Christ, fire, the cross, wild animals, breaking of limbs, or the rending of my whole body, and the tortures of the devil may assail me, so long as I gain Christ. And when he heard the roar of the lions he said: I am the food of God, and shall be ground by the teeth of wild beasts that I may be found pure bread. Once upon a time, as he stood upon a mountain, he heard the angels singing antiphonies, and therefore he ordered that these should also be sung in the churches. In many epistles that he wrote to Mary, he greeted her as the Bearer of Christ. He died in the eleventh year of Trajan.

Ignatius, celebrated by many to this day, and the successor of Peter at Antioch, was the second that obtained the Episcopal office there. Tradition says that he was sent from Syria to Rome, and was cast as food to the wild beasts, on account of his testimony to Christ. And being carried through Asia under a most rigid custody, fortified the different churches in the cities in which he tarried by his discourses and exhortations; particularly to caution them more against the heresies that even then were springing up and prevailing. He exhorted them to adhere firmly to the traditions of the apostles, which for the sake of greater security he attested by committing it to writing. Irenaeus, who knew of his martyrdom, makes mention of his epistles as follows: "As some one of our faith has said, who was condemned to the wild beasts, ‘I am the food of God, and am ground by the teeth of wild beasts that I may be found pure bread.’" He was succeeded in the Episcopal office by Heros (Eusebius, ch. 36). A fuller account of this saint is given in the writings of Anna Jameson, in which she quotes from the Perfetto Legendario:

Eustathius (Eustachius) surnamed Placidus, Trajan’s Master of the Soldiers, was martyred for Christ on September 20th, in this very cruel time, together with his wife Theospita, and their sons, Agapitus and Theospitus. Of his conversion one reads miraculous things. Eustathius saw a beautiful deer, between whose horns appeared a crucifix that spoke to him. And therefore he accepted baptism.[Eustace (Eustathius or Eustachius) was a Roman soldier, and a captain of the guards to the Emperor Trajan. His name before his conversion was Placidus, and he had a beautiful wife and two sons, and lived with great magnificence, practicing all the pagan virtues, particularly those of loyalty to his sovereign and charity to the poor. He was also a great lover of the chase. One day while hunting in the forest he saw before him a white stag of marvelous beauty, and he pursued it eagerly, and the stag fled before him and ascended a high rock. Then Placidus, looking up, beheld between the horns of the stag a cross of radiant light, and on it the image of the crucified Christ; and being astonished by this vision, he fell on his knees, and a voice, which seemed to come from the crucifix, cried to him and said, "Placidus! Why do you pursue me? I am Christ, whom you have until now served without knowing me. Do you now believe?" And Placidus fell on his face, and said, "Lord, I believe!" And the voice answered, saying, "You shall suffer many tribulations for my sake, and shall be tested by many temptations; but be strong and of good courage, and I will not forsake you." To which Placidus replied, "Lord, I am content. Give me patience to suffer!" The vision departed and Placidus returned home, and the next day he and his wife and two sons were baptized, and he took the name of Eustace. But it happened as it was foretold to him. His two sons were carried off by wild beasts, his wife by pirates. But Eustace dried his tears and prayed for resignation. He came to a village, and having been despoiled of all his possessions by robbers, he lived by the labor of his hands. Fifteen years later the Emperor Hadrian, requiring his services, sent out soldiers to seek him, and they found him, and he was restored to all his former honors, and again led on his troops to victory. Meanwhile his sons had been rescued from the beasts, and his wife escaped from the pirates; and, after many years they met and recognized each other, and were reunited. But Eustace was still to suffer; for the emperor commanded a great sacrifice and thanksgiving to his false gods, in consequence of a victory he had gained over the barbarians. Eustace and his family refused to offer incense, remaining steadfast in the Christian faith. The emperor then immediately ordered that they should be shut up in a brazen bull, and a fire kindled under it; and thus they perished together.]

Hermes, a Roman citizen, and an illustrious official of that city, was baptized by Alexander the pope, together with his wife and children, his sister Theodosa and twelve hundred and fifty servants and their wives. In this persecution he was imprisoned, and later, on the 28th day of August be was sentenced and martyred with the sword.

Josephus the Jew, called Flavius, a priest under Matathias, the priest’s son, a highly renowned historian and in many ways an enlightened man, and a leader in the Jewish wars, in the reigns of Nero and others, was taken prisoner by Vespasian and Titus when the Jewish country was taken, and he was put in honorable service; for he was a good and excellent man, who well understood Christ. He prophesied that Nero would die shortly and that Vespasian would become emperor. Now when this happened, Vespasian released him from all service, and he was afterward taken to Rome, given citizenship, and the name of the Flavian family. And with this same emperor he lived happily for fifteen years. In that time he wrote seven books upon the conquest of the Jews, and for that he earned the honor (as Saint Jerome says) of having a column erected to him at Rome. Afterwards he also wrote a book on the antiquity of the Jews, from the beginning of the world to the time of the Jewish Wars; and many other books; all of which were translated into the Latin tongue by Rufinus the Aquileian. This Josephus was born at the time when Christ was crucified, and he lived up to the time of the Emperor Trajan, and died very honorably.[Josephus, Flavius (37-95? CE), Jewish historian and military commander, was born in the first year of Caligula (37-38). A precocious student of the law, he made trial of the three sects of Judaism – Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes – before he reached the age of nineteen. Then, having spent three years in the desert with the hermit Banus, who was presumably an Essene, he became a Pharisee. In 64 he went to Rome to intercede on behalf of some priests, his friends, whom the procurator Felix had sent to render account to Caesar for some insignificant offense. Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favorite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Poppaea, and accomplished his purpose with her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine. But they refused to listen, and he, with all the Jews who did not fly the country, was dragged into the great rebellion of 66. In company with two other priests he was sent to Galilee to persuade those still fighting to lay down their arms and return to the Roman allegiance, which the Jewish aristocracy had not yet renounced. Having sent his two companions back to Jerusalem, he organized the forces at his disposal, and made arrangements for the government of the province. In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops whom Josephus had drilled fled before Vespasian and Titus. He sent to Jerusalem for reinforcements, but none came. With the stragglers who remained, he held a stronghold against the Romans, and finally, when the place was taken, persuaded forty men, who shared his hiding place, to kill one another in turn, rather than commit suicide. They agreed to cast lots, on the understanding that the second should kill the first, and so on. Josephus providentially drew the last lot and prevailed upon his destined victim to live. Their companions were all dead in accordance with the compact; but Josephus survived and surrendered. Being led before Vespasian, he was inspired to prophesy that Vespasian would become emperor, and when this was fulfilled, he was liberated, assumed the family named of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria. He returned to Rome, was awarded a pension, and was made a Roman citizen, receiving an estate in Judea.]

Publius (P.) Statius, the Neapolitan, a native of the village of Epiroticus, flourished at Rome; and there he wrote twelve books about the Theban war, and a book about the childhood of Achilles. Also, he was rewarded for his books of Silvae with a country estate at Alba. While he was still young, he took to wife Claudia, the daughter of Apolinaris. And though he began to write the life of Achilles, he was intercepted by death.

Statius (Publius Papinius Statius) was born at Neapolis, about 61 CE, the son of a distinguished grammarian. He accompanied his father to Rome, and under his skillful tuition he speedily rose to fame. He died about 96 CE. Among his extant works are his Thebaid, a heroic poem in 12 books, embodying the ancient legends with regard to the expedition of the Seven against Thebes, and his fascinating fragment of an epic, the Achilleid. The Silvae are a miscellaneous collection of poems, many of which are renowned for their sophisticated wit.

The last sentence in this paragraph, as well as the references to the Achilleid and the Silvae, are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Martial (Marcus Valerius Marcialis) was a native of Spain, held in high esteem at Rome because of his ingenuity, and his various epigrams. He returned to the place of his birth in the time of Trajan, and there he died at an advanced age.[Martial, the epigrammatic poet, was born at Bibilis in Spain, in 43 CE. He came to Rome in 66, and after residing there 35 years, returned to the place of his birth in the third year of Trajan, 100. He lived there upwards of three years at least, on the property of his wife, a lady named Marcella, whom he seems to have married after his return to Bibilis. His fame was extensive and his books were eagerly sought, not only in the city, but also in Gaul, Germany, and Britain. He secured the patronage of Titus and Domitian, and his living conditions appear to have been easy during his Roman residence. He had a mansion in the city and a suburban villa. His extant works consist of a collection of short poems, all included under the title , nearly 1500 in number, and divided into 14 books. These epigrams are distinguished by fertility of imagination and prodigious flow of wit. From no source do we derive more copious information on the national customs and social habits of the Romans during the first century of the Empire.]

Stella, also from Padua (Patavinum), not a mean poet, flourished at this time; and he had a wife named Violantilla whom he utterly loved.[Stella, a poet and friend of Statius, who dedicated to him the first book of his , the second poem in which celebrates the marriage of Stella and Violantilla. This Stella is also mentioned by Martial (6.21).]

Juvenal, a satiric poet, native of Aquinum, flourished at Rome. At the age of eighty he was taken from the city and sent to Egypt with a body of troops, not for his honor, but as a punishment. In a short time, however, he succumbed to fear and melancholy. He lived up to the time of the emperor Nerva.[Juvenal (Decimus Junius Juvenalis), the great Roman satirist, of whose life we have but few authentic particulars, was either the son or the "alumnus" of a rich freedman. Until he had nearly reached middle life, he occupied himself in declaiming. Having by his satires offended an actor of the time, who was annoyed at a passage really aimed at Paris, Domitian’s favorite, the actor had the poet banished, under the form of a military appointment, to Egypt, where he died shortly afterwards at the age of 80. The only facts with regard to Juvenal upon which we can implicitly rely are that he flourished toward the close of the first century, that Aquinum, if not his birthplace, was at least his chosen residence, and that he is in all probability the friend whom Martial addresses in three epigrams. Each piece he wrote is a finished rhetorical essay, energetic, glowing, and sonorous. He denounces vice in the most indignant terms; but the obvious tone of exaggeration which pervades all his invectives leaves us in doubt how far this sustained passion is real, and how far assumed for show. His extant works consist of 16 satires, all in hexameters.]


Eustace (Eustachius) Roman soldier and martyr, appears as a bearded old man wearing a fur cap and medieval robes. In his hands he holds the head of a deer, a crucifix between its horns, to symbolize the miracle referred to in the text. As a rule this saint is represented in devotional pictures as a Roman soldier, or an armed knight; near him the miraculous stag. The "Conversion of St. Eustace" is only distinguished from the legend of St. Hubert by the classical or warrior costume. The martyrdom of St. Eustace and his family in the brazen bull was not an uncommon subject in early art.

FOLIO CX verso

Metz (Metis), a very renowned city in Lower Gaul, was also called Mediomatricus, being the central mother of three cities located about namely, Trier (Treverim) to the north, Toul (Tullum) to the south, and Verdun (Viridinum), to the west, while Metz itself is picturesquely located to the east. The city derived its name from Metius, the Roman, who augmented and strengthened it, although he was not its builder. When Julius Caesar subdued the Gauls and besieged this praiseworthy city, this highly renowned and noble Roman, Metius, enhanced the city and surrounded it with battlements. When he came there in person he conducted the nobility through the fortresses and suburbs, and then, with great jubilation, into the city itself. He gave it the name of Metz in accordance with an inscription on a stone found beneath the surface of the earth. Some say it was called Dundunum (Dividunum), that is, Mountain of the Gods, a mountain that may be seen to the north and west. The city is located on the shores of the Moselle and the Seille (Salie). It is well populated, and a mighty episcopal city, having accepted the holy Gospel from Bishop Clement, Pope Clement’s uncle, who was sent there to preach. This same Clement was the noble son of the Roman consul, and a brother of Faustinian, the father of Clement the Pope; and he was baptized by St. Peter. When Gaul was laboring under various erroneous beliefs, he was consecrated a bishop, and together with Celesta the priest, and Felice the deacon, was chosen to exalt the Christian faith in these parts. And afterwards, in honor of St. Peter, they erected a chapel called Gozzia within three thousand feet of the city. During a chase the Count of Metz came upon these men and brought them into the city. This noble city is very strong and mighty, accustomed to war and the use of arms, rich in fields, farms, vineyards, forests and moisture, and is very fertile. However, by reason of a certain contamination it was very arid for a long time. A great dragon lay hidden in the sandy region where a costly building, in the nature of a boundary mark was erected by Octavian. These parts the dragon poisoned with his breath; and in consequence the south and east gates were closed to all. But the pious Clement, who through his virtue and teachings had led the people to worship God, deprived this animal of all its poison by means of his stole; and from that moment this region has been free of all unclean animals. Later he also established St. Peter’s church beyond the walls as a mistress of the entire bishopric. This church, having been exalted by the devotion of the people, was afterward consecrated to St. Stephen, and became an episcopal church. Beyond the city he established a chapel to St. John the Baptist, and in his old age a church not far removed from the city and in a position where it could be more openly appreciated; and in it he provided a crypt and a wholesome spring. Before the portal he erected an altar in honor of St. Peter, its patron. Having secured the city for the Lord and freed it of all uncleanliness, and having given it a good administration for twenty-five years and four months, he gave up his Spirit to the Lord on the 23rd day of the month of November, having given renown to the city of Metz by his piety.[Metz, the Roman Divodurum, was the chief town of the Mediomatrici, and was also called by the Romans Mediomatrica. Metz is a contracted form. Still later it was called Metis or Mettis. In classical times it was located in what was called Gallia Belgica. The Mediomatrici were a people in the southeast of Gallia Belgica, on the Moselle, south of Treves. Their territory originally extended to the Rhine. Caesar describes it as one of the oldest and most important towns in Gaul. The Romans recognized its strategical importance, fortified it, and supplied it with water by an imposing aqueduct, the remains of which still exist. Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strasbourg, Verdun, Reims, and Trier. Christianity was introduced in the third century, and in the middle of the fifth the town was plundered by Attila. Later it came into the possession of the Franks, and was made the capital of Austrasia. On the partition of the Carolingian realms in 843, Metz fell to the share of emperor Lothair I as the capital of Lorraine. Its bishops, whose creation reaches back to the fourth century, now began to be very powerful. Metz became a free imperial town in the 13th century, and soon became prosperous. Having adopted the reformed doctrines in 1552 and 1553, it fell into the hands of the French and was defended against Charles V by Francis duke of Guise. It now sank to the level of a French provincial town, and its population dwindled from 60,000 to about 22,000. At the peace of Westphalia in 1648 Metz, with Toul and Verdun, was formally ceded to France. It was taken by the Germans in 1870 and ceded to them in 1871. It was retroceded to France after the First World War.]


Suteonius Tranquillus, historian, advocate, and master of letters, a native Roman of a patrician family of consuls, was held in high esteem by the Romans at this time. Under emperor Hadrian (Adriano) he was beloved and regarded as very reliable because of his intimate relations with Pliny of Novum Comum.[Novum Comum, a town in Cisalpine Gaul, birthplace of Pliny the Younger (also known as Pliny the Second); also called Comensis, and now Como.] His versatility enabled him to write a brilliant work on the aforesaid 12 Caesars; and in it he makes frequent mention of historical events and practices in the time of the ancients. He also wrote an exceptional book of illustrious men, and treated of many other things. But the Emperor Hadrian finally deposed him from consular office because of his secret intimacy with Sabina, Hadrian’s wife; for there was a rumor that he misused her. He lived to the time of Emperor Antoninus Verus.[Suetonius Tranquillus, the Roman historian, was born at the beginning of the reign of Vespasian. He practiced as an advocate at Rome in the reign of Trajan, and lived on intimate terms with the younger Pliny, many of whose letters are addressed to him. He was afterward appointed private secretary to Hadrian; but the emperor deprived him of this office on the ground of associating with Sabina, the emperor’s wife, without his permission. He wrote many works of which the only one extant is the , of whom the first is Julius Caesar and the last is Domitian. His language is very brief and precise, but sometimes obscure, and without any affectation or ornament. He tells a prodigious number of scandalous anecdotes about the Caesars, and his work seems to reflect critically on the maxim that ‘absolute power corrupts absolutely.’ Because he had access to the imperial records, and was himself a contemporary of the emperors Titus and Domitian, his work is invaluable to the historian of the late Republic and early Empire.]

Pliny the Second, philosopher and orator, of Novum Comum, as well as a celebrated historian, was held in honor at this time. Although he participated in the cares and affairs of the State, he so zealously concerned himself with the liberal arts, that no one, even with leisure at his disposal, could have written more. He was a talented man of ingenious mind, possessed incredible learning and great industry; and he slept little. In the summer, during his leisure moments, he lay in the sun reading books and making notes and extracts from them; for he read nothing without doing so. He stated that no book is so bad that it contains nothing useful, and held that all time is lost that is not devoted to learning. Being of this frame of mind, he produced many books—one about knightly warfare, two on the life of Pomponius the Second, twenty about the Germanic Wars, in which are collected all the wars of the Romans with the Germans; for he was in the wars in Germany. Also, eight books of doubtful sermons, and 37 books of the histories of nature, a work both broad and learned, and no less varied than nature itself. While he was in command of the fleet at Misenum, he endeavored to ascertain the cause of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius; but contrary winds prevented his return, and he was suffocated by the dust and sparks, and died at the age of fifty-six.[C. Plinius Secundus (Pliny the Elder), the celebrated author of the (which Schedel makes much use of in the ) was born in 23 CE, probably at Novum Comum (Como) in the north of Italy, and there the estates of the elder Pliny were situated. He came to Rome while still young, and being descended from a family of wealth and distinction, he had the means at his disposal for availing himself of the best teachers in the imperial city. At 23 he went to Germany, where he served under L. Pomponius Secundus, of whom he afterward wrote a memoir. He was later appointed to the command of a troop of cavalry, and traveled over most of the German frontier. At the same time he commenced the history of the Germanic wars, which he later completed in twenty books. He returned to Rome with Pomponius and applied himself to the study of jurisprudence. He practiced for some time as a pleader but does not appear to have distinguished himself in that capacity. The greater part of the reign of Nero he spent in retirement, no doubt at his native place. During this period he wrote a grammatical work in eight books, entitled (‘Doubtful/Ambiguous Speech’) and toward the close of Nero’s reign was appointed procurator in Spain. He was here in 71 when his brother-in-law died, leaving his son, the younger Pliny, to the guardianship of his uncle, who by reason of his absence, was obliged to leave him to the care of Virginius Rufus. Pliny returned to Rome in the reign of Vespasian, when he adopted his nephew. He had known Vespasian in the Germanic wars, and the emperor received him into the number of his most intimate friends. Of his manner of life at this period his nephew gives an account ( 3.5). It was his practice to begin to spend a portion of the night in study by lamplight at the festival of the Vulcanalia (toward the end of August), at first at a late hour of the night, in winter at one or two o’clock in the morning. Before it was light he visited the emperor Vespasian, and after executing such commissions as he might be charged with, returned home and devoted the remaining time to study. After a simple meal he would, in the summertime, lie in the sunshine while someone read to him, he himself making notes and extracts. He never read anything without doing this, for he used to say there was no book so bad but some good might be gotten out of it. He would then take a cold bath, and after a snack, sleep a little, and then pursue his studies. Such was his mode of life in the bustle of the city. In the country, the time spent in the bath was practically the only interval not allotted to study, and even this he reduced to the shortest amount of time. When on a journey he had a secretary at his side with a book and tablets. Thus he amassed an enormous amount of material, and at his death he left his nephew 160 volumes of notes, written in extremely small handwriting on both sides. With some reason might his nephew say that, when compared to Pliny, those who had spent their whole lives in literary pursuits seemed as if they had spent them in nothing else than sleep and idleness. From this material he compiled his celebrated , published in 77. He perished in the eruption of Vesuvius at the age of 56. He was stationed at Misenum at the time, in command of the Roman fleet; and it was his anxiety to examine more closely the extraordinary phenomenon, which led him to sail to Stabiae, where he landed and perished. His is his only work that has come down to us. By natural history the ancients understood more than moderns would usually include in the subject. It embraced astronomy, meteorology, geography, mineralogy, zoology, botany—everything that does not relate to the products or results of human skill or faculties. But Pliny even went beyond these limitations by digressing on human institutions and inventions, and on the history of the fine arts. In his preface he says it comprises 20,000 matters of importance drawn from about 2,000 volumes. It is divided into 37 books, and is a wonderful monument of human industry.]

Plutarch (Plutarchus) of Chareonea (Cheroneus) was a philosopher and a very eloquent historian. He was a magistrate under the emperor Trajan, and at this time was held in great esteem for his intelligence and reliability. Concerning him Polycrates, in his history, states: Plutarch is a man who is truthful in his writings, and his words are all intelligible. In sacredness of custom he was so absolute that he might easily have been taken for a governor under the emperor. This Plutarch labored diligently to infuse into the emperor and his own reigning student four things: reverence for god, self-cultivation, discipline of officials, and love and protection of one’s subjects. And as he was a highly learned man, he wrote many books upon various matters, namely: On Educating Children, On the Political Constitution, On Patience, On the Poet Homer, On the Moderation of Magistrates, On Musicians. (Also) apothegms which very many of our (people) knew as maxims or proverbs, and which, when he was living with Trajan on such friendly terms, he assembled with great industry as a very pleasing gift for him. In addition, the assembled broadly and elegantly the biographies of as many famous Greeks as of Romans.[The passage from the phrase ‘On Educating Children’ until the end of this sentence is not in the German edition of the .] And he wrote many other things.[Plutarch, the celebrated Greek biographer and philosopher, was born at Chaeronea in Boeotia. The year of his birth is unknown. He was studying philosophy when Nero was making his tour of Greece in 66 CE, from which we may assume he was a young man. He spent some time in Rome and other parts of Italy. He did not concern himself with Roman literature until later in life. He lectured at Rome in the reign of Domitian, discharged various magisterial offices, and held a priesthood. He is immortalized by his , a series of biographies that pair a famous Greek and Roman individual (e.g., Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar), and which had a profound influence on later writers (e.g., Shakespeare) and thinkers. But he also wrote on an incredibly wide array of topics, collected under the title .]

Hegesippus (Egisippus), the pious and highly learned man, (as Eusebius states) flourished at this time, and among other things wrote a history of the church from the time of the suffering of Christ Jesus to this time, setting down thoughts which he himself followed in his lifetime.[Hegesippus, according to Eusebius ( 4.8), "holds a distinguished rank" among the champions against heresy. "This author compiled, in five books, the plain tradition of the apostolic doctrine, in a most simple style of composition."]

Dion, philosopher, and a native of Prusa (Prusie), flourished at this time and wrote much about the empire.[Dion Chrysostomus was born at Prusa in Bithynia, about the middle of the first century of our era. He received a careful education, increased his knowledge by travel, and came to Rome in the reign of Vespasian; but having incurred the suspicions of Domitian, was obliged to leave the city. On the advice of the Delphic oracle, he put on beggar’s dress, and so visited Thrace, Mysia, Scythia, and the country of the Getae. After the death of Domitian he used his influence with the army on the frontier in favor of his friend Nerva, and seems to have returned to Rome immediately after his accession. Trajan also entertained the highest esteem for him, and showed him marked favor. Dion died at Rome in 117 CE, the most eminent of Greek rhetoricians and sophists in the time of the Roman Empire. Eighty of his orations are extant, but they are more like essays on political, moral, and philosophical subjects. All are written in pure Attic Greek, and refined and elegant in style.]

Basilides (Basilidas), a certain heretic, and a very smart man, concluded his life at this time. He wrote twenty three books on the gospels, and left these behind. But Agrippa, at this time the most learned among the Christians, by means of his learning, vanquished and nullified the books of the same heretic, and to his terror caused him to be laughed at by others.[According to Eusebius, Basilides was an arch-heretic, whose writings were refuted by the learning of others, including that of Agrippa Castor, one of the most distinguished writers of that day. According to Agrippa, Basilides wrote 24 books on the gospels, in which he used certain barbarous names in order to astonish those the more who are easily ensnared by such things; that like Pythagoras, he enjoined a five years’ silence upon his followers; that he also taught that it "was indifferent for those that tasted of things sacrificed to idols, and were betrayed unwarily to abjure the faith in times of persecution." (Eusebius, 4.7)]

    All these were martyred under Domitian:
  • Enodius, martyr
  • Sileas, suffered martyrdom in Macedonia
  • Julian, bishop of Le Mans (Cenomanensis)
  • Paul, bishop
  • Saturnine (Saturninus), bishop of Toulouse
  • Aristarchus (Aristarcus), martyr
  • Maron, martyr
  • Marcialis, bishop of (Etandensis?)
  • Eutropius, bishop of Aquitaine
  • Gregory (Gregorius), warrior bishop
  • Eutyches (Eutices), etc.

    The following were illustrious under Trajan:
  • Herenius, bishop of Lyons
  • Jovinus, priest and martyr, disciple of St. Dionysius
  • Caranus (Carannus) of Chartres, martyr
  • Lucianus of Beauvais, disciple of the blessed Peter
  • Eutropius, bishop, and Euphrosyne (Eufrosina)
  • Eugeus of Toulouse
  • Sulpicius
  • Santinus, bishop of Meaux, disciple of Dionysius
  • Thaurinus, bishop of York
  • Theodora
  • Saint Servilianus
  • Sagericus, bishop of Cambrai, disciple of Dionysius


Year of the World 5313

Year of Christ 114

Alexander the pope was by birth a Roman. He was young in years, but mature in manners. He was successor to Pope Evaristus and in office to the time of Emperor Hadrian (Adrianus). By his skill and piety he converted many nobles to the faith, and made various laws for the conduct of the church: Firstly, that no one, under pain of excommunication, should obstruct a papal legate. Likewise, he ordered that no cleric should be accused before a temporal judge, and that only one mass is to be celebrated on a single day, and by one person. So also the wafers should be made not of leavened but of unleavened (dough). And that holy water should be kept in the churches and in the bedchambers to drive away the devil. Now, having performed countless miracles, and among these cured Balbina, daughter of Quirinus, the Roman, and baptized the same tribune with all his household, and having held three consecrations in December, he, together with Eventius and Theodorus, the deacons, was martyred on the third day of the month of May. He sat (in office) ten years seven months and two days; and the chair was vacant 25 days.[Alexander I was bishop (pope) of Rome from 106 to 115. He has been identified, without any foundation, with Alexander, a martyr of the Via Nomentana, whose feast day is May 3rd.]

Year of the World 5323

Year of Christ 124

Sixtus the pope was a native Roman. He ordained that the holy vessels and objects belonging to the holy office were not to be touched by anyone other than the person performing such office, and particularly not by any woman. And so the "corporal" should be made of nothing but linen and purest cloth. He also ordered that in the office of the mass the Sanctus should be sung. In these times, because of many slayings, few could be found who dared to acknowledge Christ, and when the Christians of Gaul desired a leader, Sixtus sent Peregrinus, a Roman citizen, there. But after these same Gauls had been confirmed in the faith, and Peregrinus returned to Rome, he was slain. Sixtus, after performing three consecrations in the month of December, was crowned with martyrdom and buried in the Vatican beside St. Peter. He sat ten years, three months and 21 days; and the papal chair was then vacant but two days.[Sixtus I was the sixth bishop (pope) of Rome (c. 116-125) and took his name on that account.]

Year of the World 5333

Year of Christ 134

Telesphorus (Thelesphorus), a native of Greece, lived in the time of Antoninus Pius the emperor. He was a man of exceptional learning and virtue. He ordained that the fast (Lent) should be kept for seven weeks before Easter, and that on the eve of the celebration of the Birth of Christ Jesus Christ, three masses should be said at night; and before the blessing of the Host, the Gloria in Excelsis should be sung. And having performed four consecrations in the month of December, and ordained fifteen priests, eight deacons, and thirteen bishops, he suffered martyrdom and was buried beside the body of St. Peter. He sat eleven years, three months and 22 days; and the chair was vacant for seven days.[Telesphorus, bishop (i.e., pope) of Rome, from about 126 till about 137, according to Irenaeus, suffered martyrdom.]

Year of the World 5343

Year of Christ 144

Hyginus (Higinus) the pope, a Greek from Athens, successor to Pope Telesphorus in the time of Emperor Antoninus Pius, wisely established order among the clergy, classifying them according to rank. Churches were not to be consecrated without the office of the mass; nor was their number to be increased or decreased without the consent of the bishop or archbishop. He also decreed that a godfather and godmother be present at the baptism or confirmation. This was a highly learned man, and he wrote an excellent epistle upon the unity and trinity of God, to be read by all Christian believers. And after he had performed three consecrations in the month of December, he died and was buried beside the body of St. Peter. After he had sat for four years three months and four days, the chair rested for four days.[Hyginus (c. 140) was the eighth pope. It was during his pontificate (c. 137-140) that the Gnostic heresies began to appear in Rome.]

Year of the World 5353

Year of Christ 154

Pius the pope, an Italian of Aquileia, lived in the time of M. Antoninus Verus the emperor, and in common with Hermas (Hermete) wrote a book entitled the Shepherd, in which an angel in the likeness of a shepherd bade him to advise all people to celebrate Easter on Sunday; and this he did. He likewise ordered that certain heretics of the Jewish faith should not be baptized. At the instance of the pious woman Praxedis, and in honor of her sister Pudenciana, at Rome, he performed consecrations in the street called Patricius, and granted pardons, receiving gifts, and often saying mass there. And there also he established a baptismal font. And for the priests’ neglectful handling of the blood and body of Christ[The ‘blood and body of Christ’ were the wine and wafer used in the sacrament of communion.] he imposed the penance, that wherever it might fall, there they were to lick it up. After having, in the exercise of great virtue, on five occasions, consecrated nineteen priests, twenty-nine deacons and ten bishops, he died a martyr to Christ, and was buried with his ancestors. He sat eleven years, four months and three days; and the chair rested for thirteen days.[Pius I, pope from about 142 to 154, was the brother of Hermas, author of . Hermas, a disciple of the Apostle Paul, and one of the apostolic fathers, is supposed to be the same person as the Hermas who is mentioned in Paul’s Epistle to the Romans (16:14). He wrote a Greek work entitled , of which a Latin translation is still extant. Its object is to instruct persons in the duties of Christian life.]


Hadrian (Adrianus), surnamed Aelius (Helius), the son of the first cousin of Trajan, fifteenth Roman emperor, of the ancient Picentian ancestry, was born at Rome of his mother Domitia Paulina. He lost his father at ten years of age, and Trajan and Caelius (Celium) were his guardians. He was so accomplished in Greek learning that some called him Graeculus, that is, the little Greek. At the age of fifteen he returned to his native city and entered the military. After that Trajan took him from his home and adopted him as his son. After he received the empire, he was counted among the best of emperors, and rightfully so. At first he was opposed to the Christians, but finally, after learning of their piety and kindness toward him, he became their particular benefactor. He was so well regarded by the Romans that he was deservedly called the father of his country; for he was liberal, brilliant, mild, learned in the Greek and Latin tongues, and well informed in the arts of music and medicine. At the request of the Athenians he made laws for them in the manner of Dracon and Solon, and gave them a remarkable library. At Rome he erected a bridge bearing his name, and in the Vatican, by the Tiber, he built a tomb, now called the Castel Sant’Angelo; and he also built many other wonderful structures. Foremost of all, he enlarged and improved the city of Jerusalem, in Judea, which was destroyed by Titus, with battlements and buildings so that within its walls he enclosed the place of Jesus Christ’s suffering. He called the city Aelia (Helyam), after himself, and decreed that none but Christians were to enter it, and that no Jew was to come into it nor to be given any power there. And finally, burdened with serious illness, he adopted Antoninus Pius. He died in the twenty-second year of his reign, at the age of 72. In person he was an erect man, of handsome stature, and with a long beard.[P. Aelius Hadrianus, usually called Hadrian, Roman emperor (117-138 CE), was born at Rome in 76 CE. He lost his father at the age of ten, and was brought up by his kinsman Ulpius Trajanus (afterwards emperor) and Caelius Attianus. From an early age he studied with zeal the Greek language and literature. At fifteen he went to Spain, where he entered upon his military career; and he subsequently served as military tribune in Lower Moesia. After Trajan became emperor, Hadrian married Julia Sabina, granddaughter of Trajan’s sister Marciana. This marriage was brought about through the influence of Plotina, the wife of Trajan; and from this time Hadrian rose rapidly in the emperor’s favor. He accompanied Trajan in most of his expeditions, and distinguished himself in the second war against the Dacians, was made governor of Pannonia, and subsequently fought under Trajan against the Parthians. When serious illness obliged Trajan to leave the East, he placed Hadrian at the head of the army. Trajan died at Cilicia on his journey to Rome, and Hadrian, pretending to have been adopted by Trajan, was proclaimed emperor by the legions in Syria, and the senate confirmed the election. Returning to Rome, he sought to gain the good will of the senate by gladiatorial exhibitions and liberal largesses, and also canceled all arrears of taxes due the state for the last fifteen years. The remainder of his reign was disturbed by few wars, and he spent the greater part of it in traveling through the various provinces of the empires. He visited Gaul, Germany, Britain, Spain, Africa, and the East, and took up residence at Athens for three years. Athens was his favorite city, and he conferred many privileges on its inhabitants. The most important war during his reign was that against the Jews, which broke out in 131. The Jews revolted in consequence of his establishment of a colony under the name of Aelia Capitolina on the side of Jerusalem, and of their having been forbidden to practice the rite of circumcision. The war was not brought to an end until 136, after the country had been nearly reduced to a wilderness. During the last few years of his life Hadrian’s health failed, and he became suspicious and cruel, putting to death several persons of distinction. Having no children, he adopted L. Aelius Verus and gave him the title of Caesar in 136; but Verus died January 1, 138, whereupon Hadrian adopted Antonius, later surnamed Pius, and conferred the title on him. In July 138 Hadrian died in his 62nd year, and was succeeded by Antoninus. Hadrian’s reign was regarded as one of the happiest in Roman history. His policy was to preserve peace with foreign nations, not to extend his empire, but to secure the old provinces and promote their welfare. He paid particular attention to the administration of justice in the provinces, as well as in Italy. But what has rendered his name more illustrious than anything else are his numerous and magnificent architectural works. His mausoleum at Rome forms the groundwork of the present castle of St. Angelo (Castel Sant’Angelo). He was a patron of learning and literature, as well as of the arts. He was himself an author, and wrote numerous works in prose and in verse, all of which are lost except a few epigrams in the Greek and Latin Anthologies.]

Antoninus Pius, the sixteenth Roman emperor, received the empire, together with his sons Aurelius and Lucius. He was the adopted son of Hadrian, and the husband of his daughter. On his father’s side his origin was of Gaul. He ruled with such discretion and kindness that he was deservedly called the Pious and the father of his country. He was never bitter or harsh toward any person in particular, nor against people in general, and it is stated that he often said that he would rather preserve one citizen than slay a thousand enemies. He was such a just man that many kings and peoples laid down their arms at his request, and submitted their quarrels and wars to him for decisions, and followed his judgment and decision. He was a tall, handsome person, and when by reason of his tallness and age he became bent, tablets of linden wood were laid upon his chest so that he walked upright. Because of his goodness, mildness, good sense and virtue, the Roman senate pronounced him divine. At his own expense and by loans he kindly helped the Roman citizens to restore public and private buildings that the inundation of the Tiber had damaged. At last he died, as if in sleep, at the age of seventy years, at the end of a reign of twenty-two years and three months.[Antonius Pius, Roman emperor (138-161 CE), whose full name in the early part of his life was Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus. His paternal ancestors came from Gaul; but he himself was born at Lanuvium, September 19, 86 CE. From an early age he gave promise of his future worth. In 120 he was consul, and subsequently proconsul of the province of Asia. On his return to Rome he lived on terms of greatest intimacy with Hadrian, who adopted him in 138. Henceforth he bore the name of T. Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Caesar, and on Hadrian’s death ascended the throne. The senate conferred upon him the title of Pius (‘the dutifully affectionate’), because he persuaded them to grant to his father Hadrian the apotheosis and the other honors usually paid to deceased emperors, which they had at first refused to bestow upon Hadrian. The reign of Antoninus is almost a blank in history—a blank caused by the suspension for a time of war, violence, and crime. He may have been one of the best princes that ever ruled, and all his thoughts and energies were dedicated to the happiness of his people. No attempt was made to achieve new conquests, and various insurrections were easily quelled by his legates. His private life was beyond reproach. He was faithful to his faithless wife Faustina. He died at Lorium, March 7th, 161, at the age of 75 years. He was succeeded by M. Aurelius, whom he adopted when he himself was adopted by Hadrian, and to whom he gave his daughter, Faustina, in marriage.]

Marcus Antoninus, surnamed Verus, a philosopher, was born at Rome, and reared there in the house of his ancestors. And although he was called to the high office of emperor, he went to the house of Apollonius the teacher to hear the teaching of Sextus the grandson of Plutarch. He was reared in the bosom of Hadrian, and was called Verissimus, that is, the most truthful. Afterwards, together with his brother Lucius Aurelius Commodus, he ruled the empire well for 19 years. Together they conducted the war against the Parthians with great vigor and success, and triumphed over the enemy. But soon afterwards Commodus died of a stroke and Antoninus ruled the empire alone. And although from youth fortune smiled upon him, yet good nature and learning fought within him and he was by many called a philosopher. Yet his art did not interfere with military affairs, for with great vigor and good fortune he, together with his son Antoninus Commodus, defeated and triumphed over the German Marcomanni, Squadi(?) and Sarmatians. When he was about to go to this war, but had nothing with which to pay the soldiers, he sold all his royal household goods and his wife’s jewelry in Trajan’s Forum. But after he returned, having defeated the enemy, he returned the money to the purchasers. Yet those who would not return their purchases were not compelled to do so. After his victories, he was generous to all for the common good. And so he released a number of countries from tribute, and moderated severe laws by the passage of new ones. For those reasons he caused himself to be loved by the people, so that he attained the name of "The Pious;" and he had no counterpart at home. Finally he died at the age of sixty-one in the 18th year of his reign.[M. Aurelius Antoninus, Roman emperor (161-180 CE), commonly called "the philosopher," was born at Rome April 20, 121 CE. He was adopted by Antoninus Pius immediately after the latter had been himself adopted by Hadrian, received the title of Caesar, and married Faustina, the daughter of Pius. On the death of the latter he succeeded to the throne, but he admitted to an equal share in the sovereign power with L. Ceionius Commodus, who had been adopted by Pius at the same time as Marcus himself. The two emperors from that point on bore respectively the names M. Aurelius Antoninus and L. Aurelius Verus. Soon after their accession Verus was dispatched to the East, and for four years carried on a successful war against the king of Parthia. Meanwhile Italy was threatened by tribes on its northern frontier. Both emperors set out to encounter the foe, and the contest was continued with varying success during the whole life of M. Aurelius, whose headquarters were generally at Pannonia. After the death of Verus, Aurelius prosecuted the war against the Marcomanni with great success. The Marcomanni and other northern tribes concluded a peace with Aurelius in 175. Aurelius returned to Rome at the end of 176; but in 178 he set out again for Germany, where the tribes had renewed the war. He gained several victories, but died in the middle of the war, March 17, 180, at the age of 59 and the 20th year of his reign. The leading feature in his character was his devotion to philosophy and literature. We possess a work by M. Aurelius entitled , in which he registered his thoughts and feelings on moral and religious topics.]


The fourth persecution of the Church occurred in the time of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius, and many were crowned with martyrdom. But after this persecution suddenly came lamentations and death, which devastated many lands far and wide, chiefly Italy, which was so depopulated that some villages and fields were left without inhabitants or homes. Nor was there a respite in arms, and wars swept over the East, Illyricum (i.e., Greece), Italy and Gaul. There were also earthquakes, sinking of cities, floods, and damage done by locusts in the fields.

Sophia, the noble woman, came to Rome with her three daughters, Faith, Hope and Charity, and by the example of their sanctity and sobriety converted many noble women to Christ. When this became known to Hadrian (Adriano) the emperor, he caused them to be brought before him. They were very beautiful and learned in the Holy Scriptures. After lengthy controversy, she ended her life in martyrdom through various tortures. And when the mother afterwards buried her daughters seventeen miles outside the city, she said in anguish, My daughters, take me to you; and immediately she rested in peace as if fallen asleep.

Seraphia, a virgin of Antioch, suffered at Rome at this time for the sake of Christ. She was taken to a dark place to be dishonored by two lascivious men; but was not molested by them. After that she was tortured with fire, and upon the order of the judge she was beaten with cudgels, and finally slain with a sword. Sabina, whom she converted, caused her to be buried on the 29th day of the month of July.[Seraphia was the Greek slave of Sabina, whom she converted. They were beheaded together, and died encouraging each other (June 2nd).]

Sabina, a very famous woman, former wife of the celebrated Valentinus, and the twelfth daughter of Herodis Metalla, was educated in the faith of Jesus Christ by the aforementioned Seraphia, and practiced works of mercy. She was executed by the sword, at Rome, because she would not sacrifice to the gods. Sabina, who had converted her, had her placed in her (i.e., Sabina’s) own tomb on the fourth of the Kalends of August.[Sabina was a noble Roman matron who suffered martyrdom in the time of the Emperor Hadrian (August 29, second century). The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the .]

Quadratus, a bishop at Athens, and a disciple of the apostles and a highly learned man, again assembled the churches, which in those violent times had been dismembered through great fear. And for the protection of the Christian status, he wrote a book of faith and understanding, filled with apostolic teachings. Finally he also suffered martyrdom on the 26th day of the month of May.

Quadratus, one of the Apostolic Fathers, and an early apologist for the Christian religion, passed the early part of his life in Asia Minor. He presented his Apology to Hadrian in the 10th year of his reign (126 CE). This Apology has been long lost. Of him Eusebius writes (Ecclesiastical History 4.3; Bohn, p. 118): "But Trajan having held the sovereignty for twenty years, less six months, is succeeded in the imperial office by Aelius Hadrian. To him, Quadratus addressed a discourse as an apology for the religion that we profess, because certain malicious persons attempted to harass our brethren. The work is still in the hands of some of the brethren, as also in our own, from which anyone may see evident proof, both of the under standing of the man and of his apostolic faith.

"This writer shows the antiquity of the age in which he lived, in these passages: ‘The deeds of our Savior were always before you, for they were true miracles, those that were healed, those that were raised from the dead, who were seen, not only when healed and when raised, but were always present. They remained living a long time, not only while our Lord was on earth, but likewise when he had left the earth. So that some of them have also lived to our times.’ Such was Quadratus."

Quirinus, first a tribune, and then a bishop, was at this time martyred in Illyricum, that is, Slavonia, in the city of Siscia on the 4th day of the month of June. A millstone was tied to his hand, and so he was drowned. Zeno, a Roman senator, together with ten thousand and two hundred brethren, was slain in this tumult on Christ’s account.[Quirinus, the Tribune, after having been converted and baptized, was condemned to have his tongue, hands and feet cut off. He was then drawn by oxen to the place of final execution and beheaded. The tale is legendary.]

Achatius Primicerius was, together with ten thousand people, martyred on Mount Ararat, in Armenia, by Hadrian (Adriano) the emperor. Then, converted by the angels, they obtained victory against the enemy. When Hadrian and Antoninus learned that they had become Christians, they cried, and ordered them to be scourged; and after that they caused three-pointed spikes to be strewn on the ground for a distance of twenty stadia,[The stadium was a Greek measure of distance, approximately 600 feet, which was the distance between the terminal pillars of the stadium at Olympia; afterwards adopted by the Romans for nautical and astronomical purposes mainly. It was equal to 125 Roman paces, or 625 Roman feet; 8 stadia making a Roman mile.] for the pious ones to walk upon with their bare feet; but the angel of God went before them and gathered up the spikes, so that they would not be injured. Afterwards, in emulation of Christ, they suffered martyrdom, and their souls were taken up to heaven.

The story of the Ten Thousand Martyrs is purely legendary, and as Baring-Gould observes, it will be difficult to discover a minute particle of fact in it after we have washed out the fable. The story is to the effect that in the reign of the emperors Hadrian and his adopted son Antoninus, the Gadarenes and people of the Euphrates revolted; at which event the two emperors marched at the head of 9,000 men against the insurgents. This war is all pure fiction. The tale continues that when the emperors discovered that the rebels outnumbered them by a thousand men, they ran away with seven. But the nine thousand, of whom Achatius and others were officers, where suddenly converted to Christianity by an angel, and as Christians they rushed upon the enemy with a shout and put them to flight. The rebels fell into the lake and down precipices, and not one survived. But it was necessary that Achatius and his companions receive further instruction; so the angel carried off the nine thousand to the top of Mount Ararat, and seating himself on the perennial snow, began to instruct them; and seven more blessed spirits descended from heaven to aid in the necessary Christian instruction.

The emperors sent out scouts to ascertain what had become of those soldiers who had not run away with them. The scouts saw nine thousand black specks on the snow of Mount Ararat; and the nine thousand newly converted Christians came down to meet them and defied the emperors, who, after calling allies to their assistance, set off with 5,000,000 men to destroy completely the Christians. Messengers were dispatched to the Christians. They descended, and were conducted before Hadrian and Antoninus, who urged them to return to their allegiance; but they refused. For this reason the emperor ordered them stoned, but the stones, instead of hurting the Christians, bounded back and struck the servants of the emperors on the head. This sight so astonished the soldiers that a thousand were converted and joined the Christian band, making up the number of 10,000. Then the emperors ordered them crucified on the top of the mountain. The bodies of the martyrs were taken down and buried by angels, each in a separate grave. The church did not recognize these martyrs till Baronius drew up the modern Roman Martyrology in the 16th century.

Papias, a bishop of Jerusalem (Hierosolimitanus[The chronicler or his source mistakenly describes Papias as bishop of Jerusalem. He was, in fact, a bishop of Hierapolis (whose spelling is, at least in the first four letters, the same of Jerusalem in Latin).]), and a disciple of John the Apostle, was so highly learned that because of his art and learning, many learned men imitated him in their poetry; such as Irenaeus (Hereneus), Apollinaris, Tertullian (Tertullianus), Victorinus of Pettau (Pictaviensis), Lactantius Firmianus, and the aforesaid Quadratus.[Papias was an early Christian writer, said to have been a disciple of the Apostle John, and a companion of Polycarp. He was bishop of Hierapolis, on the border of Phrygia. He taught the doctrine of the Millennium, maintaining that there will be for a thousand years after the resurrection of the dead,a bodily reign of Christ on this earth. Only fragments of his works are extant.]

Aristides, an Athenian philosopher, and formerly a disciple of Christ, sent a book, containing our teachings, to the Emperor Hadrian, as Quadratus had done. By reason of this book Hadrian was influenced to regard the slaying of the Christians as unjust; and for that reason he wrote Minutius Fundanus, the proconsul of Asia, to put to death only in case there is an accused and the offense is apparent and known.[Aristides, the apologist, is spoken of by Eusebius as follows: "Aristides, a man also faithfully devoted to the religion which we profess, like Quadratus, has left to posterity a defense of the faith, addressed to Hadrian. This work is also preserved by a great number, even to this day." ( 4.3; Bohn, p. 118)]


Secundus, an Athenian philosopher, was held in honor at this time. He led a Pythagorean life, being always silent. The reason of his silence was this: Once upon a time he indecently proposed intercourse to his own mother, and not knowing him to be her own son, she consented. When she learned that he was her own son, she died of shame. When Secundus noted this, he set himself a penance, never to talk to anyone again. When information of this reached the emperor Hadrian, then at Athens, he summoned Secundus; but as he could not move him with greetings, admonitions and threats, and could not induce him to forego his resolution of silence, yet wished him to answer his questions, he requested him to answer them manually. Therefore he asked him, What is God? And in answer Secundus wrote: God is an immortal being, of a stature beyond our ability to comprehend, of many forms, a manifold spirit, an unconceivable omniscience, an unexpressible light, and the highest good. There were also many other problems proposed by Hadrian to the philospher.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Tiburtina, a city of the Latin district, to this day still called ancient Tibur, was at this time (as Aelius (Helius) Spartianus the historian states) built up on a wonderful scale through the Emperor Hadrian, rising from a village to a city. It lies 16,000 paces from Rome on the River Anio, in a low, uneven region. This city, as Strabo and Virgil would have it, had a Greek origin and aspect, long before Rome came into being. Some say its original founder was Tiburtus, brother of Corax and Catillus; for these same brothers were Thebans, who after the dispersion of the Thebans were born to their father in Italy. And afterwards they built the city in their name. Of this there is evidence in the nearby mountain, to this day called Catillus. And so the second brother Corax built another city among the Volsci. This city of Tiburtina was at one time a noble one. The ruins of great and mighty buildings still to be seen in the vicinity of this ancient city testify to its existence and past renown. In the same region is quarried the strong Tiburtine stone, so useful in the building and preservation of the city of Rome. The Emperor Frederick, surnamed Barbarossa, restored this city after it was destroyed by the Germans (Theotonicis). And so, afterwards, many popes and cardinals enlarged this same city and rendered it illustrious with many structures. From this city, the Roman Pope Simplicius and other men highly renowned for their ability and worthiness had their origin.[Tibur (Tiburtinus, now Tivoli) here called Tiburtina, was one of the most ancient cities of Latium, and located sixteen miles northeast of Rome on the slope of a hill on the left bank of the Anio, which here forms a magnificent waterfall. It is said to have been originally built by the Siculi, and to have afterward passed into the possession of the Aborigines and Pelasgi. According to tradition it derived its name from Tiburtus, a son of Catillus, who emigrated from Greece with Evander. It was afterward one of the chief towns of the Latin league, and became subject to Rome with the other Latin cities in 338 BCE. Under the Romans Tibur continued to be a large and flourishing town, since the beautiful scenery of the place led many of the most distinguished Roman nobles to build magnificent villas there, among the most splendid, that of Hadrian.]


Galen (Galienus), a very learned physician, was by birth a Greek of the city of Pergamum, situated in Asia. He was a big man, had large and broad shoulders, and brown skin. He took pleasure in music and in alchemy. He was born of a wealthy and tender father, rich in knowledge of the sciences of astronomy, mathematics and the like. Through Talius, his master in medicine, he became wonderfully wise and informed. He traveled about the world to gain knowledge. He ate little for breakfast and was satisfied with bread and figs. In the evening he ate a copious meal. From youth he had an inclination to medicine, and at the age of nineteen he disputed with the disciples of Athens on the subject of medicine. He flourished in the time of the Emperor Antoninus Pius. He never came to grief or shame for a lack of medical knowledge and never erred in his prognosis. Constantinus says he wrote 150 books. He lived to the age of 87, and as some say, died at sea while on a voyage to investigate the miracles once performed by Christ. And Mundinus says: This Galen should deservedly be called the prince of physicians, for he is believed to have excelled all except Hippocrates, whose writings he interpreted with great understanding.[Claudius Galenus (the chronicler writes his name as Galienus), commonly called Galen, was a very celebrated physician whose works had a longer and more extensive influence on the different branches of medical science than those of any other individual either in ancient or modern times. He was born at Pergamum in 130 CE. His father, Nicon, who was an architect and geometrician, carefully superintended his education. In his 17th year, his father, who had up to this point in time destined him to be a philosopher, altered his intentions, and in consequence of a dream, chose for him the profession of medicine. He at first studied medicine in his native city. At 20 he lost his father, and went to Smyrna to study under Pelops, the physician, and Albinus, the Platonic philosopher. He afterward studied at Corinth and Alexandria, and was appointed physician to the school of gladiators, an office he filled with success. In 164 he went to Rome for the first time, and during a stay of four years, gained a great reputation in anatomy and medicine. He returned to Pergamum in 168, but was soon summoned by the Emperors M. Aurelius and L. Verus to attend them at Aquileia in Venetia. In 170 Galen followed Aurelius to Rome, where he stayed for some years, lecturing, writing, and practicing with great success. He died in the year 200 at the age of seventy, some say; but others claim that he lived several years longer. He wrote a great number of works on medicine and philosophy, attaching himself to no particular sect. From the tenets of each he selected what he believed to be the best.]

Justin (Justinus), a philosopher, of the city of Naples (Neapoli), at this time devoted much care and labor to the Christian faith. He gave Antoninus Pius and his sons a book written against the pagans. And he wrote a dialogue against Tryphon (Triphonem), prince of the Jews. And so he was also against Marcion, the heretic, who followed the teachings of the heretic Cerdon, who said: That the one Lord was good, and that the other was just, as though there were two contraries in the creation and in goodness. By his speech he also chastised Crescens, the cynic, as a glutton; but through the latter’s secret cunning he was so circumvented that his blood was spilled in honor of the name of Christ.

Justin, surnamed Martyr, was one of the earliest Christian writers. He was born in 103 CE, at Flavia Napolis, the Shechem of the Old Testament, a city in Samaria. In his youth he studied Greek philosophy with zeal. He was afterward converted to Christianity. As a Christian he retained the garb of a philosopher, but devoted himself to the propogation, by writing and otherwise, of the faith that he had embraced. He was put to death at Rome about 165 in the persecution under M. Antoninus. Justin wrote a large number of works in Greek, the most important being An Apology for the Christians, addressed to M. Aurelius and L. Verus; a dialogue with Tryphon the Jew, in which he defends the Christians.

Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 4.11; Bohn, p. 126) states: "A certain man, however, by name Cerdon, who derived his first impulse from the followers of Simon, and who made some stay at Rome etc., taught that the God who had been proclaimed by the law and the prophets, was not the Father of Jesus Christ, for the latter was revealed, the other was unknown; the former also was just, but the other was good. Marcion, who was from Pontus, having succeeded Cerdon, augmented his school by uttering his blasphemies without a blush."

At page 143 of the same reference Eusebius further states: "This Justin has left us many monuments of a mind well stored with learning, and devoted to sacred things . . . There is a discourse of his, addressed to Antonine, surnamed the Pious, and his sons and the Roman senate, in defense of our doctrines. Another work, comprising a defense of our faith, which he addressed to the emperor, Antoninus Verus, successor of the preceding. Also, another book against the Greeks, in which, dilating upon most of the questions agitated between us and the Greek philosophers, he also discusses the nature of demons. In this he states with respect to the Jews how insidiously they plotted against the doctrine of Christ, and addresses the following works to Tryphon: ‘But you do not only continue impenitent for your evil deeds, but selecting chosen men, you sent them from Jerusalem to all the world, declaring that the infidel sect of Christians had made its appearance, and uttering all those falsehoods against us which those that knew us not are accustomed to repeat.’"

Aquila, a Jew, and a native of the Pontus, together with Priscilla his wife were banished by the order of the Emperor Claudius, and (as some say) lived up to this time; and he was the second translator of the Laws of Moses, after the Seventy translators. He translated the books of the Old Testament from the Hebrew into the Greek tongue. He wrote to a little virgin what the prophets had said of the Virgin Mary.[Aquila, of Pontus, translated the Old Testament into Greek, probably 130 CE. Only a few fragments remain, published in editions of the of Origen.]

Cerdo, the heretic, from whom the Cerdonian heresy derived its name, at this time undertook to prophesy nonsense. He said: There are two contrary origins.[The Cerdonians were a Gnostic sect founded by Cerdo, a Syrian, who came to Rome about 137, but concerning whose history little is known. Most of what the Fathers narrate of Cerdo’s tenets has probably been transferred to him from his famous pupil Marcion (e.g., both of whom are said to have rejected the Old Testament and the New, except part of Luke’s Gospel and of Paul’s Epistles).]

Marcion, another heretic and Cerdo’s disciple, was a Stoic philosopher, and, together with his master, also spoke nonsense. He said that God, the Creator of the World, is not the Father of Christ. At one time Marcion went to Rome to contend with Polycarp; and he asked him whether he knew him. And Polycarp said to him, Yes, I know the firstborn of the devil.

Among the Christian organizations of the second century the most important, next to the proto-orthodox (who would go on to form the version of Christianity that would later split into Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), was the Marcionite community. It admitted all believers without distinction, seeking to lay the foundation of the Christian community on the pure and authentic gospel of Christ. Marcion found the gospel to be more or less corrupted and mutilated in the Christian circles of his time, and his undertaking resolved itself into a reformation of Christendom, which he sought to deliver from false Jewish doctrines by restoring the Pauline conception of the gospel – Paul being, according to Marcion, the only apostle who had rightly understood the new message of salvation delivered by Christ. It is a mistake to reckon Marcion among the Gnostics, for he ascribed salvation not to "knowledge" but to "faith."

Marcion was a wealthy ship-owner of Sinope in the Pontus, and a convert from Paganism to Christianity. About 140 CE he arrived in Rome as a Christian, and made himself known to the local church. Even then, however, the leading features of his peculiar system must have been already thought out. He tried to obtain acceptance for them, but encountered so much opposition that he was compelled to establish in Rome a community of his own. The new society increased in the two following decades. The earliest inscription (318 CE) on a Christian place of worship is Marcionite, and was found on a stone that had stood over the doorway of a house in a Syrian village. Many of the Marcionites went over to Manichaeism, and the sect seems to have vanished in the seventh century.

Valentinus (Valentinianus), another heretic, from whom the Valentinian heresy derived its name, also gained ascendancy at this time. They said that Christ derived nothing from the body of the Virgin, but came out of her pure, as through a pipe or reed.

Valentinus, the most prominent leader of the Gnostic movement, is said to have been born near the coast in Lower Egypt, and was brought up and educated in Alexandria. He came to Rome (c. 135-160) during the episcopate of Hyginus, flourished under Pius, and stayed till the time of Anicetus. During his stay in Rome he is said to have converted a few adherents of the Valentinian sect. Tertullian declared that Valentinus came to Rome as an adherent of the orthodox Church, and was a candidate for the bishopric of Rome, but abandoned the Church because a confessor was preferred to him for this office. The statement is questioned. Great uncertainty also attaches to his residence in Cyprus, where he is said to have definitely accomplished his secession from the Church. But it seems clear that Valentinus did not, like Marcion, break with the Church from the very beginning, but endeavored to maintain his standing within it.

The Gnostics held that God in himself is unknowable and unapproachable, but that all existences, material and spiritual, are derived from the Deity by successive emanations, or eons. Gnosticism borrowed certain elements from the current Persian philosophy, but more from the Greek doctrines connected with the Neo-Platonic ideas of Logos and Nous. Christ was merely a superior eon. Among the principal systems are those of Basilides (125-140), Valentinus (140-160), the Ophites, Carpocrates and Epiphanes, Saturninus, Cerdo, Marcion (150), and Bardesanes (154-222). Gnosticism aimed at a different way of salvation (by knowledge) rather than by the path of faith (and, to a lesser extend, works) prescribed by the New Testament.

Theophilus, a bishop of the church of Antioch, flourished at this time. In the reign of Antoninus he wrote a book against the aforesaid heretic Marcion; and also a book against the heresy of Hermogenis; and three books against Aetholus; and he wrote many other things.[]

Melito, a bishop of the church of Sardis, and a disciple of Frontus the rhetorician, was held in great esteem at this time. He wrote a book of Christian teaching to the emperor Antoninus Marcus. This man’s intelligence was wonderfully praised by Tertullian (as Jerome writes); and he says that among many of our people he was regarded as a prophet, for he wrote many prophetical works.[]

Apollinaris (Appollinaris), bishop of Hierapolis, was held in high honor at this time. He wrote an excellent work for the emperor, M. Antoninus the Second; and he also wrote many things against heretics; also five books against the pagans and there are extant two others On Truth.[Although there are many works of Apollinaris preserved by various authors, those that have reached us are the following: , and . Also two , two also , and those that he afterwards wrote . (Eusebius, 4.27)]


Galen (Galenius), is represented in the dress of a doctor. He is examining a specimen of urine in a bottle—an attitude in which men of medicine were often portrayed in the Middle Ages.


Polycarp (Policarpus), a disciple of John the Apostle, by him consecrated a bishop of Smyrna, and in spiritual matters and learning a prince of all Asia, came to Rome in this year, during the episcopate of Pius; and he brought back to the faith many Christians who had been led away from it by the influence of the two heretics, Marcion and Valentinus. This Polycarp once met the aforesaid heretic, Marcion, and Polycarp called him the first-born of the Devil; for he denied that God the Creator is the father of Christ, etc. This Polycarp was burned and martyred with 12 who came from Philadelphia in the fourth persecution in the reign of M. Antoninus and L. Aurelius Commodus. As he was a very learned and pious man, he sent a very useful epistle to the Philippians. He suffered (martyrdom) on the seventh of the Kalends of February.

Polycarp, one of the apostolic fathers, was a native of Smyrna. The date of his birth and of his martyrdom are uncertain. He is said to have been a disciple of the apostle John, and to have been consecrated by this apostle bishop of the church at Smyrna. It is certain that he was bishop of Smyrna at the time when Ignatius of Antioch passed through that city on his way to suffer death at Rome, some time between 107 and 116. The martyrdom of Polycarp occurred in the persecution under the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. As he was led to death the pro-consul offered him his life if he would revile Christ. "Eighty and six years have I served him," was the reply, "and he never did me wrong; how then can I revile my King and my Saviour?" We have remaining only one short piece of Polycarp, his Letter to the Philippians that is published along with Ignatius and the other apostolic writers.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Praxedes (Praxedis), a very holy virgin, daughter of the most blessed Roman, Pudentis, and sister of the highly renowned virgin, Pudentiana, was highly informed in the Holy Scriptures and lived in this period up to the time of Anicetus the pope. After having spent her paternal inheritance, together with that of her aforesaid sister, to sustain the poor, and having consumed all her life in watchfulness, prayer and fasting, and left all her household, consisting of ninety persons, and having buried the bodies of many martyrs, this blessed virgin also gave up her Spirit to the Lord and received the crown of righteousness on the 21st day of the month of July, on which she is commemorated. And she was buried at Rome beside her sister Pudentiana in the churchyard of Priscilla.[ Praxedes (sometimes spelled, as in the , Praxedis), is a saint of unknown dates. Indeed, much surrounding her is a mystery. ]

Felicitas, a very pious Roman matron, together with her seven sons, namely, Januarius, Felix, Philip, Silanus (Scylano), Alexander, Vitalis and Martial, suffered martyrdom at Rome at this time. This Felicitas, as her name signifies, was in body and soul a very blessed matron, and taught her seven sons to worship God; and so they received the crown of martyrdom; for Januarius, the first born, was beaten with rods and slain with lead; Felix and Philip were killed with cudgels; Silanus was slaughtered and killed by being hurled off a cliff; and Alexander, Vitalus and Martialus were beheaded. And finally this Felicitas, contrary to the manner of matrons, was beheaded with the sword. In these persons a great mirror of our faith is set before our eyes. Their day is celebrated on the 20th day of the month of July.

Felicitas. In the reign of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, there was a great persecution of Christians. They were deemed the cause, if not the authors, of all the earthquakes, which at that time desolated the empire, and an inexorable edict condemned them either to sacrifice or to die. In this persecution Polycarp perished in the East, and Justin in the West.

At the same time there dwelt in Rome an illustrious matron named Felicitas, a widow having seven sons whom she brought up in the Christian faith, devoting herself to a life of virtuous retirement, and employing her days in works of piety and charity. Her influence and example, and the virtuous and modest deportment of her sons, caused many to become Christians, so that the enemies of the faith were greatly enraged against her; and as she was exceedingly rich, those who shared in the spoils of the martyrs were eager to accuse her. She was accordingly cited before the tribunal of Publius, the prefect of the city, who, at first with mildness, and then with threatening words, endeavored in vain to have her deny Christ and sacrifice to the false gods. And the prefect said to her, "If you have no regard for yourself, at least have compassion on your sons, and persuade them to yield to the law." But she replied that her sons would know how to choose between everlasting death and everlasting life. Then the prefect called them all one after another before him, and commanded them to abjure Christ on pain of torments and of death; but their mother encouraged them to persevere in resistance, saying to them, "My sons, be strong in heart, and look up to heaven, where Christ and all his saints await your coming; and defy this tyrant boldly, for so shall the King of glory reward you greatly." On hearing these words the prefect was enraged, and he commanded the executioners to strike her on the mouth and make her silent; but she continued to exhort her sons to die rather than to yield. Then, one after another, they were tortured and put to death before the eyes on their mother: first, the eldest, whose name was Januarius, was scourged with thongs loaded with lead until he died; next to him, Felix and Philip were beaten with clubs; Silanus was flung from a rock; and Alexander, Vitalis, and Martial were decapitated. During their sufferings the mother heroically stood by, never ceasing to comfort and encourage them; and when she beheld them extended in death before her, she lifted up her voice and blessed God that she had brought forth seven sons worthy to be saints in paradise. Her hope was to follow them speedily; but the tyrant, through a refinement of cruelty, caused her life to be prolonged for four months in prison, in order that she might suffer a daily martyrdom of agony, hoping to subdue her spirit through affliction: but she remained firm in her faith, still refusing steadily and meekly to yield, and desiring no other mercy but that of speedily following her martyred children. At length the time of her deliverance arrived, and, being dragged from prison, she was tortured in various ways, and then beheaded; or, as some say, thrown into a caldron of boiling oil.

Ptolemy (Ptolemeus), a native of Alexandria, and a philosopher and famous astronomer, flourished after the time of the Emperor Hadrian (Adriani), and was known at this time. This distinguished man contributed more to astronomy than has been found in earlier writings. As those learned in Latin know, he also wrote many books on various subjects. He lived 88 years. Among his sayings, these are remarkable: He among men who does not concern himself in whose hands the world is, is above the world. And the following: He who is not bettered or chastised by others, through him shall others not be punished. And as you approach nearer to your end, the more should you increase your good works.[Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) a celebrated mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. Of Ptolemy himself we know absolutely nothing but his dates (after 81-161 CE). His writings are as follows: 1. The , divided into 13 books. In treats of the relations of the earth and heaven; the effect of position upon the earth; the theory of the sun and moon, without which that of the stars cannot be undertaken; the sphere of the fixed stars, and those of the five stars called planets. The 7th and 8th books are the most interesting to the modern astronomer as they contain a catalogue of the stars. 2. , or . With this goes another small work, called , often called , from its containing 100 aphorisms. Both of these works are astrological, and it has been doubted by some whether they are genuine. But the doubt merely arises from the feeling that the contents are unworthy of Ptolemy. 3. A catalogue of Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Roman sovereigns, with the length of their reigns, several times referred to by Syncellus. 4. , and annual list of sidereal phaenomena. 5. and 6. and . These works are obtained from the Arabic. The is a collection of graphical processes for facilitating the construction of sundials. The is a description of the stereographic projection in which the eye is at the pole of the circle on which the sphere is projected. 7. . This is a brief statement of the principal hypotheses employed in the for the explanation of the heavenly motions. 8. A treatise on the theory of the musical scale. 9. , a metaphysical work, attributed to Ptolemy. 10. The great geographical work of Ptolemy in 8 books. This work was the last attempt made by the ancients to form a complete geographical system; it was accepted as the text-book of the science; and it maintained that position during the Middle Ages, and until the 15th century, when the rapid progress of maritime discovery caused it to be superseded. It contains, however, very little information respecting the objects of interest connected with the different countries and places; for with the exception of the introductory matter in the first book, and the latter part of the work, it is a mere catalogue of the names of places, with their longitudes and latitudes, and with a few incidental references to objects of interest. The latitudes of Ptolemy are tolerably correct; but his longitudes are very wide of the truth, his length of the known world, from east to west, being much too great. It is worth, however, to remark in passing that the modern world owes much to this error; for it tended to encourage that belief in the practicability of the western passage to the Indies, which occasioned the discovery of America by Columbus.]

Aulus Gellius, a Roman rhetorician and famous grammarian, was renowned at this time. Among other works of his virtue, when in the winter he left Rome and went to Attica, he wrote famous commentaries that he, dividing into twenty books, assigned the title Attic Nights; and about them is written: If anyone should wish to be famous for his knowledge of Greek (Cecropia) and Roman (Latia) poetry (Camena), he should read the recommended writings of Gellus. The Attic night, never about to wasted for the light of day, clearly reveals the road to various arts.

Aulus Gellius, a Latin grammarian of good family, was probably a native of Rome. He studied rhetoric under T. Castricius and Sulpicius Apollinaris, philosophy under Calvisius Taurus and Peregrinus Proteus, and enjoyed also the friendship and instructions of Favorinus, Herodes Atticus, and Cornelius Fronto. While yet a youth he was appointed by the praetor to act as an referee in civil causes. The precise date of his birth and death is unknown; but he must have lived under Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and M. Aurelius (who reigned from 117-189 CE). He wrote a work entitled Noctes Atticae, because it was composed in a country house near Athens during the long nights of winter. It is a sort of miscellany containing numerous extracts from Greek and Roman writers, on a variety of topics connected with history, antiquities, philosophy, and philology, interspersed with original remarks, the whole thrown together in 20 books, without any attempt at order or arrangement. The 8th book is entirely lost with the exception of the index.

The end of this paragraph is taken from a four-verse prefatory epigram found in a 1485 edition of Gellus’ work. With its verse breaks it reads thus:

Cecropia, Latia, and Camena are poeticisms for ‘Greek’, ‘Roman’, and ‘poetry’, respectively

The German edition replaces the four-verse epigram at the end of this paragraph with the following sentence: "he wrote many excellent and creditable books; and they were given the title of Noctes Atticae, etc."

Origin of the Cataphrygian (Cathaphrigarum) Heresy.

At this time, under Montanus, the Cataphrygian heresy, so called, came into being. For this most evil arch heretic, Montanus, a native of Phrygia, called himself the "Spiritual Comforter"["Spiritual Comforter" is my (Hadavas) translation of the word paraclitum (‘Paraclete’), which in Christian theology refers to the Holy Spirit as advocate and counselor who has the power to console and comfort.] in the land of Phrygia. And he misled many people, and poisoned this country and the regions in the vicinity with many errors. And there he converted Prisca and Maximillia, the celebrated matrons, so that they left their husbands, and openly traveled about with him; and at his instigation they called themselves prophetesses. These heretics said that the gift of the Holy Spirit was given to them alone and not to the apostles.[Montanus was a Phrygian or Mysian by birth and was the founder of the sect known as the Montanists, or Cataphrygians. He proclaimed himself inspired by the spirit of God, frequently fell into ecstasies, and prophesied. Priscilla and Maximilla, women of remarkable beauty, became his disciples, and accompanied him in all his journeys; for in the sect of the Montanists women administered the sacraments and preached in the churches. They condemned second marriages, admitted a distinction of food, and had three fasts, which they observed very rigorously. Montanism is a somewhat misleading name for the movement in the second century that, along with Gnosticism, occupied the most critical period in the history of the early Church. It was the overthrow of Gnosticism and Montanism that made the "Catholic" Church. The burden of the new prophecy seems to have been a new standard of moral obligations, especially with regard to marriage, fasting, and martyrdom. But Montanus had larger schemes in view. He wished to organize a special community of true Christians to await the second coming of the Lord. When he proposed to summon all true Christians to the small Phrygian town of Pepuza, there was nothing to prevent his plan except the inertia of Christendom. But this was not the case in the West at the beginning of the third century. At Rome and Carthage, and in all other places where sincere Montanists were found, they were confronted by the imposing edifice of the Catholic Church, and they did not have the institutional power to undermine its foundations.]

Apelles, another heretic, in Greece, said that Christ was not a god in truth, but appeared to the people in their imagination. This Apelles, the highly learned man Theodotion (Theodocion) called a most heretical man, and with his writings he scorned, ridiculed and overthrew this same heretic. Tatian (Tacianus), also named the first Christian heretic; then the Severian heretics proceeded from him; they believed that all sexual intercourse was impure.

According to Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (Vol. 1, p. 223), Apelles,

a disciple of Marcion, departed in some points from the teaching of his master. Instead of wholly rejecting the Old Testament, he looked upon its contents as coming partly from the good principle, partly from the evil principle. Instead of denying entirely the reality of Christ’s human body, he held that in his descent from heaven he assumed to himself an aerial body, which he gave back to the air as he ascended. He denied the resurrection of the body, and considered differences of religious belief as unimportant, since, he said, "all who put their trust in the Crucified One will be saved, if they only prove their faith by good works."

Apelles flourished about 188 CE, and lived to a very great age. Tertullian (Praescript. Haeret. 30) says, that he was expelled from the school of Marcion for fornication with one Philumene, who fancied herself a prophetess, and whose fantasies were recorded by Apelles in his book entitled Fanervseiw. But since Rhodon, who was the personal opponent of Apelles, speaks of him as universally honoured for his course of life (Euseb. H. E. v. 13), we may conclude that the former part of Tertullian’s story is one of those inventions which were so commonly made in order to damage the character of heretics. Besides the Fanervseiw, Apelles wrote a work entitled "Syllogisms," the object of which Eusebius states (l.c.) to have been to prove that the writings of Moses were false. It must have been a very large work, since Ambrose (De Paradis. 5) quotes from the thirty-eighth volume of it. (See also Tertull. adv. Marcion, iv. 17; Augustin. de Haer. 26; Epiphanius, Haer. 44.)

Tatian, according to The Catholic Encylopedia (Healy, "Tatian." Vol. 14. New York, 1912), was,

A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed with certainty except that he was born in Assyria and that he was trained in Greek philosophy. While a young man he travelled extensively. Disgusted with the greed of the pagan philosophers with whom he came in contact, he conceived a profound contempt for their teachings. Repelled by the grossness and immorality of the pagans and attracted by the holiness of the Christian religion and the sublimity and simplicity of the Scriptures, he became a convert, probably about A.D. 150. He joined the Christian community in Rome, where he was a "hearer" of Justin. There is no reason to think he was converted by the latter. While Justin lived Tatian remained orthodox. Later (c. 172) he apostatized, became a Gnostic of the Encratite sect, and returned to the Orient. The circumstances and date of his death are not known. Tatian wrote many works. Only two have survived. One of these, "Oratio ad Graecos" (Pros Hellenas), is an apology for Christianity, containing in the first part (i-xxxi) an exposition of the Christian Faith with a view to showing its superiority over Greek philosophy, and in the second part a demonstration of the high antiquity of the Christian religion. The tone of this apology is bitter and denunciatory. The author inveighs against Hellenism in all its forms and expresses the deepest contempt for Greek philosophy and Greek manners.

The other extant work is the "Diatesseron", a harmony of the four Gospels containing in continuous narrative the principle events in the life of Our Lord. The question regarding the language in which this work was composed is still in dispute. Lightfoot, Hilgenfeld, Bardenhewer, and others contend that the original language was Syriac. Harnack, Burkitt, and others are equally positive that it was composed in Greek and translated into Syriac during the lifetime of Tatian. There are only a few fragments extant in Syriac but a comparatively full reconstruction of the whole has been effected from St. Ephraem’s commentary, the Syriac text of which has been lost, but which exists in an Armenian version. Two revisions of the "Diatesseron" are available: one in Latin preserved in the "Codex Fuldensis" of the Gospels dating from about A.D. 545, the other in an Arabic version found in two manuscripts of a later date. The "Diatesseron" or "Evangelion da Mehallete" (‘the Gospel of the mixed’) was practically the only gospel text used in Syria during the third and fourth centuries. Rabbula, Bishop of Edessa (411-435), ordered the priests and deacons to see that every church should have a copy of the separate Gospels (Evangelion da Mepharreshe), and Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrus (423-457), removed more than two hundred copies of the "Diatesseron" from the churches in his diocese. Several other works written Tatian have disappeared. In his apology (xv) he mentions a work "on animals" and (xvi) one on the "nature of demons". Another work in refutation of the calumnies against the Christians (xl) was planned but perhaps never written. He also wrote a "Book of Problems" (Eus., "Hist. Eccl.", V, 13), dealing with the difficulties in the Scriptures, and one "On Perfection according to the Precepts of Our Saviour" (Clem. Alex., "Strom.", III, 12, 81).

For the Severian heretics, The Catholic Encylopedia (Arendzen, "Encratites." Vol. 5. New York, 1909) states:


Literally, "abstainers" or "persons who practised continency", because they refrained from the use of wine, animal food, and marriage. The name was given to an early Christian sect, or rather to a tendency common to several sects, chiefly Gnostic, whose asceticism was based on heretical views regarding the origin of matter.


Abstinence from the use of some creatures, because they were thought to be intrinsically evil, is much older than Christianity. Pythagorism, Essenism, Indian asceticism betrayed this erroneous tendency, and the Indian ascetics are actually quoted by Clement of Alexandria as the forerunners of the Encratites (Strom., I, xv). Although St. Paul refers to people, even in his days, "forbidding to marry and abstaining from meats" (1 Timothy 4:1-5), the first mention of a Christian sect of this name occurs in Irenæus (I, xxviii). He connects their origin with Saturninus and Marcion. Rejecting marriage, they implicitly accuse the Creator, Who made both male and female. Refraining from all émpsucha (animal food and intoxicants), they are ungrateful to Him Who created all things. "And now", continues Irenæus, "they reject the salvation of the first man [Adam]; an opinion recently introduced among them by Tatian, a disciple of Justin. As long as he was with Justin he gave no sign of these things, but after his martyrdom Tatian separated himself from the Church. Elated and puffed up by his professorship, he established some teaching of his own. He fabled about some invisible æons, as the Valentinians do; and proclaimed marriage to be corruption and fornication, as Marcion and Saturninus do, but he made the denial of Adam's salvation a specialty of his own." The Encratites are next mentioned by Clement Alex. (Pæd., II, ii, 33; Strom., I, xv; VII, xvii). The whole of the third book of the Stromata is devoted to combating a false encrateia, or continency, though a special sect of Encratites is not there mentioned. Hippolytus (Philos., VIII, xiii) refers to them as "acknowledging what concerns God and Christ in like manner with the Church; in respect, however, of their mode of life, passing their days inflated with pride"; "abstaining from animal food, being water-drinkers and forbidding to marry"; "estimated Cynics rather than Christians". On the strength of this passage it is supposed that some Encratites were perfectly orthodox in doctrine, and erred only in practice, but tà perì toû theoû kaì toû christoû need not include the whole of Christian doctrine. Somewhat later this sect received new life and strength by the accession of a certain Severus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., IV, xxix), after whom Encratites were often called Severians. These Severian Encratites accepted the Law, the Prophets, and the Gospels, but rejected the Book of the Acts and cursed St. Paul and his Epistles. But the account given by Epiphanius of the Severians rather betrays Syrian Gnosticism than Judaistic tendencies. In their hatred of marriage they declared woman the work of Satan, and in their hatred of intoxicants they called wine drops of venom from the great Serpent, etc. (Hær., xiv). Epiphanius states that in his day Encratites were very numerous throughout Asia Minor, in Psidia, in the Adustan district of Phrygia, in Isauria, Pamphylia, Cilicia, and Galatia. In the Roman Province and in Antioch of Syria they were found scattered here and there. They split up into a number of smaller sects of whom the Apostolici were remarkable for their condemnation of private property, the Hydroparastatæ for their use of water instead of wine in the Eucharist. In the Edict of 382, Theodosius pronounced sentence of death on all those who took the name of Encratites, Saccophori, or Hydroparastatæ, and commanded Florus, the Magister Officiarum, to make strict search for these heretics, who were Manichæans in disguise. Sozomen (Hist. Eccl., V, xi) tells of an Encratite of Ancyra in Galatia, called Busiris, who bravely submitted to torments in the Julian persecution, and who under Theodosius abjured his heresy and returned to the Catholic Church. On the other hand, we learn from Macarius Magnes (about 403; Apocr., III, xliii) of a certain Dositheus, a Cilician, who about the same time wrote a work in eight books in defence of Encratite errors. About the middle of the fifth century they disappear from history, absorbed, probably, by the Manichæans, with whom they had so much in common from the first.


The Encratites developed a considerable literary activity. The earliest writer in their defence probably was Tatian in his book "Concerning Perfection according to the Saviour", which Clement of Alexandria quotes and refutes in Strom., III, xii. Almost contemporary with him (about A.D. 150) was Julius Cassianus, known as the founder of Docetism (see DOCETæ). He wrote a work "Concerning Self-restraint and Continency", of which Clement and St. Jerome have preserved some passages (Strom., I, xxi; Euseb., Praep. Ev., X, xii; Strom., III, xiii; Jerome, ad Gal., VI, viii). Concerning the eight books of Dositheus we know only that he maintained that, as the world had its beginning by sexual intercourse, so by continency (encrateia) it would have its end; and that he inveighed against wine-drinkers and flesh- eaters. Among the apocryphal works which originated in Encratite circles must be mentioned: The Gospel according to the Egyptians, referred to by Clement (Strom., III, ix, 13), Origen (Hom. in i Luc.), Hippolytus (Philos., V, vii), which contained a dialogue between Jesus and Salome specially appealed to by the Encratites in condemnation of marriage (to this Gospel the recently discovered "Logia" probably belong); the Gospel of Philip, of Thomas, the Acts of Peter, of Andrew, of Thomas, and other Apocrypha, furthering Gnostic-Encratite views.

Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., IV, xxi, 28) says that Musanus (A.D. 170 or 210) wrote a most elegant book addressed to some brethren who had fallen into the heresy of the Encratites. Theodoret (Hær. Fab., I, xxi) says that Apollinaris of Hierapolis in Phrygia (about 171) wrote against the Severian Encratites.

The final sentence in this paragraph ("Tatian (Tacianus), also named the first Christian heretic; then the Severian heretics proceeded from him; they believed that all sexual intercourse was impure") is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.


Year of the World 5363

Year of Christ 164

Anicetus the pope, a native of Syria, was a man of excellent habits. He ordained that no cleric was to grow long hair, after the command of the apostle; also that no bishop was to be consecrated by less than three other bishops. He also ordered many other things. And after conducting five consecrations in the month of December, consecrating 19 priests, four deacons and nine bishops, he was crowned with martyrdom, and was buried on the 17th day of April. He sat 11 years, 4 months and 3 days; and the chair was vacant for 17 days.[Anicetus, pope, c. 157-168.]

Year of the World 5373

Year of Christ 174

Soter (Sother) the pope, a native of Campania, of the city of Fundanus, lived in the time of L. Commodus the emperor; and although he moved about in many dangers, he turned his conduct to spiritual matters in spite of many temptations. And he ordained that no cloister woman should touch the choral vestment, nor put incense in the censor for use in the holy office. He is credited with an epistle written to the bishops of Italy in these matters. He also ordered that no woman was to be considered a lawful wife unless blessed by a priest after the bans were proclaimed, and who with proper ceremony according to Christian custom was given over to the groom by her parents. And he cast out many dangers from the trickeries and magical arts of wicked people who were accustomed to perform at new marriages. And after he had held five consecrations in the month of December, consecrating eight priests and eleven bishops, he died. He was buried in the church of Calistials, having sat nine years, three months, and twenty days; and at that time the chair rested twenty-one days.[Soter, pope, 167-174.]

Year of the World 5383

Year of Christ 184

Eleutherius the pope, a native of Greece, of the city of Nicopolis, lived in the time of L. Antoninus Commodus. He stated that no one, because of an increase in population, should be starved for lack of those foods to which he was accustomed. He also desired that no one should be deposed from his status, unless, on complaint, he was found guilty of a crime. In this pope’s time the churches were accorded peace and rest, and the Christian name was miraculously augmented through all the earth; and chiefly at Rome, where many noble Romans, together with their wives and children, accepted the Christian faith and were baptized. This pope received an embassy from Lucius, king of Britain, asking that he and his be numbered among the Christians. And finally, after he had conducted three consecrations in the month of December, ordaining priests and bishops, he died and was buried beside the body of St. Peter on the 26th day of the month of May. After he had sat 15 years, three months, and two days, the chair was vacant for five days.[ Eleutherius, pope from about 175 to 189. The , at the beginning of the 6th century, says he had relations with a British king, Lucius, who wished to be converted to Christianity. This tradition – Roman, not British – is an enigma to scholars, and apparently has no historical foundation.]

Year of the World 5393

Year of Christ 194

Victor the pope, a native of Africa, ordained that Easter should be celebrated on Sunday from the 14th day of the moon of the first month to the 21st day, which was observed by the Jews on the 14th day of the moon. This same law was afterwards confirmed by the Council of Nicaea, so that we would not be looked upon as following the Jews. This Victor was martyred and buried beside St. Peter. He sat 10 years, three months, and 10 days. Then the chair rested for 12 days.[ Victor I, pope from about 190 to 198. He submitted to the opinion of the episcopate in the various parts of Christendom the divergence between the Easter usage of Rome and that of the bishops of Asia. Although the observance of Easter, the annual festival of the resurrection of Christ, was at a very early period the practice of the Christian church, a serious difference as to the day of observance arose between the Christians of Jewish and those of Gentile descent. The point at issue was when the Paschal fast (Passover) was to be reckoned as ending. With the Jewish Christians, whose leading thought was the death of Christ as the Paschal Lamb, the fast ended at the same time as that of the Jews, on the 14th day of the moon (that is, the 14th day after the appearance of the new moon; for the religious part of the Jewish calendar was concerned in these appearances of the new moon, the reports of which were made by the country people) in the evening, and the Easter festival immediately followed without regard to the day of the week. The Gentile Christians on the other hand, unfettered by Jewish traditions, identified the first day of the week with the Resurrection, and kept the preceding Friday as the commemoration of the crucifixion, irrespective of the day of the month. With the one the observance of the day of the month, with the other the observance of the day of the week, was the guiding principle. Generally speaking, the western churches kept Easter on the first day of the week, while the Eastern churches followed the Jewish rule and kept it on the 14th day. The dispute was finally settled by the Council of Nicaea, summoned by Constantine in 325. ]

Zephyrinus (Sepherinus) the pope, and a Roman, was in the time of Severus the emperor, a pious man, devoted to spiritual more than to temporal affairs. Therefore he ordained that a Levite and priest should be consecrated in the presence of a cleric of faith and of laymen, which was afterwards confirmed in the Chalcedonian Council. He also ordained that the blessing of the holy blood should take place in a vessel of glass and not in a wooden one (as it did before that time); but this ordinance was afterward changed; and it was decided that the blessing should not be in wood nor in glass, but in a vessel of gold or silver, or brass. He likewise ordained that all Christians, on becoming of age, should yearly, on the holy day of Easter, publicly receive Holy Communion. Finally, after the consecration of various priests and bishops, he died in the time of Severus, and was buried on the Appian Way not far from the cemetery of Calixtus on the seventh of the Kalends of September[The phrase "in the time of Severus, and was buried on the Appian Way not far from the cemetery on the seventh of the Kalends of September" is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.], having sat eight years, 7 months and 10 days.[ Zephyrinus was a Roman, and his election is attributed to the miraculous appearance of the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove. During his pontificate the persecutions of the Christians were redoubled by the order of the emperor Severus, and the bishop of Rome abandoned his flock, reappearing when calm succeeded the tempest. It is said that in order to cause his cowardice to be forgotten, he persecuted the heretics, excommunicated the Montanists, among them Tertullian, who joined the party of these innovators, and held the papal office until about the year 217. The date of his death is uncertain. Although the Church has decreed him the honors of martyrdom, there is grave doubt whether he shed his blood for the Christian faith. He was interred in the cemetery of Calixtus in the Appian Way.]

Year of the World 5413

Year of Christ 214

Calixtus the pope, a Roman and a very wise and pious man, during the distress afflicting the Christians under the evil emperor who had departed from his forbears, ordered the observance of a gold-fast four times a year, and the consecrations which had before that time taken place in the month of December were afterwards held quarterly. He also established a cemetery named for him, in which the bodies of many martyrs were buried. But after he had baptized the Romans, Palmachius the consul and Simplicius the senator, and Felix the nobleman, together with their households, and had consecrated many priests and bishops, he was crowned with martyrdom by Emperor Alexander on the 14th day of the month of October, having sat six years, ten months and ten days.[Calixtus I, pope from 217 to 222, was little known before the discovery of the book of the . From this work, which is in part a pamphlet directed against him, we learn that Calixtus was originally a slave and engaged in banking. Falling on evil times, he was brought into collision with the Jews, who denounced him as a Christian and procured his exile to Sardinia. On his return from exile he was pensioned by Pope Victor, and later was associated with Pope Zephyrinus in the government of the Roman Church. On the death of Zephyrinus (217) he was elected in his place and occupied the papal chair for five years. He died in 222. In the time of Constantine the Roman Church reckoned him officially among the martyr popes.]


Commodus Lucius Antoninus, the eighteenth Roman emperor, succeeded his father M. Antoninus. While carrying him, his mother Faustina dreamed that she bore many snakes, and among them a rather violent one. And she bore Commodus and Antoninus. After the latter’s death, Marcus the father, caused Commodus to be tutored by good men with great care. Although Commodus had excellent Greek and Latin teachers and masters, they were of no benefit to him, for from early childhood he bore the marks of a cruel, unchaste disposition, and at twelve years of age showed signs of his future cruelty. He went to the German wars with his father, in which he spared neither shame nor tears. At last he no longer had anything in common with his father, was offensive to all men, and became useless, except for one thing, namely, that he fought against the Germans with success, but not without assistance from the Christian soldiers. When in the same wars his army suffered for lack of water, it was sent from heaven pursuant to the prayers of the Christian soldiers; and lightning struck the Germans and Sarmatians. When he returned to Rome, he relapsed into every form of wantonness and vice, following Nero in many ways. He caused many Roman senators, and chiefly the most distinguished in nobility and address to be slain; others he forbade the city, and sold their lands and their control. His body was of regular stature, his countenance drunken, his conversation indecent. He always dyed his hair, and he praised his own locks and beard to his barber. During the time of his evil life the city suffered disaster through the destruction of the library in the Capitol by fire caused by lightning. Commodus was judged an enemy of mankind, and strangled in the twelfth year of his reign. The senate and people demanded that his body be dragged by a hook and tossed into the Tiber. But afterwards, by an order of Pertinax, he was buried in the monument of Hadrian (Adriani).

L. Aurelius Commodus, Roman emperor, 180-192 CE, son of M. Aurelius and the younger Faustina, was born at Lanuvium, 161, and was thus scarcely twenty when he succeeded to the empire. He was an unworthy son of a noble father, one of the most savage tyrants that ever disgraced a throne. It was after the suppression of the plot against his life, which had been organized by his sister Lucilla in 183, that he first gave uncontrolled sway to his ferocious temper. He resigned the government to various favorites in succession, and abandoned himself without interruption to shameless debauchery. But he was at the same time the slave of the most childish vanity and sought to gain popular applause by fighting as a gladiator, and slew thousands of beasts in the amphitheater with bow and spear. In consequence of these exploits he assumed the name of Hercules, and demanded that he be worshipped as a god. In the following year his concubine, Mercia, found on his tablets while he slept that she was doomed to perish along with Laetus and Eclectus, and other leading men in the state. She immediately administered poison to him, but as its operation was slow, Narcissus, a celebrated wrestler, was introduced, and by him Commodus was strangled in his bath on December 31, 192.

The last two sentences of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Helvius (Helius) Pertinax, nineteenth Roman emperor, was born in the village of Martis in the Apennines. By reason of his good conduct he advanced from station to station until he was crowned emperor. But he was poor, a characteristic which was then regarded as a vice; and for this he was despised. Yet he was an honorable old man, with groomed beard, curly hair, corpulent body, lordly appearance, of moderate speech, and more affectionate than good. He was finally slain in Pallacio by Julianus, the jurist, in the sixth month of his reign; for the troops and people of the court hated him. Yet the Roman populace was displeased at the manner of his death; and therefore the senate pronounced him a god.[Helvius Pertinax, Roman emperor from January 1st to March 28th, 193 CE, was of humble origin, and rose from the post of centurion both to the highest military and civil commands in the reigns of M. Aurelius and Commodus. On the murder of Commodus, he was 66 years of age, and was reluctantly persuaded to accept the Empire. He commenced his reign by introducing extensive reforms into the civil and military administration of the Empire; but the troops who had been accustomed to ease and license under Commodus were disgusted with the discipline that he attempted to force upon them, and murdered their new sovereign after a reign of two months and twenty-seven days. On his death the praetorian troops put the Empire up for sale, and it was purchased by M. Didius Julianus.]

Julianus Didius was the successor to Pertinax. When the troops were carrying the head of the slain Pertinax on a pole through the city to their camp, Julianus found the body of Pertinax in the palace and caused it to be interred with great honor. Some say Julianus himself killed Pertinax and then usurped the sovereignty. Others say it was Julianus the grandson of the great jurist Julian, whose ancestors were of Milan. This man was a most evil person, and lived so shamefully that he was hated by the people and deserted by everyone. He was defeated by Severus and slain in the seventh month of his reign.[M. Didius Salvius Julianus bought the Roman Empire from the praetorian guards, when they put the Empire up for sale after the death of Pertinax in 193 CE. Flavius Sulpicianus, praefect of the city, and Didius bid against one another, but it was sold to Didius on his promising each soldier a donative of 25,000 sesterces. He held the Empire for only two months, being murdered by soldiers when Severus was marching against the city.]

Severus, the Roman emperor, a native of Africa, was so well educated in Greek and Latin in infancy that he acquired a high understanding of them. When as a child he played with other children, he sat as judge and pronounced judgments, while the other children stood about him. He went to Rome where by reason of his learning he was raised from one position to another until he was chosen emperor. He was stingy, serious, and fatigued by many wars. He ruled the common people with strength and care. He was devoted to philosophy, and so victorious over the Parthians, Adiabeni, and Arabs, that he made a province of Arabia. He adorned Rome with public buildings, was moderate in his meals, poor in dress, a disposition to be fatherly, at times fond of wine, but rarely ate meat. He was handsome in person, large, wore a long beard, had gray and curly hair, a venerable countenance, and a lovely voice, and he spoke of his African country even in his old age. Finally he was subjected to many dangerous attacks, not alone in Syria, but also in Gaul and Britain, and being deserted by all his company and afflicted by his relatives, he died at Eburacum, in Gaul, in the 17th year of his reign. He left two sons, Bassanius and Geta.[L. Septimus Severus, Roman emperor from 193-211 CE, was born in 146, near Leptis in Africa. After holding various military commands under M. Aurelius and Commodus, he was at length appointed commander-in-chief of the army, in Pannonia and Illyria. The army proclaimed him emperor after the death of Pertinax (193). He immediately marched upon Rome, where Julianus had been made emperor by the praetorian troops. Julianus was put to death upon his arrival before the city. Severus then turned his arms against Pescennius Niger, who had been saluted emperor by the eastern legions. The struggle was brought to a close by a decisive battle near Issus, in which Niger was defeated by Severus, and having been shortly afterwards taken prisoner was put to death by order of the latter (194). Severus then laid siege to Byzantium, which refused to submit to him even after the death of Niger, and which was not taken till 196. The city was treated with great severity by Severus. Its walls were leveled with the earth, its soldiers and magistrates put to death, and the town itself, deprived of all its political privileges, made over to the Perinthians. During the continuance of this siege, Severus had crossed the Euphrates (195) and subdued the Mesopotamian Arabians. He returned to Italy in 196, and in the same year proceeded to Gaul to oppose Albinus, who had been proclaimed emperor by the troops in that country. Albinus was defeated and slain in a terrible battle fought near Lyons on the 19th of February, 197. Severus returned to Rome in the same year; but after remaining a short time in the capital, he set out for the east in order to repel the invasion of the Parthians, who were ravaging Mesopotamia. He crossed the Euphrates early in 198, and commenced a series of operations that were attended with brilliant results. Seleucia and Babylon were evacuated by the enemy; and Ctesiphon was taken and plundered after a short siege. After spending 3 years in the east, and visiting Arabia, Palestine and Egypt, Severus returned to Rome in 202. For the next 7 years he remained tranquilly at Rome; but in 208 he went to Britain with his sons Caracalla and Geta. Here he carried on war against the Caledonians, and erected the celebrated wall, which bore his name, from the Solway to the mouth of the Tyne. After remaining 2 years in Britain he died at Eboracum (York) on the 4th of February, 211, in the 65th year of his age, and the 18th of his reign.]


Lucius, king of the English (Anglorum), son of King Coilus (Coilli) of Fustus(?), receiving the kingdom among the English or the Britians, was called by the Lord. He sent a message to Eleutherius, the pope, requesting him to enroll his people among the number of the Christians. Immediately the pope sent Fugacius and Damianus, two distinguished men, to baptize the king and his people. After receiving baptism Lucius gave over all the pagan temples for use as Christian churches. These he increased and enlarged, and then left his kingdom. He first went to Gaul and then to Upper Rhaetia, passing through the city of Augsburg (Augustam) to Chur (Curiensem); and there he brought many people to the dominion of the Lord, rested in virtue and peace, and performed illustrious miracles. His sister Emerita lived in a castle nearby, called Trimus. Through fire she earned the everlasting crown, and her day is the 3rd of December. Lucius conquered for Christ all of Bavaria and Rhaetia between the Alps.[Lucius, legendary king of Britain, is said to have been baptized by Timothy the disciple of Paul, and by solemn decree to have converted all the pagan temples throughout his realm into Christian churches, and to have transformed the sees of twenty-eight flamens (ancient Roman priests) and three arch-flamens into so many bishoprics and arch-bishoprics. According to another version of the story, Lucius sent letters to Pope Eleutherius desiring instructors in the Christian religion, and was supplied with Faganus Duvanus, who converted all Britain and then returned to Rome to give an account of their success. According to one account Lucius died childless at Gloucester and was buried there; but according to the belief of the Church of Coire in the Grisons, he made a pilgrimage to Rome with his sister Emerita, and died at Coire, where he was interred. The earliest British testimony to this extravagant story is that of Nennius (9th century), who says, "After the birth of Christ one hundred and sixty-seven years, King Lucius, with all the chiefs of the British people received baptism, a legation having been sent by the emperors of Rome and by Evaristus, the Roman Pope. Lucius was called Leuer Maur, that is, of Great Splendor, on account of the faith which came in his time." William of Malmsbury adds that the Roman missionaries Phagan and Deruvan came to Glastonbury. At Coire, the story goes that Lucius having laid aside crown and scepter, attended by his sister, crossed Gaul, passed through Augsburg, and came to the Alpine valley of the Grisons, and became the apostle of the Rhaetian Alps. The pagans cast him into a hot spring, but he emerged unhurt, and with his sister retreated to a cave. She was seized by the pagans and burned to death at Trimus, while Lucius lost his life in the castle of Martiola.]

Trogus Pompeius, a Spanish historian, gained renown by his history from Belus, the father of Ninus, king of Assyria, to the reign of Julius Caesar, divided into forty-four books. Justin (Justinus), the historian, later abridged these books.[Trogus Pompeius lived in the time of Augustus. He wrote the , a history of the Macedonian monarchy, but due to its many deviations, really a kind of universal history from the rise of the Assyrian monarchy to the conquest of the East by Rome. The original work of Trogus, which was one of great value, is lost. The work of Justin is merely a selection of such parts as were worthy of being generally known.]

Dionysius, a bishop of Corinth, as Eusebius writes, lived in the time of Soter (Sotheris) and was a man of such eloquence and versatility that he not only taught the people of his own state and province, but also the bishops of other cities and places by his letters and epistles. Having been instructed in the teachings of the Apostle Paul, he became bishop of Corinth, and in that capacity found it easy to maintain others in office and to teach them by his writings. Of these writings he sent six for use at as many different places. Many other highly learned men lived at this time.[]

Theodotion (Theodocion), born in Asia from the country of Ephesus, was a highly learned man and well versed in the Scriptures. This third translator of the Holy Scriptures lived in these times, together with the men already mentioned. In addition to his interpretation and translation he left many other writings in praise of the Christian religion. He was a disciple of Tatian before the latter fell into heresy. By means of his numerous writings he ingeniously ridiculed Apelles the heretic, because Apelles said that he did not know the God whom Theodotion worshipped. Apelles said that Christ was not in truth the Son of God, but an imaginary being.[For Apelles, see Folio CXIIIIv and note ad loc.]

Clement, a priest of Alexandria, and an ingenious and highly informed man, as Jerome writes, also flourished with the above-mentioned persons. He wrote many and various books as well as letters. Origen was his disciple.[Saint Clement of Alexandria, born Titus Flavius Clemens (c. 150 - 211/216), was one of the early Church Fathers and perhaps the most distinguished teacher of his age. His numerous writings, widely quoted in the Middle Ages, attempted to unite Greek philosophical traditions with Christian doctrine. Steeped in pagan literature, his ideological view of Christianity was one part Plato and two parts Bible. His student Origen succeeded him as head of the school of Christian education at Alexandria. See also Eusebius, 5.11, 6.6, and 6.13-14.]

Apollonius, a Roman senator and highly educated man, suffered martyrdom in the time of Pope Eleutherius, when the churches were at peace. He preached a fine sermon in praise of the Christian faith, although this was forbidden on pain of death. He presented to the Emperor Commodus an excellent work that the emperor caused to be read at a session of the senate. Afterwards he was betrayed as a Christian by one of his own servants, and was beheaded on the 18th day April. After his death many heresies gained the ascendancy, etc.

Tertullian of Carthage, son of a centurion and proconsul, and celebrated for his learning and intelligence flourished at this time, as Jerome writes. In middle life he was the most renowned of the clergy at Rome. However, through jealousy he was so harassed with slanders and threats that he felt compelled to join the heretic Montanus; and in consequence he wrote many books against the Christian faith. He lived to a declining old age.[Q. Septimus Florens Tertullian, most ancient of the Latin fathers. Notwithstanding the celebrity he has always enjoyed, our knowledge of his personal history is very limited, being derived almost exclusively from a succinct notice of Jerome. From this we learn he was a native of Carthage, son of a proconsular centurion (an officer who acted as a sort of aide-de-camp to provincial governors); that he flourished chiefly during the reigns of Septimus Severus and Caracalla; that he became a Presbyter, and remained orthodox to middle life, when in consequence of the envy and ill-treatment which he experienced on the part of the Roman clergy, he went over to the Montanists and wrote several books in defense of those heretics; that he lived to a great age and was the author of many works. He was born c. 160, and died c. 240. The most interesting of his numerous works is his , a defense of Christianity. His writings show him a man of varied learning; but his style is rough, abrupt, and obscure, abounding in far-fetched metaphors and extravagant hyperboles.]


Lucius and Emerita, his sister, are represented by a dual portrait, specially designed for this purpose. Bede (Historica Ecclesiastica, I, 4) states that in 156 CE, in the reign of the Roman emperors Aurelius and Verus, and in the pontificate of Pope Eleutherius, Lucius, a British king, sent a letter to the Pope praying for his assistance that he might be made a Christian; and having obtained this favor, was, together with his people, instructed in the Christian faith. To this tale the credulity of later ages has added many particulars. Ciraldus Cambrensis makes Lucius king of the Britons, and the missionaries from Rome effect the conversion of the whole population of the island. Geoffrey of Monmouth makes Lucius the son of Coilus, the son of Marius, the son of Arviragus, and agrees with Ciraldus about the conversion. Some other traditions and legends of the Middle Ages made Lucius resign his crown, travel as a missionary, with his sister St. Emerita, through Rhaetia and Vindelicia, and suffer martyrdom near Curia or Chur. The history and even the existence of Lucius are doubted by some critics. A letter is extant, professing to be from Pope Eleutherius "to Lucius, king of Britain," but it is doubtless spurious. In the woodcut Lucius appears in regal robes, and sainted. Across his right shoulder he carries three scepters, no doubt emblematical of his triune sovereignty. With his right hand he poises a shield, inscribed with his coat of arms. Here the British lion is absent, and we see only a rampant unicorn—at least a unicorn by inference. According to fable this beast has the head and body of a horse, the hind legs of an antelope, the tail of a lion (or sometimes that of a horse), sometimes the beard of a goat, and, as its chief feature, a long, sharp, twisted horn, similar to the narwhal’s tusk, set in the middle of the forehead and projected forward. Hence the Latin unicornus, ‘single-horned.’ The medieval conception of the unicorn possessing great strength and fierceness is perhaps due to the fact that in certain passages of the Old Testament (Num. 23:22, Deut. 33:17, Job 39:9-10) the Hebrew word r’em, now translated in the Revised Version "wild ox," was translated unicornus, or rhinoceros, and in the Authorized Version "unicorn," though in Deut. 33:17 it obviously refers to a two-horned animal. Isidore 12:2, 12, tells how the unicorn has been known to defeat the elephant in combat. According to ancient tradition "The horn that is between the eyes signifies that he is the supreme king."

In heraldry the unicorn was sometimes used as a device, but oftener as a supporter, and subsists to the present day as the left hand supporter of the British royal arms. This position it assumed at the Union, the Scottish royal arms having been supported by two unicorns. In the woodcut before us the artist has depicted either a goat or the two-horned animal of Deuteronomy. But I fear we must call it a goat. Note the two horns, bent back over the neck—not the straight spiral single-horn of the fabulous animal, proceeding forward from a point between the eyes.

Emerita, sister of Lucius, is portrayed as a queen, crowned and sainted. In symbolism of her martyrdom she carries a flaming torch.


The fifth persecution of the Christians began in this year as a result of the anger of Severus the emperor. He was the fifth, after Nero, who persecuted the Christians; but he was constantly harassed and worried by various dangers and wars. Nor did the Roman people escape God’s vengeance, for they were miraculously troubled with civil wars. In this persecution suffered those named below.

Irenaeus (Hyreneus), bishop of Lyons (Lugdunensis), was a highly learned man, and was martyred for the name of Christ. He was of great renown under Commodus. Jerome writes that he was a disciple of Polycarp, the martyr. By him he was so well instructed that he wrote five books against heresy, one against the pagans, and many other works. Finally he was placed on two hills by the emperor Severus, on one of which stood a cross, on the other an idol; and he was asked to choose between death on the cross and life through the idol. But, with the people, he came to the cross, and they were all crowned with martyrdom on the 28th day of June.[Irenaeus, one of the early Christian fathers, was probably born at Smyrna between 120 and 140 CE. In his early youth he heard Polycarp. He afterwards went to Gaul, and in 177 succeeded Pothinus as bishop of Lyon. He made many converts from the pagans and was most active in opposing the Gnostics, especially the Valentinians. He seems to have lived about the end of the second century. His only work now extant, (‘Against Heresies’) is intended to refute the Gnostics. The original Greek is lost, with the exception of a few fragments, but the work exists in a peculiar Latin version.]

Leonides of Alexandria, father of the great Origen, was a very pious man. In the time of this persecution he suffered martyrdom. In the tenth year of the emperor Pertinax, his young son Origen determined to follow his father as a martyr, had he not been hindered by God’s will (for he was useful to many people) and the concern of his mother; for when he decided openly to confess Christ on the next day she secretly hid his clothes during the night, and so kept him from the tyrants. But he urged his father to martyrdom, and, with his mother and six brothers was left in poverty; for because of their acknowledgment of Christ, the paternal inheritance was forfeited to the state.[]

Eugenia, daughter of Philippus, the illustrious Roman, was a beautiful virgin, educated in the liberal arts. She, together with Prothus and Jacinthus, the brothers who left their parents, was baptized by Helenus the bishop; and thereafter, while she lived in male clothes in a monastery, she was accused of rape by a woman named Melantia (Melancia). For this reason she was brought before the judge, and was threatened with the martyrdom which had been prepared for her. But as they tore her clothes, she appeared to be a woman; and it was discovered that she was the judge’s daughter; and the people were glad, but fearful; for Melantia, together with her house, was destroyed by a miraculous fire. And her parents, together with the entire household permitted themselves to be baptized. Afterwards, with her mother and the brothers Prothus and Jacinthus, she went to Rome; and by the example of their virtue they encouraged many people to accept the faith; and particularly Basilla, whom they urged to perpetual chastity. Because she would not sacrifice to the goddess Diana, she was tied to a stone and thrown into the Tiber; but the stone broke and she remained unharmed. Finally, after enduring many tortures, she was slain in prison on the day of Christ’s birth. Her body was interred in her own soil, not far from Rome.[Eugenia, anciently one of the most popular saints in the Roman calendar, was the daughter of Philip, proconsul of Egypt in the reign of Commodus. She was brought up at Alexandria in all the wisdom of the Gentiles, was converted to Christianity, and in learning, eloquence and courage, seems to have been the prototype of Catherine, by whom, however, she has been completely eclipsed. According to legend she put on man’s attire, and became a monk in Egypt, under the name Eugenius. Later, returning to Rome, she suffered martyrdom by the sword under the emperor Severus. She rarely appears in works of art, having lost her popularity in the period of revival.]

Perpetua and Felicitas, the holy women, together with Saturninus and Secundolus, were martyred in Mauretania, in the Tiburtine city, on the 7th day of March. After the death of Secundolus in prison, they were thrown to the wild beasts and torn asunder.[Unlike nearly every other (largely legendary) account of martyrdom that comes down to us, the record of what is known as "The Passion of St. Perpetua, St. Felicitas, and their Companions" is one of the great treasures of martyr literature, a document which is said to preserve the actual words of the martyrs and their friends. Saints Perpetua and Felicitas were involved in a violent persecution under the emperor Severus in 202. It reached Africa the following year, when five catechumens were apprehended at Carthage for the faith, namely, Revocatus, and his fellow slave Felicitas, Saturninus, and Secundulus, and Vivia Perpetua. Felicitas was expecting her confinement. Perpetua had an infant at her breast, was of good family, twenty-two years of age, and married to a man of quality in the city. These five martyrs were joined by Saturus, probably the brother of Saturninus. Saturus seems to have been their instructor. He underwent a voluntary imprisonment because he would not abandon them. The father of Perpetua made every effort to influence his daughter to resume pagan belief, he being a pagan himself; but she refused. All the prisoners had visions of their own martyrdom, and they were finally condemned to death by exposure to wild beasts in the arena. Perpetua and Felicitas were exposed to a wild cow, which attacked them and tossed them about. But they regained their footing, and while they stood together expecting another assault from the beasts, the people cried out that it was enough; and they were led to the gate where those that were not killed by the beasts were dispatched at the end of the shows by the confectores (‘finishers’). All the martyrs were now brought to the place of their final butchery; but the people, not yet satisfied with beholding blood, cried out to have them led into the middle of the amphitheater so that they might have the pleasure of seeing them receive the last blow. Perpetua fell into the hands of a very frightened and unskillful apprentice of the gladiators, who, with trembling hand, gave her many slight wounds, which made her languish a long time. The two women were martyred on March 7th, 203 CE.]

Narcissus, patriarch of Jerusalem, lived in the time of Victor the pope and Severus the emperor. Once upon a time when the lamps lacked oil, he caused water to be poured in them, and the water became viscous, and the lamps were lighted. He was accused by false witnesses, but they were punished by divine judgment. And he went into the wilderness; and as he became aged and did not want to hold office merely for appearance sake, Alexander, the bishop of Cappodocia, was put in his place with his consent. Afterwards he was also martyred.

Narcissus was the 30th bishop of Jerusalem. The controversy about the Paschal festival had continued to divide some parts of the Eastern and Western Churches ever since the time of Polycarp and Anicetus in 158. The dispute was running high when Narcissus became bishop of Jerusalem. The Churches of Asia Minor adhered to the Jewish method of observing the festival on the 14th day of the first month; whereas all the other churches kept it on the day before the Sunday on which they celebrated the Resurrection of Christ. A synod held at Edessa by unanimous decision brushed aside the Jewish method of keeping the festival.

Narcissus is said to have performed a notable miracle. On Easter Eve oil was lacking for the lamps. Narcissus ordered water to be drawn from a well and poured into the lamps, and it worked as well as oil.

Strict discipline caused Narcissus to be subjected to slanders, which caused him to retreat to the desert where he lived a life of solitude. After many years he reappeared as one risen from the dead, and resumed his office at the people’s urging.

Eusebius, Potentianus, Vincentius, and Peregrinus, very noble Roman men, were slain for their Christian faith before this time in the reign of Commodus Augustus, having first been subjected to many tortures. First these men were placed on the rack and were stretched very sharply by their tendons. Then there were very cruelly beaten with clubs. But when they still remained most faithfully steadfast in their praise of God, they were glorified[The word translated as ‘glorified’ is from the verb macto, -are, which can also mean ‘magnify’, ‘extol’, ‘honor’, ‘elevate’, ‘sacrifice’, ‘kill’, ‘slaughter’, and ‘destroy’. ] to the release of their spirit on the 8th of the Kalends of October.[The last three sentences of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the . ]

Julius the senator, was, together with his entire household, converted to Christ by these same martyrs, and baptized by Rufinus (Ruffinum). At the instance of the emperor they were killed with clubs. The body of Julius was buried by Eusebius. The judges sentenced him to have his tongue out off, and when this took place, he sang the praises of God. As a result of that Antoninus was converted; and he was beheaded. Then Eusebius was beaten with leaden thongs until he rested in the Lord.


Year of the World 5423

Year of Christ 224

Urban (Urbanus) the First, a pope and native Roman was renowned for his learning and pious life in the Year of Christ 224, under the Emperor M. Aurelius Antonius. With his exceptional learning he drew many people to the faith, particularly the excellent man Valerianus, the betrothed of St. Cecilia, and Tiburtius (Tiburcium) his brother, who afterwards suffered martyrdom with fortitude. This pope ordained that no one should be elected bishop who had not been consecrated as a priest or deacon, and that the church might take the landed estates given by the faithful for the use of all the clergy as common property, and not for the use of any one person in particular. However, there has been a departure from this rule, so great has human selfishness and greed become today. He was crowned with martyrdom on the 24th day of May, after having sat (in office) four years, ten months and 12 days. Then the chair was vacant for 30 days.[Urban I was bishop of Rome from 222 to 230; he was preceded by Calixtus and followed by Pontian.]

Pontian (Pontianus) the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of the emperor Alexander in the year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) 974, but in the Year of Christ 228. He was a good and pious man. At the instigation of the idolaters he was banished from Rome and sent to the island of Sardinia with Philip the priest. And there, after enduring much grief and severe suffering for the Christian faith, he died. His body was brought back to Rome by Pope Fabian at the instance of the pious, and was there buried with great honor. He sat for nine years, five months and two days, and the chair was vacant ten days.[Pontian, pope, 230 to 235, was exiled by the emperor Maximus and in consequence of this sentence, he resigned September 28, 235. He was succeeded by Anterus.]

In several histories one finds Cyriacus as successor to Pontian, and the statement that he left the papacy so that he might suffer martyrdom with the virgins. But calculations of time do not allow this, as the legend of the eleven thousand virgins shows. And he is said to have sat (in office) one year and three months. However, he was not placed in the register of the popes because he abdicated without the consent of the fathers.

Year of the World 5433

Year of Christ 234

Anterus (Antherus), the pope, a Greek, and a very good man, ordered the history of the martyrs industriously investigated and recorded by the notaries, and to be laid up in the archives of the churches, so that the memories and careers of righteous persons might not be lost. He ordained that a bishop leaving his first episcopate should not undertake another for his personal advantage or through necessity alone, but with the consent of the congregation to which he was assigned, and the approval of the pope. But some now think otherwise, and, not concerning themselves with herding their flock, consider only their personal advantage, and how they may enlarge their own revenues and wealth and increase the number of their retainers. Anterus, however, with but one bishop, went to his martyrdom, after having sat 11 years one month and 12 days. And the chair was vacant 13 days.[Anterus, also called Anteros, was pope for some weeks at the end of 235, and died January 3, 236 CE. According to (‘Book of the Popes’) he was martyred for having ordered a collection of the acts of the martyrs to be made and included in the archives of the church. His original epitaph was discovered in the Catacombs in 1854.]

Tiburtius (Tiburcius) and Valerianus, brothers, highly renowned Roman citizens, were brought into the faith by the help of Cecilia the virgin and through Urban the pope. Afterwards, pursuant to the sentence of Almachius, the prefect of the city, they were first beaten with clubs, and finally slain with the sword, all for the name of Christ. So was Maximus, the renowned man, who kept them in prison, and who was also a Christian, also beaten to death with a leaden instrument. His body was buried with those of Tiburtius and Valerianus by Cecilia on the 14th day of April.

Cecilia, the Roman virgin, beautiful in person, and illustrious for her morals, piety and exemplary chastity, was an only daughter of her parents, who gave her in marriage, together with royal riches, to the above named noble Roman youth Valerianus. She brought him, together with Tiburtius, into the Christian faith; and by her sweet teachings and constancy she kept their minds focused on it in their endurance of martyrdom. She too, remained firm in her suffering at her father’s house, which previously had been consecrated to God through Pope Urban at her request. Then when Almachius urged this Cecilia to sacrifice to idols, and her parents also tried to prevail upon her to do so, she refused, and acknowledged herself to be a Christian. Immediately afterwards Almachius caused her to be burned day and night with scalding water; but as she remained unharmed he ordered her to be beheaded. However, after the executioner had given her three strokes, he still failed to decapitate her; and as the Roman law forbade a fourth stroke, he left her half dead. In three days she divided her estate among the poor, and commended to Pope Urban those who had converted her to the faith. This very beautiful virgin suffered (martyrdom) around the 220th year of the Lord on the 22nd day of the month of November in the time of Alexander the emperor.

Cecilia, according to legend, was a noble Roman lady who lived in the reign of Alexander Severus. Her parents, who secretly professed Christianity, brought her up to their own faith, and she was remarkable for her enthusiastic piety from early childhood. According to tradition she was very much devoted to music, and invented the organ, which she consecrated to the service of God. At about the age of 16 her parents married her to a young Roman, virtuous, rich, and of noble birth, named Valerian. He was, however, still a pagan, and she converted him and his brother Tiburtius to the Christian faith. They were baptized by Urban, who being persecuted by the pagans, had taken refuge in the Catacombs. All three went about doing good, giving alms, and encouraging those about to be put to death for Christ’s sake, and, after their fellow Christians’ deaths, buried their bodies.

Jameson (Sacred and Legendary Art, II, 4th edition; London 1863; pp. 194-210) relates her story thus:

Now there was in those days a wicked prefect of Rome, named Almachius, who governed in the emperor’s absence; and he sent for Cecilia, her husband, and his brother, and he commanded them to desist from their practices of Christian charity. But they refused. The two brothers were thrown into prison, and committed to the charge of a centurion named Maximus, whom they converted, and all three, refusing to join in the sacrifice to Jupiter, were put to death. Cecilia buried them in the cemetery of Calixtus. Then Almachius, covetous of the wealth Cecilia had inherited, sent for her, and commanded her to sacrifice to the gods, but she refused. Almachius ordered her carried back to her own house, and her bath filled with boiling water, and her to be cast therein. But it had no effect upon her. Then Almachius sent an executioner to behead her with the sword; but his hands trembled so that after wounding her with three strokes in the neck and breast, he went away leaving her bleeding and half dead. She lived for three days, in which she distributed her possessions to the poor; and she called to Urban, and desired that her house, in which she law dying, should be converted into a place of worship for the Christians. She was buried by Urban in the same cemetery with her husband.


St. Cecilia, a new portrait. She wears a crown (of martyrdom) and the saintly nimbus. With both hands she holds a hornbook with inscription, introduced no doubt as a symbol of her early devotion to study of the gospel. The name ‘horn-book’ was originally applied to a sheet containing the letters of the alphabet, which formed a primer for the use of children. It was mounted on wood and protected with transparent horn. The wooden frame had a handle, and it was usually hung at the child’s girdle. The sheet, which in ancient times was of vellum and latterly of paper, contained first a large cross – the criss-cross – from which the horn-book was called the Christ Cross row, or criss-cross-row. The alphabet in large and small letters followed. The usual exorcism – "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, amen" – followed, then the Lord’s Prayer, the whole concluding with the Roman numerals.

Due to her devotion to music and the tradition that she invented the organ, Cecilia is generally represented as the patroness of music, carrying a scroll of music or a small organ, or as playing the organ.


Bassianus, son of the aforesaid Severus, and surnamed Aurelius Antoninus Caracalla, was a Roman emperor. When Severus died he left two sons, Bassianus and Geta. Bassianus was his father’s successor in the sovereignty, but Geta was adjudged a public enemy and slain by Bassianus, who, in the course of a life checkered with evil, also assassinated Papinian (Pampinian)[Papinian, celebrated Roman jurist, was praefectus praetorio (‘Commander of the Praetorian Guard’) under the emperor Septimus Severus, whom he accompanied to Britain. When the emperor died at York, he is said to have commended his two sons Caracalla and Geta to the care of Papinian. But on the death of his father, Caracalla dismissed Papinian from his office, and shortly put him to death. No Roman jurist had a higher reputation than Papinian, and he was a model of a true lawyer.] the jurist. Bassianus was even more cruel and licentious than his father, avoiding no form of evil. He took his stepmother for wife. He caused to be beheaded those who wore medicine about their throats for quaternary or tertiary fever; and so those who urinated against the pillars were condemned by him. Finally he was slain in the war against the Parthians in the 6th year and second month of his reign, at the age of forty-three.[Caracalla, Roman emperor (211-217 CE), son of Septimus Severus and his second wife Julia Domna, was born at Lyons in 188 CE. He was originally called Bassianus after his paternal grandfather, but afterward M. Aurelius Antoninus, which became his legal name. Caracalla was a nickname derived from a long tunic worn by the Gauls, which he adopted as his favorite dress after he became emperor. In 198 Caracalla, at the age of ten, was declared Augustus, and in the same year accompanied his father on the expedition against the Parthians. He returned to Rome with his father in 202, and married Plautilla, daughter of Plautianus, the praetorian prefect. He then went to Rome with his father, and on the death of the latter at York in 211, Caracalla and his brother Geta succeeded to the throne, according to their father’s arrangements. Caracalla’s first aim was to obtain the sole government by the murder of his brother, which he accomplished in 212. The assassination was followed by the execution of many distinguished men whom Caracalla suspected of favoring his brother, and among these was the celebrated jurist Papinian. Caracalla’s cruelties and extravagances knew no bounds; and after exhausting Italy by his extortions, the provinces that he visited became the scenes of fresh atrocities. In 214 he visited Gaul, Germany, Dacia, and Thrace. In 215 he went to Syria and Egypt, and his sojourn at Alexandria was marked by general slaughter of the inhabitants to avenge certain sarcastic pleasantries in which they had indulged against him and his mother. He crossed the Euphrates and laid bare Mesopotamia. He intended to cross the Tigris but was murdered near Edessa by Macrinus, the praetorian prefect.]

Opilius Macrinus, after the assassination of Caracalla, attained the sovereignty together with his son and Albinus; but as they reigned only a year and two months, they accomplished nothing memorable. They were slain by the troops as a result of discord among them. Macrinus was slain by Elagabulus (Heliogabolo) at Antioch.[M. Opilius Severus Macrinus, Roman emperor, April 217 to June 218 CE, was born at Caesaria in Mauretania, of humble parents in 164 CE, and rose at length to be prefect of the praetorians under Caracalla. He accompanied the latter on his expedition against the Parthians and was proclaimed emperor after the death of Caracalla, whom he caused to be assassinated. He conferred the title of Caesar upon his son Diadumenianus (spelled ‘Diadumenus’ in the ), and gained great popularity by repealing certain obnoxious taxes. However, in the course of the same year the Parthians defeated him with great loss, and compelled him to retire into Syria. While there, his soldiers, with whom he had become unpopular by enforcing discipline among them, were easily seduced from their allegiance, and proclaimed Elagabalus as emperor. With the troops that remained faithful, Macrinus marched against the usurper, but was defeated, and fled in disguise. Shortly afterward he was seized in Chalcedon, and put to death after a reign of 14 months.] Diadumenianus (Diadumenus) was named Antoninus by his father and the sovereignty was publicly set aside for him while still a child. Of all children he was most favored in stature, tall in person, with blond hair, black eyes, a straight nose, a beautiful chin, and a mouth always ready to be kissed. When he first put on his regal attire he appeared so handsome that he was loved by all.[Diadumenianus, or Diadumenus, son of the emperor Macrinus, received the title of Caesar when his father was elevated to the throne in 217 CE, but was put to death in the following year about the same time with Macrinus.] And so Clodius Albinus, called an emperor in Gaul, was of noble ancestry. And after those had reigned a short time, but accomplished nothing memorable, various historians have left them by the wayside. Yet Albinus, because of his gluttony, left a name memorable among the shepherds; for, as Cornelius says, at one dinner he ate one hundred Campanian peaches, ten Hostian melons, five hundred figs, and four hundred snails.[Clodius Albinus was born at Adrumetum in Africa. Commodus, the Roman emperor, made him governor of Gaul, and afterward also of Britain, where he was at the time of the death of Commodus in 192 CE. In order to secure the neutrality of Albinus, Septimus Severus made him Caesar. However, after Severus had defeated his rivals, he turned his arms against Albinus, and a great battle was fought between them at Lugdunum, now Lyons, in Gaul, in the year 197, in which Albinus was defeated and slain.]

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus[The official name of the Roman emperor Elagabalus (also called Heliogabalus).] received the throne, and, as one says, was the son of the aforesaid emperor Caracalla by Soeamias (Semiamira) his most beautiful concubine. Some say he was conceived of the common rabble. This emperor ordered his mother to attend the Roman senate, and he was the first emperor at whose instance a woman went to the senate in a man’s place. He made a separate senate for the women, who passed ridiculous laws, for instance, how the women should dress, what precedence they were to have over one another, and which was to rise in the presence of the other, etc. This Elagabalus left no memory other than of his vileness and shamelessness. He made virgins pregnant, and always kept lascivious women in his house. He put away the Roman senator Sabinus, and conferred honors and offices upon evil and vile persons. Among the Roman emperors he was the first to have a silver table and vessels. And when his friends warned him to take care of himself, he answered and said, What is better than to be my own heir and that of my wife? He overwhelmed his parasites in cunningly crafted dining rooms with violets and flowers, so that some died.

A ‘parasite’ was an individual in the Greco-Roman world who must have somebody else’s food, someone who must find a way to somebody else’s dinner table. The ostensible goal was free food, but the real goal was to secure recognition—and therefore social status and a modicum of respect—from your host, an aristocratic elite who was at least one rung (often more) higher up the social ladder than the parasite.

Schedel (or his immediate source) abridges the original text, taken from the Historia Augusta (21.5), that more clearly describes the suffocating death by flowers Elagabalus devised for his banqueting ‘friends’: "In a banqueting-room with a reversible ceiling he once overwhelmed his parasites with violets and other flowers, so that some were actually smothered to death, being unable to crawl out to the top." (Herman Peter, trans.; Loeb Classical Library, 1924)

He also invented certain carnal pleasures; but for his foolhardiness he and his mother were slain in an uprising of the army. They say that when a prophecy had been spoken to him by some Syrian priests that he would die a violent death, he prepared cords entwined with purple and scarlet silk in order that he could put an end to his life by the noose. He had gold swords, too, prepared, with which to kill himself.[This sentence and the preceding one, taken almost verbatim from 33.2-4, are not found in the German edition of the .] But these were of no use. He died after having been dragged by vagabonds through the streets, plunged most foully into sewers, and hurled into the Tiber in the fourth year of his reign;[] and thus ended the name of Antoninus.[Elagabalus (Heliogabalus), Roman emperor from 218 to 222 CE, was the son of Julia Soeamias and Varius Marcellus. He was born at Emesa about 203, and was originally called Varius Avitus Bassinius. While yet a child he became, along with his cousin Alexander Severus, priest of Elagabalus, the Syro-Phoenician Sun-god, to whose worship the temple was dedicated in his native city. It was from this circumstance that he was called Elagabalus. He owed his elevation to the intrigues of his grandmother, who circulated the report that he was the offspring of the secret commerce between Soeamias and Caracalla, and induced the troops in Syria to salute him as their sovereign by the title M. Aurelius Antoninus. Macrinus immediately marched against him, but was defeated near Antioch on June 8, 218, and shortly afterward put to death. Elagabalus was now acknowledged as emperor by the senate, and in the following year he came to Rome. His reign was characterized throughout by the most fantastic folly and superstition, together with impurity so bestial that the particulars almost transcend the limits of credibility. He adopted his first cousin Alexander Severus, and proclaimed him Caesar. Having become jealous of Alexander, he attempted to put him to death, but was himself slain with his mother by the soldiers, with whom Alexander was a great favorite.]

Alexander became emperor when Elagabalus was slain. He had a Christian mother, named Mamaea. This man was an image of virtue, and he greatly fostered the return of the common weal that had declined through the licentiousness of the previous emperor. In this were helpful to him Julius Frontinus, the great scholar, and Ulpianus and Paulus, men highly informed in civil rights. He lived without pomp or covetousness for honors, and employed prudence to such a degree that he was deceived by none. He despised money, favoritism, and jewels. He wanted to build a temple to Christ and count him among the gods. This Alexander, though crowned while still young, soon made war against the Persians, and he decisively defeated their king Xerxes. Alexander was an earnest and strict military disciplinarian, and he deposed a great number in the army; for this reason in an uprising of the military at Mainz in Gaul, he was slain in the thirteenth year of his reign. When this emperor punished someone he caused a bailiff to call out what he had often heard from the Christians: That which you do not wish to be done to you by another, you should not do. This he loved so much that he ordered it to be inscribed at street corners and on public buildings.[M. Aurelius Alexander Severus, usually called Alexander Severus, was Roman emperor from 222-235 CE. He was the son of Gessius Marcianus and Julia Mamaea, and first cousin to Elagabalus. He was born at Arca, in Phoenicia, in the temple of Alexander the Great, to which his parents had gone for the celebration of a festival on October 1st 205 CE. In 221 he was adopted by Elagabalus and created Caesar. On the death of Elagabalus in 221, Alexander ascended the throne. After reigning in peace for some years, during which he reformed many abuses in the state, he was involved in a war with Artaxerxes of Persia. Over him Alexander gained a great victory in 232. He celebrated a triumph at Rome in 233, and in the following year set out for Gaul, which the Germans were devastating; but before he could make any progress in the campaign, he was waylaid by a small band of mutinous soldiers, instigated, it is said, by Maximus, and slain, along with his mother, at the age of thirty. He was, it is said, distinguished by justice, wisdom, and clemency in all public transactions, and by the simplicity and purity of his private life.]


Origen (Origenes), a native of Alexandria, son of a martyr, and a priest of the Alexandrian church, a prince among all the philosophers and theologians of his time, flourished in these times at Alexandria. From youth he was very Christian and a student of exceptional intelligence; and in the tenth year of the Emperor Severus Pertinax, during the persecution of the Christians in which his father Leonides was martyred, Origen, his young son, urged him to martyrdom. After the death of his father, Origen, according to his means, protected those who were oppressed with punishments by the tyrants, and comforted those who were led forth to their death. Afterwards he devoted himself entirely to spiritual matters and held the office of preacher. He was of such great intelligence that no tongue or scripture was unknown to him. He observed wonderful moderation in his food and drink, and held himself aloof from strange matters. He followed Christ in poverty, and for many years wandered about barefooted. Many people, emulating his virtue and Christian faith, willingly suffered martyrdom. He successfully fought against the heresies of the Ebionites, who maintained that Christ was a natural person born of Joseph and Mary, and interpreted the law according to Jewish custom. He never slept in a feather bed, and entirely abstained from meat. In his zeal for the faith he castrated himself. Because of his wisdom in the Scriptures and his strict life, Mamaea, the Christian woman, mother of Alexander, caused him to be called to Antioch, and she and her son held him in great esteem. Origen possessed so much knowledge and scriptural wisdom that seven scribes were hardly able to keep pace with him. And so he employed another seven scribes and seven well-instructed young virgins, all of whom tired under the burden of transcribing his dictation. And although Porphyrus, the grim persecutor of the Christians, considered Origen an enemy, yet at times he also praised him, calling him a prince of philosophers, and stating that Origen followed all the secret arts of Plato. Jerome says that this Origen wrote six thousand books. Yet (as Augustus and Jerome state), he erred in many respects, principally in the book of princes, called Periarchon, from which the Origenian heresy originated. These heretics said that Christ in his great mercy would not only redeem mankind, but also the rebel angels. But (as some say), Origen, in a letter to Pope Fabianus, recanted the evil things that he thus set forth. Some place the responsibility for his errors upon Ambrosius, one of his opponents, who exposed his unauthorized writings. And therefore some, such as Eusebius and Rufianus (Ruffino), and others, praise Origen; and some of his writings are accepted by the churches. At last, in the Year of Our Salvation 236, he died at the age of sixty-nine and was buried at Tyre.[Origenes, usually called Origen, one of the most eminent of the early Christian writers, was born at Alexandria in 186 CE. He received a careful education from his father Leonides, who was a devout Christian, and subsequently became a pupil of Clement of Alexandria. His father having been put to death in the persecution of the Christians in the 10th year of Severus (202), Origen was reduced to destitution; whereupon he became a teacher of grammar, and soon acquired a great reputation. At the same time he gave instruction to several of the pagans, and, though only in his 18th year, was appointed to the office of Catechist, which was vacant through the dispersion of the clergy as a result of the persecution. He showed a zeal and self-denial beyond his years. Deeming his profession as teacher of grammar inconsistent with his sacred work, he gave it up, and lived on practically nothing. His food and his periods of sleep were restricted within the narrowest limits; and he performed an act of self-mutilation by catrasting himelf, in obedience to what he regarded as the recommendation of Jesus (Matthew 29:12). At a later time, however, he repudiated this literal understanding of Jesus’ words. He visited Rome but made only a short stay. Returning to Alexandria he continued his duties as Catechist, and pursued his Biblical studies. He visited Caesarea and traveled to Greece. On his return he encountered the enmity of Demetrius, the bishop of Alexandria. He was deprived of his office of Catechist and compelled to leave Alexandria. Demetrius afterward procured his degradation from the priesthood and his excommunication for the obnoxious character of some of his opinions. He withdrew to Caesarea, where he was received with greatest kindness. In the Decian persecution (249-251) he was put to torture, and though his life was spared, his sufferings hastened his end. He died in 253 or 254 in his 69th year at Tyre, where he was buried. His work, , was the principal object of attack with Origen’s enemies, and the source from which they derived their chief evidence of his various alleged heresies. Of his more distinctive tenets, several had reference to doctrine of the Trinity, to the incarnation, and to the existence of Christ’s human soul, which, as well as the pre-existence of other human souls, he affirmed. He was charged also with holding the corporeity of angels, and with other errors as to angels and demons. He held the freedom of the human will and ascribed to man a nature less corrupt and depraved than was consistent with orthodox views of the operation of divine grace. He held the doctrine of the universal restoration of the guilty, conceiving that the Devil alone would suffer eternal punishment.]

Ulpianus (Vulpianus), the jurist, an excellent man and adviser of the aforementioned Alexander, was at this time held in great honor by said emperor because of his remarkable skill and learning. He excelled all other teachers in interpreting the words of the old law, and left behind many writings.[Domitius Ulpianus, a celebrated jurist, derived his origin from Tyre in Phoenicia, but was probably not a native of Tyre himself. The greater part of his juristical works were written during the reign of Caracalla. He was banished or deprived of his functions under Elagabalus, but on the accession of Alexander Severus, became the emperor’s chief adviser. The emperor conferred on him the office of Scriniorum magister (‘Master of the Records’) and made him a consiliaris (‘adviser’ or ‘counselor’). He also held the office of Praefectus Annonae (‘a Roman imperial official charged with the supervision of the grain supply to the city of Rome’) and was likewise made Praefectus Praetorio (‘Commander of the Praetorian Guard’). Ulpian perished in the reign of Alexander by the hands of the soldiers, who killed him in the presence of the emperor and his mother in 228. His last promotion was probably an unpopular measure. The great legal knowledge, the good sense, and the industry of Ulpian place him among the first of the Roman jurists; and he has exercised a great influence on the jurisprudence of modern Europe through the copious extracts from his writings preserved by the compilers of the Justinian .]

Paul (Paulus) of Padua, also flourished at this time in philosophy and jurisprudence, and was of great help to the said Emperor Alexander in restoring the commonwealth that had fallen into neglect. He also left behind various writings on jurisprudence.[Julius Paulus, one of the most distinguished of Roman jurists, was in the auditorium of Papinian, and consequently was acting as a jurist in the reign of Septimus Severus. He was exiled by Elagablaus, but recalled by Alexander Severus when the latter became emperor, and was made a member of the consilium. He also held the office of Praefectus Praetorio. He survived his contemporary, Ulpian. Paulus was perhaps the most fertile of all the Roman law writers, and there is more excerpted from him in the Digest than from any other jurist except Ulpian. Upwards of 70 works by Paulus are quoted in the . Of these his greatest was in 80 books.]

Julius Frontinus, a philosopher, rich in learning in all the arts, flourished with the aforesaid men of learning, gave assistance to Alexander, and also wrote much.[ Julius Frontius was a Latin rhetorician who gave instructions in his art to Alexander Severus.]

Tryphon (Triphonem) was a disciple of Origen and also lived at this time. A number of his letters are extant. Being a man highly informed in the Scriptures, he wrote a book of the red cows of Deuteronomy; and he also wrote on other matters.[Tryphon, probably the Jewish philospher whose name appears in Justin’s (100-165 CE) well known .]

Minucius (Minutius) Felix, a distinguished orator at Rome, wrote a dialogue entitled Octavius, and also wrote against sorcerers and seers.[M. Minucius Felix, a Roman lawyer, who flourished about 230 CE, wrote a dialogue entitled , which occupies a conspicuous place among the early essays written in defense of Christianity.]

Ambrose (Ambrosius), a Greek deacon, was in high esteem at this time. And although he was at first subject to the errors of Marcion, he was drawn from this course by Origen. Origen wrote many books to Ambrose at the latter’s expense. This noble man of exceptional intelligence died before Origen, and was scorned by many people because, though a rich man, he did not remember his poor old friend at the time of his death.[]


Agapitas (Agapitus), an illustrious youth fifteen years of age, was at this time crowned with martyrdom at Prenesta the Sabine city, through the offices of Emperor Alexander. At the age of fifteen he was zealous to suffer martyrdom for his love of Christ. He was seized by the emperor and at first beaten with rawhide; after which the judge asked him to sacrifice to the gods. He was locked up in a dark stinking prison, and no food was given him for four days. After this burning coals were placed on his head. And as he was giving thanks to God, he was again whipped. Naked, and with his head downward, he was hanged and boiling water poured over his body. And while they were breaking the jaws of this Christian martyr, the judge fell from his seat and gave up his sorry soul. When the emperor heard this, he caused the body to be thrown to the lions, but the wild animals were so tame that they prostrated themselves at the martyr’s feet. When the servants of vice saw this, they took away the martyr and slew him with the sword, between two pillars, on the 18th day of the month of August. His body was carried off secretly by the Christians at night and was placed in a new sarcophagus discovered by divine indication at the first mile-stone from the city.

Agapitas, a boy of fifteen, was taken and brought before the governor Antiochus, at Praeneste, the modern Palestrina, in the reign of Aurelian. He was beaten severely, and thrust into a dark and loathsome dungeon, where he was left without food or drink for four days. He was then taken forth, but when asked if he would sacrifice, he shook his head. Red hot coals were poured over his head and bare shoulders; then he was suspended by his feet, over smoke, and beaten. When nearly unconscious, he was laid on the ground and boiling water poured over his breast and belly; his jaw was broken with a stone; but he still lived.

Antiochus the governor fell off his throne in a fit, and died. News was taken to Aurelian, who ordered Agapitas cast to the lions, but the lions refused to touch him; and he was taken outside the gate of Praeneste, and his head was struck off. Although a persecution did break out under Aurelian, the greater part of this story is pure legend, and all that can possibly be admitted is that a boy was scourged, imprisoned and decapitated. According to Baring-Gould the late Acts of the Martyrs are always stuffed with tortures, exposure to fire, water, lions, none of which hurt, and all end with the martyrs losing their heads; when everything else fails, cold steel succeeds.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Martina, a very holy Roman virgin of this time, was a person of exceptional Christian faith and virtue. Because of her acknowledgment of the Christian faith she was seized by Emperor Alexander and subjected to various tortures. Being inflamed by love for her, he admonished her to worship the idols, and promised to make her his companion. But the image of Apollo fell to pieces upon her approach; for in her chastity of mind and body she had praised God. Afterwards she was beaten and laid in prison, where a great light permeated her body. And on a tablet was found written in her hand: ‘Lord, how magnified are your works. You have done all in your wisdom.’ After that she was placed on the rack and her limbs injured with sharp instruments. A lion was led to her, but he did her no harm. As she still remained unmoved in her faith, she was executed by the sword on the first day of January.[]

Quirinus (Quiricius) the Roman, together with his mother Inclita (Iulita), and many others, were martyred on the 15th day of July in these violent times. Their history is found in the apocryphal writings.[This sentence is not found in the German edition of the .]

Beryllus (Berillus) the Arab, a bishop of Bostra, and a highly learned man, for a while ruled his church in a praiseworthy manner. However, he finally fell into a heresy that denied that Christ existed before he became a human being. But through Origen he was led back to the truth. A little later he wrote various small works, especially some letters in which ‘Secular Learning’ expresses its gratitude toward Origen. There is also extant a dialogue between Origen and Beryllus in which the latter argues his heresies.

Beryllus (Berillus), as bishop of Bostra, in Arabia, according to Eusebius, attempted to pervert the doctrine of the church by introducing certain opinions foreign to the Christian faith, "daring to assert that our Lord and Saviour did not exist in the proper sense of existence before his dwelling among men; neither had he a proper divinity, but only that divinity which dwelt in him from the Father. As the bishops had many examinations and discussions on this point with the man, Origen, who was also invited together with the rest, at first entered into conversation with him, in order to ascertain what opinion the man held. But when he understood what he advanced, after correcting his error, by reasoning and demonstration, he convinced him, and thus recovered him to the truth in doctrine, and brought him back again to his former sound opinion." (Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 6.33).

To get a sense of how Schedel adapts his text from his sources (i.e., what he keeps, deletes, adds, alters, etc.), compare the Latin text of the Chronicle to the original text taken from Jerome’s De viris illustribus (‘On Illustrious Men’): Beryllus, Arabiae Bostrenus episcopus, cum aliquanto tempore gloriose rexisset Ecclesiam, ad extremum lapsus in haeresim, quae Christum ante incarnationem negat, ab Origene correctus. Scripsit varia opuscula, et maxime epistolas, in quibus Origeni gratias agit, sed et Origenis ad eum litterae sunt. Exstat dialogus Origenis et Berylli, in quo haereseos coarguitur. Claruit autem sub Alexandro, Mammeae filio, et Maximino et Gordiano, qui ei in imperium successerunt. (Jerome, De viris illustribus; Chapter LX).

Porphyry (Porphirius), a most excellent Athenian philosopher, was in great esteem at this time; and although he was a lover of Origen, and praised him, yet he was a severely ruthless persecutor of Christianity, and heaped many derogatory and belittling arguments against the Orthodox faith, which, however, the divine Augustine refuted, although he posits a perfect trinity. And, among other things, he added the Isagoges (i.e., ‘Introductions’) to Aristotle’s Categories (i.e., ‘Categories’).[Unusually for Schedel, both the original Greek titles (transliterated) and their respective Latin equivalents (isagoges = introductiones; cathegorias = pr(a)edicamenta) are given for both Porphyry’s book () and Aristotle’s (). This is Porphyry’s most influential contribution to philosophy for it incorporated Aristotle’s logic into Neoplatonism. Boethius’ Latin translation of Porphyry’s work became a standard medieval textbook in European schools and universities, and help set the stage for medieval philosophical-theological developments of logic and the problem of universals. Scholars now believe that Porphyry’s text is an introduction to Aristotelian logic in general, not a specific introduction to his . It is telling that these sentences on philosophy are excised from the German edition of the .] And he wrote many other things.[Porphyry, the celebrated antagonist of Christianity, was a Greek philosopher of the Neoplatonic school. He was born 233 CE either in Batanea in Palestine or at Tyre. His original name was Malchus, the Greek form of the name Porphyrus (in allusion to the usual color of royal robes) was subsequently devised for him by his preceptor Longinus. After studying under Origen at Caesarea, and under Apollonius and Longinus at Athens, he settled at Rome in his 30th year, and there became a diligent disciple of Plotinus. He soon gained the confidence of Plotinus, and was entrusted by the latter with his delicate and difficult duty of correcting and arranging his writings. After remaining at Rome for 6 years, Porphyry fell into an unsettled state of mind, and began to entertain the idea of suicide, in order to get free from the shackles of the flesh; but on the advice of Plotinus he took voyage to Sicily, where he resided for some time. It was here that he wrote his treatise against Christianity in 15 books. Of the remainder of his life we know little. He returned to Rome and taught there until his death in 305 or 306. Later in life he married Marcella, widow of one of his friends, and the mother of seven children, with the view, as he avowed, of superintending their education. His learning was most extensive. His celebrated treatise against the Christian religion has not come down to us. It was publicly destroyed by order of the Emperor Theodosius. The attack was sufficiently challenging to call forth replies from over thirty antagonists, among them Methodius, Apollinaris, and Eusebius. His and are two of his most interesting works that are still extant.]

Hippolytus (Hipolitus), a bishop of a certain church, wrote of the calculation of Easter and the chronology of time up to the first year of Emperor Alexander. He discovered the cycle of sixteen years and gave the opportunity to Eusebius who, concerning the same calculation of Easter, composed a cycle of 19 years. He was considered famous. He even wrote some texts, especially commentaries on the Hexameron and on the Prophets.[Hippolytus, Bishop of Rome in the first quarter of the third century. A very prolific author, he came into conflict with the Popes of his time and, consequently, had his own separate congregation. Therefore he is sometimes considered the first Antipope (thus, perhaps, the reticence of the to identify him vaguely as a ‘bishop of a certain church’). When he died in 235, however, he was reconciled to the Church as a martyr. His works were wide-ranging, to say the least, and covered such areas as exegesis, homiletics, apologetics and polemic, chronography, and ecclesiastical law. His most famous work was his . In his work on the Passover (in the translation above rendered as ‘Easter’) he traces back the series of times, and presents a certain canon comprising a period of 16 years, on the Passover, limiting his computation of the times to the first year of Emperor Alexander. Cf. also Eusebius, 6.22.]

Julius, of Africa (as Saint Jerome writes) was renowned among the historians of his time. He wrote five books of this period; also a large book on the Trinity. He sent an epistle to the great Origen, showing that the fable of Susannah is not accredited by the Hebrews. He also wrote an epistle, full of Scriptural learning, against Origen. This Julius was a sower and a lover of the Scriptures. By the use of his riches he created a remarkable library, bearing his name, at Caesarea in Palestine. Being a reliable man he was sent to rebuild the castle of Emmaus. This he afterward did; and he named it Nicopolis.[Sextus Julius Africanus was a Christian traveler and historian of the third century, probably born in Libya, and lived at Emmaus. He wrote a history of the world from the creation to 221 CE, calculating the period between the creation and the birth of Christ as 5,499 years, and antedating the latter event by three years. This method of reckoning, known as the Alexandrian era, was adopted by almost all Eastern Churches. Eusebius also gives a letter to Aristeides, and one to Origen, impugning the authority of the book of Susannah.]


Fabian (Fabianus), the pope, was a Roman. When, after the death of Pope Anterus, the election of a future pope was under discussion, a dove, wonderfully white, appeared upon the head of Fabian. And after he was chosen in this divine manner, he divided his jurisdiction among seven deacons, who through notaries were to collect the experiences of the martyrs as an example for others who acknowledged faith in Christ. He also built a cemetery in honor of the martyrs. He also ordained that annually, on Holy Thursday, at the Lord’s Supper, the chrism[Oil usually mixed with balm, or balm and spices, consecrated by the bishop on Maundy Thursday (the day before Good Friday) and used in the administration of baptism, confirmation, ordination, etc., according to the ritual of the Roman Catholic church, Maundy Thursday is so called from the ancient custom of washing the feet of the poor on this day, which was taken to be the fulfillment of the "new commandment" (John 13:5-24).] should be renewed, and the old burned in the church. The heresy of Novatus originated in his time. After having consecrated 22 priests, seven deacons, and eleven bishops in the month of December, he was crowned with martyrdom, and buried in the cemetery of Calixtus. He sat (in office) for 14 years, 11 months, and 11 days, and the chair was vacant six days. His day and that of St. Sebastian are celebrated on the 20th day of the month of January.[]

The first schism, or division, in these times, occurred when Novatus the priest at Rome, undertook to trouble and divide the church of God. Through greed for episcopal honors he confused matters human and divine. In order that the papacy might not pass to Cornelius, he separated from the church, and styled himself and his retainers the pure ones. He also said that those who seceded from the faith should not be again admitted, even though repentant. On this account a council was held, consisting of sixty bishops, and as many priests with their deacons, in which the words of Novatus were decreed to be false, for by the example of our Savior, forgiveness is not to be denied a penitent. And so ended the first schism of the Roman Church.[]At this time also other heresies originated. Origen held those to be heretics who said man’s soul does not leave his body, but in the resurrection will rise with the body. Also at this time was the heresy of the Helcesaites (Helchesatarum), who entirely ignored the apostle Paul, and said that it was no sin to deny Christ under torture if one did not do so in one’s heart.[]

Cornelius the pope, was also a Roman and a very highly educated man, who sent many letters and epistles to numerous persons and places. During his term, Novatus ministered outside the church, and Nicostratus in Africa. For that reason the confessors who had fallen away from Cornelius returned to the Church; and thus they attained to the names of true confessors and ministers. But Cornelius was afterwards sent into exile through the instigation of the heretics. After he was imprisoned, Cyprianus, the bishop of Carthage, sent him letters, through which he understood his friend’s opposition and the reason for his misfortune. Before he was sent into exile, at the solicitation of the virgin Lucina, he removed the bodies of Saints Peter and Paul at night from places where they were hardly secure, and Lucina buried Paul on her own soil where he was slain, and Cornelius buried Peter where he had undergone his martyrdom of crucifixion in the temple of Apollo at the roots of a golden mountain on the 29th day of the month of June. This Cornelius was tortured in many ways by order of the emperor Decius, and urged to worship the idols. Finally he was slain on the fifth day of the month of May. The blessed Lucina buried his body, together with those of certain priests, at night in a sand-pit on her estate. He sat in office for two years and three days. And the seat was vacant for 35 days.

Cornelius was elected pope in 251, after the Holy See had been vacant for sixteen months. He had passed through all the degrees of ecclesiastical offices, and when offered the bishopric shrank from the burden, perhaps the dangers, it entailed; for the edict of Decius was in force against bishops and priests. He was elected by sixteen bishops, then at Rome, and they wrote to all the churches to announce his election. There was at this time at Rome one Novatian, who had been a Stoic philosopher, who finally found peace in Christianity, and was ordained a priest. For a while he remained in severe ascetic seclusion, but later became involved in a quarrel with Cornelius on matters of church doctrine—the principles of penitence and the essence of a true Church. Novatian contended that the Church had no right to grant absolution to a person who had willfully committed a mortal sin, and could only absolve sins of infirmity. Against this doctrine Cyprian wrote with wrath and eloquence, assembled a council in Africa, and condemned Novatian. On receipt of the decrees of the council and the letters of Cyprian, Cornelius convoked a council at Rome; and, in spite of the persecution then raging, it was attended by sixty bishops. This council condemned the schism and errors of Novatian.

Decius died in 251, and was succeeded by Gallus. Persecution did not cease with the death of Decius. Cornelius was banished to Centumcella (Civita Vecchia), where he died in the year 253. He is commemorated with his friend Cyprian on September 16.

The last three sentences of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Dionysius, bishop of the Alexandrine church, a highly learned man and a disciple of Origen, the master, was ordained as a bishop at this time; and he sat 17 years. He too was of the opinion that heretics should be rebaptized. He sent very many letters; but to Pope Fabian (Fabianus) he sent one letter on the topic of penitence; and to various other individuals he sent letters on the topics of exile, death, the Sabbath, the persecution of Decius, and two books against the bishop Nepos and to Origen his teacher he sent a book about martyrdom as well as many other things.

Dionysius of Alexandria (bishop of Alexandria), called "Dionysius the Great," (c. 190-265), became a Christian at an early age, and studied under Origen. In 231 he was made head of the Catechetical school of Alexandria, and in 247 a bishop of that city. During the Decian persecution in 251 he fled to the Libyan desert, while under Valerian he was banished to Cethro in 257, returning when toleration was decreed by Gallienus in 260. He was engaged in controversy over the restoration of Christians who had lapsed during the persecution, and over the iteration of baptism by heretics. In opposing the bishops of Upper Libya, who supported Sabellianism, Dionysius over-emphasized the unity of the Godhead. Eusebius often cites him in his ecclesiastical history.

The last sentence of this paragraph in the German edition reads: "As a highly learned man he also wrote and sent out many letters to various persons on diverse subjects."—a typical abridgment/summation clearly designed for that intended audience’s (the German bourgeois’) taste (i.e., simple facts, light on details).

(The Latin inscription reads: ‘Council at Rome. 60 bishops.’)

Here we have the First Council called by a Bishop of Rome. Upon the election of Cornelius to the episcopate of Rome, Novatian, a Presbyter of that church, and others protested against him on the ground of laxity of principle as to the readmission of lapsed heretics, they themselves maintaining the strict view of the case, by which, without denying that it was possible for such penitents to make their peace with God, their open reception into the Church was regarded as a sinful breach of discipline. They elected Novatian as their own bishop, but this election was not finally confirmed. Cornelius called a council of sixty bishops, and a large number of priests. Novatian was condemned, and the question concerning the lapsed heretics was decided in favor of the more moderate party. The Novatians became a distinct sect, distinguished by severity of discipline. They subsisted until the sixth century, and were called Cathari or ‘Puritans’ / ‘The Pure Ones’ (History of the Papacy, J. E. Riddle, Vol. I, pp. 74-74).

Here we see the Council in session, and we may assume that the central figure in the pontificals, with papal tiara and staff, is Cornelius. He holds an open book and is surrounded by a close group of friendly churchmen. A dove, symbolizing the Holy Spirit, hovers over the gathering.


Maximinus, emperor after Alexander, in the year from the founding of the city 987[The German edition has the year 988.] , was elected by the army and without the consent of the senate, after having waged a successful war in Germany. In early youth he was a shepherd, and for a time a guard stationed to protect his people against the inroads of thieves and murderers. He entered the army under Severus, the emperor, and was notable for his size and conspicuous for his virtue and military demeanor. He was of manly stature and earnest disposition. He stood erect and was over eight feet in height; and so he had a large foot. In speaking of tall and huge persons it was customary to say, This man requires the hose of the Emperor Maximinus. He was a heavy drinker, and is said to have consumed an amphora of wine at a single meal. But being the sixth persecutor of the Christians after Nero, he, together with his son Maximus, was slain by Pupienus at Aquileia, which he was besieging, in the third year of his reign. For those of Aquileia were against Maximinus, and so faithful were they to the Roman senate that when there was a shortage of sinews they made bowstrings from the hair of their women. To the honor of these women the Romans erected a temple to the bald Venus, goddess at Rome.[Maximinus I, Roman emperor from 235-238 CE, was born in a village in Thrace, of barbarian parents, his father being a Goth, and his mother a German from the tribe of Alani. Brought up as a shepherd, he attracted the attention of Septimus Severus by his gigantic stature and marvelous feats of strength, and was permitted to enter the army. He eventually rose to the highest rank in the service, and on the murder of Severus by mutinous troops in Gaul (235), he was proclaimed emperor. He immediately bestowed the title of Caesar on his son Maximus. During the three years of his reign he waged war against the Germans with success, but his government was characterized by oppression and violent excesses. The Roman world became tired of this monster, and the Senate and the provinces gladly acknowledged the two Gordiani, who had been proclaimed emperors in Africa; and after his death the senate proclaimed Maximus and Balbinus emperors (238). As soon as Maximinus heard of the elevation of the Gordiani, he hastened from his winter quarters at Sirmium. Crossing the Alps he laid siege to Aquileia, and was slain by his own soldiers along with his son Maximus. The most extraordinary tales are told of his physical strength. His height exceeded 8 feet, and the circumference of his thumb was equal to a woman’s wrist, so that the bracelet of his wife served him for a ring. He was able single-handed to draw a loaded wagon. With his fist he could knock out the grinders, and with a kick break the leg of a horse. His appetite was such that within one day he could eat 40 pounds of meat and drink an amphora of wine.]

Gordianus attained the sovereignty after the tyrant Maximinus. This very noble man, together with his son, was chosen emperor after he had defeated the Parthians with great loss. At the age of eighty, after having been a proconsul in many provinces, he was named Africanus. This Gordianus, the father, and Gordianus, the son, were both elected emperors by the great council of Africa. Gordianus the younger was declared emperor, and he reigned six years. As Maximinus had attained the sovereignty without the consent of the senate, the latter appointed three emperors to make war against him. Of these, two, Pupienus and Albinus, were slain in the palace, leaving the sovereignty to Gordianus alone. This emperor was so well liked that he had sixty-two thousand books in his library. Finally, while returning to Rome to celebrate a triumph, he was slain not far from Rome through the treachery of Philip. He was buried with an honorable epitaph in four languages, Greek, Latin, Persian, and Hebrew.[ M. Antonius Gordianus was the name of three Roman emperors, father, son, and grandson. The first, surnamed Africanus, was distinguished alike for his moral and intellectual excellence. In his first consulship he was a colleague of Caracalla; and in his second, of Alexander Severus, and soon after was nominated proconsul of Africa. After governing Africa for several years with justice and integrity, a rebellion broke out in the provinces in consequence of the tyranny of Maximinus. The ringleaders of the conspiracy compelled Gordianus, who was no in his 80th year, to assume the imperial title. He entered upon his new duties at Carthage in February, associated with his son in the empire, and dispatched letters to Rome announcing his elevation. Gordianus and his son were at once proclaimed Augusti by the senate, and preparations were made in Italy to resist Maximinus. But meantime a certain Capellianus, procurator of Numidia, refused to acknowledge the Gordiani, and marched against them. The younger Gordianus, having been defeated and slain in battle, his aged father put an end to his own life after reigning less than two months. Gordianus III was proclaimed emperor in July 238 after the murder of Balbinus and Pupienus, although he was a mere boy not over 12. He reigned six years, 238-244. In 241 he married the daughter of Misitheus, and in the same year set out for the East against the Persians. With the assistance of Misitheus he defeated them in 232, but Misitheus died in the following year; and Philippus, whom Gordianus had taken into his confidence, excited discontent among the soldiers, who at length rose in open mutiny and assassinated Gordianus in Mesopotamia in 244. He was succeeded by Philippus. In the Gordianus II and III are treated as one person.]

Philippus and his son Philippus reigned five years after returning with the army from Syria and Italy in the year from the founding of the city nine hundred ninety-seven. The Christians had the first of these for emperor. However, he did not meddle with the hidden meanings of the faith, but acquiesced in them. In the third year of his reign, the one thousandth year from the founding of the City was celebrated, and the games were played which had always taken place every hundredth year, and which Valerius Publicola, after the line of Roman kings had come to an end, set up as a goal of human life. Those two, namely Philippus, father and son, were afterwards killed by the army through the treachery of Decius, the former at Verona or Bern, the latter at Rome. And they were reckoned among the gods. Philippus the younger was of so serious a disposition that he could not be moved to laughter by any manner of pastime; and the father turned away from those who were moved to laughter at any of the aforesaid games. And after Decius became envious of them they entrusted their treasures to Pope Fabian. On this account Decius became very hateful of the Christians.[M. Julius Philippus I, Roman emperor (244 to 249 CE), was an Arabian by birth, and entered the Roman army, attaining to high rank. He accompanied Gordianus III in his expedition against the Persians, and upon the death of the excellent Misistheus he was promoted to the vacant office of praetorian praefect. But he excited discontent among the soldiers, who at length assassinated Gordianus, and proclaimed Philippus emperor in 244. Philippus proclaimed his son Caesar, concluded a disgraceful peace with Sapor, and returned to Rome. In the meantime Decius was forcibly invested with the purple by his troops, and compelled to march on Italy. Having gone forth to meet his rival, Philippus was slain in a battle near Verona, or by his own soldiers. The great domestic event of his reign was the exhibition of the secular games, which were celebrated with even more than the ordinary degree of splendor, since Rome had now, according to the received tradition, attained the 1000th year of her existence (248 CE). Philippus II, son of the foregoing, was a boy of seven at the accession of his father in 244. His father proclaimed him Caesar, and three years later he received the title of Augustus. According to Zosimus he was slain in 249 at the battle of Verona, or murdered, according to Victor, at Rome by the praetorians, when intelligence arrived of the defeat and death of the emperor.]

Decius, the Roman emperor, native of Bubalia in lower Pannonia, took over the sovereignty on the death of the Philippi and he burned with hatred against the Christians because of these Christian Philippi. He suppressed the civil war that broke out in Gaul, and made a Caesar of his son. At home he built baths. After having reigned two years, he and his son were defeated in the wars with the barbarians; and he sank so deep in a pool of water that his body was never recovered; and thus he was damned by a deserved judgment. He initiated the seventh persecution of the Christians after Nero, in which many pious men were slain. Here occurs a matter not clear among historians; for Eutropius writes that Decius tortured St. Lawrence the Levite and martyr, with fire. St. Lawrence flourished under Pope Sixtus. And so some extend the reign of Decius. Some say this was the elder Decius, under whom Fabian and Cornelius suffered. After this they mention the younger Decius Caesar, and say that between these two, Gallus Volusianus and other emperors reigned; and after them Valerianus and Gallienus, under whom Lucianus, Stephen, and Sixtus, the popes, and Lawrence the archdeacon, and Hippolytus were martyred; and that Gallienus was called Decius Gallienus. Some state that Decius was before Philippus, for in the life of St. Lawrence one reads of Decius Caesar and not Imperator, under whom St. Lawrence suffered. In ancient times some emperors were called Caesars, some Augusti, and some Imperators; all of which means emperor.[Decius, Roman emperor (249-251), was born in Bubalia in Pannonia. The emperor Philippus in 249 sent him to restore order in the army of Moesia; but the troops compelled him to accept the purple under threats of death. Decius still assured Philippus of his fidelity; but the latter, not trusting his assurances, hastened to meet his rival in the field, was defeated near Verona, and slain. The short reign of Decius was occupied chiefly in warring against the Goths. He fell in battle, together with his son in 251. During his reign the Christians were persecuted with great severity.]


The sixth persecution of the Christians was carried on by Maximinus the emperor, chiefly against the clergy and the priests. After he had persecuted many unto death, he and his sons were slain by Pupienus at Aquileia in the third year of his reign; and so an end was made of his persecution and of his life.

Pontius, most holy martyr, as the historians say, converted the two emperors, the Philippi, to the Christian faith. He was the son of a Roman senator. His father’s name was Marcus, his mother’s Julia. While with child she went into the temple of Jupiter in which a priest was sacrificing. And he tore his garments, and in a frightened voice cried out, This woman carries in her womb one who will raze the temple to its foundations. Because of this she returned home in sorrow. And she weighted down her body that the child might not thrive; yet she bore the child undefiled. And when she undertook to slay it, the father said, Let it live, for if Jupiter is so minded, he will take revenge on his enemy himself. Pontius became highly learned, and he heard the Christians singing, Our God in heaven has ordered all things as he wishes them. The idols of the pagans are of gold and silver, etc. And Pontius abandoned the idolatrous gods and, with his father, received baptism. Upon his father’s death he gave all of his estate and possessions to Pope Fabian to be distributed among the poor. Now, being a friend of the Philippi, the emperors, and this being the one thousandth year from the foundation of the City, he showed them that the great and true God in heaven should be worshipped; and they received, baptism from Fabian, and destroyed the temple. However, he was variously tortured at the instance of succeeding emperors, yet remained unharmed. But at length his martyrdom was accomplished by decapitation.[Pontius was the son of a Roman senator named Marcus, and his wife Julia. One day when she was approaching childbirth, she visited the temple of Jupiter to ask an augury concerning the unborn child. The priest predicted that ruin would befall the temple through it. The mother ran home in horror, striking herself with stones in hope of destroying the child. But notwithstanding, the child was born shortly after, and she would have exposed it had not her husband interfered with the sensible advice that Jupiter was the one concerned in the child’s living, and if the child was likely to be obnoxious to him, he would have slain it. As the boy grew up he was sent to a tutor. One morning on the way to his master, when passing a certain house, he heard sweet strains of music, accompanying the words, "Wherefore shall the pagans say, Where is now their God? As for our God, He is in heaven. He has done whatsoever pleased him. Their idols are silver and gold; even the work of men’s hands. They have mouths and speak not. Eyes have they, and see not," etc. And the light of conviction illumined the soul of Pontius, and he struck with hand and foot at the door, eager to hear more. Being admitted, he was led up into the chamber where the sacred mysteries were celebrated, and when the rite was over, he conversed with Pope Pontianus who instructed him in the faith. On his return home Pontius told his experience to his father, and both father and son were baptized. Upon his father’s death Pontius gave his paternal inheritance to the bishop to be distributed to the poor. He saw Pontianus suffer a martyr’s death, and he lived in close familiarity with the humane Emperor Philip, with whom, and his son Philip, he had many opportunities of discussing Christianity. On the accession of Valerian and Gallienus to the throne, Pontius fled to Cimella, a city near Nice in southern France. There he was arrested by the governor and exposed to bears in the amphitheater; but the bears hugged to death the men who were trying to incite them to destroy Pontius. Seeing this, the governor ordered his decapitation.]

The martyrs who suffered through various persecutions.

The names of the famous ones are noted one after the other.

    [First Column]
  • Leontius, martyr
  • Flocellus, a child
  • Felicissimus, martyr
  • Romanus, martyr
  • Habundius, martyr
  • Cirilla, virgin, daughter of Decius and a martyr
  • Habakuk (Abacuck), martyr
  • Andecius, disciple of Polycarp
  • Simimus, martyr
  • Novatus, with 20
  • Victor, soldier, and Terrena, his wife
  • Concordius, a sub-deacon
  • Valerius, martyr
  • Gaius, martyr
  • Philippus, prefect of Alexandria
  • Tryphonia
  • Caesarius
  • Symphorianus
  • Castorius
  • Columba
  • Geminianus
  • Philemon
  • Januarius
  • Festus
  • Desiderius
  • Sabinus
  • Basilius with seven others
  • Adrianus
  • Simplicianus
    [Second Column]
  • Patroclus
  • 48 martyrs
  • Leonilla
  • Priscus
  • 342 Martyrs
  • Quirinus
  • Theodorus Basilides
  • Maurus
  • Victorinus
  • Victor, martyr
  • Nicoforus
  • Claudianus
  • Alexander
  • Carpoferus
  • Crisandus
  • Gedeon
  • Daria
  • Marcellianus
  • Marcus
  • Nicostratus and Zoe, his wife
  • Tranquilla
  • Cromatius (Chromacius)
  • Crescentia
  • Theodora
  • Albinus
  • Felicianus
  • Primus
  • Faustinus
  • Beatrix

In the time of Decius the emperor, when, after many persecutions of the Christians, he came to Ephesus, he caused a temple to be built in the midst of the city; and he commanded all persons, on pain of death, to sacrifice to the idols, and to deny all other gods. And great fear of punishment seized all men to such an extent that sons betrayed fathers, and friends accused one another. In this city were seven nobles, the first and foremost in the palace, namely, Maximinus, Marcus, Martinianus, Dionysius, Seraphion, John (Iohannes) and Constantinus. These ignored the idols and hid themselves in their houses, praying and fasting. But they were accused before Decius, and now they gave their paternal inheritance to the poor, and they went into Mount Celion, intending to conceal themselves until the persecution had abated. And one waited upon the rest, and brought them bread, and thus fed, they were strengthened, and addressed one another in tears. And so, as God willed, they fell asleep. Decius then immediately ordered the cave blocked up so they might die of hunger and thirst. But afterwards, in the time of Theodosius, they were still found alive as related below.

[The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus were seven noble youths in the household of the emperor Decius, who fled from his court to a cave in Mount Celion. They were Christians, and the emperor sent persecutors after them. The mouth of the cave was blocked up, and the youths fell asleep. Some 230 years later the cave was opened, and the "youths" awoke; but they died soon afterward, and were taken to Marseilles in a large coffin. Visitors in St. Victor’s Church are still shown this stone coffin.]

The seventh persecution of the Christians after Nero was carried on by Decius, the Emperor, and affected many persons in various places. When Philippus was returning homeward from the war from Verona, Decius went forth to meet him, as if to honor him, but treacherously killed him; and thus he secured the sovereignty. And Decius proceeded to Rome and let it be known that through love of the gods he had slain his master because he (Philippus) was a Christian. And he began a severe persecution against the Christians; and he killed many, among them the son of Philippus; and they suffered various martyrdoms, details of which follow.

Abdon and Senen, petty kings subject to Rome, highly renowned men from Corduba, a city of the Persians, were, after suffering in prison, taken to Rome in chains, and long subjected to various forms of torture. Then after Decius the emperor had overcome Babylonia and other countries, he marched the Christians from various regions to the said city of Corduba and killed them with various forms of martyrdom. Their bodies were buried by Abdon and Senen, Christian men. Finally they suffered martyrdom by the sword on the 30th day of the month of July.

Agatha, a Sicilian virgin of noble birth and highly renowned, was crowned with martyrdom at this time in Catania (Cathania), in Sicily, for Christ’s sake. When Quintianus, the governor, learned of her reputation and heard the praises of her nobility, beauty and riches, and that she was a servant of Christ, he apprehended her and turned her over to Aphrodisia (Affrodisia), a very wicked woman. She had seven vile daughters, who for thirty days threatened her and admonished her to submit to the will of the governor. And when she would not sacrifice to the pagan gods, she was finally beaten and imprisoned, and after her breasts were cut off, and she was rolled over hot coals, she was, according to the judgment of Quintianus, slain in prison, receiving the crown of martyrdom on the 5th day of the month of February. Her body, after being anointed with herbs of incense, was buried by the faithful. And there an angel laid a tablet with the inscription: A pious obedient disposition, an honor to God, and a relief to the fatherland. Cortina also put out a fire on its mountain near the city.

The full story concerning Agatha is told by Jameson (Sacred and Legendary Art, II, 4th edition; London 1863; pp. 608-13):

There dwelt in the city of Catania, in Sicily, a certain Christian maiden whose name was Agatha. In those days reigned the emperor Decius, who had strangled his predecessor Philip; and, to make it believed by all that he had put him to death out of great zeal and for being a Christian, not from motives of ambition, this Decius sent his emissaries throughout the empire to oppress and persecute the Christians, and many were put to death. And to Sicily Decius sent his creature Quintianus, and made him king over the whole island. Not long had Quintianus reigned in Sicily when he heard of the great beauty and perfection of the maiden Agatha, and he sent to have her brought before him; and he tempted her with rich presents, and flatteries, and promises, but she rejected all with disdain. Then Quintianus sent for a courtesan, named Frondisia, who had nine daughters, more wicked and abandoned than herself, and he delivered Agatha into their hands, and he said, ‘Subdue this girl to my will, and I will give you great riches.’ Then Frondisia took Agatha home to her house, and kept her there for 33 days, and tempted her with great promises, and flattered and cajoled her; and seeing this availed not, they persecuted her day and night: but her heart was fixed as a rock in the faith of Jesus Christ, and all their promises and all their threats were as empty air. At the end of 33 days, Frondisia returned to Quintianus and said to him, ‘Sooner shall that sword at your side become like liquid lead, and the rocks dissolved and flow like water, than the heart of this girl be subdued to your will.’ Then Quintianus in a fury commanded her to be brought to him. . . . ‘Abjure your master, and serve our gods, or I will have you tortured.’ To which Agatha replied, "If you should throw me to the wild beasts, the power of Christ would render them meek as lambs; if you should kindle a fire to consume me, the angels would quench it with dew from heaven; if you should tear me with scourges, the Holy Spirit within me would render your tortures harmless.’ Then this accursed tyrant ordered St. Agatha to be beaten with rods; and he commanded two of his slaves to tear her tender bosom cruelly with iron shears . . . Then she was carried from the place of torture into a dark dungeon." The legend then relates how St. Peter visited her and restored her mutilated bosom with celestial medicines, and her body torn with stripes, and thereupon vanished. And Quintianus sent for her again, and finding her thus healed, he ordered a great fire to be kindled, and they bound the holy maiden hand and foot and flung her upon it; and in that moment a terrible earthquake ensued, and the people ran armed to the palace and cried out, ‘This had fallen upon us because of the sufferings of this Christian girl!’ and they threatened, that if Quintianus did not desist from tormenting her they would burn him in his palace with all his family. So he ordered her to be taken from the flames, and again cast into the dungeon, scorched and in miserable pain; and she prayed that having thus far suffered and proved her faith, she might be permitted to see the glory of God; which prayer was heard, for her pure spirit immediately departed and ascended to eternal glory. The Christians who dwelt in Catania came to the prison and carried away her sacred remains, and embalmed them; and they buried her with great devotion in a tomb of porphyry.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Apollonia (Appolonia), a very holy and memorable Alexandrian virgin, in these times suffered bitterest martyrdom for the sake of Christ; for when she refused to sacrifice to the idols, they first pulled out all her teeth and punished her with many scourgings. Finally they threatened to burn her alive if she would not blaspheme God. But when she saw the fire that had been prepared, she tore herself from the hands of the evil ones and sprang into it. And when the dispensers of cruelty saw that a woman had been found who was quicker to die than the persecutors were to torture, they were frightened. And she earned the crown of martyrdom on the 9th day of February. Her holy body was afterwards taken to Italy, and is contained in the cathedral church of Dordona (Derdonam) in Lombardy.[]

Serapion, a native of Alexandria, a very holy man, was, in the same year, taken prisoner by the persecutors, and subjected to gruesome tortures, to such an extent that his limbs came apart; but while still alive the henchmen of the devil threw him from the highest part of his house, and so made of him a Christian martyr. His day is commemorated on the 14th of November.[Serapion was seized in his own house and after being subjected to the severest cruelties, and the breaking of all his limbs, was thrown headlong from an upper story (Eusebius, 6.41; Bohn 243).] Justinus the priest, together with Victoria, also suffered martyrdom with great fortitude.

Meniatus (Meniacus), an Etrurian of high repute, suffered martyrdom at Florence, in Etruria, on the 25th day of October. The citizens there hold him in high regard for his piety.[With the exception of a few similar notices in later texts, nothing else is known or said about Menatius.] In this tumult, in the same country, Palentinus and Laurentinus, in their city of Aretio, together with Nicostratus, the deacon, and many others, suffered for the sake of Christ.

Victoria, a famous virgin, was espoused to a pagan. She would neither cohabit with him nor sacrifice to the pagan gods. She was beheaded with the sword at the request of her husband during the Decian persecution.[] And many others were crowned with martyrdom, and those who had taken refuge in the wilderness and the mountains, died of thirst, cold and starvation, and murder, and in many parts of the world were consumed by wild beasts.


Year of the World 5453

Year of Christ 254

Lucius the pope, a Roman, was elected pope after Cornelius under emperor Gallus Hostilianus. He was exiled by the emperor Volusian (Volusianus). He was released from exile after the death of the same emperor, and again returned to Rome. He ordained that two priests and three deacons should always be about a bishop, giving testimony of his life and transactions. Before being led to martyrdom at the command of Valerian (Valerianus) he left all his power over the churches to his archdeacon Stephen (Stephano). His martyrdom having been accomplished on the 25th day of the month of August, he was buried in the cemetery of Calixtus on the Appian Way after having sat for three years 3 months and 3 days. The chair was then vacant thirty-five days.[According to Eusebius ( 7.2), Lucius did not hold the papal office quite 8 months, when dying he transferred it to Stephen. He spent a short period of his pontificate in exile. He is referred to in several letters of Cyprian as agreeing with his predecessor Cornelius in preferring the milder treatment of lapsed penitents. He is commemorated on March 4th. His term is generally given as 252-3 CE, or 253-4 CE.]

Year of the World 5458

Year of Christ 257

Stephen (Stephanus) the First, the pope, a Roman, and a very good man, ordained that the priests, and their Levites, should not wear the garments designed for pious uses at any other place than in the churches and in sacred transactions, so that by acting to the contrary they would not suffer the punishment visited upon Belshazzar (Balthasar), the Babylonian king, who touched the sacred vessels with unworthy hands. This pope was of the same opinion as Pope Cornelius concerning those who returned to the faith, and held that no communion was to be had with those who were rebaptized. After he had converted many to the Christian faith by his words and works, he was beheaded by Gallienus, or those who at the command of Decius persecuted the Christians; and thus he suffered martyrdom with many others of his people, and was buried in the cemetery of Calixtus on the Appian Way on the 2nd day of August. He sat (in office) seven years, five months and two days. The chair was vacant for twenty-two days.[According to Eusebius ( 7.2), it was Stephen to whom Dionysius wrote the first of his epistles on baptism, as there was no small amount of controversy whether those returning from any heresy whatever should be purified by baptism. Stephen held office for only 2 years, being then succeeded by Sixtus. He withdrew from church fellowship with Cyprian and certain Asiatic bishops on account of their views as to the rebaptizing of heretics. He is commemorated on August 2nd and was succeeded by Sixtus II.]

Sixtus the Second, a pope, native of Athens in Greece, from having been a philosopher, became a disciple of Christ while the Decian and Valerian persecutions were still going on. This was a highly learned man, who with great industry aimed to discredit and disperse the heresies of Sabellius[Sabellius, African bishop of the 3rd century CE, taught that God exists as one person, the Son and the Spirit being but different manifestation of God; the doctrine of a model Trinity, that is, characterized by form without reference to substance.] and Nepos.[Nepos asserted there would be an earthly reign of Christ.] However, because of his preaching of the Christian faith contrary to imperial prohibition, he was accused and taken prisoner to the temple of Mars to make sacrifices to the pagan god or lose his head. And as he went to martyrdom Lawrence (Laurentius), the archdeacon, said to him, Father, where are you going without your son and servant? Sixtus answered, Son, I do not leave you. There are much greater trials awaiting you in the battle for the Christian faith. In three days you will follow me. What you have in wealth, give to the poor in the meantime. On the 6th day of the month of August there were slain with Sixtus, six deacons, namely Felicissimus, Agapitus, Januarius, Magnus, Innocentius and Stephen (Stephanus). He sat for two years ten months and twenty-three days. And the papal see was vacant for thirty-five days.[Sixtus II, Roman bishop in 257, suffered martyrdom under Valerian on August 6, 258. He restored the relations with the Eastern and African churches that had been broken off by his predecessor on the question of heretical baptism. He was succeeded by Dionysius.]

Dionysius was a monk, and became a pope. He divided the churches and cemeteries at Rome among the priests; also the outlying rectories and bishoprics, so that each would be content with its own jurisdiction. He ordained that no lay or ecclesiastical tribunal should condemn any person unless he first be found guilty by credible witnesses. In his declining years he called a Council in the city of Antioch against Paul, the bishop there. And although Dionysius, because of his age, did not himself attend, yet he was represented in writing in all the transactions of the Council through Maximus. When he died he was buried in the cemetery at Calixtus. He consecrated twelve priests, six deacons and seven bishops, and sat six years two months and four days; and the chair was vacant six days.[Dionysius was pope from 259 to 268. To him fell the task of reorganizing the church after the persecution of Valerian. At the protest of some of the faithful at Alexandria, he demanded from their bishop (also called Dionysius) explanations touching his doctrine. He died December 26, 268.]

Year of the World 5463

Year of Christ 264

Felix the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of Aurelian. He was a righteous man, worthy of every praise. He ordered that the sacrifices to the martyrs should be celebrated by the priests every year, and also that the mass was to be celebrated only at consecrated places and by spiritual persons. He also ordained that the consecration of churches take place in a festal manner and in due form, and that churches whose consecration was not remembered, or whose walls were in ruin, should be reconsecrated. After having consecrated nine priests, five deacons and five bishops, this Felix became a martyr. He was buried on the Aurelian Road to Rome on the 30th day of the month of May, in the church which he had built in honor of the Lord two miles from the city. He occupied the papal chair four years 2 months and 15 days; and then the chair remained vacant for five days.[Felix I was pope from January 269 until his death in January 274. His name is given as a martyr in the Roman calendar and elsewhere, but his title to this honor is by no means proved. He appears in connection with the dispute in the church of Antioch between Paul and Samosta, who had been deprived of his bishopric by a council of bishops for heresy. He ordered the church building to be given to the bishop who was "recognized by the bishops of Italy and the city of Rome." (, t.I, ed., Duchesne, 1886).]


Gallus Hostilianus and Volusian (Volusianus), his son, were soon crowned emperors. In these same times and to avenge the name of Christ, a great pestilence broke out, particularly in Egypt, at Alexandria, so that few countries, cities, and houses remained which did not suffer. These two emperors did nothing of consequence, so that no memories remain of their sovereignty except the misery of this pestilence, plague and sickness. However, they undertook a war against Aemilianus, who undertook new ventures, and in that war they were slain. But after that Aemilianus, who was of very obscure ancestry, ruled still more obscurely and was slain within the third month. The two emperors above named were slain after a rule of less than two years.[Trebonianus Gallus was Roman emperor from 251-254 CE. He served under Decius in the campaign against the Goths, 251, and he is said to have contributed by his treachery to the disastrous issue of the battle that proved fatal to Decius and his son Herennius. Gallus was, therefore, immediately elected emperor, and Hostilianus, the surviving son of Decius, was nominated his colleague. He purchased peace of the Goths by allowing them to retain their plunder, and promising them a fixed annual tribute. In 253 the Goths again invaded the Roman dominions, but they were driven back by Aemilianus, whose troops proclaimed him emperor in Moesia. Aemilianus then immediately marched into Italy; and Gallus was put to death by his own soldiers, together with his son Volusian, before any collision had taken place between the opposing armies. The name of Gallus is associated with nothing but cowardice and dishonor. In addition to the misery produced by the inroads of the barbarians during his reign, a deadly pestilence broke out in 253, and continued its ravages over every part of the empire for fifteen years. Aemilianus, the governor of Pannonia and Moesia, was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers in 253, but was slain by them after reigning a few months.]

Valerian (Valerianus), the emperor, together with his son Gallienus (Galieno), reigned 15 years. While Valerian was engaged in Rhaetia and Noricum, he was elected emperor by the soldiers, and his son Gallienus was elected emperor by the Roman senate. The sovereignty and rule of these two were disastrous to the Roman name, and they deserved to be exterminated because of their misconduct and cruelty toward the Christians. And the Germans came up to Ravenna, destroying everything with fire and sword. Valerian conducted a war in Mesopotamia. He was taken prisoner by Sapor, the Persian king; and he lived there in disgraceful captivity, and he grew old with the Persians in ignoble service; for when the Persian king wished to mount his horse, he used Valerian as his footstool for the purpose, and placed his foot on his neck, and deservedly so; for when he began his reign he instituted the eighth persecution of the Christians.[Valerian (in Latin Valerianus) was Roman emperor from 253 to 260 CE. He was proclaimed emperor by the troops whom he was leading against the usurper Aemilianus. Valerian proclaimed his son Gallienus, Augustus, and first carried on war against the Goths, whom he defeated. But though the barbarians still threatened the Roman frontiers on the Danube and the Rhine, the conquests of the Persians who had crossed the Euphrates and stormed Antioch compelled him to hasten to the East. For a time his measures were vigorous and successful. Antioch was recovered, and the Persian king Sapor was compelled to fall back behind the Euphrates; but the emperor, flushed by his good fortune, followed too rashly. He was surrounded in the vicinity of Edessa by the countless horsemen of his enemy. He was taken prisoner in 260, and passed the remainder of his life in captivity, subjected to every insult that cruelty could devise. After death it was said that his skin was stuffed and long preserved as a trophy in the chief temple of the nation.] However, Gallienus,[Gallienus (260-268 CE), succeeded his father Valerian, when the latter was taken prisoner by the Persians; but he had previously reigned in conjunction with his father from the latter’s accession in 253. Gallienus was indolent, profligate, and indifferent to the public welfare. His reign was long considered one of the most disastrous in the history of Rome. The barbarians ravaged large portions of the empire (and Gaul eventually seceded), and the inhabitants were swept away by one of the most frightful plagues recorded in history. This followed a long protracted famine. When it was at its greatest height 5,000 sick are said to have perished daily in Rome; and after the scourge had passed, it was found that the population of Alexandria had been decreased by two-thirds. The complete dissolution of the empire was averted mainly by a series of internal rebellions. In every district able officers sprang up and strove to maintain the dignity of independent princes. The armies levied by these usurpers, who are commonly distinguished as the Thirty Tyrants, in many cases arrested the progress of the invaders, and restored order in the provinces which they governed. Gallienus was at length slain by his own soldiers in 268 CE, while besieging Milan, in which the usurper Aureolus had taken refuge.] frightened by the public judgment of God, gave the churches peace. As he was elected emperor in his youth, he at first ruled the empire with good fortune, then soon with indifference, but finally disastrously; for in him was the thirst for power. But the barbarian people invaded the Roman country, and tyrants sprang up who ravaged what had escaped other external enemies who had been there before. This Gallienus abandoned the sovereignty and went to Milan for carnal pleasures; and he was slain in the ninth year of his reign. This occurred, as some say, with the help of Cecropius, the Duke of Dalmatia. And there his brother Valerian was also slain. The Germans marched as far as Hispania, and after many disasters, the Roman Empire was destroyed. And Postumus (Posthumus), obscurely born in Gaul, reigned by force as an emperor for 10 years. He was slain by the soldiers in a revolt.[Postumus stands second in the list of the so-called Thirty Tyrants. Being nominated Governor of Gaul by Valerian, he assumed the title of emperor in 258 CE, while Valerian was prosecuting his campaign against the Persians. Postumus maintained a strong and just government, and preserved Gaul against the warlike tribes on the Eastern border. After reigning nearly ten years, he was slain by his soldiers in 268. Laelianus was proclaimed emperor in his stead.] After him Victorinus, the Gaul, undertook to rule. He was a strong man, but given to gluttony, and took on a foreign spouse; and therefore he was slain at Cologne in the second year of his reign.[Victorinus, one of the Thirty Tyrants, was the third of the usurpers who ruled Gaul during the reign of Gallienus. He was assassinated at Agrippina by one of his own officers in 268 CE, after reigning somewhat more than a year.] After him, Tetricus, the Roman senator and governor of Aquitainia, was elected emperor by the soldiers.[C. Pesuvius Tetricus was one of the Thirty Tyrants, and the last of the pretenders who ruled Gaul during its separation from the empire under Gallienus and his successor. He reigned in Gaul from 267-274 CE, and was defeated by Aurelian in 274 at the battle of Chalons, on which occasion he is believed to have betrayed his army to the emperor. It is certain that although Tetricus, along with his son, graced the triumph of the conqueror, he was immediately afterward treated with the greatest distinction by Aurelian.]

Claudius, the second of that name, Roman emperor, was elected by the soldiers, and also by the Roman senate. With great slaughter he defeated the Goths who had ravaged Greece and Macedonia. His services were recognized by the Roman senate by a golden helmet and a golden column. He was a temperate and well-mannered man, devoted to justice, and able in the management of the public welfare. This man fought against two hundred thousand Alamanni not far from the sea of Benaco, in the forest of Lugano, and killed so many that hardly half their number survived. He reigned not quite two years, and died of an illness. His brother Quintilianus was elected emperor by the army, but was slain on the seventeenth day of his reign.[Claudius II was Roman emperor from 268-270 CE. He descended from an obscure family in Dardania or Illyria, and by his military talents rose to distinction under Decius, Valerian and Gallienus. He succeeded to the empire on the death of Gallienus (268), and soon after his accession he defeated the Alemanni in the north of Italy. In the next year he gained a great victory over an immense host of Goths near Naissus in Dardania, and received in consequence the surname Gothicus. He died in Sirmium in 270, and was succeeded by Aurelian.]

Aurelian (Aurelianus) received the sovereignty in the year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) one thousand twenty-seven. He was a native of Dacia, and was celebrated in military affairs, mighty in war; yet he was of a mean and cruel nature. He defeated the Goths on the Danube in a heavy engagement, and freed the Roman empire of invasions for three years. He was the first Roman to wear an imperial crown, and he donned jewels and a golden dress, contrary to Roman custom. He surrounded the city of Rome with enlarged and stronger walls, and built a temple to the pagan god Apollo. He gave battle to Zenobia, an empress of the East, not far from Antioch, and in Gaul he freed the Vindelici from a barbarian siege. When he went to Illyricum (i.e., Greece) he was slain by his enraged secretary, between Heraclia and Constantinople. He instituted the ninth persecution of the Christians. He reigned five years and six months. Flavius Vopiscus describes his glorious triumph.

Aurelian (in Latin Aurelianus), Roman emperor, 270-5 CE, was born about 212 at Sirmium in Pannonia (modern-day Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia). He entered the army as a common soldier, and by his extraordinary bravery was raised to offices of trust and honor by Valerian and Claudius II. On the death of the latter he was elected emperor by the legions at Sirmium. His reign presents a succession of brilliant exploits, which restored for a while the ancient lustre to the arms of Rome. He first defeated the Goths and Vandals, who had crossed the Danube, and were ravaging Pannonia. He next gained a great victory over the Alamanni and other German tribes; but they succeeded, notwithstanding, in crossing the Alps. Near Placentia they defeated the Romans, but were eventually overcome by the Romans in two decisive engagements in Umbria. After crushing a formidable conspiracy at Rome, Aurelian next turned his arms against Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, whom he defeated, took prisoner, and carried to Rome. On his return to Italy he marched to Alexandria and put Firmus to death, who had assumed the title of emperor. He then proceeded to the West, where Gaul, Britain and Spain were still in the hands of Tetricus, who had been declared emperor a short time before the death of Gallienus. Tetricus surrendered to Aurelian in a battle fought at Chalons. The emperor now devoted his attention to domestic improvements and reforms. Many works of public utility were commenced, the most important of all being the erection of a new line of strongly fortified walls, embracing a much more ample circuit than the old ones, which had long since fallen into ruin; but the vast plan was not completed until the reign of Probus. After a short residence in the city, he visited the provinces on the Danube. He next collected a large force in Thrace for an expedition against the Persians; but while he was on the march between Heraclea and Byzantium, he was killed by some of his officers. They had been induced to conspire against him by a certain Mnesthius, a freedman of the emperor and his private secretary, who had betrayed his trust, and fearful of punishment, had by means of forged documents, organized the conspiracy.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle. Flavius Vopiscus is one of the so-called authors of the late antiquity collection of imperial biographies known as the Historia Augusta (‘The Augustan History’).


The eighth persecution of the church occurred at the behest of Emperor Valerian, who was the eighth persecuter after Nero. He managed to torture Christians and put to death those who refused to worship the idolatrous gods. Although in the beginning he so respected the holy ones that his house was regarded as a church of God, later, however, through a sorcerer in the black arts, he was influenced to disrespect the Christian religion and to carry on this persecution, the cruelties and disorders of which, through God’s judgment, were in no small measure, disastrous to the world; for not long thereafter the Germans rose and with hostile purpose marched as far as Ravenna, and devastated everything with fire and sword.

Cyprian (Cyprianus), the highly informed teacher of the church, and bishop of Carthage, after long suffering, was on the 24th day of the month of September, by order of Valerian, the emperor, martyred by beheading, by Galerius Maximus the consul, a very cruel man. And it is said that in the same city, Crescentius, Victor, Rosula and Generalis suffered with him. At first Cyprian was a pagan and of extraordinary intelligence, well endowed with many arts. In the beginning he taught oratory, and afterwards, on the advice of Cecilia, he adopted the Christian faith and gave all his possessions to the poor. He became a priest and was later made a bishop at Carthage. He rendered valuable service there through teachinig, admonitions and writings for the church of Christ. His celebrated life was written in a book by Pontius, one of his priests and sharer of his exile. The head of Cyprian the martyr is held in great veneration in the Church of St. Lawrence (Laurentii) in the imperial city of Nuremberg. He wrote many books, particularly upon the unity of the churches; and he was in accord with the Roman churches that penitent heretics should not be rebaptized, but were to be restored to grace by the laying on of hands alone.[Cyprian (Cyprianus) perished in the Valerian persecution. His martyrdom is one of the most authentic and interesting in the history of the Christian church. He was bishop at Carthage, and was of the opinion that those who turned from the church through heretical error should be admitted on no condition, before they were purified from their error by baptism. This opinion was not original with him, for Agrippinus, bishop of Carthage a long time before him, assembled the bishops of Africa and Numidia, and made a decree that heretics should be rebaptized. This custom of rebaptizing has been used in Cappadocia time out of mind, as Firmilianus, bishop of Caesaria in Cappadocia, testifies in his epistle to Cyprian (Eusebius, 7.3; Bohn, pp. 256-7).]

Lawrence (Laurentius), a Spaniard, adopted son and archdeacon of Pope Sixtus, after a virtuous career suffered imprisonment at Rome under Decius or Gallienus; as well as various other forms of punishment; and there he made a blind man see and baptized Hippolytus (Hypolitum). He was scourged with a leaden instrument and the scorpion[Scorpions: Not only with smooth rods were the ancients accustomed to punish offenders, and the Christians among the rest, but likewise with knotty and prickly ones, which they appropriately named "scorpions."], and these the church exhibits. One night Valerian and Decius demanded that he worship the idolatrous gods. And he said, My might is neither sinister nor dark, but all things shine in the light. After a hard blow on the mouth, he was cruelly roasted on an iron grill over a fire of burning coals on the 10th day of the month of August; and, giving praise to God, he suffered martyrdom with fortitude. Justinus and Hippolytus buried the burnt corpse. Some say this Lawrence was the son of a duke of Spain, whom the devil carried from his cradle into the woods. When the pious Sixtus preached in Spain, he found him, with God’s intervention, under a laurel tree, and, after the same tree, named him Lawrence. And he reared him and taught him with great industry. And he took him, together with Vincentius, to Rome, and made him an archdeacon.[]

Sabellius was a heretic after whom the Sabellian heresy was named. They hold that Father, Son and Holy Spirit were but one person. This heresy was filled with blasphemy of God the Father, and of Christ. They denied that he (Christ) was a son of the Father on high. Out of this arose many differences and controversies in the churches in the West and East. Nor did Sabellius escape the divine judgment, and he died shamefully.[Sabellius, an early Christian presbyter and theologian, was of Libyan origin and came from the Pentapolis to Rome early in the third century. He became the leader of the strict Modalists (who regarded the Father and Son as two aspects of the same subject) whom Calixtus had excommunicated along with their most zealous opponent Hippolytus. His party continued to exist in Rome for a considerable time and withstood Calixtus as an unscrupulous apostate. In the West, however, the influence of Sabellius seems never to have been important. But in the East his doctrine found much acceptance. It was violently controverted, notably by Dionysius of Alexandria, and the development in the East of the philosophical doctrine of the Trinity after Origen was greatly influenced by the opposition to Sabellianism. The central proposition of Sabellius was that the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are the same person, three names attached to one and the same being. Of his late history nothing is known. His followers died out in the fourth century.]

Hippolytus (Hipolytus), a Roman patrician, was seized in the month and year in which he buried Lawrence and was severely tortured for a long time because he was a Christian. He would not worship the idolatrous gods and was beaten with clubs until the executioners became tired. At the command of Decius the emperor, Valerian, the governor caused the entire household of Hippolytus to be beheaded in his presence. Hippolytus himself was tied by his feet to the necks of wild animals, and thus cruelly drawn through thistles and thorns until he died on the 13th day of August.[Concordia and Hippolytus (258 CE) are associated as saints for August 13th. Hippolytus is said to have been a soldier converted by Lawrence who was under his charge in prison. He buried Lawrence, and being brought before Decius for so doing, boldly professed his faith. The emperor ordered him arrayed in his military dress, and then asked if he was not ashamed to dishonor his soldier’s name and uniform by disobedience. Hippolytus replied that he had passed through to a higher service. Among the servants of Hippolytus was an old nurse, Concordia, a Christian. She was beaten to death with whips. Hippolytus was tied to the tails of horses and dashed over stones and through brambles until he died.]

Concordia was the nurse of the aforesaid Hippolytus. To her the governor said, Beware of your life, lest you die with your lord. Immediately she answered, We prefer to die with our lord, rather than to live unchastely. And he caused her to be beaten with a leaden instrument until she died.

Romanus, the soldier, suffered on the following day at the same place. This man permitted himself to be baptized during the confession of Lawrence, in consequence of an angelic vision. Therefore the judge ordered him to be beaten with clubs; and after his confession, caused him to be beheaded on the 9th day of August. His body was taken to the city of Lucca in Etruria and there honorably buried.[Romanus was a soldier who was converted by observing the constancy of Lawrence. He sought him in prison, was instructed and baptized by him and then, confessing what he had done, was arraigned and beheaded the day before the martyrdom of Lawrence. His relics are shown at Lucca.]


Quirinus, a Roman tribune, was executed with the sword in this persecution on the 30th day of March, after his tongue was cut out and his hands and feet were cut off on the Roman road called the Appian Way.[Quirinus, a Roman soldier, serving under the Emperor Aurelian, did not hesitate to profess and preach the Christian faith openly. He suffered martyrdom, being dragged to death by horses and his tongue thrown to a hawk.]

Theodora, the virgin sister of the martyr Hermetius, was captured by Aurelian at this time and fearlessly underwent martyrdom.[Theodora was the sister of Hermes, prefect of Rome, who, with his entire household of twelve hundred people, was converted to Christianity. Her legend is contained in the apocryphal . At that time Aurelian was governor of the city under Hadrian. Hermes was persecuted and tortured because he became a Christian. When brought before Aurelian to account for her brother’s great wealth, Theodora answered that their goods had been distributed among the poor, and that all she had to give to Christ was her poor weak body. The magistrate ordered her beaten and then executed.]

Valentine (Valentinus), a Roman priest, after giving evidence of exceptional learning and writing, was imprisoned by the Emperor Claudius; and being asked his opinion concerning the pagan gods, said: Jupiter, Mercury, and the other gods were miserable human beings. Afterwards he enlightened the daughter of Asterius. He brought her and forty-nine persons of her household to the Christian faith. Finally, at the command of the emperor, he was severely beaten with clubs, and was beheaded on the 14th day of the month of February.[Valentine, or Valentinus, is the name of a number of saints. The most celebrated are the two martyrs whose festivals fall on February 14, one a Roman priest, the other Bishop of Terni (Interamna). The Passion of the former is part of the legend of Saints Marius and Martha and their companions; that of the latter had no better historical foundation. No argument can be drawn from either account to differentiate the two saints. Both belonged to the reign of Claudius and died the same day, and both were buried on the Via Flaminia. The association of lovers’ festivals with Valentine seems to arise from the fact that the feast of the saint falls in early spring—a purely accidental matter.] Cyrilla, a daughter of the emperor Decius, and a good Christian, was also beheaded at this time with the sword, as histories state, on the 28th day of October.[Cyrilla, according to the fabulous , was the daughter of Emperor Decius, who, having put to death Lawrence, became possessed with a devil and died. This so frightened his wife as well as his daughter Cyrilla that they believed in Christ and were baptized. The wife died a few days later because of the excitement. The daughter was brought before Claudius and was executed. Baring-Gould characterizes the story as "ridiculous nonsense," and utterly unhistorical. He observes that "The Acts of St. Lawrence are a poor and foolish romance without the merit even of being interesting. Probably Cyrilla and Tryphonia (her mother) are the creations of imagination. Certainly Decius had no wife and daughter of those names."]

The ninth persecution of the church occurred at the instance of Emperor Aurelian (Aurelianus). After accepting evil counsel and sending forth letters and writings to the governors of the Roman countries and regions for the persecution of the Christians, he was visited with divine judgment from heaven, and he died disgracefully.

Geneva (Gebennarum), the highly renowned city of the Allobroges, was built in this year among the Gauls by Emperor Aurelian; and he named it Aureliana after himself. Although Gaul had freed itself of the cruelty and tyranny of the emperors Valerian and Gallienus, and for twenty years remained free of Roman domination, yet through the power of Aurelian the emperor, it was again subjugated. This city is located in Helvetii (Helveciorum)[Switzerland.], and beside it is the Lusitanian Sea, out of which flows the river Rhone (Rhodanus), over which passes a lovely wooden bridge. The city is large and beautiful and has many citizens, being the industrial or mercantile center of the entire Allobrogian country. It has many fairs, and unlimited wealth is brought there. For a long time this city was under the jurisdiction of the Duke of Savoy (Sabaudie), and it is still under his rule. In this city were many celebrated man, such as Maximinus, the confessor, and Anianus[Anianus may be a misspelling for Avianus, which is the spelling in the German edition of the .], the bishop, both distinguished for their piety and learning; also Laetus (Letus), the priest, nobly informed in the Holy Scriptures; and many others. This city is so situated that it extends upward on a mountain; and it has very fruitful vineyards. Here is also a bishop’s chair. In this city Amadeus, the first Duke of Savoy, gave the Duchy to his firstborn son, and he taught him to observe spiritual ways and to pray. And between his two sons, two beautiful youths, the one a Duke of Savoy, the other a Count at Geneva, he rode into the council at Basle (Basileam), and was there crowned as a bishop of the Roman church, as is stated below.

Geneva (Gebenna), a city and canton of Switzerland, is situated at the extreme southwest corner both of the country and of the Lake Geneva. In prehistoric times a great lake city, built upon piles, which may still be seen, existed where the waters from the Alpine lakes spread out over the plain before narrowing into the channel of the Rhone. This city was the prehistoric Geneva. After the end of the period of the lake dwellings, the inhabitants established themselves on the hill on the left bank of the lake and river. When the district of Wienne became a Roman province, Geneva became a Roman city, with part of what is now Savoy dependent on it. When the empire became Christian, a bishop was appointed at Geneva. After the barbarian invasions, the city shrank to its former size, and it was now concentrated on high ground. The pagan temples were converted into Christian churches. At the top of the hill rose Saint Peter’s, while Saint Victor’s was built in the detached part of the town. Geneva owed its importance to its bridge over the Rhone. Geneva lay on the path of the armies marching to the conquest of Italy. Charlemagne held an assembly here in 773. During the feudal period the Burgundian kings had more to fear from the hereditary counts of Geneva than from the elected bishops. Rudolph III conferred estates on the bishops and favored them at the expense of the counts. On his death in 1032 the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire inherited his lands. Frederick Barbarrosa confirmed the temporal powers of the bishop of Geneva, who became a prince of the empire, and made the church independent of the nobles of the district. The count of Geneva had a residence in the town, the old royal chateau; but he had to do homage to the bishop for the chateau and for other fiefs, though he was the sole direct ruler of Geneva. But the Genevese were always characterized by their passion for independence, and attempted toward the end of the 13th century to create a municipal organization of their own. They were able to play off against one another the rival rulers of the district.

In Maurienne, a remote district of the country, there presently arose a count who came to be known as the count of Savoy and was on bad terms with both the count of Geneva and the bishop. His nephew, Amadeus the Great, declared himself protector of the citizens, who had formed themselves into a municipality with syndics and other officers. The count of Geneva was reduced to a mere vassal of his cousin of Savoy, while the bishop was compelled to yield his palace to the latter, together with the vidomnat, the office empowering him to administer summary justice in the city. Finally the bishop recognized the municipality, after the citizens, posted on the towers of St. Peter’s, had withstood bombardment by the count of Geneva from his castle. This castle was dismantled in 1320. In the meantime the citizens had defeated the count’s army. By calling in the count of Savoy the Genevese had fallen out of the frying pan and into the fire. They had been able to free themselves from the count of Geneva and to defy the bishop, but they discovered that their protector intended to make himself "prince" of the city. The counts of Savoy endeavored to obtain the election to the bishopric of Geneva for themselves, or for a cadet of the family, or for a prelate devoted to its interests. Involved in the struggle between France and Burgundy through the policy of the House of Savoy, the town was ransomed by the Swiss after their victory over Charles the Bold in 1477. The measures taken by Louis XI had destroyed the fairs of Geneva, and the prevalent distress of the 15th century became still worse in the 16th, when Charles III, in 1525, went so far as to impose his will on the assembly of the citizens. But better times came at last, thanks to the commercial relations established between Geneva and the Swiss. Through wars Charles III lost his lands. Once the Genevese were rid of him, they were able to organize their independent republic in peace.


Year of the World 5473

Year of Christ 274

Eutychian (Euticianus) the pope from Tuscia (Thuscus), a native of the city of Luna, sat at Rome after Felix. He was a very pious and learned man. He ordained that the new fruits, particularly grapes and beans, were to be blessed upon the altar. Item: that those who wished to bury the martyrs should not bury with them the clothing prescribed for church service, but leave them behind. It is said that with his own hands he buried three hundred martyrs. But after he had consecrated 14 priests, five deacons, and nine bishops, he too was crowned with martyrdom and was buried in the cemetery of Calixtus on the Appian Way on the 25th day of the month of July. He sat one year, one month, and one day; and at that time the chair was vacant eight days. Some say he was in the papal see eight years and ten months. Damasus, however, was the author of the first thought.

Eutychian (Eutychianus) buried 300 martyrs with his own hands. His term as pope is given as 275-283 CE.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not found in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Caius the pope, a Dalmatian and of the family clan of the emperor Diocletian, was a godly man. He divided the consecrations into stages without passing through which no one could attain to the office of bishop. He also assigned to the deacons the respective regions in which the histories of the martyrs were to be written; that no layman was to summon the consecrated ones before the court; and that no pagan or heretic should have the right to lodge complaint against any Christian. But as in the time of Diocletian, a greater persecution than ever before arose, he concealed himself in hidden places underground. Finally he was taken prisoner by the persecutors, and was crowned with martyrdom, together with Gabinius, his brother, and Susanna, his brother’s daughter; and he was buried on the Appian Way in the cemetery of Calixtus on the 22nd day of the month of April. He sat 11 years, four months, and eleven days. Eusebius writes that this pope was in office fifteen years.[Caius, a Dalmatian, devised six orders preliminary to ordination as a bishop: ostarius, lector, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon and deacon. His term is given as 283-296 CE.]

Paul (Paulus) the bishop of Samosata, and a highly informed man, at this time, is said to have resurrected the heresy of Artemas (Arthemonis), a heresy that deviates from the orthodox faith. This heresy denied the virginity of Mary, and held that Mary, after the birth of Christ, had intercourse with Joseph and bore other sons. Then this Paul was crowned bishop of Antioch, carried himself about with too much pride, read letters to his followers, and sent out epistles. In consequence of his vanity many people looked down upon the Christian faith. But if these same people in our own time should see his courtly fashions, his vanity, pomp, and excessive ecclesiastical show, and so many expensively clad young courtiers riding on horseback, and the swarm of priests following, clad in dress ornamented with gold, and the horses caparisoned in the best and most colorful manner, they would curse and say that such a bishop or cleric, except for his assumed spirituality, had nothing in common with Christ. This Paul denied that the Son of God descended from heaven, and claimed that Christ came of Mary and had an earthly origin. Therefore in the Council of Antioch he was condemned by the common consent of all the bishops attending, and chiefly by Gregory the bishop of Caesaria, a pious man, who was also present and was later martyred for his Christian faith.[Eusebius, 7.27-30; Bohn, pp. 286-292. According to Eusebius, Paul "entertained low and degrading notions of Christ, contrary to the doctrine of the church, and taught that he was in nature but a common man . . . But the other heads of the churches, assembled in all haste from different parts, at Antioch, as against one who was committing depredations on the flock of Christ. . . . And this arch-heretic at Antioch, being detested, and now evidently discarded by all, was excommunicated from the whole Catholic Church under heaven." The specific charges against Paul are set forth in the epistles issued against him and sent forth to the bishops of the churches at distant places: "But in those instances where he abandoned the rule of faith, and went over to spurious and corrupt doctrines, there is no necessity of judging his conduct, when he was yet in no connexion with the church; nor that he was in poverty and beggary; and that he who had received neither wealth from his fathers, nor obtained possessions by any art, or any trade or business, has now arrived at excessive wealth, by his iniquities and sacrileges, and by those various means which he employed to exact and extort from the brethren, depressing the injured, and promising to aid them for a reward; and yet how he deceived them, and without doing them any good, took advantage of the readiness of those who were in difficulties, to make them give anything to be freed from their oppressors. We shall say nothing of his making merchandise of piety; nor how he affected lofty things, and assumed with great haughtiness worldly dignities, wishing rather to be called a magistrate than a bishop, strutting through the forum, and reading letters, and repeating them as he walked in public, and how he was escorted by multitudes going before and following after him: how he, also, brought envy and odium upon the faith, by his pomp, and the haughtiness of his heart. We shall say nothing of the vanities and pretensions with which he contrived, in our ecclesiastical assemblies, to catch at glory and empty shadows, and to confound the minds of the more simple, with such things as these; nothing of his preparing himself a tribunal and a throne, not as a disciple of Christ, buy having like the rulers of this world, a secretum, and calling it by his name; nothing of his striking his thigh and his stamping on the tribunal with his feet, and his reproving and insulting those that did not applaud; . . . nothing of his harsh invectives in the congregation, against the expounders of the word, who had departed this life, and of his magnifying himself, not as a bishop, but as a sophist and juggler. Besides this he stopped the psalms that were sung in honor of Christ Jesus Christ, as the late compositions of modern men, but in honor of himself he had prepared women to sing at the great festival in the midst of the church, which one might shudder to hear. He suborned, also, those bishops and presbyters of the neighboring districts and cities of his party, to advance the same things in their addresses to the people. . . . He did not wish to confess with us that the Son of God descended from heaven . . . And as to those women, those adopted sisters, as the inhabitants of Antioch call them, which belong to him, and the presbyters and deacons about him, whose incurable sins, in this and other respects, he conceals with them, though he is conscious of the facts, and has convicted them, he dissembles, in order to have them subservient to his purposes; so that, fearing for themselves, they dare not venture to accuse him in regard to his impious conduct and doctrine . . . We have been compelled therefore to excommunicate this man . . . and to appoint another bishop in his place over the catholic church." And they named Domnus, a man they believed fully endowed with all the qualities of a bishop.]

Manes, the heretic, a native of Persia, a cunning devilish man of coarse life and manners, lived at this time. This heretic dared to call himself Christ and chose twelve disciples for himself whom he brought to believe in him; and to kill the souls of the deceived he made an unspeakable poem of shameful teachings of ungodliness and gross lies, with which he deluded himself and also his followers; for he said that Christ was not a true body, but an idle image. This heretic and his followers said that there are two origins—one of good, the other of evil; one of darkness, the other of light. He disregarded the Old Testament, and looked alone to the New. And from him the heresy of the Manichees had its origin.

For Manes, cf. Eusebius (Ecclesiastical History 7.31; Bohn p. 293):

In the meantime, also, that madman Manes, as he called himself, well agreeing with his name, for his diabolical heresy, armed himself by the perversion of his reason, and at the instigation of Satan, to the destruction of many. He was a barbarian in his life, both in speech and conduct, but in his nature as one possessed and insane. Accordingly he attempted to form himself into a Christ, and then also proclaimed himself to be the very Paraclete, and the Holy Spirit, and with all this was greatly puffed up with his madness. Then, as if he were Christ, he selected twelve disciples, the partners of his new religion, and after patching together false and ungodly doctrines, collected from a thousand heresies long since extinct, he swept them off like a deadly poison, from Persia, upon this part of the world. Hence the impious name of the Manichees spreading among many, even to the present day.

Eusebius’ final words were prescient, for of all the heresies (perhaps more properly we should say ‘alternative belief systems’) that came out of the complex web of early Christian communites (however loosely defined these communities were in relationship to what later became Orthodox/Catholic beliefs), none, perhaps, has had a more long-lasting and profound influence on the culture and ideology of the West in terms of its (admittedly sporadic) embrace of the idea of dualism, especially that between the forces of light and dark, good and evil. The most famous adherent (and later opponent) of Manicheism was Augustine himself. Possible Manichee-influenced (or Manichee-like) movements from later times include the Bogomils, Paulicians, and the Cathars, as well as certain evangelical and fundamentalist religious groups of many different religious traditions (e.g., Judaism, Christianity, and Islam).

But while this heretic Manes is descried for his ill will and vanity, Anatolius the Laodecian bishop is highly praised for his holiness and teachings.

Felix the priest and Eusebius the monk were slain at Terracina in the country of Campania during this persecution because of their Christian faith. For after Eusebius had buried the pious martyrs, Julianus and Caesarius (Cesarium), the priests, and on their account had converted many people to the faith and had baptized them, he, together with Felix the pope, was taken before the court; and as he would not sacrifice to the gods, he was beheaded on the fifth day of November. Caesarius the deacon, and Julianus the priest, were slain on the same day in the same city. After Caesarius had spent many days alone in prison, and was there enlightened, he, together with Julianus, were put in a sack and thrown into the sea on the first day of November. Adiochus the priest, Tyrasius the deacon, and Felix the subdeacon, former disciples of Polycarp (Policarpus) whom he thanked for preaching from the East to Gaul, were crowned with glorious martyrdom in the city of the Gauls, Augusta; finally they died, pierced with spears.


Tacitus, the Roman emperor, attained the sovereignty after Aurelian from the Roman senate and the people. At his election a Roman senator said: An army cannot exist very long without a leader; therefore necessity dictates that such a man should be elected, for, it is said, that the Germans invaded the region within the Rhine and the strong cities, and worried the noble, rich and mighty. Immediately the whole senate voted and elected this Tacitus. By reason of his virtue and excellence he was a capable and fit man to rule for the common good. The money he collected at home he employed to pay the army. He lived a moderate life and loved sour food. He seldom bathed, and was strong in his old age, and took pleasure in various kinds of glassware. He ate no bread unless it was dry. He was highly versed in architecture, and was partial to marble. He loved to hunt wild game. At length, through the instigation of the army, he was slain in the sixth month of his reign. But some say he succumbed to an illness. His reign being brief, he accomplished nothing great. He caused the month of September to be named Tacitus after himself, for in that month he was born and was also made emperor.[M. Claudius Tacitus, Roman emperor from September 25, 275 CE, until April 276, was elected by the senate after the death of Aurelian, the army having requested the senate to elect a successor to the imperial throne. At the time he was seventy years of age and was with difficulty persuaded to accept the position. The high character that he had born he amply sustained during his brief reign. He endeavored to repress the luxury and licentiousness of the age by various sumptuary laws, and he himself set the example by the abstemiousness, simplicity and frugality of his own habits. The only military achievement of his reign was the defeat and expulsion from Asia Minor of a party of Goths, who had carried their devastation across the peninsula to the confines of Cicilia. He died either at Tarsus or at Tyana, about the 9th of April, 276.]

Florianus, brother of the aforesaid Tacitus, attained to the sovereignty after his brother, not through election by the Roman senate, but by his own act, as though the sovereignty was inheritable. For he knew that Tacitus in the senate had vowed that after his death, the senate should elect an emperor, not his son, but a good and virtuous man. Florianus held the sovereignty for two months, and was slain. This Florianus was a follower of his morals, but not in all things; for he was more ambitious of power than his brother, and therefore not comparable to him.[M. Annius Florianus, the brother, by a different father, of the emperor Tacitus, upon whose death he was proclaimed emperor at Rome in 276 CE. He was murdered by his own troops at Tarsus, after a reign of about two months, while on his march against Probus, who had been proclaimed emperor by the legions in Syria.]

Probus, the Roman emperor, was a celebrated man at home and abroad, and after Tacitus he was made emperor by the unanimous voice of all men. He ruled the world very peacefully. He was born in the city of Sirmium, in Pannonia, his mother being of more noble birth than his father. His inheritance was moderate, and his relationship was not very distinguished. During his reign as well as up to that time he was noted for his high nobility and virtue. And since he was renowned in military affairs, and now received the care of the commonwealth, he relieved the besieged Gauls of the barbarians with great good fortune; and forty thousand men were slain and seventy celebrated cities freed of the enemy. This Probus also carried on various wars against Saturninus, the emperor in the East; and he suppressed Proculus and Bonosus at Cologne, in Gaul, with masterful speed. Finally he returned to Sirmium, his home, determined to advance and enlarge his fatherland. This caused objection on the part of the army, and they killed him in an iron tower to which he fled, in the sixth year of his reign.[M. Aurelius Probus, Roman emperor (276-282 CE), was a native of Sirmium in Pannonia, and rose to distinction through his military abilities. He was appointed governor of the entire East by Tacitus. On the latter’s death the position of emperor was forced on him by the armies of Syria. The downfall of Florianus speedily removed his only rival, and he was hailed by the united voice of the senate, the people, and the legions. His reign was one of brilliant achievements. He defeated the barbarians on the frontiers of Gaul and Illyricum, and in other parts of the Roman Empire. He put down the rebellions of Saturninus at Alexandria, and of Proculus and Bonosus in Gaul. After crushing all external and internal foes, he was killed at Sirmium by his own soldiers who had risen against him because he had employed them in laborious public works. Probus was as just and virtuous as he was warlike, and is deservedly regarded as one of the greatest of Roman emperors.]

Carus, the Roman emperor, attained the sovereignty after Probus. He associated with him in the government his two sons Numerianus and Carinus, making them caesars, and reigning with them for two years. While conducting a war against the Sarmatians, he received news of a revolt in Persia. So he went to the East and made war upon the Persians. He was killed by lightning in camp on the river Tigris.[M. Aurelius Carus, Roman emperor (282-283 CE), was probably born at Narbo in Gaul. He was praefectus praetorio (‘commander in charge of the Praetorian Guard’) under the emperor Probus, and on the murder of the latter was elected his successor. After defeating the Sarmatians, he invaded the Persian dominions, took Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and was preparing to push his conquests beyond the river Tigris, when he was struck dead by lightning, toward the close of the year 283. He was succeeded by his sons Carinus and Numerianus. Carus was a victorious general and an able ruler.] Numerianus was confined to his bed by an affliction of the eyes, and was secretly murdered. He surpassed all the poets of his time.[M. Aurelius Numerianus was the younger of the two sons of the Roman emperor Carus. He accompanied his father in an expedition against the Persians in the year 283. After his father’s death in the same year he was chosen joint emperor with his brother Carinus. The army, alarmed by the fate of Carus, who was struck dead by lightening while preparing to push his conquests beyond the Tigris in the year 283, compelled Numerianus to make a retreat toward Europe. During the greater part of this march, which extended over a period of eight months, he was confined to his litter by an affliction of the eyes. But the suspicions of the soldiers became aroused, and they at length found their way into his tent; and there they discovered the dead body of their prince. Arrius Aper, prefect of the Praetorians, and father-in-law of the deceased, was arraigned for murder before a military council, and without being permitted to speak in his own defense was stabbed in the heart by Diocletian, whom the troops had already proclaimed emperor.] But Carinus, a man contaminated with every vice, and a constant adulterer, was defeated by Diocletian in Dalmatia, and thus suffered the penalty for his crimes.[M. Aurelius Carinus, elder of the two sons of Carus, was associated with his father in the government in 283 CE. He remained in the West while his father and brother proceeded to war against the Persians in the East. On the death of his father in the same year, Carinus and Numerianus succeeded to the empire. When the latter was slain in 284, Carinus marched into Moesia to oppose Diocletian who had been proclaimed emperor. Carinus gained the victory, but in the moment of triumph was slain by his own officers, some of whose wives he had seduced.]

Diocletian of Dalmatia was of very obscure and low birth. He was elected emperor in the year of the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) 1041. When a revolt occurred in Gaul, he sent Maximianus, surnamed Hercules, there with an army, soon silencing this great people. But when wars broke out which Diocletian could not withstand alone, he made Maximian (Maximianus) associate emperor, and sent Constantius and Maximinus Galerius to assist him in governing the empire. After ten years Maximian brought Britain back into the empire. Constantius slaughtered many thousands of Germans who came to Gaul as mercenaries; and he freed Gaul. In the meantime Diocletian proceeded to Egypt and besieged Alexandria. This he conquered in eight months, giving the city over to the soldiers for pillage. Diocletian was cunning, well mannered, resourceful, at times subtle and ingenious, and, in addition, a very industrious and ambitious prince. Although his predecessors were saluted, he commanded that he be worshipped. Maximian, however, was a serious man, ignored customs and usages, and his fierce countenance expressed his cruel nature. Having quelled all the revolts, Diocletian in the East and Maximian in the West, they proceeded to destroy the churches. Diocletian divided the empire and retired. He lived to the age of 73 years and was put to death by poison.[Valerius Diocletian, Roman emperor (284-305 CE), was born near Salona in Dalmatia in 245. From his mother Doclea, or Dioclea, who received her name from the village in which she lived, he inherited the appellation of Docles or Diocles, which after his assumption of the purple, was expanded into Diocletianus, and attached as a cognomen to the high patrician name of Valerius. Having entered the army he served with high reputation under Probus and Aurelian, followed Carus to the Persian war, and after the fate of Numerianus became known, was proclaimed emperor by the troops. He finally became undisputed master of the empire; but as the attacks of the barbarians became daily more formidable, he associated with himself as a colleague Maximian (Maximianus), who was invested with the title of Augustus in 286. The latter took care of the Western empire, Diocletian of the Eastern. But as the dangers from Persian attack in the East, and the barbarians in the West became still more imminent, he made a further division of the empire. In 292 Constantius, Chlorus, and Galerius were proclaimed caesars. Britain was restored to the empire in 296, the Persians were defeated, and the barbarians driven back. After an anxious reign of twenty-one years Diocletian retired to his native Dalmatia, where he died in 313. Today he is perhaps most remembered for his fierce persecution of the Christians.]


The tenth persecution of the Christians after Nero was originated in these times by Veturius, the captain of the army, and at the command of Diocletian and Maximian (Maximianus) it was carried on in all parts of the world. Diocletian in the East, and Maximian in the West, ordered the churches ravaged and the Christians tortured and slain. This persecution was the cruelest of all and lasted longer than the others. The Holy Scriptures were burned, and those in civil offices who acknowledged themselves Christians were deposed and looked upon as without honor. Slaves who became Christians could not be set free by their owners. Christian soldiers were compelled to either sacrifice to the gods or lose their offices, and to give up their careers, under a cruel law posted by the emperor in the market place. One man dared to break this law, and he was flayed, and vinegar and salt poured upon him until he lost his life. This is attested by Dorotheus and Gorgonius, two renowned men. On the same day fire broke out in the imperial palace at Nicomedia. In a spirit of feigned anger, the emperor attributed this to the Christians, and he caused many Christians to be slain, and many to be thrown alive into the fire. Such violent cruelties were not only practiced in Mytilene (Militena), Syria, Africa, Thebes, and in Egypt, but also in Palestine and Tyre. The Christians were spared no form of torture, and as Damasus states, in 30 days 17,000 persons of both sexes were crowned with martyrdom not including those who were exiled to the islands, or to the mines, or to dig ore, or to hew stone; and of these there were an endless number. Finally God opened his eyes and forced Diocletian to abdicate. And Maximian was so frightened by disease and confusion that he committed suicide.

Adauctus, a Roman patrician, a man most Christian and holy, received martyrdom in Phrygia (Phrigiam) because he had converted the city. For this reason Diocletian caused the whole city to be burned because the citizens would not sacrifice to the gods. After having his eyes dug out, this Adauctus was made a martyr by decapitation.

Alexander, the powerful soldier of the legions of Thebes, at this time preached in the name of Christ. After practising numberless virtues he honorably attained martyrdom by decapitation. His body was buried by Grata, a pious widow, on her own soil. There a worthy temple was built, which is still to be seen there.[Alexander, according to one version of the , is said to have been a standard-bearer, according to another version, a head centurion, in the Theban legion. Known to be a Christian, he was brought before Maximian at Rome. A long and tedious discussion between them is given by the author of the , out of his own head. A soldier was ordered to cut off the head of Alexander, but became motionless. Alexander was then led back to prison. He escaped during the night and took refuge at the Bergamo, but was discovered and dragged before an idol and executed with the sword. A Christian matron named Grata took up his body and buried it on her farm.]

Barbara, a very noble virgin, and a native of the city of Nicomedia, was, because of her great beauty, placed in a high tower by her father, who feared she might become a Christian. But through the instruction of the Holy Spirit, she prayed like a Christian to the God of Heaven. Her father decided to slay her, but she concealed herself. However, she was discovered, brought before him with feet upward and beaten with rods, burned with torches and had her breasts cut off. After suffering numberless tortures, she was beheaded by her father on the fourth day of the month of December. Fire, proceeding from heaven, burnt the father to dust.[]

Anastasia, daughter of a very noble Roman and the wife of Publius, a very powerful man, became a Christian; and she practiced works of mercy toward the Christians. In this tumult she was imprisoned for a long time by Publius, her husband, and tortured for the sake of Christ. And she was comforted by Chrysogonus (Grisogono), who afterwards through the decapitation of his head earned the palm of martyrdom. Finally, together with men and many women she was lead to the Palmarian islands. After various prayers made by the Christians, Anastasia was tied to a stake by the prefect. And he cremated her with fire on the 8th day of the Kalends of January around the Year of the Lord 280. She was, moreover, very well versed in good literature, and concerning her persecution are extant letters she sent to Chrysogonus full of eloquence.

Concerning Anastasia, cf. The Catholic Encyclopedia (Kirsch, "St. Anastasia." Vol. 1. New York, 1907):

This martyr enjoys the distinction, unique in the Roman liturgy, of having a special commemoration in the second Mass on Christmas day. This Mass was originally celebrated not in honour of the birth of Christ, but in commemoration of this martyr, and towards the end of the fifth century her name was also inserted in the Roman canon of the Mass. Nevertheless, she is not a Roman saint, for she suffered martyrdom at Sirmium, and was not venerated at Rome until almost the end of the fifth century. It is true that a later legend, not earlier than the sixth century, makes Anastasia a Roman, though even in this legend she did not suffer martyrdom at Rome. The same legend connects her name with that of St. Chrysogonus, likewise not a Roman martyr, but put to death in Aquileia, though he had a church in Rome dedicated to his honour. According to this "Passio", Anastasia was the daughter of Praetextatus, a Roman vir illustris, and had Chrysogonus for a teacher. Early in the persecution of Diocletian the Emperor summoned Chrysogonus to Aquileia where he suffered martyrdom. Anastasia, having gone from Aquileia to Sirmium to visit the faithful of that place, was beheaded on the island of Palmaria, 25 December, and her body interred in the house of Apollonia, which had been converted into a basilica. The whole account is purely legendary, and rests on no historical foundations. All that is certain is that a martyr named Anastasia gave her life for the faith in Sirmium, and that her memory was kept sacred in that church. The so-called "Martyrologium Sieronymianum" (ed. De Rossi and Duchesne, Acta SS., 2 November) records her name on 25 December, not for Sirmium alone, but also for Constantinople, a circumstance based on a separate story. According to Theodorus Lector (Hist. Eccles., II, 65), during the patriarchate of Gennadius (458-471) the body of the martyr was transferred to Constantinople and interred in a church which had hitherto been known as "Anastasis" (Gr. Anastasis, ‘Resurrection’); thenceforth the church took the name of Anastasia. Similarly the cultus of St. Anastasia was introduced into Roman from Sirmium by means of an already existing church. As this church was already quite famous, it brought the feast of the saint into especial prominence. There existed in Rome from the fourth century, at the foot of the Palatine and above the Circus Maximus, a church which had been adorned by Pope Damasus (366-384) with a large mosaic. It was known as "titulus Anastasix", and is mentioned as such in the Acts of the Roman Council of 499. There is some uncertainty as to the origin of this name; either the church owes its foundation to and was named after a Roman matron Anastasia, as in the case of several other titular churches of Rome (Duchesne), or it was originally an "Anastasis" church (dedicated to the Resurrection of Christ), such as existed already at Ravenna and Constantinople; from the word "Anastasis" came eventually the name "titulus Anastasix" (Grisar). Whatever way this happened, the church was an especially prominent one from the fourth to the sixth century, being the only titular church in the centre of ancient Rome, and surrounded by the monuments of the city’s pagan past. Within its jurisdiction was the Palatine where the imperial court was located. Since the veneration of the Sirmian martyr, Anastasia, received a new impetus in Constantinople during the second half of the fifth century, we may easily infer that the intimate contemporary relations between Old and New Rome brought about an increase in devotion to St. Anastasia at the foot of the Palatine. At all events the insertion of her name into the Roman Canon of the Mass towards the end of the fifth century, show that she then occupied a unique position among the saints publicly venerated at Rome. Thenceforth the church on the Palatine is known as "titulus sanctus Anastasix", and the martyr of Sirmium became the titular saint of the old fourth-century basilica. Evidently because of its position as titular church of the district including the imperial dwellings on the Palatine this church long maintained an eminent rank among the churches of Rome; only two churches preceded it in honour: St. John Lateran, the mother-church of Rome, and St. Mary Major. This ancient sanctuary stands today quite isolated amid the ruins of Rome. The commemoration of St. Anastasia in the second Mass on Christmas day is the last remnant of the former prominence enjoyed by this saint and her church in the life of Christian Rome.

In the German edition of the Chronicle this mini-biography of Anastasia is very abbreviated:

Anastasia, daughter of a very noble Roman and the wife of a very powerful man, became a Christian; and she practiced works of mercy toward the Christians. In this tumult she was imprisoned for a long time by Publius, her husband, and was decapitated.

Claudius, Nicostratus, Symphorianus, and Simplicius, highly renowned men, suffered at this time in Rome. They were first imprisoned, then beaten with scorpions[Scorpions: Not only with smooth rods were the ancients accustomed to punish offenders, and the Christians among the rest, but likewise with knotty and prickly ones, which they appropriately named "scorpions."], and finally, upon the order of Diocletian, were thrown into the sea on the 28th day of October.

Crispinus and Crispinianus, celebrated men, were first taken prisoners in the city of Soissons (Suesionem) and cruelly tortured, Finally, beheaded on the 25th day of the month of October, they received the crown of martyrdom.[Crispinus and Crispinianus (aka, Crispin and Crispian; 285 CE) are said to have been brothers, natives of Rome, who exercised the trade of shoemakers at Soissons. In 284 Maximinus Hercules proceeded against the Bagaudae, and having punished them for their revolt, came to Soissons. Among the Bagaudae there had been, no doubt, Christians, and Maximinus was inflamed with anger against them. Crispin and Crispinian were denounced to him, and he ordered the prefect of the Gauls to punish them. The prefect ordered them executed by the sword, and their bodies thrown into the common sewers. But the add much apocryphal matter, such as that the judge ordered the brothers to have slivers of wood thrust under their finger-nails, but which promptly flew out and stabbed their tormentors, who were wounded and died shortly as the saints prayed. Then millstones were hung about their necks, and they were thrown into the river; but they swam across without the slightest inconvenience. Boiling lead was poured over them, but it only refreshed them. They were plunged into a bubbling cauldron of oil, and this failed to injure them. The prefect, disgusted at his lack of success, pitched himself headmost into the fire under the cauldron, and stifled his dissatisfaction in the flames. Seeing their persecutor thus disposed of, the martyrs calmly placed their necks under the sword, and their heads were struck off without difficulty by the executioner. Crispin and Crispinian are regarded as the patron saints of shoemakers. In art they are represented with the symbols of their trade, but sometimes with millstones hung round their necks.]


Maurice (Mauricius), Exuperius, Candidus, and Victor, together with Innocentius, the most distinguished soldiers of the Theban Legion, at this time received the crown of martyrdom with six thousand six hundred sixty-six others, for the sake of Christ, at the instigation of the emperor Maximian in Gaul, near the city of Seduno. These martyrs were of the East, and out of the noble city of Egypt that lies on the river Nile; and they were baptized by the bishop of Jerusalem. Being greatly experienced in military affairs, noble in virtue, and still nobler in the faith, they were called upon by Maximian to assist him in Gaul. However, when he sent them against the Christians, and he commanded them to worship the idolatrous gods, they refused to do so; and he punished them in various places with various forms of martyrdom, beheading those who proved stubborn. He beheaded every tenth man; but Maurice, the leader of the legion, confirmed the members in their faith; and they laid down their arms and willingly sacrificed themselves. The bodies of these men were revealed after many years of suffering to the holy bishop Theodotus, who built a basilica in their honor. Their feast day is celebated on the 10th Kalends of October.

The legends surrounding Maurice and the Theban Legion are among the most interesting in the Christian martyrology. The stories recount that among the legions of the Roman army in the time of Diocletian and Maximian, one was styled the "Theban Legion" because originally levied from area in and around Thebes, in Egypt. Much of what is said about this legion in medieval tradition is probably legendary. That said, those very legends record that the number composing this corps was 6666, and all were Christians, as remarkable for their valor and discipline as for their piety and fidelity. It was commanded by an excellent Christian officer of illustrious birth, Maurice (in Latin Mauritius). Around the year 286 Maximian summoned this legion from the East to reinforce the army with which he was about to march into Gaul. The Alps having been passed, some of the legion was dispatched to the Rhine, the rest of the army halting on the banks of the Lake of Geneva, where Maximian ordered a general sacrifice to the gods, accompanied by games and ceremonies usual on such occasions. But Maurice and his Christian soldiers withdrew from the idolatrous rites, and retiring to a distance of about three leagues, they pitched their tents at a place called Aganum (now St. Maurice). Maximian insisted on obedience to his commands, at the same time making it known that the service for which he required their aid was to extirpate the Christians, whose destruction he had sworn. The legion having with one voice refused to make the sacrifice, or to be led against their fellow-Christians, the emperor ordered the soldiers decimated. Their officers encouraged them to perish rather than yield; and when summoned for the third time, Maurice, in the name of his soldiers, again refused compliance, pleading that they were not only the soldiers of the emperor, but also of Jesus Christ, receiving pay from the former, and eternal life from the latter. Unmoved, the cruel tyrant ordered the rest of the army to surround the devoted legion for a general massacre. And they obeyed; nor did the Christian soldiers, on the other hand, resist, but throwing away their weapons, they submitted themselves to the slaughter like sheep. Some were trampled down by the cavalry; some were hung on threes and shot with arrows; some were killed with the sword. As Maurice and his officers knelt down in an attitude of prayer, they were beheaded; and so perished the Theban Legion.

The last two sentences in this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Vincent (Vincentius), the deacon, a very invincible and pious man from Spain, disciple of St. Sixtus, the pope, and very much resembling the martyr Lawrence (Laurentii) in skill and virtue, and of noble birth and highly learned, together with Valerius, the pious bishop of the city of Caesar Augusta, suffered very bitter martyrdom at the hands of Dacianus, the proconsul. After severe punishment and imprisonment, being put in chains and starved, Vincent suffered deadly tortures in every limb. He was stretched on a gallows, and while hanging there was lacerated with many wounds. Then he was taken down and laid on a gridiron over glowing coals, and while still on that was torn to pieces with iron forks, and had salt poured over him. After that he was imprisoned with his feet locked in the stocks; and there he was left alone without anyone to console him. But he was released from his bonds by an angel of God, surrounded with a great light. For that reason Dacianus said, We are defeated. And in order to further torture him, he caused him to be healed; but he soon died of starvation and gave up his Spirit to heaven. After his persecution Christians placed his body under the altar of a certain chuch outside the walls of Valencia (Valentie). Prudentius[Prudentius (348-after 405), a celebrated Christian poet born in northern Spain, wrote a series of lyric poems entitled (‘Crowns of Martyrdom’), on Spanish and Roman martyrs, including Vincent. Prudentius describes how Vincent was brought to trial along with his bishop Valerius, and that since Valerius had a speech impediment, Vincent spoke for both, but that his outspoken fearless manner so angered the governor that Vincent was tortured and martyred, though his aged bishop was only exiled.] expressed his suffering and noble triumph in verse. Augustine also very richly displays praise for this very holy martyr.

The legends regarding Vincent state that he was born in Saragossa, in the kingdom of Aragon. During the persecution under Diocletian, the cruel proconsul Dacian, infamous in the annals of Spanish martyrdom, caused all the Christians of Saragossa, whom he collected together by a promise of immunity, to be massacred. And at this time lived Vincent, early instructed in the Christian faith, and with all the ardor of youth devoted to the service of Christ. At 20 he was already a deacon. He encouraged and sustained many of his brethren in the torments inflicted upon them, and was himself called upon to receive the crown of martyrdom. Being brought before the tribunal of Dacian, together with his bishop Galerius, they were accused of being Christians. Confessing their faith, the old bishop was ordered banished, but for the brave Vincent, who had defied him, a severer fate was reserved as an example to the rest. His body was lacerated with iron forks, and flames were administered; and they laid him bleeding, and half consumed by fire, on the ground strewn with potsherds and left him there. But when the guards looked into the dungeon, they saw it filled with light and fragrance; and they fell upon their knees and acknowledged the true God. Vincent died of his tortures, and the proconsul ordered his body thrown to the wild beasts. But God sent a raven to guard his remains. Then Dacian ordered the body sewn up in an ox-hide and thrown into the sea.

The last three sentences in this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Agnes, the highly renowned virgin of exalted memory, was at the time of this persecution (according to the testimony of Ambrose) born in Rome of Roman citizens. She was a young girl of thirteen with a beautiful face and, when she returned from school was loved by the son of the prefect. But she said, I already love the one whose mother was a virgin. For that reason she was imprisoned and given the choice of sacrificing to the goddess Vesta, or to join the company courtesans. But she disregarded both, and was therefore sent naked into a house of prostitution by the prefect. But the Lord covered her with thick tresses as though she were covered with raiment. And when they came in, she had been clad in a white dress by an angel of the Lord. And at this many wondered; and the son of the prefect was frightened to death. But Agnes prayed for him, and he came to life again. After that she was threatened, frightened, and beaten, and then thrown into the fire. Yet she remained uninjured. At length her neck was pierced by a sword; and so she was brought to martyrdom on the 21st day of January. In the night she appeared to her parents, with a host of virgins; and she said, Dearest parents, you should not mourn for me as one who is dead, but rejoice with me; for I am espoused to that one in Heaven, who, while on earth, I loved with complete understanding.[The legend of Agnes (containing many elements that remind one of the folktales collected by the Brothers Grimm) is as follows: There lived in Rome a maiden named Agnes (whether this name was her own, or given to her because of her lamb-like meekness and innocence does not seem clear). She was only 13, yet filled with all good gifts of the Holy Spirit, having loved and followed Christ from her infancy. She was of surpassing beauty. The son of the prefect of Rome desired her for wife, and he asked her in marriage of her parents; but she repelled all his advances and rejected his gifts of gold and gems, saying: "I am the betrothed of a lover who is greater and fairer than any earthly suitor." The son of the prefect was seized with jealousy and rage; and he fell ill, almost to the point of death. The prefect went to Agnes and to her parents to intercede for his son, but Agnes remained firm. Learning that she was a Christian, he ordered her to enter the service of the goddess Vesta. Being still further resisted, he threatened her with death; and he loaded her with chains, and ordered her to be dragged before the altars of the pagan gods; but to no avail. He ordered her carried to a place of prostitution, and exposed to the most degrading outrages. The soldiers stripped her, and when she saw herself exposed, she bent her head and prayed. Immediately her hair, already long, became like a veil, covering her whole person. And those who looked on were seized with awe and averted their eyes. And they shut her up in a chamber; and she saw before her a shining garment; and the whole place was filled with a glorious light. The son of the prefect entered the chamber, was struck blind and fell into convulsions, and was carried off as dead. But Agnes prayed for him, and her prayers were granted. The young man was eager to save Agnes, but the people demanded her death as a sorceress. So the prefect sent one of his deputies to judge her. And he ordered her to be burned; but the flames were suddenly extinguished. The executioners then ascended the pile and killed her with a sword. The parents and relatives took away her body and buried it in a cemetery outside the city. And when they assembled at her grave at night to offer devotions, she appeared before them, and said, "Weep not, dry your tears, and rejoice with exceeding joy; for me a throne is prepared by the side of Him whom on earth I preferred to all others, and to whom I am united forever in heaven." And the Christian mourners wiped away their tears, and returned to their homes with joy and thanksgiving.]

Cyriacus (Ciriacus), the deacon, together with Largus and Smaragdus and twenty others, suffered in these times. He released from the Devil, Artemia, the daughter of Diocletian; also Jobia, daughter of Sapor the king of the Persians. Then, after forty-five days, they returned, having receieved from Diocletian much honor. After his (i.e., Diocletian’s) death, his son, Maxiamian (Maximianus), ordered those three, together with other Christians, to be placed in prison. Then, by the judgment of Carpasius, he (i.e., Cyricaus) was brought forth and hot pitch was poured over his head. And afterwards, the son of Diocletian ordered that Cyriacus, together with Smaragdus and twenty others, be beheaded. And there were led away with him (i.e., Cyricacus) those of both sexes. And they were decapitated at Rome on the Salarian Road (Via Salaria). Pope Marcellus with Lucina buried the bodies of the martyrs on a farm on the Hostiensian Road (Via Hostiense) at the seventh mile-stone from the city (i.e., Rome) on the sixth of the Ides of August.

Cyriacus, a deacon of Rome, Smaragdus, and Largus were martyred by the sword under Maximinian. Tradition (very unhistorical) asserts that Cyriacus converted and baptized Artemia, daughter of Diocletian, and that he was sent by Diocletian to King Sapor, of Persia, to heal his daughter Jobia, possessed with a devil. This he did, and also baptized Jobia, Sapor, and four hundred and thirty of the Persian court.

The last two thirds of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Gervasius and Protasius (Prothasius), brothers, of Milan, sons of the holy martyr Vitalus, and born at the same time, suffered martyrdom at Milan at this time. Before this, upon the death of their parents, they gave their entire inheritance to the poor. For many years they devoted themselves to good works. Artesius, the governor of the city, was about to go to war. Then the priests of the pagan gods asked him why he did not compel Gervasius and Protasius to worship the idols; so he could not refuse. Therefore Gervasius was beaten to death with scourges loaded with lead; and Protasius was beaten with clubs. At length they were beheaded. Their bodies, still intact, were found many years later by St. Ambrose (Ambrosius) pursuant to a divine revelation, in the same condition as though they had died that very day. These very blessed martyrs were martyred on the 13th day of the Kalends of January.

Gervasius and Protasius, twin brothers, apparently were martyred sometime in the first (Nero is the villain in this account) or second century. Having been sent to Milan, together with Nazarus and Celsus, they were brought before Artesius, who, sharing in the enmity of his master against the Christians, commanded them to sacrifice to his idols. On refusal, he condemned Gervasius to be beaten to death with scourges loaded with lead, and ordered Protasius to be beheaded. A good man, named Philip, carried home their bodies and buried them honorably in his own garden; and they remained undiscovered until Ambrose, in response to a dream, caused them to be dug up. On the second day after their discovery they were borne in solemn procession to the Basilica. They are the patron saints of Milan and of haymakers, and are invoked for the discovery of thieves.

The last sentence is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.


St. George (Georgius) of Cappodocia (Capadocus), was a tribune and a true soldier of Christ. In these times he went from Cappadocia to the city of Diospolis in Persida[Diospolis = Lydda in ancient Palestine (modern day Lod, a mixed Arab-Jewish city ten miles southeast of Tel Aviv). Persida is, perhaps, a misspelling for Persia.] to relieve his fatherland of a dragon at the risk of his own life, and to suffer martyrdom. After slaying the dragon, he was stretched out on a rack, and all his limbs were pulled and his vitals torn. After enduring many tortures he was finally beheaded, as is recorded in history and other writings. Although his very brilliant martyrdom is honored by the Church of God in various ways. And very justly so, for (as Ambrose writes) although acknowledgment and affirmation of the Christian faith remained hidden, this holy martyr alone affirmed the name of the Son of God, and endured torture and martyrdom with the support of divine grace. His sacred head was brought to Venice, and there a church and cloister were erected in his honor. His banner is exhibited with the greatest solemnity in the episcopal city of Bamberg, in Germany. All Christians commemorate his feast day on the 24th of April.

George is, perhaps, the martyr around whom more legends accrued than any other. A sampling of the more famous ones follows.

George was a native of Cappadocia, living in the time of the Emperor Diocletian. He was born of noble parents and was a tribune in the army. In traveling to join his legion he came to a certain city in Libya called Selene. The inhabitants were in great trouble in consequence of the ravages of a monstrous dragon which issued from a neighboring marsh or lake, and devoured the flocks and herds of the people who had taken refuge within the walls; and to prevent him from approaching the city, the air of which was poisoned by its pestiferous breath, they offered him daily two sheep; and when the sheep were exhausted, they were bound to sacrifice two children daily, to save the rest. One day the lot fell upon the king’s daughter and she was led forth to the sacrifice, and the gates were shut against her. George was passing by on his steed and he met the maiden in tears. And he engaged to deliver her. After a terrible and prolonged battle he pinned the dragon to the earth with his lance; and he slew the dragon, cutting off its head. All the rewards bestowed upon the victor, George gave to the poor; and he went on his way, and came to Palestine. At this time Diocletian issued his edict against the Christians, and when George saw it posted in public, he was filled with indignation; and he tore it down and trampled it under foot. He was seized and carried before Dacian, the proconsul, and condemned to suffer for eight days the cruelest tortures. He was bound to a wooden cross and his body torn with sharp iron nails. He was burned with torches and salt rubbed into the wounds. He was compelled to drink poison, but it did not affect him. He was bound to a wheel full of sharp blades, but angels broke the wheel. They flung him into a cauldron of boiling lead; and when his executioners believed him subdued, they brought him to the temple to assist in the sacrifice. But he knelt and prayed, and thunder and lightning destroyed the temple and its idols. Then Dacian caused George to be beheaded.

Erasmus, the Campanian bishop, and a brilliant and pious man, left Antioch in fear of the despotism of Diocletian, who ordered that all who would not sacrifice to the idolatrous gods should be subjected to many tortures. And he lived in the wilderness for seven years in prayer and contemplation, receiving his food from the Lord through a raven. Afterwards, in obedience to an angelic voice, he went to the city and relieved many from demons, and with his teachings converted many to Christ. Therefore he was brought before Diocletian, and tortured with leaden scourges and with cudgels; later resin, sulphur, pitch, and oil were poured over him. But Erasmus remained unconsumed. By such a miracle many people were converted from idolatry to Christian faith. Later he was placed in a hard cell and covered with heavy iron weights; but at length was led forth by an angel. Afterwards he was taken by the Emperor Maximian and submerged in a caldron of seething lead, pitch and resin; but he remained unharmed. Through the guardianship of an angel he was taken out of the city at night to the seacoast, and by divine providence he was carried away in a small boat to Formia in Campania. At length he saw the apparition or a crown descending upon him, and he said: Lord, receive my spirit. And so he went to his holy end on the 3rd day of the month of June. His body is said to rest at Gaeta (Caiete) where his head is on display.

Erasmus, according to the Acts of the Martyrs, was a bishop who, on the breaking out of the persecution, retired to Mt. Lebanon, where he lived in a cave, and was fed by a raven which brought him daily a loaf of bread. He was arrested by order of Diocletian, and subjected to various ways. He was then conducted to Gaeta, where he expired peacefully. According to popular belief Erasmus died by having his bowels unwound and coiled upon a windlass, and thus he is represented in some works of art. In Naples he is regarded as the patron of sailors, with his name corrupted into Elmo.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Christopher (Cristoferus), the martyr, a man of erect stature and of unmatched size and strength, suffered death at this time, in the name of Christ, in the city of Samos, in the state of Lycia, in the province of Asia. He was first beaten with iron rods, then burned with flames; and yet remained firm through divine strength. Finally he was slain with arrows, and was beheaded on the 25th day of the month of July. As they say, he carried the Lord Jesus, in the person of an infant, on his shoulders across the water.[The legends surrounding Christopher rival those in number that surround George. Christopher was of the land of Canaan, where he was known as Offero. He was a man of colossal stature, and of terrible aspect. He was proud of his vast bulk and strength, and would serve none other than the greatest king. He traveled far and wide, and finding him, was engaged. And there came a minstrel who sang before the king, and in the course of his story made frequent mention of the Devil. Noting that the king crossed himself every time Satan was mentioned, Christopher inquired the reason. The king told him that he made the sign to preserve him from the power of Satan, fearing he might be overcome and slain by him. And so the great king confessed that there was a greater one than himself. So Christopher in disgust left the king’s service to seek the more powerful potentate. Finding him, he entered Satan’s service. As he journeyed along with his new master, they came upon a cross by the wayside. And the Evil One trembled and made a great circuit to avoid it. "Upon that cross died Jesus Christ, and when I behold it I must tremble and fly, for I fear him." So Christopher left the Devil, seeking Christ. From a hermit he learned that this Christ was the great king of heaven and earth, and that if he would serve him, he must fast and submit to other hard duties. Refusing to fast for fear of losing his strength, the hermit directed him to a certain river, stony and wide and deep, and often swelled by rains, and in which many people perished in attempting to pass over. "Since you will neither fast nor pray, go to that river, and use your strength to aid and save those who struggle with the stream, and those who are about to perish." This service pleased the giant; and having rooted up a palm tree from the forest, he used it for a staff to support his steps. He went to the stream, and on his shoulders he carried the weak across it, and he never wearied of his task. And the Lord was pleased. "Behold this strong man, who knows not yet the way to worship me, yet has found the way to serve me!" And Christopher built a rude hut beside the stream. One night he heard the plaintive voice of a child, which asked to be carried over the stream. And he found the child. He lifted it on his strong shoulders, and took his staff and entered the stream. The waters rose higher and higher, and the waves roared, and the wind blew; and the infant on his shoulders became heavier, until it seemed to him he must sink under the weight; and he began to fear; but at length he reached shore. And he asked the child, "Who are you? Had I carried the whole world on my shoulders, the burden could not have been heavier!" And the child replied: "Wonder not, for you have not only borne the world, but him who made the world . . . I accept your service. Plant your staff in the ground, and it shall put forth leaves and fruit." As Christopher did so, the dry staff flourished as a palm-tree in season. But the child vanished, and Christopher fell on his face, and confessed and worshipped Christ. Leaving that place he came to Samos, a city of Lycia, where he found many Christians who were tortured and persecuted; and he encouraged them and cheered them. For this he was seized and brought before the king, who ordered him to prison for confessing Christ. At length he was tortured, and finally beheaded.]

Cosmo (Cosmas) and Damian (Damnianus), the Christians, noted physicians, were imprisoned at this time. They were submerged in the sea, burned, stoned, shot, and at length beheaded. The blessed Cosmo, Damian, Antimus, Leontius, and Euprepius were martyred on the 27th day of September.[According to legend, Cosmo and Damian were brothers, and Arabians by birth, who dwelt in Aegas, a city in Cicilia. Their father died during their infancy, and their pious mother Theodora, brought them up with all diligence, and in the practice of every Christian virtue. They lived in the greatest abstinence, distributing their goods to the poor. They studied medicine and surgery, that they might prescribe for the sick, and relieve the sufferings of the wounded and infirm. They became noted physicians. They ministered to rich and poor alike, and even to animals. At length Diocletian and Maximian came to the throne. Those physicians, professing themselves Christians, were seized by Lycias, the proconsul of Arabia, and cast in prison. At first they were thrown into the sea, but an angel saved them; then into the fire, but the fire refused to consume them. They were then bound on two crosses and stoned, but the stones never reached them. Finally, they were beheaded. They are the patron saints of pharmacists, doctors, surgeons, dentists, barbers and hairstylists.]

Methodius, bishop first of the city of Olympus and afterwards of Tyre, in these times in the state of Calchis at the Negropontus (as the divine Jerome writes) was crowned with martyrdom. He was a highly learned man, and left many writings behind, especially his text On the Creation of the World, revealed to him in prison. He died on the 14th day of the Kalends in October. He also composed a brilliant speech against Porphyry as well as books such as his Symposium of Ten Virgins.

Methodius (d. 311 CE), bishop of Olympus in Lycia, and perhaps afterwards of Tyre (though no other account besides Jerome mentions this), wrote a treatise on the Resurrection against Origen, another against Porphyry, and several other works. His only surviving work is his Symposium of Ten Virgins, written in imitation of Plato’s Symposium. Unlike Plato’s speakers, who each describe and praise love, Methodius’ ten young ladies proclaim the glories and excellence of virginity.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Methodius thus: "Methodius, bishop of the cities of Olympus and Tyre, was slain in these times at Negropontus. He was a highly learned man, and left many learned writings behind."

Gorgonius, a Roman soldier, was in these times living in Nicomedia. And he was strongly denouncing the persecution under Diocletian that was especially being brought against Christians. Captured by the emperor himself, he was ordered to be hanged, torn to pieces, and most cruelly roasted on a grill—but still he survived. On the Ides of September they killed him with a rope. Then his body was buried at Rome on the Via Latina.

Gorgonius: Diocletian having discovered that Peter, one of his officers, was a Christian, ordered him tortured. When Gorgonius and Dorotheus, two other officers, remonstrated with the emperor, he ordered them executed. Eusebius says that Peter was scourged, and as he bore this without showing anguish, Diocletian ordered him broiled on a gridiron. Gorgonius and Dorotheus were finally hung.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Gorgonius thus: "Gorgonius, a Roman soldier, was in these times imprisoned by Diocletian at Nicomedia, and hanged, torn to pieces, roasted on a grill, and at length strangled with a rope."

Marcus and Marcellianus, brothers and Roman citizens, were arrested by a certain Duke Fabianus under this madness of persecution, and were immediately tied to a tree trunk, and sharp pegs were driven into their feet. And when, at length, they would not renounce the name of Jesus Christ, they were pierced with lances. Through these wounds they migrated to the heavens on the 14th of the Kalends of July.

Legend states that Marcus and Marcellinus (286 CE), twin brothers of a noble Roman family, had been converted and baptized in their youth and were married. When Diocletian ascended the throne, and before he issued his edict of persecution, the Christians in the capital and elsewhere suffered from popular tumults, or the ill will of cruel magistrates. Marcus and Marcellinus were imprisoned and condemned. Their friends obtained a respite to prevail upon them to submit to the state religion. For this purpose they were removed from prison to the house of Nicostratus, the registrar. However, through the efforts of Sebastian, who visited them and encouraged them, they remained steadfast, and their parents as well as Nicostratus and Chromatius were converted to Christianity. They were afterwards betrayed, ordered to be tied up and their feet to be nailed to a wooden post, and run through with lances.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Marcus and Marcellianus thus: "Marcus and Marcellianus, brothers and Roman citizens, were imprisoned because of their Christian faith, tied to a tree trunk, and sharp pegs were driven into their feet. And when, at length, they would not renounce the name of Christ Jesus Christ, they were pierced with lances."

Maximus and Claudius, very illustrious men, were at this time, together with the noble wife and two sons of the former, in the city of Hostia, taken in hand by the people of the court of Diocletian and sent into exile; and at length were burned in the name of Christ on the 12th day of the Kalends of March. And thus by that burning they offered to God the sacrifice of their martyrdom.

Legend states that Maximus and Claudius were brothers, the former, count of the privy purse to Diocletian, while the latter held a post of distinction about the person of the emperor. They were of noble family, and when Galerius Maximianus, the Caesar, had lost his wife, Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, the emperor resolved on finding another wife for his son-in-law. Haring of the beauty and modesty of Susanna, daughter of Gabinius, he sent Claudius to the father to ask her hand. But Susanna had dedicated herself to Jesus Christ. Claudius and his brother Maximus calmly informed the emperor that the maiden preferred a heavenly crown to an earthly one. Diocletian, in fury, caused the brothers and their families to be hurried to Cumae, where they were burnt alive, and their ashes cast into the river. Gabinus and his daughter Susanna were kept in prison to suffer later.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Maximus and Claudius thus: "Maximus and Claudius, the illustrious men, were at this time, together with the wife and two sons of the former, in the city of Hostia, taken in hand by the people of the court of Diocletian and sent into exile; and at length were burned in the name of Christ on the 18th day of February."


George (Georgius) is represented by a new and ornate woodcut portraying the saint in an elaborate coat of mail. However, instead of a helmet he wears a chaplet over his flowing tresses, and from the chaplet proceeds a plume. In his right hand he carries a spear with the banner of the resurrection. Before him lies the dragon, across which he has extended his left arm and hand, as though the ferocious creature were a pet dog. From under his left arm proceeds upward what would appear to be the dragon’s tail, twisting into a shape reminiscent of the number 8.


Erasmus is portrayed as a bishop. In his left hand he holds the crozier, and in his right, a windlass symbolism of his martyrdom, brought about by having his bowels unwound and coiled upon a windlass.


Christopher (Cristoferus) is portrayed as a sturdy character in flowing garb. The little Christ child, also in voluminous habit, confidently sits on his shoulder, with a finger of his right hand extended over the saint in blessing. St. Christopher, although portrayed only to the waist, is proceeding forward, firmly holding his rugged staff, a small tree trunk, with both hands. The garments of men and Child are fluttering in a strong wind, and the expression on the saint’s face is that of one sustaining a heavy burden. The Christ-child wears a floriated nimbus; the saint none at all.


Cosmo (Cosmas) and Damian (Damianus), brothers, and both physicians, are in dual portrait, each clad in medieval cloaks and headgear. As symbols, one carries an apothecary’s mortar, the other the usual bottle used by medieval physicians for examination of the patient’s urine.


Methodius, the bishop, holds the palm-branch of martyrdom (in the German edition he is portrayed in the raiment of a medieval doctor, and wears a fez-shaped cap).


Marcus and Marcellianus are represented by a single portrait (in the German edition they are represented by a dual portrait).


Maximus and Claudius are represented by a dual portrait (in the German edition they are represented by a single portrait).


Sebastian (Sebastianus), a very illustrious man, was an officer of the highest rank under Diocletian, and the soldiers honored him as a father. He was a true lover of God, and at this time, with his learning sustained many martyrs, particularly Marcus and Marcellianus, the brothers, and their parents, and comforted them in their fears. Without fear he acknowledged himself a Christian. He brought speech to the dumb wife of Nicostratus, and converted them both to the Lord. When Diocletian heard this he caused Sebastian to be bound in the middle of the field, and the soldiers to shoot at him as at a target. And so they filled him with arrows until he looked as rough as a hedgehog; and they left him for dead. But in a short time he came back to health, and to the emperors he made declaration of their unjust persecutions. They caused him to be beaten with clubs at Rome until he died. The people of Diocletian’s court threw him into a secret chamber. Through a vision he was disclosed to the blessed Lucina, and buried in an honorable place. This Sebastian, beside his Christian faith, was a man of complete foresight, truthful speech, righteousness, wise counsel, and faithful dealings, and renowned for his sound morals. The divine Sebastian suffered martyrdom at Rome on the 13th of the Kalends of February.[Sebastian was a native of Narbonne, in Gaul, and the son of noble parents, who had held high offices in the empire. At an early age he was promoted to the command of a company in the Praetorian Guard, so that he was always near the person of the emperor, and held in special favor. Secretly he was a Christian, but his faith rendered him more loyal to his masters; more faithful in his engagements; more mild, more charitable, while his favor with his princes, and his popularity with the troops, enabled him to protect those who were persecuted for Christ’s sake, and to convert many to the truth. Among his friends were two young men of noble family, soldiers like himself, Marcus and Marcellinus. Being Christians, they were condemned to undergo torture, which they endured with unshaken firmness, and were afterward led forth to death. Sebastian, neglecting his own safety, strengthened and confirmed them in their faith; and although they were saved at this time, were denounced a few months later, and together with the whole Christian community were put to death. At length it was Sebastian’s turn. Diocletian ordered him bound to a stake and shot to death with arrows. The archers left him for dead. In the middle of the night, Irene, the widow of one of his martyred friends, took away his body to bury it honorably; but it was found that none of the arrows had pierced him in a vital part, and that he yet breathed. They carried him to her house and dressed his wounds; and he recovered. He was counseled to flee from Rome, but instead he went to the palace and reproached the emperor for his intolerance and cruelty. In a rage Diocletian had him seized and clubbed to death, and his body thrown into the Cloaca Maxima (‘Biggest Sewer’), Rome’s (and one of the world’s earliest) sewage systems (the earlier emperor Elagabalus also suffered a similar fate). But a Christian lady, named Lucina, found means to recover his body, and interred it secretly in the catacombs.]

Lucia, a maiden of Sicily, among other virgins of the same island the most prominent, was at this time betrothed by her mother to a renowned youth. But when Lucia had seen the miracles of Saint Agatha, she asked her mother to no longer call her the spouse of the youth, and in haste she gave her inheritance to the widows and the poor. For this reason her husband denounced her before the court as a Christian and accused her of dealings contrary to the law. And the judge advised her to sacrifice to the idolatrous gods, saying, If you will not do this, I will cause you to be put into a public house with prostitutes; and he arranged to have this done. Shortly after that she said, The body cannot be defiled without the consent of the mind; and if against my will you cause me to be violated, chastity will be a double crown. But through the help of the Holy Spirit she became so heavy that she could not be removed from the spot. The judge caused a great fire to be made beside her, but the judge became so frightened that his friend drove a sword through her neck. And thus on the Ides of December she gave up her spirit. And through her suffering and holiness the city of Syracuse was especially adorned.[Legend recounts that Lucia (in English ‘Lucy’), a noble and virtuous young girl, lived with her widowed mother in the city of Syracuse. She had been early instructed in Christianity, and secretly dedicated her virginity to Christ; but her mother did not know it. At fourteen she was betrothed by her relatives to a youth of the same city, noble and wealthy, but a pagan. Suffering from a grievous disorder, her mother made a pilgrimage to the tomb of St. Agatha, and Lucy accompanied her. There Lucy saw St. Agatha in a vision, and the vision addressed her as "my sister-handmaid of Christ." And the mother was healed. After this Lucy secured her mother’s consent to remain a virgin, and entreated that her dowry might be given to the poor. So Lucy sold all their possessions and gave them to the sick, the widows and orphans. And her betrothed became enraged when he learned this, and denounced her to the governor as being a Christian. When she refused to sacrifice to the gods, the governor ordered her to be carried to a brothel and treated with indignity and humbled to his will. And she said, "My body is in your power; but know that there can be neither sin nor shame to which the mind does not consent."]

Vitus, a child out of Sicily, together with Modestus, his tutor, and Crescentia his nurse, suffered martyrdom in the island of Sicily. As a Christian believer, at the age of twelve years, he gave his estate to the needy. He would not follow his pagan father in the worship of idols, and for this reason suffered severe punishment at the hands of Valerianus the judge. Then, by means of an angelic warning, he, together with Modestus and Crescentia, shipped to the land of Tonagritarus; and there they remained for some time, unknown and in prayer. They released the son of Diocletian from demons. By him Vitus was asked to worship the idols, and refusing to do so, he was placed in irons and imprisoned. And afterwards, because they remained steadfast in their faith, they were laid upon a mass of seething resin and pitch; but they remained uninjured. Later they were hung upon a gallows, and so stretched that, with the bones separated, their inner organs could be seen. There was a great earthquake, and an angel of God released them, and led them to the river Siler (Syler). There, while praying, they made their way to the Lord. He collected their flowering bodies and buried them with spices. They suffered their prophesied martyrdoms on the 17th day of the Kalends of July.[The legends concerning Vitus or Vito claim that he was the son of a noble Sicilian. And although his parents were pagans, his nurse Crescentia, and his foster-father Modestus, were secretly Christians. And it was the latter two who brought him up in the faith, and caused him to be baptized. At the age of 12 he openly professed himself a Christian to the great indignation of his father, and the cruel governor Valerian, who attempted to subdue his constancy by the usual terror and tortures. He was beaten and shut up in a dungeon; but his father, looking through the keyhole, beheld him dancing with seven beautiful angels; and he was so amazed and dazzled by their celestial radiance, that he became blind in the same moment, and only recovered his sight by the intercession of his son. But his heart being hardened, he again persecuted Vitus, and treated him cruelly; therefore the youth fled with his nurse and Modestus, and crossed the sea to Italy in a little boat, an angel steering at the helm. But soon after their arrival they were accused before the court of the Emperor Diocletian, plunged into a caldron of boiling oil, and thus received the crown of martyrdom. Vitus became the patron saint of dancers and actors, and was invoked against the nervous affection commonly called St. Vitus’ Dance.]

Afra (Affra) was a daughter of the king of Cyprus. He was defeated in a battle. For that reason, while still young, she went with her mother Hilaria from their home to Rome. And Hilaria, her mother, gave her up to the goddess Venus for the attainment of her favors. Sine this Venus was a woman of Cyprus. On account of her beauty it was said that she was a goddess and a temple was built for her on Cyprus. Afterwards they came to Augsburg (Augustum), and there Afra gave herself up to vile uses and carnal business. During the time of the Diocletian persecution the bishop Narcissus came into her house, having no knowledge of her way of life, for purposes of prayer, as was his custom. Afra wondered about this unusual guest. But when she recognized him as a Christian bishop, she confessed herself a vile woman. And she was drawn away from her vile mode of life and was baptized. Dionysius, the brother of Hilarius, there himself was made a bishop. Afterwards she was seized by Gaius, the judge, and given her choice to sacrifice to the gods or endure great punishment. And as she refused to sacrifice, she was led to an island in the river Lech (Lici), not far from Augusta, and there she was tied to a tree, and burned. And as the fire was lighted she gave praise and thanks to God. Afterwards Hilaria, Digna, Eunomia and Eutropia were also burned because of their constancy in the faith. And the blessed Afra suffered (her martyrdom) on the seventh of the Ides of August.

Afra is another interesting, though somewhat perplexing, martyr. First, there may be two of her, for the Brescians honor, as their patroness, a Saint Afra. With regard to the identity of the saint, there is some inexplicable confusion. We are here concerned, not with the patron saint of the Brescians, but with the patroness of Augsburg (Augusta). She was a woman of that city who had for a long time followed the profession of courtesan; and it happened that a certain holy man whose name was Narcissus, flying from the persecution which affected the Christians in the reign of Aurelian, took refuge in the home of Afra without knowing that she was abandoned to sin. When she found out that he was a Christian priest, she was overcome with fear and respect, and by a feeling of shame for her profession. He took the opportunity to exhort her to repentance. She listened to him, weeping, and fell at his feet, entreating to be baptized. He, knowing that Christ had never rejected a repentant sinner, administered baptism, and assured her of forgiveness.

And Afra had three handmaidens, who like herself, had led a dissolute life. She brought them to the feet of the Christian priest, and begged him to instruct them also in the way of salvation. Meanwhile those who were in pursuit of the priest came to search for him in the dwelling of Afra; but she concealed him, first in her own house, and then in that of her mother Hilaria; and by her help he afterward escaped to his own country, which was Spain.

But the idolators seized upon Afra, and accused her of having assisted in the escape of a Christian, and of being a Christian herself. The judge, whose name was Gaius, and who had known her former profession, was astonished at the modesty and dignity with which she replied to his questions, and acknowledged herself to be a follower of Christ. And continuing further in her faith, she was condemned to be burned alive. So they tied her to a stake, and heaped round her a pile of vine-branches. Then she lifted up her eyes to heaven and prayed. Her spirit departed, and she was carried to heaven by angels. A few days afterward her mother Hilaria, and her three maidens, Digna, Eunomia and Eutropia, also perished for their faith.

Pantaleon, an illustrious man and one who was quite learned in the art of medicine, was himself crucified for the sake of Christ at this time in the city of Nicomedia. He was the son of a senator, and while still a boy learning about medicine. Taken to the palace by his teacher, he was praised for his beauty. To him Hermolaus the priest was promising that if he would believe in the Christ, he would be able to heal without medicine. He (i.e., Pantaleon) was afterwards baptized by him (i.e., Hermolaus). In the presence of his father he made a blind man to see; and he converted both to the faith. Maximianus ordered him to be brought before him, and there he healed a man of the gout. Afterwards, for the sake of Christ he was put on a rack and lamentably burned. Then he was set in a cauldron of seething lead. But the Lord appeared and the lead cooled. At length he was thrown to wild beasts; yet they did not harm him. Seeing this, many were converted to the Christian faith, and these the emperor ordered beheaded. Finally Pantaleon himself, with his master Hermolaus and others completed their martyrdom by the blow of the sword on the 5th of the Kalends of August.[According to legend Pantaleon (Panthaleon) was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia, the son of a pagan father and a Christian mother, and having made himself master of all the learning and science of the Greeks, he attached himself particularly to the study of medicine. He became the favorite of the Emperor Maximian. At court he was in danger of forgetting all his Christian precepts that he had learned from his mother. But a venerable Christian priest named Hermolaus undertook to instruct him, and Pantaleon became an ardent Christian. When the persecution of the Christians broke out, knowing he could not conceal himself, Pantaleon prepared for his doom. In the midst of his work of healing the sick and the blind, and restoring the dead, he was accused before the emperor, and was beheaded with his aged master Hermolaus. But Pantaleon they first bound to an olive tree, and according to legend, no sooner had his blood bathed in the roots of the tree than it burst forth into leaves and fruit.]


Sebastian (Sebianus) is represented in fur cap and medieval robes. He holds a group of arrows, symbolic of his martydom.


Lucia (Lucia Martyr) is represented with a nimbus and crown of martyrdom. A sword pierces her throat from left to right, as she (somewhat disturbingly) maintains her attitude of prayer.


Vitus, patron saint of dancers and stage-players, had a palm branch in his right hand. In his left reposes a book upon which a cock struts. The origin of this bird as one of his attributes is a disputed point. It appears that from very ancient times it was the custom to offer up a cock to him; and so late as the beginning of the 18th century this was done by the common people of Prague.


Afra (Affra and Hilaria) is a single portrait of Afra alone. She appears bound to a narrow pillar. It is symbolic of her martyrdom at the stake.


Pantaleon, physician and martyr, is portrayed with his hands above his head. Through his hands a huge nail has been driven, which would seem to pierce his head also, although the legend is that his hands were nailed to the tree at which he suffered martyrdom.


Dorothea, a glorious virgin, of the city of Caesarea, in the province of Cappadocia, was seized at this time for Christ’s sake, hung on a gallows, beaten severely with fists, and finally beheaded. Upon her passing out, she was laughed at by Theophilus the scholar, who said to her, Ha! You bride of the Lord, send us roses from the paradise of your bridegroom. Dorothea appeared to him as a child carrying a small basket containing three apples and three roses. These he soon received, and he was amazed at this, for it was cold in the month of February; and he was converted, and after severe tortures he was beheaded.[Legend recounts that Dorothea was a noble virgin who dwelt in the province of Cappadocia, and in the city of Caesarea. None in the city compared to her in beauty and grace of person. She was a Christian, serving God day and night with prayers and fasting. Sapritius (or Fabricius), the governor of the city, was a severe persecutor of the Christians, and hearing of the maiden and of her beauty, he ordered her brought before him. Being ordered to serve the pagan gods or die, she answered mildly, "Be it so; the sooner shall I stand in the presence of Him whom I most desire to behold." Then the presence of Him whom I most desire to behold." Then the governor asked whom she meant, and she replied "I mean the Son of God, my espoused! His dwelling is Paradise; by his side are joys eternal; and in his garden grow celestial fruits and roses that never fade." The governor ordered her back to her dungeon, sending two women to convert her to idolatry; but they were converted to Christianity instead. Then the governor, furious, ordered these two other maidens to be burned, compelling Dorothea to witness their torments. But Dorothea stood by, bravely encouraging the victims in their faith. Then she herself was condemned to cruel torture; and she was finally beheaded. When being led forth to her death, Theophilus, a young lawyer of the city, called to her "Ha! fair maiden, are you going to join your bridegroom? Send me, I pray you, of the fruits and flowers of that same garden of which you have spoken: I am eager to taste of them!" And she promised to grant his request. Coming to the place of execution, she knelt down and prayed; and suddenly there stood up beside her a beautiful boy, holding a basket containing three apples and three fresh-gathered roses, and these she asked the lad to carry to Theophilus. And so the angel (for such the boy was) carried them to Theophilus, with the result that he became a Christian, following Dorothea in martyrdom.]

Eleutherius, a certain very illustrious soldier, was martyred in this persecution, with numberless persons, at Nicomedia. Of these some were burned, some beheaded, and some thrown into the sea. After this Eleutherius had been tortured in every limb, and yet became stronger and stronger; he was at length, like gold, proven by fire, and with the crown of martyrdom entered Paradise on the sixth of the Nones of October.[Legend recounts that when the palace of Domitian at Nicomedia having caught fire, Eleutherius, a soldier, and some other Christians were blamed. Of these some were decaptitated, some drowned, and others burned alive.]

Sergius and Bachus, very noble men, distinguished at the court of Maximian (Maximianum), were accused in this persecution; and they were taken to the temple of Jupiter to worship the idolatrous gods. When they refused to do so, they were stripped of their military uniform, and Bachus was beaten with rawhides until his blood flowed and his abdomen was torn and his vitals exposed. His corpse was protected against the wild animals by birds, until he was buried. And as Sergius would not permit himself to be drawn away (from his faith) he was shod with shoes with nails driven into them, and in these he was compelled to run before a wagon for many miles. At last, still firm in the Christian faith, he was beheaded on the Nones of October.[Sergius and Bachus were, according to the martyrologies, officers in the household of the emperor, Maximian. One day, when the emperor went into the temple of Jupiter to offer sacrifice, he noticed that these officers had remained outside. Suspecting the reason, he ordered them to join him in adoring the god. They refused, and Maximian sent them to Antiochus, governor of the province of Augusta Euphratorum, and there Bachus was scourged until he died; and Sergius, after having been made to walk in boots with nails in the soles so as to tear his feet, was executed by the sword. Rome has a church dedicated to Sergius and Bachus.]

The four crowned ones, namely, Severinus, Severianus, Carpopherus (Carpoferus) and Victorinus, refused to sacrifice to the idolatrous god Aesculapius at the command of Diocletian, and therefore they were beaten to death with scourges containing leaden balls, and their bodies were thrown to the dogs in the streets. They were buried at night by St. Sebastian and Pope Melchiades. And since it was not possible to discover their names, thus on the seventh of the Ides of November they are thus honored. Afterwards their names were revealed.[The Four Crowned Martyrs, who died on November 8, 303, were famous wood- and stone-carvers, who would not take pagan commissions, and in consequence were flogged to death, along with five of their pupils or converts. They watch over the work of masons and sculptors.]

Fides, a very holy virgin, in the city of Agenus, was urged by Dacianus, the judge, by flattery and threats, to sacrifice to the pagan gods. Declining to do so she was stretched upon an iron grill over a coal fire; still she remained constant in her martyrdom, and in consequence many people were converted to the Christian faith. When Saint Caprasius (who through fear had concealed himself) saw the martyrdom of this virgin, he prayed God to give her victory; and he saw a snow-white dove descend from heaven and place a brilliant crown of gold and precious gems on her head; and the fire was extinguished. And so he offered himself up as a Christian, and he, together with Primus and Felicianus, and with the virgin Fides, were all beheaded.

Euphemia, a very noble virgin, together with 70 others, was arrested in the city of Chalcedon in Asia by a proconsul whose name was Priscus, because they would not worship the pagan god Mars. And so they were threatened with every form of torture, all of which for the sake of Christ they steadfastly endured. Their tortures included: imprisonment, beatings, the wheel, fires, the weights of sharp stones, wild beasts, lashings, hot-irons. And, torn apart by a wild beast, she gave back her immaculate spirit to God. Her mother Theodora and her father buried her body on the sixth of the Kalends of October.

Euphemia, whom the stories say was famed for her beauty and fortitude, is one of those whom the Eastern Orthodox Church has distinguished with the epitaph Great. All that is known of her rests on the description of a picture, in which she is portrayed as a person of beauty, grace, modesty and gravity, and attired in a plain brown mantle, worn in Greece by philosophers and expressing a renunciation of worldly pleasures and vanities. She appears before the judge, Priscus, between two soldiers, one dragging her forward, the other pushing her from behind. In another part of the picture she is being tortured by two executioners, one seizing her long hair and pulling back her head, the other striking her on the mouth with a mallet. In the background is the interior of the dungeon. Euphemia, seated on the earth, raises her hands to heaven and prays for mercy and strength to bear her sufferings. Near the prison is a pile of burning sticks, in the midst of which she stands extending her arms to heaven.

The German edition of the Chronicle streamlines its entry for Euphemia thus: "Euphemia, a noble virgin, together with 70 others, was taken in the city of Chalcedon, and because they would not worship the heathen god Mars, they were threatened with every form of torture; but they remained firm unto death."

Felix, bishop in Apulia, together with Adauctus and Januarius the priests, and Fortunatus and Septimus the lectors, after having been long imprisoned during this period, traveled through all Africa and Sicily, risking many dangers, and finally, on the ninth day of the Kalends of November, they completed (their martyrdom) by being put to death by the sword.[]

Also another Felix and Fortunatus, brothers, during this persecution at Aquileia, were set up on a gallows, and executioners held hot stones against their sides; but by divine power those were extinguished. At length seething oil was poured over them, but they remained unharmed. After their judgment had been given, on the third day of the Ides of June they were beheaded.[With Felix and Fortunatus we are on somewhat shakier ground than normal. One account is the following. In 295 CE the Emperor Diocletian issued his edict of Persecution against the Church of Christ, and not long afterwards the prefect, Euphemius, came to Aquileia to examine and punish the Christians there. And when he entered the city he went to the temple of Jupiter and there offered sacrifices, and then sent a herald to call all the citizens together there. One of the magistrates of the town informed the prefect that two brothers, Christians, had come there. The brothers were arrested and brought before Euphemius. Having confessed their faith and refused to worship idols, they were tortured and finally killed with the sword.]


Margaret (Margaretha), a very beautiful virgin of Antioch, born of pagan parents, and consigned to the care of a nurse, voluntarily permitted herself to be baptized. When, after the death of her mother, she was attending the sheep of her nurse, and now being fifteen years of age and had become quite beautiful, Olybrius (Olibrius) became enamored of her. But when he learned that she was a Christian, he imprisoned her. And as she was opposed to worshipping the pagan gods, she was hung up, beaten with rods, and her flesh torn with iron claws. Then she was thrown back into prison. There the Devil appeared to her in the form of a dragon, as though he wished to swallow her. But she made the sign of the cross, and he disappeared. Afterwards the judge ordered her to be beheaded[The German edition of the adds to this sentence the phrase "on the 12th day of July."]; and she prayed for mankind and for her persecutors, and for the pregnant women who call upon her in the time of childbirth. She completed her martyrdom on the 13th day of the Ides of July.[Legend says that Margaret was the daughter of a pagan priest of Antioch, named Theodosius; and in her infancy, being of poor health, she was sent to a nurse in the country. This woman, who was secretly a Christian, brought up Margaret in her faith. The maid, while employed in keeping the few sheep of her nurse, meditated on the mysteries of the gospels, and devoted herself to the service of Christ. One day the governor of Antioch, whose name was Olybrius, saw her and was captivated by her beauty. He commanded her to be taken to his palace, and decided that, if she were of free birth, to make her his wife. But Margaret scorned his offer, declaring herself the servant of Christ. Her father and all her relatives were struck with horror at this revelation. They fled, leaving her in the power of the governor, who endeavored to subdue her constancy by the most painful torments. They were so terrible that the tyrant himself, unable to endure the sight, covered his face with his robe; but Margaret did not flinch beneath them. They then dragged her to a dungeon, where Satan in the form of a terrible dragon, came upon her with his inflamed and hideous mouth wide open, and sought to terrify and confound her; but she held up a cross, and he fled before it. Or, according to the more popular version, he swallowed her up alive, but immediately burst; and she emerged unhurt. He returned in the form of a man to tempt her further, but she overcame him, and placing her foot on his head, forced him to confess his foul wickedness. She was again brought before the tyrant, and again refusing to abjure her faith, she was further tortured. Finally she was beheaded. And as they led her forth to death, she thanked and glorified God that her suffering was ended; and she prayed that those who invoked her in the pains of childbirth should find help through the merit of her sufferings, and in memory of her deliverance from the womb of the great dragon.]

Maximilian (Maximilianus), of the city of Ceyla, born of noble and devout parents, a highly learned and virtuous man, was upon the death of St. Quirinus, the Laurian bishop, elected bishop by common consent. This was in the time of the two emperors, Carus and Numerianus. He was taken to the Temple of Mars, where he refused to worship the idolatrous gods, and was therefore martyred by the people of the court at Ceyla, outside the walls, in the Year of Christ 289, on the fourth day of the Ides of October. The Duke of Bavaria brought him to Passau, where he is commemorated.

Blasius, who flourished at this time in all piety and mildness, was elected bishop by the Christians in Sebaste, a city of Cappadocia. To escape the cruel persecutions, Blasius fled into a cave in the mountains, frequented by wild animals. These he healed, and the ravens brought him food. Hearing of this the judge ordered him to be brought before him. On his way Blasius performed miracles. He was placed in a dungeon, and because he scorned the gods, he was hung on a timber and his body was torn with an iron comb. Seven Christian women gathered up his blood. Blasius and two little children of these women were beheaded.[Blasius (also Blasé, Blyse, or Blaise), was bishop of Sebaste, a city of Cappadocia, in Asia Minor. He spent a great part of his time in retirement on a hill not far from the city, where he withdrew, after the duties of his office were finished, to be alone with God. During the Diocletian persecution of the Christians he lay concealed in his retreat for some time; but he was finally brought before Agricolaus, governor of the province, and confessing himself a Christian, was thrown into prison. After enduring many tortures, he was killed in the beginning of the fourth century. Some historians refer this event to the year 316, under the reign of Licinius.]

Juliana, a very illustrious virgin of Como, a city of Gaul, suffered many cruel tortures and punishments there at this time. Afterwards she publicly fought with the Devil, overcoming him most gloriously. Then, overcoming fiery flames, burning oil, and the iron wheel with its sharp blades, she at last carried off the palm of martyrdom by having her head lopped off on the 14th day of the Kalends of March.

Primus and Felician (Felicanus), Roman spiritual men, having refused to sacrifice to idolatrous gods, were beheaded in this persecution after enduring many tortures. They attained the crown of martyrdom on the 5th day of the Ides of June.[Primus and Felician, were Roman citizens who lived as pagans until converted to Christianity. In the persecution of Diocletian and Maximian they were brought before the emperor, who invited them to offer incense to the gods; but they refused, and Primus was sent to prison, while the governor, Promotus, made every attempt to break the constancy of Felician by promises. Failing in this, the magistrate ordered his hands and feet transfixed with nails like those of the God whom he adored. He then told Primus that Felician had obeyed the emperors and had sacrificed. Disbelieving him, Primus remained firm and the governor ordered him to be beaten and his sides burned with torches. Wearying of torturing the brothers, he ordered their heads struck off.]

Pamphilius (Pamphilus), a Greek priest, and a relative of Eusebius of Caesarea, was a distinguished teacher of the Holy Scriptures. In these times, on the first day of June, he was martyred in the city of Caesarea, in Palestine.[Pamphilius, a native of Berytus (Beirut), and of rich and honorable family, studied in the famous schools of his native town, and attained great proficiency in every branch of learning then taught. Later he moved to Alexandria, and spent large sums in forming an extensive library, which he bestowed on the Church of Caesarea in Palestine where he took up his abode and established a school of sacred literature. To his labors the church was indebted for a correct edition of the Bible, which he transcribed himself. He held Origen in high esteem, and during his imprisonment wrote an apology for him in five books. He also wrote an abridgement or exposition of Acts. He was remarkable for his charity, humility, and austere life. His eloquence made him especially obnoxious to the pagans. In 307 the governor of Palestine had him apprehended, tortured and imprisoned for nearly two years. The governor's successor ordered him racked and executed on February 16, 309. Eusebius of Caesarea, the historian, who has written the life of Pamphilius, and who had been his fellow-prisoner, out of respect for his memory took the surname Pamphili.]

Quintin (Quintinus), a soldier of Gaul, suffered martyrdom at the hands of the emperor Maximian (Maximianus) on the last day of October. Through angelic revelation his body was discovered intact fifty-five years later.[Quintin (Quintinus), son of Zeno, a Roman senator, held a high command in the Roman army, but was converted to the Christian faith. According to legend he was imprisoned and cruelly tortured. An angel broke his chains, and he went into the market place and began to preach, converting many people. He was again arrested and tortured, but the torturers left him uninjured. Two iron spits were then run through him from his head to his feet, and finally his head was struck off. His body was thrown into the Somme, where it remained for fifty years under water. A lady named Eusebia recovered it, built an oratory for it, and this formed the nucleus of the church and town of Saint Quintin.]

Rufus (Ruffus), highly renowned Roman soldier, was subjected to much oppression with his entire household by the emperor Diocletian, and became a martyr of Christ. Although many other Christians were slain at this time, we have fixed upon only the most renowned and distinguished.


Margaret (Margaretha), in ornate dress and wearing the crown of martyrdom. From under her right arm emerges a dragon, her symbol, to whom she is holding up the cross by which he was subdued.


Blasius, bishop and martyr, represented in Episcopal robes and mitre. In one hand he holds a crozier, in the other a taper, typical of his being "a burning and shining light."


Quintin (Quintinus), soldier of Gaul, in full armor, and carrying a pennant.


Year of the World 5483

Year of Christ 284

Marcellinus[Marcellinus' name is spelled 'Arcellinus' in the Beloit College copy of the since space was left for the initial letter 'M' to be painted in later.], a Roman, succeeded Pope Caius in the time of Diocletian and Maximian. He was taken prisoner in the sixth year of his pontificate, during the Diocletian persecution, and by threats was moved to worship strange gods. But before long he took account of himself, assembled a council of 180 bishops at Sinuessa in Campania, and there he appeared in dusty and hairy raiment, requesting punishment for his inconstancy. But in the entire council no one was found to condemn him; for all said that Peter had sinned in such a situation, and in tears had endured the penalty of his sin. Marcellinus returned to Rome and angrily upbraided Diocletian who had urged him to sacrifice to the pagan gods. And for that reason Marcellinus, with Claudius, Cyrinus, and Antoninus, all Christians, were led to martyrdom by order of Diocletian. On the way Marcellinus reminded Marcellus, the priest, not to obey the commands of Diocletian in matters of the faith, and not to bury his (Marcellinus's) body, because it was not worthy of burial, inasmuch as he had denied the Savior of the World. However, the bodies of all of them were buried after thirty-six days. Marcellinus sat (in office) 9 years, 2 months and 16 days; and the chair rested twenty-five days.[Marcellinus succeeded Caius as bishop of Rome in 296. It is said that during the Diocletian persecution Marcellinus under threats offered incense to pagan idols, but repented. For his own condemnation he called a council at Sinuessa, which however, refused to condemn him. After a considerable interregnum he was succeeded by Marcellus.]

Year of the World 5493

Year of Christ 294

Marcellus[Marcellus' name is spelled 'Arcellus' in the Beloit College copy of the since space was left for the initial letter 'M' to be painted in later.], a Roman, was pope from the time of Constantine and Galerius, the emperors, to that of Maxentius. He ordained that no public council should be held without the authority of the papal see. He designated twenty-five places in the city of Rome as bishoprics for baptism and to meet the requirements of those who daily deserted paganism to come into the faith. He also established certain places for the burial of martyrs. When Maxentius learned that the noble woman, Lucina, had given her estate to the church, he became angry and exiled her for a time. While Marcellus was a prisoner, Maxentius urged him to resign the pontificate and the faith; and when he refused, Maxentius sent him away to herd animals. In the meantime, however, Marcellus did not neglect his prayers and fasting. Although relieved of his priestly office, Maxentius sent him to a foul-smelling region where he died of the stench, after having sat five years six months and twenty-one days. On his death the Roman See was vacant 20 days.[Marcellus I succeeded to the pontificate in 308, in the time of Maxentius, who put him to work in the imperial stables, of which labors he is said to have died.]

Eusebius, a Greek, became pontiff in the reigns of Constantine and Maxentius. He decreed that no layman should cause a bishop to be summoned into court. During his ministry, on the 3rd day of May, the cross of the Lord was found. This pope allowed heretics to be reconciled by laying on of hands alone. He died at Rome and was buried in the cemetery of Calixtus on the Appian Way on the sixth Nones of October. He sat six years one month and three days, although some historians are doubtful as to his term. The papal chair was vacant one day at this time.[Eusebius was bishop of Rome for four months under the emperor Maxentius (309-10). The Christians in Rome were divided on the question of the reconciliation of apostates. The mild views of Eusebius brought forward a competitor, Heraclius; but both were expelled by the emperor.]

Melchiades (Melciades[Melciades' name is spelled 'Elciades' in the Beloit College copy of the since space was left for the initial letter 'M' to be painted in later.]), a pope, by birth an African, lived in the times of Maxentius, Licinius and Maximinus, and was distinguished for his piety and skill. He decreed that no man be condemned or judged through enmity or without credible evidence; also that no one fast on Sunday or Thursday, as the pagans held these days holy. He also made laws regulating the sacrifice. At this time the Manichean heresy gained the upper hand at Rome. After these events this pope was crowned with martyrdom at the instigation of Maximinus; likewise also Peter, the Alexandrian bishop, and Lucianus of Antioch, a Roman priest, and many others. Melchiades sat four years seven months and 19 days, and the chair rested 17 days.[Melchiades was pope from July 2, 310 to January 11, 314. The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the Lateran Synod in Rome (313), at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of charges brought against him, while Donatus was condemned.]


The first council was depicted at folio CXVIII verso, and here the design is similar. Marcellinus, who called the council for his own condemnation, appears in the center of the group, though not in sackcloth and ashes. The Holy Spirit, symbolized by a dove, hovers over the gathering. Sinuessa was situated on the seacoast and on the Via Appia in the midst of the fertile country of Campania.


Constantius and Galerius received the government upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian from the sovereignty of the empire; and they divided the country and its provinces between them. Galerius took Greece, Asia and the East, while Constantius was content with only Gaul and Spain; but Italy also fell to his lot. This Constantinus was an extraordinary man of excellent morals, zealous about the wealth of the country and its people, though not favorable to the establishment of a common fund, and he said it was better to employ riches and possessions through various persons than to lock them up in the treasury. He was moderate in his desire for money, and when on occasion he was about to hold a feast with numerous persons, it became necessary to collect revenues and contributions from house to house for the purpose. This Constantius was not only loved by the Gauls, but held in veneration by them, for it was through his rule that they escaped the craftiness of Diocletian and the bloodthirstiness of Maximian. Constantius was the grandson of Claudius the Second, and to him was espoused Theodora, stepdaughter of Maximian. She bore him six children. He divorced her and took Helena, captured daughter of the King of England. Constantius died in Britain in the thirteenth year of his reign. By reason of his gentleness and mildness he was reckoned among the gods.[Constantius I, who was surnamed Chlorus, "the pale," Roman emperor from 305 to 306, was the son of Eutropius, a noble of Dardania, and of Claudia, daughter of Crispus, who was a brother of Claudius II. He was one of the two Caesars appointed by Maximian and Diocletian in the year 292, and received the government of Gaul, Spain, and Britain. At the same time he married Theodora, the daughter of Maximian, for that purpose divorcing his wife (or concubine) Helena, by whom he had already had a son, Constantius (later known as Constantine the Great). As Caesar he rendered the empire important services. He extended his rule over Britain, and defeated the Alamanni with great loss. Upon the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in the year 305, Constantius and Galerius became the Augusti. Constantius died fifteen months later in an expedition against the Picts, in which he was accompanied by his son Constantius, who succeeded him in his share of the government.]

Galerius, a proficient man in the practice of arms, created two rulers, namely, Maximian (Maximianum) and Severus. To the first he assigned the East; to the second, Italy. And he lived in Greece (Illirico), which country he retained, having learned that the barbarian enemies of the Romans planned to go there. But Maximian, hoping to recover the empire he involuntarily lost, came out of retirement from Lucania to Rome; and by letters he informed Diocletian that he would again take unto himself the sovereignty he had abdicated. Against this revolt Galerius sent Severus to Rome with an army; but through treachery of the soldiery who were in league with Maxentius, he was circumvented, and fleeing to Ravenna, he was finally slain. And Maximian would have been slain by his own son had he not fled to Constantine, his son-in-law in Gaul. There he pretended that he had been driven out by his son, and for that reason attempted to assassinate Constantine. Now when the Franks and Alamanni[The Alamanni were an alliance of west Germanic tribes.] were defeated and their king taken prisoner, and his treachery was exposed by Fausta, the daughter of Maximian, to her husband, Maximian fled to Massilia (Marseilles), where he finally suffered the penalty for his misconduct.[Galerius, born near Sardica in Dacia, was the son of a shepherd. He rose from the ranks to the highest commands. He was appointed Caesar by Diocletian, along with Constantius Chlorus, in 292. As the same time he was adopted by Diocletian, receiving his daughter Valeria in marriage, and being entrusted with the command of Illyria and Thrace. In 297 he conducted an expedition against the Persian monarch Narses, whom he compelled to conclude a peace. On the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, in 305, Galerius became Augustus or emperor. In 307 he made an unsuccessful attempt to recover Italy. He died in 311. He was a persecutor of the Christians. It was, perhaps, at his instigation that Diocletian issued the decree "Edict Against the Christians" (303) that ordered the destruction of Christian scriptures and places of worship across the Empire, while prohibiting Christians from assembling for worship.]

Licinius, the emperor, a native of Dacia, by reason of his proficiency in the practice of arms and his acquaintanceship with Galerius, was elevated to a share in the government. But Constantine (Consantinus), a great man, being ambitious to rule all the world, made war against Licinius, first engaging him in Pannonia, secondly at Cibalis. And he conquered Dardania, Moesia, Macedonia, and countless other countries. Licinius was finally defeated on land and sea and slain in the fifteenth year of his reign at the age of sixty years. He was an avaricious and dissolute man and an enemy of the arts; and being ignorant, he called these a poison and a public affliction.[Licinius, Roman emperor (307-324), was by birth a Dacian peasant, and the early friend and companion of Galerius who raied him to the rank of Augustus. On the death of Galerius in 311, he concluded a peaceful arrangement with Maximinus II by which the Hellespont and the Bosphorus were to form the boundaries of the two empires. In 313 he married Constantia, sister of Constantine, and set out to encounter Maximinus who had invaded his dominions. He defeated him, and Maximinus died a few months later. Licinius and Constantine were now the only emperors and each was anxious to obtain the undivided rule. Licinius was defeated and compelled to purchase peace by ceding to Constantine, Greece, Macedonia and Illyria. After nine years hostilities were resumed. The great battle of Adrianople (323) followed by the reduction of Byzantium and a second great victory at Chalcedon placed Licinius at the mercy of Constantine, who put him to death in 324.]

Maxentius was named emperor at Rome at the same time when Constantine on the death of his father Constantius was crowned emperor in Britain; for the senators at Rome called to office as an augmenter of the empire this Maxentius (son of Herculius[Herculius is Maximian (Maxiamianus) Herculius, who was Caesar (i.e., junior Roman Emperor) from July 285 and Augustus (i.e., senior Roman Emperor) from April 1, 286 to May 1, 305. He shared the latter title with his co-emperor and superior, Diocletian.]), who lived in an open village not far from Rome. Maxentius was a very cruel man and a grim persecutor of the Christians, although he loved literature. Among other things he was addicted to the black arts. In the fifth year of the reign of Constantine, the latter made war against Maxentius, killed many of his people, and finally defeated him at Rome at the Milvian Bridge. Although Maxentius built a bridge across the Tiber at Rome as a trap to deceive the enemy, in a moment of forgetfulness he himself ventured on the bridge and was drowned with many of his followers.[Maxentius, Roman emperor (306-312), was the son of Maximian and Eutropia, and received in marriage the daughter of Galerius. He was passed over in the division of the empire, which followed the abdication of his father and Diocletian in 305. However, he did not acquiesce, and being supported by the praetorian troops, he was proclaimed emperor in 306. He summoned his father Maximian (Maximianus) from retirement, who again assumed the purple. The military abilities of Maximian were of great service to his son, who was of indolent and dissolute habits. Maximian compelled the Caesar Severus who had marched upon Rome to retreat in haste to Ravenna, and soon afterward put the latter to death when he treacherously got him into his power (307). The emperor Galerius now marched against Rome in person, but Maximian compelled him to retreat also. Maxentius, relieved of these imminent dangers, proceeded to disentangle himself from the control of his father and succeeded in driving him from the court. Maxentius now crossed to Africa, which he ravaged with fire and sword because it had submitted to the independent authority of one Alexander. Upon his return to Rome Maxentius openly aspired to dominion over all the western provinces, and soon afterward he declared war against Constantine on the pretext that the latter had put to death his father, Maximian. Maxentius was defeated near Rome in 312. He attempted to escape over the Milvian Bridge into Rome, but perished in the river. He is represented by all historians as rapacious, cruel and lustful. The only favored class was the military, upon which he depended for safety. All his other subjects were made the victims of licentiousness and ruined by the most grinding exactions.]


Then the aforesaid emperors realized that Emperor Constantine was held in great respect by all mankind, they relented against the Christians for some time. Yet Maxentius secretly sent forth his soldiers to slay all the Christians they might meet. He also found such zeal and pleasure in the black arts that he caused pregnant Christian women to be cut open to secure the fruits of their wombs, and the powder of these he used in the black arts. With the same folly and cruelty Maximian (Maximianus) also practised in the East, he even compensated the masters of the black arts for instruction in the evil arts. He gave credence to the cries of birds and soothsaying, and the Christians who disdained such matters he persecuted more than the rest. He ordered the old temples to be restored, and the gods to be worshipped according to ancient custom. Through divine vengeance this Maxentius was so bloated and ulcered in every limb and in his innards that there was no difference between him and a lazy ass. At length worms crawled forth from him in such a stench that no one could endure it; and so he died of a serious sickness, a gruesome and unstable being. He proceeded against the Christians as though they were to blame for his ills. Then Galerius sent Maximinus to govern the East in the place of Maximian, the latter employing the same cruelty, persecuting and slaying the Christians.

Christina (Cristina), a very famous virgin, suffered at Tyre in the aforesaid persecution of Maximian. She was born of very noble parents, and was so beautiful that many men sought her in marriage. Therefore her parents placed her in a tower, there to serve the gods as a virgin. But through the instruction of the Holy Spirit she scorned the idolatrous gods. Then her father learned of this and, since he could not divert her by threats, caused her to be stripped naked, flogged, and placed in a dungeon, where her tender limbs were torn. Then Christina took off her own flesh and threw it into her father's face, saying, Take it, you savage, and eat your own flesh. The enraged father fixed her to a wheel, placing fire and oil beneath her. Flames burst from the fire, which killed fifteen hundred people. The father attributed this to the black arts, and caused a large stone to be tied to her neck, and thus Christina was thrown into the sea by night. The angels received her, and Christ baptized her, and she returned to land. At length, after many tortures and the amputation of her breasts, Julian (Julianus) shot her with arrows, one through the heart, and one into her side. And thus with the palm of martyrdom she gloriously ascended to heaven.[Christina: The legend of this saint is one of those rejected by the Roman Catholic Church. The little town of Tyre, on Lake Bolsena, according to tradition her birthplace, has since been swallowed up by the waters of the lake. Christina is, however, celebrated all over Northern and Central Italy. Legend says she was the daughter of Urbanus, Roman patrician, and governor of the city. He was a pagan, but his daughter was early converted to the Christian faith, therefore she called herself Christina. One day she saw from her window many poor and sick, who begged alms; but having nothing to give them, she took the false gods of silver and gold, belonging to her father, and broke them up and divided them among the poor. For this her father caused her to be seized, beaten, and imprisoned. But angels healed her wounds. Torments proving unavailing, she was thrown into a lake, a millstone about her neck; but angels sustained the stone and she was carried to land. There her father caused her to be thrown into a fiery furnace, and for five days she remained in it singing the praises of the Lord. Then he ordered her shaved and dragged to the Temple of Apollo to sacrifice; but the idol fell before her. Next her tongue was ordered cut out, but she sang more sweetly. She was finally shot to death with arrows, and angels carried her to heaven.]

Menas (Menna), an Egyptian soldier of noble parentage, suffered at this time in the capital city of the country of Phrygia. After having accepted the King of Heaven, and having wandered in solitude, he stepped forth into the world and confessed himself a Christian. When Pyrrhus the duke heard of this, he spoke to him, saying, If you will worship the gods, all that you have done through your ignorance will be forgiven. But as Menas refused to obey his wishes, he caused him to be beaten with rawhide, and subjected to other tortures until the ground flowed with blood. He was then placed on a rack and burned with torches, and after being taken down, was tied hand and foot and dragged over iron spikes. At length, while singing the praises of the Lord, he was beheaded and his body thrown into a fire, from which the Christians took it and gave it honorable burial. The body was later carried to Constantinople, and there held in great veneration.[Menas, an Egyptian, but a soldier in the Roman army, professed Christianity. He abandoned the service and retired into a solitary place with some other Christians to escape the edicts of persecution published by Diocletian and Maximian in 298. There he remained until the general persecution in 303, when, burning with Christian enthusiasm, he returned, and entering the theater at Cotyaeus, in Phrygia, where the people were seeing a martyrs' exhibition, he cried at the top of his voice, "I was ready to be found by those that did not seek me." (Isaiah 65:1). All eyes were turned on him, and to Pyrrhus, the president, who questioned him. After confessing himself a Christian, he was immediately scourged until the soil was red with his blood. But Menas refused to sacrifice to the pagan gods. The judge then ordered his sides to be torn with iron hooks, and the wounds to be fretted with horsehair cloth. Finally wearied with tormenting him, the judge ordered him burned alive. Timothy, patriarch of Alexandria (380-385), relates some of the miracles alleged to have been wrought by this saint, some grotesque, and some marvelous.]

Julian (Iulianus), born in Antioch, a very Christian man, at this time suffered a most cruel martyrdom at Rome with the virgin Basillisa (Basilissa). He, together with a great number of priests and servants, sought refuge against cruel persecution; but they and many others suffered death on the 5th day of Ides of January.[Legend states that Julian was born at Antinoe, in Egypt, of noble parents. The love of God filled his heart from earliest childhood. At the age of eighteen his parents required him to marry; but this troubled him much in view of Paul's saying, "He that is unmarried cares for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord; but he that is married cares for the things that are of the world, how he may please his wife." (I Cor. 7:32-33). However, in a vision, Christ told him to obey his parents; and he married Basillisa. After the merriment attending the marriage, bride and groom entered their nuptial chamber; and they became aware of a Presence; and they saw Jesus and Mary, who congratulated them for seeking the glory that is eternal. And in that vision they saw their names inscribed in the Book of Life. The vision passed; but Julian and Basillisa spent the night in prayer, and singing praises to the Lord. When his parents died, Julian divided his house and made it into a hospital, and he spent his substance in relieving the sick. He ruled over the portion devoted to the men, and Basillisa governed the women's department. It is from this circumstance of Julian having been the first to establish a hospital, that he was been called Julian the Hospitaller. After many years Basillisa died in peace; but Julian was seized and subjected to cruel tortures in the Diocletian persecution, in which he finally suffered death.] After those ones Antonius, a priest, and Anastasius and Celsus, a child, together with his mother and very many others also all died on the 5th of the Ides of January.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Victor, a citizen of Milan, and since youth a Christian, and now in the military service of Maximinus, was brought before him as a Christian and asked to worship the pagan idols. Scorning these, he was flogged, but by divine intervention he was rendered immune to pain. Molten lead poured over him left him unharmed, and so, at the command of Maximian, he was beheaded on the eighth day of the Ides of May.[Victor was a Christian officer in the army of the emperor Maximian, to whom he was denounced for his new faith. Unable to dissuade him, he caused Victor to be degraded from his rank, his hands and feet to be bound, and as an object of derision dragged through the streets. He was brought back bruised and bloody to the tribunal of the prefects and again entreated to abandon his infatuation, and to worship the gods of the state; but again he refused. He was hung up by his wrists, beaten and torn with iron combs, and his head was finally cut off by the executioner's sword. In art Victor is usually represented as a Roman soldier bearing a palm and a sword.]

Saturninus, the priest, and Sisinus, the deacon, after having been arrested in Rome were imprisoned for a long time for confessing the Christian faith. They were placed on a rack, beaten with clubs and scorpions[A 'scorpion' is a whip or scourge that has spikes attached.], and were finally beheaded. Their bodies were buried on the Salarian Way.

Susanna, a very holy virgin, born of noble parents in Dalmatia, and a friend of Pope Caius, in this persecution at Rome, on the 3rd day of the Ides of August, being beheaded for the sake of the Christian faith, completed her martyrdom.[It is related that Susanna was of illustrious birth, the daughter of Gabinius (also spelled Gabinus), who was the brother of Pope Caius, and also nearly related to the emperor Diocletian. She was very fair, and remarkable for her learning and penetrating intellect. Diocletian wished to marry her to his adopted son Maximus, but she refused. Enraged by her firmness, he sent an executioner, who put her to death in her own house.]


Christina, with flowing tresses, and in voluminous robes, holds in her hands a millstone, symbol of her martyrdom.


Catherine (Catherina), a very highly renowned Egyptian virgin, flourished at this time (as her history informs us); and she suffered martyrdom after Diocletian, under Maxentius. This most pious virgin was of noble blood. Her father was named Costus. He was a king of the city of Alexandria. And although she was deprived of her father in her younger days, and from him as a king received a great paternal inheritance, we read of her that under the influence of riches, she was not idle nor inclined to feminine weakness, but was so gifted in extraordinary matters that it is to be marveled that in her tender years she undertook the contest of disputation with the highly wise of the world. This most divine virgin was instructed by a hermit of Christian faith and wisdom, and she was a spouse of Christ. While the Diocletian persecution still raged, and continued under the Emperor Maxentius at Alexandria, she saw a number of Christians crying because they were compelled to worship the idolatrous gods. And she stepped into the presence of Maxentius and upbraided him because of his idle worship of the gods and for his cruelty. Maxentius ordered her taken to the palace and guarded with all care. But when he heard her after the sacrifice, he marveled at her eloquence and wisdom; and he sent for fifty world-wise men. In his presence they were won over and confirmed the Christian faith, and therefore burned. Maxentius ordered Catherine placed in a dark dungeon and starved for twelve days. Then the angel of the Lord appeared to her, saying: You favored maiden of the Lord, be firm, for the Lord is with you. Many will be converted to Christ through you, and will enter glory with the sign of victory. After that she converted to the faith the soldier Porphyrius (Porphirium) with two hundred soldiers, and also the wife of the emperor, and many others, and sent them to heaven before her. A wheel with blades, prepared for her martyrdom, was soon broken and many people injured by it. Finally she was beheaded. At the place of her suffering she gave assurance of her assistance to all who preserved the memory of her suffering. After her decapitation milk flowed from her body. Her most holy body was carried by angels from there up to Mount Sinai, and so buried with honor in the 310th year of the Lord, on the 8th day of the Kalends of December.

Catherine: Many legends surround this saint. The one that follows is, perhaps, the most common. Constantius Chlorus, father of Constantine the Great, had a first wife before he married the Empress Helena. She died in giving birth to a son, whose name was Costis (Costus or Constus), and whom his father married to the only daughter and heiress of the King of Egypt, a virgin princess, whose name was Sabinella. With her he lived and reigned in great prosperity and happiness for several years, but in accordance with pagan law. One day Queen Sabinella had a prophetic dream in which was pre-figured the glory of the first-born. She gave birth to Catherine. From her earliest infancy she was the wonder of all who beheld her for grace of mind and person. At fifteen there was none comparable to her in the learning and philosophy. Her father ordained for her a tower in his palace furnished with all kinds of mathematical instruments, in which she might study with pleasure. When Catherine was about fifteen, her father, King Costis, died, and left her heiress to his kingdom. But when she became queen, she showed the same contempt for all worldly care and royal splendor that she had previously exhibited, for she shut herself up in her palace, and devoted herself to the study of philosophy. The people therefore asked her to take a husband who should assist her in the government and lead them forth to war. And she had a great battle to keep her virginity. And there was a certain holy hermit who dwelt in a desert about two days' journey from Alexandria. To him the Virgin Mary appeared, and she sent him to Catherine with a message of comfort, telling her that the husband whom she was to espouse was her Son, who was greater than any monarch of this world, and Lord of all power and might. And the hermit gave her a picture of the Virgin Mary and her divine Son. Catherine forgot all her books, her spheres and her philosophers, and placing the picture in her study, had a dream that night. She dreamed that by the side of an old hermit she was taken to heaven, presented to the Virgin Mary, and offered to her son; but that the Lord considered her neither fair nor beautiful. She awoke in a passion of grief, and wept until it was morning. She called the hermit to her and declared her vision, and seeing she was still in pagan darkness, he fully instructed her in the Christian faith, and baptized her with her mother. And again the Virgin appeared to her, accompanied by her Son and a host of angels. And learning that Catherine had been baptized, He put a ring on her finger in evidence of their betrothal. When she awoke, the ring was on her finger, and from that point on, regarding herself as the betrothed of Christ, she despised the world, thinking only of the day when she should be reunited with her Lord. She dwelt in the palace until her mother died.

At this time Maxentius came to Alexandria, and gathering together all the Christians, ordered them to sacrifice to the pagan gods. Catherine heard the cries of the people, confronted the tyrant, pleading for her fellow Christians, demonstrating the truth of the Christian and the falsehood of the pagan religion. Being confounded by her arguments and eloquence, Maxentius ordered fifty of the most eloquent philosophers and rhetoricians collected from all parts of the empire, and promised to reward them if they would overcome the Christian princess in argument. But they confessed themselves vanquished after hearing Catherine's arguments, and the emperor consigned them to the flames.

Then Maxentius ordered Catherine dragged to his palace. He tried to corrupt her, but failed. Being obliged to leave on a warlike expedition, he ordered his second-in-charge, Porphyry, to cast her into a dungeon and starve her to death; but the angels ministered to her. When Maxentius returned, he was seized with fury. He condemned his wife, the empress, and Porphyry, whom Catherine had converted to Christianity in the meantime, to be put to a cruel death; and again he tempted Catherine, offering to make her his empress. But she scorned him. He now ordered four wheels to be constructed, with sharp points and blades on it, two revolving in one direction, two in another, so that between them Catherine would be torn to pieces. But as soon as she was bound between them the wheels broke into pieces, and the fragments flew about so that the executioners and 3000 persons perished that day. Finally Maxentius ordered her to be beheaded, and this was done. The angels carried her body over the desert and the Red Sea, and deposited it on Mount Sinai.

Sophronia also was condemned for loss of her virginity by Maxentius, and as she could not avoid the danger, she killed herself in the manner of Lucretia.

Arnobius Africanus, a very celebrated philosopher and a well informed rhetorician (though very old) was held in great veneration at this time. He taught rhetoric in Africa, and wrote many books against the pagans.[Arnobius the elder, a native of Africa, lived about 300 CE, in the reign of Diocletian. He was at first a teacher of rhetoric in Sicca in Africa, but afterwards embraced Christianity; and to remove all doubts as to the reality of his conversion, he wrote, while yet a catechumen, his celebrated work (also known as [i.e., Pagans]) in seven books.] Lucian (Lucianus), the orator, and a priest of the Nicomedian church, in this period wrote many books and letters at Heliopolis, a city of Bithynia. He suffered martyrdom for Christ's sake. Likewise Jacob (Jacobus), nicknamed the Wise, a priest at Nisibina, a city of the Persias, at this time also wrote many letters against the heretics, and others for our faith. He at last died (according to Jerome) in the time of the ruler Constantius.[This last sentences is not in the German edition of the . Constantius II was Roman emperor from 337-361.]

Lactantius Firmianus, a very distinguished orator and philosopher, disciple of the aforesaid Arnobius, was of great name and fame at this time. While teaching the art of eloquence at Nicomedia, he was, by reason of his virtue and greatness, ordered to Rome, together with Flavius, the grammarian. After he had taught there for some time, he became indigent because of the lack of students. Therefore he occupied himself in writing books, and at this he was very able; for after the time of Cicero, he was the second foremost in this art. In his last years he was instructor of the emperor Crispis, the son of Constantine, in Gaul. He wrote praiseworthy books and also various letters and epistles to many persons.[Lactantius was a celebrated Christian Father, but his exact name, date of birth, and place of nativity are not known. In modern works he is called Lucius Coelius Firmianus Lactantius. Since he is spoken of as far advanced in years about 315 CE, he must have been born not later than the middle of the third century, probably in Italy, possibly at Firmum, on the Adriatic, and certainly studied in Africa, where he became the pupil of Arnobius, who taught rhetoric at Sicca. His fame became so widely extended that about 301 he was invited by Diocletian to settle at Nicomedia, where he practised his art. At this period he appears to have become a Christian. He was summoned to Gaul about 312-318, when now an old man, to superintend the education of Crispus, son of Constantine, and he probably died at Treves some ten or twelve years afterward. A number of his works are still extant. The style of Lactantius, formed upon the model of the great orator of Rome, gained him the appellation of the Christian Cicero.]

Eusebius, a bishop of the city of Caesarea, in Palestine, who, on account of his friendship with the martyr Pamphilus, took the name of Pamphilus. And with this same Pamphilus, a very diligent searcher of the books of the Scriptures. He was a man worthy of remembrance, was at this time esteemed by the distinguished and the noble, not only among the pagans, but also the Christians, and not only for his experience in many things, but also by reason of his wonderful knowledge of the arts. And although this Eusebius was attached to the Arian heresy, when he came to the Nicaean Council, he was so enlightened by the Holy Spirit that he came into accord with the fathers of the church, and from that point on piously lived in the Christian faith up to the time of his death. Being a well informed and highly learned man, he was, with Pamphilus, the martyr, a very diligent searcher of the books of the Scriptures. He wrote many books at this time, especially the books of Evangelical Preparation; the Ecclesiastical History against Porphyry, that most vehement enemy of the Christians; he composed six books known as the Defenses in defense of Origen; three books On the Life of Pamphilus (Pomphili) the Martyr, from whom, out of love, he took his surname; in addition very learned commentaries on one hundred and fifty Psalms; and twenty books of the life and suffering of the martyrs and of virgins, especially, his Evangelical Preparation; and also a history of chronicles from the time of Abraham to the Year of the Lord 300, which the pious Jerome completed. This Eusebius, after the conversion of the Emperor Constantine, was on good terms with the latter while he lived.

Eusebius of Caesarea (Eusebius Pamphili) lived about 260-340 CE. He was bishop of Caesarea in Palestine, and an ecclesiastical historian. He was born probably in Palestine and died as bishop of Caesarea. In early youth he became acquainted with Pamphilus, presbyter of the Church of Caesarea, and founder of a theological school there. After the death of his friend, Eusebius withdrew to Tyre, and later, while the Diocletian persecution was still raging, to Egypt, where he seems to have been imprisoned, but soon released. He became bishop of Caesarea between 313 and 315, and in 331 declined the patriarchate of Antioch. Eusebius was one of the most learned men of his age, and stood high in the favor of Constantine. At the Council of Nicaea (325) he held the large middle party of Moderates and submitted the first draft of the creed afterwards adopted with important changes. Later he yielded to the Alexandrian party, and voted for a creed that repudiated the Arian position, with which he had previously sympathized. He seems to have discovered during the Council that the Alexandrians were right in claiming that Arrius was carrying his subordinationism so far as to deny all real divinity to Christ. With the extreme views of the Athanasian party, however, he was not in complete sympathy, for they seemed to savor of Sabellianism, which always remained his chief dread.

Eusebius's reputation rests on his vast erudition and his sound judgment. He is best known for his Ecclesiastical History, completed about 324 or 325. It is the most important ecclesiastical history of ancient times, and is written in the belief that the old order of things was passing away, and with the apologetic purpose of exhibiting the history of Christianity as a proof of its divine origin. Many prominent figures of the first three centuries are known to us only from its pages.

The paragraph devoted to Eusebius in the Latin edition of the Chronicle is, perhaps, the most in need of a strong editorial hand in the entire text for it is rife with repetitions, non sequiturs, etc. The German edition of the Chronicle corrects nearly all of these problems, but also removes most of the titles of the works composed by Eusebius.


Catherine, portrayed with the symbols of her martyrdom, the broken wheel and the sword.


Year of the World 5513

Year of Christ 314

Silvester the pope, a Roman, whose father was Rufinus (Ruffino), succeeded Melchiades (Melciadem) in the time of Constantine in the one thousand ninety-first year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome). He was a pious man of angelic countenance, fine physique, clear address, holy works, good counsel, Christian faith, and patient hope, and was immersed in every affection. God endowed him with such grace that not only the Christians were remarkably loyal to him, but the pagans as well. Now when Constantine had been baptized and peace restored to the Church, Silvester initiated many laws pertaining to the divine service: Firstly, that the Chrism should be blessed only by a bishop; that a baptized person should be identified by a bishop; and that a priest should anoint a baptized person with the Chrism in the emergency of death. No layman should bail a consecrated person to court, and no consecrated person should discuss matters or transact business before a temporal judge. A priest holding mass should use white linen, since the body of Christ was buried in it. This most holy pope, among others of his miracles, relieved Rome of the plague of a dragon. He died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Sallarian Way at the third mile-stone from the city (i.e., Rome) on the day before the Kalends of January after having sat 23 years, ten months and eleven days. Then the seat was vacant for 15 days.[Silvester I (January 314 to December 335) is said to have baptized Constantine, but evidence, almost contemporary, shows that the emperor received this rite near Nicomedia at the hands of Eusebius, bishop of that city. The so-called Donation of Constantine is shown to have been spurious; yet it must have been of considerable antiquity. It was certainly known to Pope Adrian in 778, and was inserted in the false decretals toward the middle of the next century. This Donation is a supposed grant by the emperor in gratitude for his conversion by Silvester, not only of spiritual supremacy, but also of temporal dominion over Rome, Italy, and "the provinces, places and cities of the western regions."]

Year of the World 5533

Year of Christ 334

Mark (Marcus) the pope, a Roman, succeeded Silvester in the time of Constantine. He was a good man and a lover of the Christian faith. He ordained that the Hostian bishop, by whom the Roman bishop is consecrated, should employ choral vestments, and that on holy days, immediately after the gospel, the (confession of) faith should be sung with great voice by the priests and the people, as had already been ordained by the Nicene Council. He built two churches at Rome. He died and was buried in the cemetery of Balbina on the Ardeatine Way on the third of the Nones of October. He sat for two years eight months and 20 days; then the chair was vacant for 20 days.[Mark (Marcus), succeeded Silvester I as pope at Rome in the year 336. The records indicate that nothing noteworthy occurred during the time that he occupied the papal see.]

Year of the World 5535

Year of Christ 336

Julius (Iulius) the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of Emperor Constantius, and was a man of wonderful piety and learning, and, during the time the Arian heresy gained the upper hand, he was troubled with much disorder. Constantius, the son of Constantine, sent him into exile. After ten months he returned to Rome and punished the Arian bishops who had undertaken to hold a council at Antioch, which could not be held without the consent or authority of a Roman bishop. At Rome he built two churches and three cemeteries. He ordained that a priest should speak only before a spiritual judge; but if he mistrusted a judge, he could appeal to the Roman See; also, that all things belonging to the churches should be inventoried by a public scrivener or protonotary. He ordained 18 priests, three deacons, and nine bishops. He died and was buried on the Aurelian Way in the cemetery of Calopodius three miles from the city of Rome. He sat 15 years, two months and six days; and then the chair was vacant for twenty-five days.[ Julius I, pope from 337 to 352, succeeded Marcus after an interval of four months. He is chiefly known for his action in the Arian controversy. After Eusebius, at a synod held in Antioch, had renewed with his party their disposition of Athanasius, they resolved to send delegates to Constans, emperor of the West, and to Julius, setting forth the grounds of their procedure. Julius, after expressing an opinion favorable to Athanasius, invited both parties to lay the case before a synod to be presided over by himself. This the eastern bishops declined. On his second banishment from Alexandria, Athanasius came to Rome. In 342 Julius declared him innocent, and his doctrine orthodox, and a little later summoned the Council of Sardica, attended by 76 bishops, who quickly withdrew to Philippopolis and deposed Julius, along with Athanasius and others. The Western bishops who remained confirmed the previous decisions of the Roman synod. Julius, after his death in April 352, was succeeded by Liberius.]

Year of the World 5543

Year of Christ 344

Liberius the pope, a Roman, lived in the time of Constantius and of Constantus. In their times, when a Council was hold at Milan, all of his people who were attached to Athanasius were sent into exile. In this assembly the eastern priests, cunning and crafty men, overcame the priests of the West boldly, brazenly and with guile. They denied that Christ is a person co-existent with God. This doctrine Liberius openly attacked, and because he would not condemn Athanasius as the emperor commanded, he was driven into exile by the Arian heretics; and for three years he lived away from Rome. However, the priests assembled and put Felix, a very distinguished man, in the place of Liberius, and they removed the two priests, Visacus and Valentus, from the church. By their petitions they influenced Constantius to recall Pope Liberius from exile, and to restore him to office. And although the pope was attached to the Arians, he graced the church of God with zeal. At length he died and was buried on the Salarian Way in the cemetery of Priscilla on the 9th day of the Kalends of May. He sat six years (although some say 16), 3 months, and 4 days. And then the chair was vacant six days.[Liberius, pope from 352 to 366, successor to Julius I, was consecrated on May 22nd. His first recorded act occurred after a synod had been held at Rome, and consisted in writing to Constantius, asking that a council be called at Aquileia with reference to the affairs of Athanasius; but his messenger was compelled by the emperor to subscribe a condemnation of the orthodox patriarch of Alexandria. Liberius later was one of the few, who along with Eusebius of Vercelli, Dionysius of Milan, and Lucifer of Cagliari, refused to sign the condemnation of Athanasius, which had anew been imposed at Milan by Imperial command upon all the Western bishops. The consequence was his relegation to Beroea, in Thrace; Felix II (antipope) being consecrated his successor. On his agreeing to abandon Athanasius, and to accept the communion of his adversaries, the emperor recalled him from exile; but as the Roman see was officially occupied by Felix, a year passed before Liberius was sent to Rome. It was the emperor's intention that Liberius and Felix govern the church jointly, but when Liberius arrived, the Roman people expelled Felix. Liberius died September 24, 366.]


Constantine (Constantinus) the Great, born of a humble marriage, son of Constantius (Constancii) the Augustus, was elected king in Britain. And although at this time the common people of Rome were ruled by four emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of the Augusti, and Licinus, and Maximian, new men; yet this Constantine, as a great and mighty man who understood how to succeed in all things he undertook, possessed an ambition to rule the entire world, and he overcame all opponents. The beginning of his reign was comparable with the best and in the end with those ranked in the middle. He was gifted with unlimited strength of mind and body, possessed great military skill and zeal, and was victorious over the Goths. He was devoted to the liberal arts and loved justice. In the 339th Year of the Lord, the Christians, previously oppressed by tyrants, began to take on new life under this emperor. He who loved peace was secure by his grace, and by his mildness Constantine secured the good will and devotion of all mankind. He made decrees annulling superfluous laws and repealing those which were too severe. This all-powerful emperor was so concerned with the preservation of the integrity of Christian life that when he went to war he used no other banner than that which was inscribed with the sign of the cross which he had seen in the heavens and worshipped when he marched his army against Maxentius. And he heard the angels saying, Constantine, by this sign you shall conquer. And this he did, dispersing all the tyrants of the Romans and of all Christian people. This Constantine was influenced by Pope Silvester to prosper and multiply the churches of God with great speed. He offered the popes a diadem set with precious stones; but this was declined by Silvester as unsuited to a spiritual head, for which a white headdress should be sufficient. This Constantine and his son Crispus were baptized by Silvester. While making war against the Parthians he died in a village near Nicomedia in the thirty-first year of his reign at the age of sixty-six. His death was announced by a hairy star of unusual size that appeared for some time, a thing which the Greeks call a comet. And he has earned the right to be spoken of as one among the saints.[Constantine, surnamed "the Great," was Roman emperor from 306-337. He was the eldest son of Constantius Chlorus and Helena, and was born in 272 in upper Moesia. He received training in military matters at an early age, and served with great distinction under Galerius in the Persian war. Galerius, however, became jealous of him and retained him for some time in the East; but Constantine contrived at last to join his father in Gaul just in time to accompany him to Britain on his expedition against the Picts in 306. His father died at York in the same year and Constantine laid claim to his share of the Empire. Galerius, who dreaded a struggle with the legions of the West, acknowledged Constantine as master of the countries beyond the Alps, but with the title of Caesar only. The commencement of Constantine's reign is placed, however, in this year, so he did not receive the title of Augustus until 308. He took up his residence at Treves and governed with justice, beloved by his subjects and feared by the barbarian neighbors. It was not long, however, before he became involved in war with his rivals in the empire. In the same year in which he was acknowledged Caesar (306), Maxentius, son of Maximian, had seized the imperial power at Rome. Constantine entered into a close alliance with Maxentius by marrying his sister Fausta. In 310 Maximian formed a plot against Constantine and was put to death by his son-in-law at Massilia. Maxentius resented the death of his father and prepared to attack Constantine in Gaul. Constantine anticipated his movements and invaded Italy at the head of a large army. Maxentius was defeated at Saxa Rubra, near Rome, in 312. He tried to escape but perished. It was in this campaign that Constantine is said by later Christian apologists to have been converted to Christianity. He is supposed to have seen in the sky a luminous cross with the inscription: "By this sign you conquer" (In hoc signo vinces is the rendition in Latin of a Greek phrase); and on the night before the decisive battle with Maxentius, a vision is said to have appeared to Constantine in his sleep, bidding him to inscribe the shields of his soldiers with the sacred monogram of Christ, the chi-rho. The tale of the cross seems to have grown out of that vision but the latter is not entitled to credit. It was to his interest to gain the affections of his numerous Christian subjects in his struggle with his rivals; and it was self-interest that probably led him to adopt Christianity. By his victory he became sole master of the West. Meanwhile, in 311 Licinius and Maximinus had divided the East between them; but in 313 a war broke out between them; Maximinus was defeated. This left only two emperors, Licinius in the East, Constantine in the West, and between these war broke out in 314. Licinius was defeated and put to death, leaving Constantine sole ruler. He moved the seat of the empire to Byzantium, which he called Constantinople, or the city of Constantine. He reigned in peace the rest of his life. He died in 337, and was baptized by Eusebius shortly before he died. His three sons, Constantine, Constantius and Constans succeeded him in the empire.]

Constantius, together with his brothers Constantine and Constans, secured the sovereignty from their father Constantine the Great. At this time, but at no other, Rome was under the rule of one Augustus and three Caesars; for Constantine left three sons; and there was Dalmaticus, his brother's son, not unlike his uncle. He was not long afterwards killed by the soldiers, rather through circumstances than at the instigation of Constantius. Constantine was killed at Aquileia by officers of Constantius in a war against his brother, which was ill advised. So the sovereignty passed to the two (i.e., Constantius and Constans).[Constantius II, Roman emperor, 337-361, third son of Constantine the Great by his second wife Fausta, received the East as his share of the empire on the death of his father. Upon his accession he became involved in war with the Persians, which was carried on with few interruptions during the greater part of his reign. This prevented him from taking any part in the struggle between his brothers, Constantine and Constans, which ended in the defeat and death of the former, and in the accession of the latter to the sole empire of the West in 340. After the death of Constans in 350, Constantine marched into the West to oppose Magnentius and Vetranio, both of whom had usurped the purple. Vetranio submitted, and Magnentius was finally crushed in 353, the empire thus becoming subject to one ruler. In 355 Constantius made Julian, the brother of Gallus, Caesar, and sent him into Gaul to oppose the barbarians. In 360 Julian was proclaimed Augustus by the soldiers at Paris. Constantius marched against him, but died on the way in Cicilia in 361. He was succeeded by Julian.]

Constans acquired the empire. For some time he was strict and righteous; but through unfortunate circumstances and evil friends, he was turned to licentiousness, becoming unbearable to the provinces and unacceptable to the army. At the instigation of Magnentius he was slain not far from Spain, in a castle called Helena, in the seventeenth year of his reign and the thirtieth year of his age.[Constans, youngest son of Constantine the Great, upon his father's death, received Illyria, Italy and Africa, as his share. After successfully resisting his brother Constantius, who was slain in invading his territory, Constans became master of the entire West. His weak and profligate character made him an object of contempt. He was slain in 350 by the soldiers of the usurper Magnentius.] After his death Magnentius held Italy, Africa and Gaul.[Magnentius, Roman emperor in the West (350-353), was a German by birth, and after serving as a common soldier, Constans eventually entrusted him with the Jovian and Herculean battalions, who had replaced the old praetorian guards when the empire was remodeled by Diocletian. Availing himself of his position, he organized a conspiracy against the profligate Constans, who was put to death by his emissaries. He was then acknowledged emperor in nearly all the Western provinces. The armies of Magnentius and Constantius met in the Battle of Mursa Major in 351; Magnentius led his troops into battle, while Constantius spent the day of battle praying in a nearby church. Despite Magnentius' heroism, his troops were defeated and forced to retreat back to Gaul. As a result of Magnentius' defeat, Italy ejected his garrisons and rejoined the loyalist cause. Magnentius made a final stand in 353 in the Battle of Mons Seleucus, after which he committed suicide by falling on his sword.] He attacked Greece anew, and Vetranio, with the consent of the army, was elected to rule and to protect Greece. He was a pious man, of good morals, and beloved by all throughout his long and successful military career; but he was deposed by Constantine, who made war to avenge his brother's death.[ Vetranio commanded the legions in Illyria and Pannonia when Constans was slain and his throne seized by Magnentius. The troops proclaimed Vetranio emperor, but he soon resigned in favor of Constantius and retired to Bithynia, where he passed the remainder of his life.] Nepotianus (Nepociano) caused a revolt at Rome in order to seize the government but was slain in retribution for his evil conduct.[Nepotianus, son of a half sister of Constantine the Great, was proclaimed emperor at Rome in 350, but was slain by Marcellinus, general of the usurper Magnentius, after a reign of only 28 days.] And so Gallus became emperor in the West. Magnentius ended his own life at Lyons in the third year and seventh month of his reign. Gallus was later slain in the wars. He was a cruel man and a ready tyrant, whenever he could make his will prevail.[Gallus was a son of Julius Constantius, grandson of Constantius Chlorus, nephew of Constantine the Great, and elder brother by a different mother, of Julian the Apostate. In 351 he was named Caesar by Constantius II, and was left in command of the East, where he conducted himself with great haughtiness and cruelty. In 354 he went to the West to meet Constantius at Milan, but was arrested at Petovio in Pannonia and sent to Pola in Istria where he was finally beheaded in prison.] Silvanus also, after stirring up revolution in Gaul, was killed in less than a month. Constantius was the sole Augustus in the empire. Quickly he sent Julian, his cousin, the brother of Gallus, who (i.e., Julian) was born from Constantius, the brother of his (i.e., Constantius II's) father Constantine, when his (i.e., Constantius II's) sister had been given in matrimony (to Julian), as Caesar against the Gauls.[Julian, born in 331 in Constantinople, was the son of Julius Constantius, half brother of Emperor Constantine I, and his second wife, Basilina. His paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife, Flavia Maximiana Theodora. His maternal grandfather was Caeionius Iulianus Camenius. Shortly afterwards Gallus, who had imposed a rule of terror during his brief reign, was executed (354), and Julian himself briefly imprisoned. However, Constantius still had to deal with the Sassanid (Persian) threat in the East, and so he turned to his last remaining male relative, Julian. He was summoned to the emperor in Mediolanum (Milan) and, on November 6th, 355, made Caesar of the West and married to Constantius II’s sister Helena.] When the barbarians had attacked many towns he quickly, through his own excellence, held in check the movements of the Gauls and the Germans. Constantius, while occupied with civil wars, died on the road between Cilicia and Cappadocia in the thirty-eighth year of his rule and the forty-fifth of his life. He was a man of extraordinary tranquility, calm and too trusting of his friends and servants.[The section in this paragraph beginning with Silvanus and going to the end of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the .]


Constantinople, the imperial and highly renowned city was called Byzantium while it was still small, and afterwards Constantinople. When Constantine the Great, for greater security of the imperial throne against the Parthians, decided to proceed from Rome to the East, he (as some historians state) went to Troy, where once upon a time Agamemnon and other Greek princes pitched their tents against Priam; and there he undertook to lay the foundations of a royal city. But as our Savior in a dream pointed out to him another place, he left the work unfinished; and of this indications remained for a long time. And from Thrace he sailed to Byzantium. That city he soon enlarged, building new fortifications and high towers and improving the city with beautiful public and other buildings, so that it was very deservedly called a second Rome. The ancient historians who saw the city in its flower treasured it as the home of the gods on earth, rather than that of emperors. This emperor called the city New Rome; but according to common opinion the city retained the name Constantinople, after its founder. This city was from time to time improved with public and other fine tall buildings to such an extent that strangers coming there were so astonished at its appearance that they regarded it not merely as the home of mortal sinners but of the celestials as well. The walls of this city were celebrated the world over for their height and thickness, and its defense was skillfully provided for. They write that the city was triangular. On two sides it was touched by the sea, and by its walls it was secured against naval attack. The land side was surrounded by a moat outside the fortifications. This city had twelve gates through which its beauty might be observed. In addition to other very magnificent buildings the church of Sophia was built there by Justinian, the emperor, and it is worthy of universal admiration. It was provided with nine hundred priests, and was built with wonderful skill and of costly materials. The city was visited by all the peoples of the East and was the home of some of the learned men of Greece. There three great councils were held. Due to its renown and prosperity this city aroused the envy of the Turks and suffered under their cruelties. In the Year of our Salvation 1093 it was besieged by a great force and was taken. Afterwards the Gauls, together with the Venetians, occupied this city for fifty-five years. Next the noble race of Genoese, called Paleologi, took the city from the Gauls and incorporated it in their dominions, retaining it until 1453, when


it was ravaged by the Turkish Sultan, Mohammed (Machometes) Ottoman (Ottommanus). And so this most noble city fell into the hands of the infidels about 1130 years after it was built; and it had stood longer than Rome. Athalaricus ravaged Rome in the year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) 1164; yet he forbade the destruction of the churches of the saints; but the rage and beastly ignorance of the Turks left nothing holy or pure intact within this city, and they subjected the temples to foul abuses. We read of the wonderful celebrated and mighty deeds of the Thebans, Lacedaemonians, Athenians and Corinthians, and many venerable countries that have left no trace of their location on earth; but this city alone excels all others by reason of its great age, its wonderful buildings, its weapons, its literature, its glory and honors, to such an extent that its loss is equal to that of all the other cities. And although when the empire fell into the hands of the French, this city passed to the enemy, yet the churches of the holy ones were never destroyed, nor the library burned, nor the monasteries entirely plundered; for the ancient wisdom remained at Constantinople up to this year. No Latin was looked upon as sufficiently learned unless he had studied at Constantinople for some time. From this city Plato was given us, and from this city came to us the writings and teachings of Aristotle, Demosthenes, Xenophon, Thucidydes, Basilius, Dionysius, Origen, and many others up to our own times. But now it is otherwise under the empire of the Turks, that most savage people, the enemies of good morals and teachings. Now the rivers of learning are dammed up and its spring of wisdom sealed. I admit that there are universities among the Latins in many places, as at Rome, Paris, Bologna, Padua, Siena, Paris, Cologne, Vienna, Salamanca, Oxford, Pavia, Leipzig, Erfurt[The universities of Salamanca, Oxford, and Pavia are not listed in the German edition of the .] , and excellent universities elsewhere; but these are mere brooks flowing from the springs of Greece. How this city fell into the power of the Turkish sultan through war and siege, which occurred later under the emperor Frederick the Third, will be told later.

Constantinople: Ancient Byzantium was situated on the first of the seven hills, upon which, rising one above another, the modern city of Istanbul (a corruption of the Greek phase 'to the city') stands. Upon this gently sloping promontory, which serves as a connecting link between the Eastern and Western world, Constantine, after determining to remove the seat of empire from the banks of the Tiber, decided to fix the city that bore his name as its founder. Like the ancient mistress of the world, its foundations were laid on seven hills, and the emperor called it the New Rome. However, it never acquired the title of the Eternal City. The foundations were laid according to an imperial edict in obedience to the commands of heaven, as it is said. On foot, a lance in his hand, the emperor headed the stately procession to mark the boundaries of Constantinople. At the later period the honor of having inspired the choice of a founder was attributed to the Virgin Mother, who became the tutelary guardian of the city. The dedication of the city exhibited that strange compound of religions of which Constantine himself was a type. After a splendid exhibition of chariot games, the emperor, in a magnificent chariot was carried through the public part of the city, surrounded by guards in the attire of some religious ceremonial, with torches in their hands. The emperor bore a golden statue of the Fortune of the city in his hands. The rites lasted 40 days, though the 11th day of May is considered the birthday of the city.

The walls of Constantinople, across the enlarged breadth of the triangle, stretched from the port to the Propontis and enclosed five of the seven hills; but these were not finished before the reign of Constantius. The wall was flanked at short intervals by towers, mostly rectangular. Until 1204 CE Constantinople remained the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. In that year it was captured by the "blind old Dandolo" (Doge of the city-state of Venice) and the French. From 1204 to 1261 it became the seat of the Latin Empire, and on July 25, 1261, it reverted to the undisputed possession of the Greeks. On Ma 29, 1453, Constantius XIII, the last of the Palaeologi, fell upon the walls of his capital. Since then it has been looked upon by the people of the East as the seat of the supreme temporal and spiritual power, and the Sultan has become the heir of the Caesars. It was in 1453 that the city fell before the conquering sword of Mohammed II.

FOLIO CXXIX verso and CXXX recto

The city is represented by a special woodcut extending over FOLIO CXXIX verso and CXXX recto. It is completely surrounded by high massive walls, flanked with square towers at frequent intervals, and a number of gates of which at least three are apparent. Over each gateway is a crown, and a coat of arms inscribed with a double eagle—the imperial symbol of the Byzantine Empire. The towers on either side of each gate also bear coats of arms, quartered by a cross, a crescent in each quarter.

The city fronts the water on two sides, while the landward side rises into the distant hills. The most prominent structure within the walls, and the only one designated by a name, is the church of St. Sophia, erected by Justinian the Great, and one of the most impressive buildings in the world. It was founded in 532 and dedicated on Christmas Day 538. Also within the walls, to the left, are three windmills. A small vessel, sails furled, with a few passengers on board, appears before the walls as the left. Before us is the Sea of Marmora, out of which the Bosphorus flows at the right, headed for the Black Sea.


Helena, mother of Constantine the emperor, was a woman of great faith and spiritual mind, and was distinguished for her acts of magnanimity. When, after the baptism of her son she saw miracles performed by Silvester before her son and against the Jews, nightly visions moved her to go to Jerusalem to search for the wood of the cross. But that was a difficult task; for the image of Venus was in the same place, put there by the old persecutors for the Christian people to worship in the place of the Savior. But with great secrecy she searched the city everywhere, and found three crosses. On one something was written in three tongues 'Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews.' Beside it stood Macherius, a bishop of that same city. He said that the first was the true cross; that the third one was laid on a dead woman, and the woman was soon restored to life. And so the cross of the Lord was found on the third day of May by Helena, and was adorned by her; and it was held in great veneration. Judas, the finder of the cross, was baptized, and was afterwards called Ciriacus. Later Helena built a temple on the site where the cross was found; and she departed from the place, bringing to her son the nails with which the body of Christ was fastened to the cross. One of these he put in his horse's bridle, to use in battle. But Constantine was persuaded that in the future no one should make such base use of it. Eager for the spread of Christianity, Constantine erected many churches in Rome. Helena died well loved by God and by mankind at Rome on the 18th day of August.[Helena, according to the best authorities, was born in either York or Colchester, England, and is inseparably connected with the discovery, or the "invention," as it is not improperly termed, of the Holy Cross at Jerusalem. Some say she was the daughter of a mighty British prince, King Coilus or Coel, and that in marrying Constantius Chlorus she brought him a kingdom for her dowry. In her old age she became a Christian, and her zeal for her new religion, and the influence she exercised over the mind of her son, no doubt contributed to the spread of Christianity throughout the empire. None of the old legends have been more universally diffused than the "History of the Cross." She is particularly connected with Benedictines, for it was believed that her remains had been carried off from Rome about the year 863, and were deposited in a Benedictine Abbey in Champagne.]

Arius (Arrius), a priest at Alexandria, and a man more distinguished by looks and form than by virtue, began to sow discord in the Christian faith. He undertook to separate the Son from the substance of the Eternal and unspeakable God, saying there was a time when he was not. He did not understand that the Son was coeval with the Father, and of the same substance, or an independent element in the Trinity. As it was said, I and the Father are one. With such cunning he pressed forward as if to poison the whole world with his error. In the second year of Constantine a council was assembled, and to it came the Christians and the Arians. But when Arius could not accomplish certain things as he wished, he attempted to humiliate the Christians by accusing Athanasius of the black arts. But God did not permit this devilish man to go unpunished, for before long, when Arius was surrounded by many bishops and people, and sought to relieve himself in a secret chamber, his innards fell into it; and thus he suffered a death utterly worthy of his shameful life.

Arius is a name celebrated in ecclesiastical history, not so much on account of the personality of its bearer, as of the "Arian" controversy or heresy that it provoked. Nothing is known of the birth of its author. We first hear of him as a deacon in Alexandria. After some controversy he was ordained presbyter in 311, and discharged his duties with industry and faithfulness. The cause of the controversy was a fundamental difference of doctrine, which had far-reaching religious and philosophical implications. "Is the Divine which appeared on earth and made its presence actively felt, identical with the supremely Divine that rules heaven and earth? Did the Divine which appeared on earth enter into a close and permanent union with human nature, so that it has actually transfigured it and raised it to the plane of the Eternal?"

Arius had received his theological education in the school of the presbyter Lucian of Antioch. The latter was a follower of Paul of Samosata, bishop of Antioch, who had been excommunicated in 269; but his theology differed from that of his master in a fundamental point. Paul, starting with the conviction that the One God cannot appear substantially on earth, and consequently that he cannot have become man in Jesus, had taught that God had filled the man Jesus with his Logos or Power. Lucian, on the other hand, persisted in holding that the Logos became man in Christ. But since he shared the above mentioned belief of his master, nothing remained but for him to see in the Logos a second essence, created by God before the world, which came down to earth and took upon himself a human body. In this body the Logos filled the place of the intellectual or spiritual principle. Lucian's Christ, then, was not "perfect man," for that which constituted in him the personal element was a divine essence; nor was he "perfect God," for the divine essence was a created thing. It is this idea that Arius took up and interpreted. The principle that he had in view was firmly to establish the unity and simplicity of the eternal God. However far the Son may surpass other created things, he remains himself a created being, to whom the Father before all time gave an existence formed "out of nothing." Arius was perhaps quite unconscious that his own monotheism was hardly to be distinguished from that of the pagan philosophers, and that his Christ was a demi-god.

For years this controversy went on until it reached the ears of Constantine. Now sole emperor, he saw in the one Catholic Church the best means of counteracting the movement tending to the disintegration of the Roman empire; and he at once realized how dangerous dogmatic strife might prove to its unity. He summoned a general or ecumenical council, which was convened in Nicaea in 325, where the question was finally decided against Arius, that the Son was "of the same substance" with the Father, and all thought of his being created or even subordinate had to be excluded. Constantine accepted the decision of the council, and resolved to uphold it. Alexander the Bishop, returned to his see triumphant, but he died soon after, and was succeeded by Athanasius, his deacon, with whose fortitude and strange vicissitudes the further course of the controversy is bound up.

Although defeated in the council, the Arians were by no means subdued. Constantine was won over to a conciliatory policy by the influence of Eusebius of Caesarea, and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his deathbed. Athanasius was banished in 335. During his absence Arius returned to Alexandria, but was suddenly taken ill while walking in the streets, and almost immediately died.

The Nicene Council, the first of all such councils, was called in the sixteenth year of Constantine at his command and pursuant to his efforts against the heretical teachings of the benighted Arius. It was attended by 318 bishops. For sometime the council transacted business and carried on disputations. Some, clever in questioning, and crafty, attached themselves to Arius, opposing the monism of our belief. However, one of their number, a highly educated philosopher, who previously had attacked our faith, being moved by God's spirit, entirely accepted our belief as holy. At length, after industrious investigation of the matter in council, it was concluded to record and acknowledge that the Son and the Father were a single substance. Those who held with Arius, seventeen in number, said that the Son of God was created separately, and was not born of the Godhead. But when the truth concerning their dissension became known, Constantine, with threats, ordered that the conclusions of the council be observed, those gainsaying it to be sent into exile. But only six, together with Arius, accepted the penalty and exiled themselves, while the remainder confessed the established truth. In this council the Sabellian heretics who held the Father and the Holy Spirit to be a single person, were also condemned. In the council the bishops lodged with Constantine accusations against one another, asking his judgment concerning them. These, Constantine caused to be burned, saying that they should await the judgment of God alone, and not of men. And there it was also ordained that those addicted to carnality should not be accepted into the priesthood in the future.

Nicene Council: 'Council' (the Greek term is 'synodos'; the Latin transliteration, used in the Chronicle, is synodus) is a general term for assembly. The term is here limited to ecclesiastical councils summoned to adjust matters in dispute with the civil authority, or for the settlement of doctrinal and other internal disputes. From a very early period in Church history, such councils or synods have been held on matters of doctrine or discipline, and they were evolved from smaller or more local gatherings. Before the form became absolutely fixed, there arose in the 4th century the ecumenical council, (ecumenical is Greek, signifying 'the inhabited world'). The ecumenical synods were not the logical outgrowth of the network of provincial synods, but the creations of imperial power. Constantine laid the foundations when, in response to a petition of the Donatists, he referred their case to a committee of bishops convened at Rome, summoned the council of Arles to settle the matter. For both of these councils it was the emperor that decided who should be summoned, paid the traveling expenses of the bishops, determined the meeting place, and the topics to be discussed. He regarded them as temporary advisory bodies, to whose recommendations the imperial power might give the force of law.

In the same manner he fixed time and place for the Council of Nicaea, used his influence to bring about the adoption of the creed, and punished those who refused to subscribe. The Council of Nicaea, on which subsequent ecumenical synods of the undivided church were modeled, commanded great veneration, for it was the first attempt to assemble the entire episcopate; but no more than the synods of Rome and Arles was it an organ of ecclesiastical self-government, but rather a means whereby the church is ruled by the secular power.

The numbering of ecumenical synods is not fixed, but the list below is the one most used in the Roman church today:

1.Nicaea I325
2.Constantinople I381
5.Constantinople II553
6.Constantinople III680
7.Nicaea II787
8.Constantinople IV869
9.Lateran I1123
10.Lateran II1139
11.Lateran III1179
12.Lateran IV1215
13.Lyons I1245
14.Lyons II1274
16.Constance (in part)1414-1418
17a.Basel (in part)1431ff
17b.Ferrara-Florence (a continuation of Basel)1438-1442
18.Lateran V1512-1517
21.Vatican II1962-1965

By including Pisa (1409) and by treating Florence as a separate synod, certain writers have brought the number of ecumenical councils up to 23.

The council of Nicaea is an event of highest importance in Christian history. Constantine, from his accession, showed himself the friend of the Christians. He recognized Christianity as the power of the future, and directed his energies toward the establishment of the positive relationship between it and the Roman state. But the church could only maintain its great value for the politician by remaining the same compact organism that it had proved itself to be under the stormy reign of Diocletian. But scarcely was the church at peace with the state when violent feuds broke out in its midst. Donatism in the West was followed by the Arian struggle in the East. The conflict kindled by the Alexandrian presbyter Arius with regard to the relation of Christ to God assumed a formidable character. Constantine therefore had recourse to an institution previously evolved by the Christian Church – the convocation of a synod to pronounce on the burning questions of the day. He convened a council, designed to represent the whole Curch of the empire, at Nicaea, in Bithynia.

The deliberations on the Arian question passed through several stages before the final condemnation of Arius and his doctrines was reached. Some accepted and others rejected it. The majority of the council followed a neutral tendency, rejecting the formulae of Arius, and declining to accept those of his opponents. An Arian confession of faith was first brought forward and read; but it aroused such a storm of indignation that obviously, in the interests of a restoration of ecclesiastical peace, there could be no question of its acceptance. On this, Eusebius of Caesarea submitted the baptismal creed of his community. Since the creed dated from a period anterior to the Arian struggle, its reception would have been equivalent to a declaration on the part of the council that it declined to define its position with reference to the controversy of the hour. But the emperor saw that if the difficulties were eluded in any such way, they would arise again to an accentuated form, and that consequently no pacification could be expected from this policy.

Accordingly Constantine proposed that the Caesarean creed should be modified by the insertion of the Alexandrian pass words, "identical in nature," as if for the purpose of more accurate definition, and by the deletion of certain portions. The creed thus evolved by an artificial unity was no ratification of peace; in fact, it paved the way for a struggle that convulsed the whole empire. For it was the proclamation of the Nicene Creed that first opened the eyes of many bishops to the significance of the problem there treated; and its explanation led the church to force herself by an arduous path of theological work, into compliance with those principles, enunciated at Nicaea, to which, in the year 325, she had pledged herself without genuine assent.


Helena; represented as a queen with crown and scepter, and holding a T-shaped wooden cross, which according to legend, she was instrumental in discovering.


Nicene Council; a variation on the illustration depicting the Council of Sinuessa at Folio CXXVI verso. This time around the Holy Spirit, as a dove, has rays of light emitted from the lower part of its body. Also, the central figure holds an open book in one hand and a crozier in the other.


Paul, the first hermit, died in the wilderness in Lower Thebes on the 10th day of January in his one hundred thirteenth year. As Jerome writes, St. Anthony (Antonius) saw his soul soon afterwards, flying among the choir of apostles and prophets. After the death of his parents, Paul became very rich by inheritance. At the age of sixteen he was well versed in the Greek and Egyptian languages. He was of a mild disposition, and a great lover of God. During the violent persecutions of Decius and Valerian, he wandered to a village, at last finding a rocky mountain, and within it a large cave, closed with a stone, and containing a wide passage open to the sky. It was covered with the spreading branches of an old palm-tree, and contained a very clear spring. He loved the place as though it had been given him by God; and there he spent his life in prayer and solitude. From the palm-tree he obtained sustenance and clothing. And St. Anthony visited him, and while they dined together a raven brought them a whole loaf of bread. Paul said that the Lord had sent him this food; that for the past sixty years the Lord had fed him with half a loaf, but he now doubled the bread. After Anthony's farewell, Paul slept softly, his neck upright and his hands raised; and his soul left his body. He was buried by Anthony at a place indicated by lions.

Paul and Anthony the hermits: In the persecution under the Emperor Decius, legend relates that Paul of Thebes, a Christian youth of noble family, terrified not so much by the tortures which were threatened, as by the allurements with which he was tempted to deny the faith, fled to the desert east of the Nile; and wandering there alone, he found a cavern, near which was a date-tree and a fountain of clear water. He chose this for his dwelling place, eating of the fruit of the tree, drinking the water of the stream, and clothing himself with palm-leaves woven together. Thus he lived for 98 years, having only occasional communication with other people. But it was the divine will that his long penance and virtue should be made known for the edification of men through another saint of even more renown, Anthony.

Anthony, born in Alexandria, Egypt, was 18 when his parents died and left him great riches. From childhood he had been of a melancholy, contemplative disposition. He was troubled by the temptations of the world and the responsibilities which riches imposed. He gave his wealth to the poor and joined a company of hermits, with whom he lived in great sanctity and self-denial. But still being subjected to many temptations by the Devil, he wandered forth alone and shut himself up in a cavern for 20 years. And when he had reached 90, his heart was uplifted by the thought that no one had lived in solitude so long as he. But in a vision, a voice said to him, "There is one holier than you, for Paul the hermit has served God in solitude and penance for 90 years." He resolved to go and seek Paul. Journeying across the desert he finally came upon him in his cave, and while they talked, a raven brought them a loaf of bread. And Paul lifted up his eyes, blessed the goodness of God, and said, "For sixty years, every day, this raven has brought me half a loaf, but because you have come, the portion is doubled, and we are fed as Elijah was in the wilderness." At length Paul died, and looking up, Anthony beheld his spirit carried to heaven by the prophets and apostles and a company of angels. Anthony laid the body of Paul in a grave, returning to his monastery and relating all to his disciples. Anthony lived another 14 years. According to tradition, he died at the age of 105.

Anthony (Antonius) the abbot, an Egyptian, a holy man, strong in words and works, flourished at this time. He was not only endowed with such wisdom in divine matters and with such knowledge of morals, as may be acquired by human industry, but was also divinely gifted. The emperor Constantine received from him various writings, executed with great skill. As Jerome writes, Anthony wrote seven epistles in the Egyptian tongue, and sent them to the Egyptian churches. And those, in these times (like the epistles of St. Paul with us) were read in the churches. Afterwards, because of the courage manifested in them, they were translated into the Greek tongue. In his time he was an exhorter of mankind in the faith. Through letters and messengers he was often consulted by Helena for herself and her son. Bread alone was his food, and water his drink. He ate only at sunset. He was entirely devoted to contemplation. He died in the Year of the Lord 360, at the age of 105 years. After having been long concealed, his body, through divine revelation, was discovered in the time of the emperor, Justinian the Great. It was first brought from Thebes to Alexandria, and then to Gaul, where it rested in veneration. The day of his commemoration is the 17th day of January.

Hilarius, the very illustrious bishop of Poitiers (Pictaviensis) was highly learned in all the Scriptures, and always a good Christian. When the people of Poitiers saw that he successfully fought the heretics with all his might, they elected him a bishop. He not only protected this province, but all France against the heretics. For this reason he was accused before the emperor Constantius, and was exiled to the island of Gallinaria, which was infested with snakes that disappeared on his arrival. Afterwards, when called home by the emperor, he awakened a dead son who had passed away without baptism. At the instigation of Saturninus, bishop of Arles (Arelatensis), he was sent to Phrygia (Phrigiam), because of his Christian faith. From there he returned to his own city after many temptations. He journeyed to the Lord in the Year of Our Salvation 371. He published these books described as follows: 12 books on the Trinity, On the Council, Response to Constantius, Against the Arrian Example of Growing Blasphemy. First among Catholics, he published hymns and songs.

Hilary, though properly a French saint, for he was bishop of Poitiers in the fourth century, is considered one of the lights of the Italian Church. He distinguished himself in Lombardy by opposing the Arians. He left writings that have been quoted with admiration by Erasmus, Locke, and Gibbon.

The last two sentences ("He published . . . . songs.") are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Athansius, bishop of Alexandria, celebrated for his piety and skill, during these times suffered severe persecution at the hands of the Arian heretics; for in years past, he had stood up against the same heretics in the council at Laodicea and had overcome them with clear and evident reasoning, and upon strong and highly sensible grounds and arguments that the Son was coeval with the Father. But when Arius and his associates could no longer contest this, they undertook to disgrace him. From a corpse they cut an arm, and this they showed to the emperor, stating that Athanasius had cut the arm off of Arsenius to employ it in sorcery. But having been warned, he at length exhibited the arm and exposed their fraud; he was nevertheless severely condemned by Constantius; and he fled, and for six consecutive years was hidden in the vault of a cistern, near the water, where he never saw the sun. Afterwards he was reported by a maiden, but, in accordance with divine warning he went into the region of Constans the emperor, who by threats compelled his brother Constantius to again accept Athanasius. Finally, on the second day of May, in the Year of the Lord 379, after many temptations, and having earned the crown of patience, he passed away in blessedness in the time of the emperors Valentinian and Valens. He wrote books (such as) Against the Pagans (Gentiles) and many others with (his?) symbol. Whoever wishes to be saved, etc.

Athanasius, whose famous creed remains a stumbling block in Christendom, was born at Alexandria about 298. He was the eldest of the Greek Fathers, and began his career by the study of profane literature, science and eloquence; but seized by the religious spirit of the age, he too fled to the desert, and became for a time the pupil of Anthony. He returned to Alexandria, and was ordained deacon. His first appearance as a public character was at the celebrated Council of Nicaea (325 CE), when he opposed Arius and his partisans with so much zeal and eloquence, that he was forever after regarded as the great pillar of orthodoxy. He became bishop of Alexandria, and the rest of his life was a perpetual contest with Arius, over whom he finally gained the victory. He died in 372, having been bishop of Alexandria for 46 years, of which 20 were spent in exile and tribulation.

The last two sentences are not in the German edition. The last sentence, "Whoever wishes to be saved, etc." (Latin = Quicumque vult salvus esse et cetera) is the beginning of the famous creed credited to him by later ages, but most likely not composed by him.

Juvencus (Iuvencus), a Spaniard, poet and cardinal, of noble parentage, and yet more noble in virtue and learning, was highly renowned at this time. He composed four books in which he translated nearly word for word into hexameter verse the four gospels. He also wrote in that meter certain works pertaining to the order of the mysteries.

Little is known of Iuvencus, an intriguing individual to say the least, who is among the first Christian poets. Here is a snippet of his adaptive-poetic technique from his epic poem Evangeliorum liber ('Book of the Gospels'; also called Evangeliorum libri quattuor ["Four Books of the Gospels"]), which uses the Gospel of Matthew as its primary source.
First the Vulgate of Matthew 20:28:

Et qui voluerit inter vos primus esse, erit vester servus. Sicut filius hominis non venit ministrari, sed ministrare, et dare animam suam redemptionem pro multis.

And now 3.608-611 of Iuvencus' Matthew:

Nec primus quisquam, nisi cunctis serviat, unus
Esse potest. Hominis natus sic vestra minister
Obsequio solus proprio pia munera gestat,
Pro multisque animam pretioso sanguine ponit.

Jerome also mentions another poetic work by him, The Order of the Mysteries, which is now lost.

The people of Hibernia were instructed in the Christian faith by a woman prisoner. And so also the Armenians in the East received the faith. And thus the Christian faith spread to the surrounding regions.


The second schism of the Arians occurred between Liberius and Felix, the popes; for when the Council of Milan was held, all those who adhered to Athanasius were sent into exile; and therefore Liberius was away from the city of Rome for three years, and they elected Felix in his place. He was afterwards driven out by Constantius, and Liberius was reinstated. Out of this arose a violent persecution in which the priests and clerics in the churches were slain everywhere.

Year of the World 5553

Year of Christ 354

Felix the Second, a pope, and a Roman, was elected pope by the heretics after Liberius was driven out, or by the Christians in the place of Liberius; although Jerome states that this was done by the heretics. Now when he came into the pontificate he pronounced Constantius a heretic, and not properly baptized. And a great schism arose between Felix and Liberius, as just mentioned, but Felix could in no manner be diverted from the correct faith. He was taken prisoner by his adversaries, and was slain with many of his adherents. And he was buried in a church that he himself had built on the Aurelian Way at the second mile-stone from the city (i.e., Rome) on the 20th day of November. And he had sat only one year, four months and two days because of the uproar instigated by Liberius.[Felix II, antipope, was in 356 raised from the archdeaconate of Rome to the papal chair, when Liberius was banished by the emperor Constantius for refusing to condemn Athanasius. In 357 Constantius agreed to release Liberius if he would sign that semi-Arian creed. Constantius also issued an edict that the two bishops should rule conjointly, but Liberius was received with such enthusiasm that Felix was obliged to retire. He retired to Porto, where he died in 365.]

Year of the World 5563

Year of Christ 364

Damasus the pope, a Spaniard, whose father was Antony, followed Liberius in the time of Julian, the emperor. He was a good man and the very best guide. He ordained that no one should be condemned in court before a hearing had taken place. He commanded also, under pain of excommunication, that no one through reckless greed should attempt to exercise any powers granted by the Roman see. After the promulgation of these laws and the establishment of peace in the churches, Damasus took pleasure in his literary free time to write the lives of all the popes who had preceded him. He also increased the houses of worship and the divine services, and described the pious bodies buried in them for commemoration by posterity. He likewise ordered that the psalms should be sung interchangeably in the churches, and at the end of each psalm, the Gloria Patri, etc. He was the first to give credence to the writings of Jerome, for up to that time the writings of the Seventy alone were held in esteem. Finally, when he had created many priests and 62 bishops, he died and was buried on the Ardeantine Way with his sister and mother in the church that he himself had founded, on the 11th day of December, after having sat for 19 years, 3 months and 11 days. At that time the chair was vacant for 21 days.

Damasus was pope from 366-384 CE. As a deacon he protested against the banishment of Pope Liberius (355); but when the emperor Constantius sent to Rome the anti-pope Felix II, Damasus with the other clergy rallied to his cause. When Liberius returned from exile and Felix was expelled, Damasus again supported Liberius. On the death of Liberius (366), he was nominated successor; but the irreconcilables of the party of Liberius set up against him another deacon, Ursinus. A serious conflict ensued which quickly led to rioting. The prefect of Rome recognized the claims of Damasus, and Ursinus and his supporters were expelled. The new pope also secured the sympathy of the people by his zeal in discovering the tombs of martyrs, and in adorning them with precious marbles and monumental inscriptions. The inscriptions he composed himself, in medieval verse, full of Virgilian reminiscences. In Rome he erected or embellished the church that still bears his name (S. Lorenzo in Damaso).

The West was gradually recovering from the effects of the Arian crisis, and Damasus endeavored to eliminate from Italy and Illyria the last champion of the Council of Rimini. The bishops of the East, however, under the direction of Basil, were involved in a struggle with the emperor Valens, whose policy was favorable to the council of Rimini. Damasus, to whom they appealed for help, was unable to be of much service because that Episcopal group, viewed askance by Athanasius and his successor Peter, was incessantly combated at the papal court by the hatred of Alexandria. The Eastern bishops triumphed in the end under Theodosius, at the council of Constantinople in 381, in which the Western church took no part. They were invited to a council at Rome in 382, but only a few attended. This council had brought to Rome the learned monk Jerome, for whom Damasus showed great esteem, entrusting to him the revision of the Latin text of the Bible. Damasus died December 11, 384.

The third schism was between Damasus and Ursinus (Ursicinum), in consequence of which there was a resort to force and arms. But before long Damasus was confirmed by the common consent of the priests and the people; while Ursinus was relegated to the Neapolitan church. Damasus also, once upon a time, was accused of adultery. But upon his acquittal before a public council, he was absolved of guilt, and his false accusers condemned and cast out of the church; and it was decreed that whosoever should falsely accuse anyone should themselves suffer the pains and penalties provided for the crime.

Year of the World 5583

Year of Christ 384

Siricius the pope, a Roman, whose father was Tyburtius (Tyburcio), lived in the time of Valentinian. He ordained that the monk whose life was such as to be worthy of consecration from the beginning might attain the honor of bishop. He also ordained that the consecrations should be given from time to time. He forbade the Manichean heretics at Rome to hold communion with the faithful. However, those who desired to return and did penance were to be again accepted if they wished to come back to the cloister to improve their days with fasting and prayer. He ordered that a priest should be ordained only by a bishop, and that he who took on a widow or other housewife should be deprived of his office; also that heretics were to be taken back by laying on of the hand. As the affairs of the church were now brought to a state of peace, and this Siricius had consecrated twenty-six priests, sixteen deacons, and thirty-two bishops, he died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Salarian Way on the 22nd day of March, and was buried. He sat (in office) 15 years 11 months and 25 days. At that time the chair was vacant for 20 days.[Siricius, pope from 384 to 399, succeeded Damasus. The disfavor that he showed to the monks led to the departure of Jerome from Rome to Bethlehem. Several of the decretal letters of Siricius are extant, setting forth the rules of ecclesiastical discipline. During his pontificate the last attempt to revive paganism in Rome was made by Nicomachus Flavianus. Siricius died November 26, 399.]


Julian (Julianus) was a brother of Gallus the emperor. When Constantius became sole emperor, he made of this Julian, his uncle, a Caesar against the Gauls, who had revolted; and to him he espoused his sister. At that time a great number of Germans (Alamanni) at Strasbourg (Argentinam) were slain by him with but a few men. And when not long afterwards the German army was driven back with the assistance of the Gauls, Julian, with the sanction of the army, was raised to imperial honors. Hearing this, Constantius was afflicted with the dropsy, so that he died of pain and depression; for he learned that Julian was antagonistic. Now this Julian was an excellent man, and versed in the liberal arts; but he was yet more learned in Greek letters. He was a strong and alert orator, had a powerful memory, was kind to his friends, upright to his countrymen, and zealous for honor and renown. But all these qualities he obscured and reversed when he turned against the Christians. He was a more cunning persecutor than others had been; for he did not invoke new punishments, but with rewards, honors, faunings, flattery and advice, he aroused the people, more so than if he had been otherwise more cruel. He forbade that Christians be taught by pagan masters, and ordered that the schools should not be open to those who would not acknowledge the gods and goddesses. Some say that he was consecrated a Christian, and afterward abandoned the faith. Afterwards he undertook several wars; but these he conducted so unwisely that he was slain on the 6th day of the Kalends of July in the seventh year of his reign and the 31st year of his life.[Julianus, usually called Julian, and surnamed the Apostate, was Roman emperor 361-363 CE. He was born at Constantinople, 331 CE, and was the son of Julius Constantius by his second wife, Basilina, and the nephew of Constantine the Great. Julian and his brother Gallus were the only members of the imperial family whose lives were spared by the sons of Constantine the Great, on the death of the latter in 337. The two brothers were educated with care and brought up in the Christian religion; but as they advanced to manhood they were watched with jealousy and suspicion by the emperor Constantius. After the execution of Gallus in 354, the life of Julian was in great peril; but he succeeded in pacifying the suspicions of the emperor, and was allowed to go to Athens, in 355, to pursue his studies. Here he devoted himself with ardor to the study of Greek literature and philosophy, and attracted universal attention by his attainments and ability. Julian had already abandoned Christianity in his heart and returned to the pagan faiths of his ancestors; but fear of Constantius prevented him from making an open declaration of his apostasy. He did not remain long at Athens. In 355 he received from Constantius the title of Caesar, and was sent into Gaul to oppose the Germans, who had crossed the Rhine and were ravaging some of the provinces of Gaul. During the next five years he carried on war against the two German confederacies of Alamanni and Franks with great success, and gained many victories. His internal administration was distinguished by justice and wisdom; and he gained the good will and affections of the provinces entrusted to him. This aroused the jealousy of Constantius, who ordered him to send some of his best troops to the East to serve against the Persians. His soldiers refused to leave their favorite general and proclaimed him emperor in Paris in 360. After several fruitless negotiations between Julian and Constantius, both parties prepared for war. In 361 Julian marched along the valley of the Danube toward Constantinople; but Constantius, who set out for Syria to oppose his rival, died on his march in Cicilia. His death left Julian master of the empire. Julian entered Constantinople on December 11th. He lost no time in avowing himself a pagan, but proclaimed that Christianity would be tolerated equally with paganism. He did not, however, act impartially toward the Christians. He preferred pagans as his military and civil officers, forbade the Christians to teach grammar and rhetoric in the schools, and, in order to annoy them, allowed the Jews to rebuild the temple of Jerusalem (or, he allowed this rebuilding because he was interested in promoting all non-Christian religions in his Empire). In 363 Julian set out against the Persians and boldly marched into the interior of the country in search of the Persian king. His army suffered much from heat, lack of water and provisions, and he was at length compelled to retreat. The Persians fearfully harassed his rear, and although the Romans remained victorious in many a bloody engagement, Julian was mortally wounded in the last battle on June 26, 363, and died the same day. Jovian, on the field of battle, was chosen emperor in his place. Julian was an extraordinary character. As a monarch he was attentive to business, upright, and broad in his views. As a man he was virtuous in the midst of a profligate age. In consequence of his apostasy he has been slandered by Christian writers, but for the same reason extolled by pagan authors. He wrote a large number of works. His style is remarkably pure and is a close imitation of classical Greek.]

Jovian (Jovinianus), born in Pannonia, was physically attractive, of a happy disposition, and devoted to learning. He was elected to the sovereignty by the common consent of the army, not so much at his own instigation, as at the request of his father who was better acquainted with the soldiers. And although he was thus elected emperor, he did not wish to be acknowledged such until the people had acknowledged themselves Christians. When this occurred he took the government, and relieved the army of the barbarians. Afterwards things changed; he was twice defeated by the Persians due to his army's dissension and lack of supplies. And so he followed the dictates of necessity, making a peace by ceding territory previously taken—something that had not happened for many years. After that he marched to Greece; and he died in the vicinity of Galatia. He was otherwise not an unruly or unwise man. Some say he died of starvation; others, that he died of the odor of fresh plaster in his bedchamber, etc. He died in the seventh month of his reign on the fourteenth day of the Kalends of March in the thirty-third year of his life.[ Jovian (Jovianus), was a Roman emperor (363-364 CE). As captain of the imperial bodyguard, he accompanied Julian in his Persian expedition, and on the latter's death was unexpectedly chosen emperor by the army. He at once continued the retreat begun by Julian, and continually harassed by the Persians, succeeded in reaching the banks of the Tigris, where he concluded a humiliating peace. Five provinces that had been conquered by Galerius in 298 were surrendered, together with Nisibis and other cities. The Romans also gave up all interests in Armenia and abandoned its Christian prince Arsaces to the Persians. During his return to Constantinople Jovian was found dead in his bed half way between Ancyra and Nicaea. Under Jovian, Christianity was established as a State religion, although paganism was tolerated.]

Valentinian (Valentinianus), born at Cibalia, in Pannonia, was a captain of the shield-bearers, and fully a Christian man. Julian the Apostate ordered him to sacrifice to the gods or stay out of the army. And although he willingly gave up military honors for the Christian faith, nevertheless, upon the slaying of Julian and the death of Jovian he was elected emperor as successor. He was an excellent emperor, of honest countenance, courageous disposition, prudent proposals, timely speech, and hateful of vice and avarice. He was sparing in his words, earnest and emphatic, etc.

Valentinian (Valentinianus), Roman emperor (364-375 CE), was the son of Gratianus. He was born in 321, at Cibalis, in Pannonia. He was the father of Gratianus, the emperor, and held important military commands under Julian and Jovian. On the death of Jovian he was elected emperor by the troops at Nicaea. A few weeks after his elevation he elected his brother Valens as co-emperor, assigning to him the East, while Valentinian himself governed the West. Valentinian was a Catholic, though his brother was an Arian. However, he did not persecute either Arians or pagans. He possessed ability, prudence, and vigor of character, had a capacity for military matters, and was a vigilant, impartial, and laborious administrator. However, he sometimes punished with excessive severity. The greater portion of his reign was taken up by the wars against the Alamanni, and the other barbarians along the Roman frontiers. His great qualities entitle him to a place among the most distinguished Romans.

The Latin edition of the Chronicle continues for several more sentences (not given in the translation), covering specific details concerning his brother Valens, his brother's Arianism, military campaigns, etc.

Valens held the Eastern Empire for four years after Valentinian's death, during which time Gratian (Graciano), Valentinian's son, ruled in the West. This Valens, rebaptized by Lucius of Constantinople, persecuted our people with enmity; nor did he spare those of our number who had gone to the desert, but commanded that these hermits should enter the military service; and if they refused, they were to be slain. Of these there were countless numbers in the wildernesses and hermitages of Egypt. At this time the Goths were driven out of their country and scattered all over Thrace. Valens armed against them; but later, at the instigation of the bishop and hermits, he was shot; and he was carried to a miserable hut, which was set on fire by the Goths. Valens was burned to death in the fourth year of his reign. This outbreak of the Goths resulted in disaster for the Roman Empire and all Italy.

Valens, emperor of Rome (364-378 CE), was born in 328, and was made emperor by his brother Valentinian. Much of his reign was occupied in wars with the Goths. At first he gained great advantages over the barbarians, concluding a peace in 370 that stipulated that they would not cross the Danube. But in 376 the Goths were driven out of their country by the Huns, and Valens allowed them to cross the Danube and settle in Thrace and the country on the borders of the Danube. Dissention soon arose between the Romans and these dangerous neighbors, and in 377 the Goths took up arms. Valens marched against them with a powerful army, but was defeated with great slaughter near Adrianople in 378. Valens was never seen after the battle. Some say he died on the field, others that he was burned to death in a peasant's home, to which he was carried, and which the barbarians set on fire without knowing who was in it. It was during the reign of Valens that the Goths were for the first time were admitted to the countries south of the Danube. The Battle of Adrianople is one of the great turning points in the late history of the Roman Empire. As part of a more extended series of campaigns known as the Gothic War (376–382), the Battle of Adrianople is often considered the start of the final collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. Ironically, Adrianople actually was fought between the Goths and the Eastern Roman Empire, which ultimately withstood the Gothic invasions and developed into the Byzantine Empire.

The furious contests between Catholics and Arians also marked this reign.


Nicholas (Nicolas), of illustrious parentage, was a citizen of the city of Panthera (Patere), in the country of Lycia (Licie). While still a child and nursed by his mother, he only suckled from his mother's breasts twice a week, on Wednesday and Friday. Now when he was a young man, after he had lost both his parents, among other acts of virtue he performed the following memorable acts. His neighbor, an upright man, was, because of his poverty, about to give up his three daughters of marriageable age to prostitution. When this came to the notice of this holy man, he, out of sympathy, at night secretly threw a small quantity of gold through the window of the poor man's house. And with this he married off his first daughter. He did likewise with the others. Afterwards he was elected bishop of Myra. He was humble, kind in admonition, earnest in punishment, and circumspect in his speech to women. At length he began to appear in miracles, so that those who invoked his name were helped—particularly mariners. Full of days, he died in blessedness, and many sick people were healed by the oil that flowed out of his grave. We celebrate his feast day on the eighth day of the Ides of December.[Nicholas was born at Panthera, a city of the province of Lycia, Asia Minor. On account of his popularity, more legends surround him than perhaps any other saint of this time. His parents were Christians. After they had been married many years, a son was granted them in recompense of the prayers and tears and the alms that they had offered up continually. He no sooner knew what it was to feed than he knew what it was to fast, and every Wednesday and Friday he would take the breast but once. His parents, seeing him full of holy thoughts, dedicated him to the service of God. After he was ordained a priest, he became still more remarkable for sobriety and humility, more modest in countenance, grave in speech, and rigorous in self-denial. While still a youth, his parents died of the plague, and he became sole heir to their vast riches. He gave liberally to the needy. There dwelt in the city a nobleman who had three daughters. He became so poor that there remained no means of obtaining food for his daughters except by sacrificing them to a life of prostitution. Meanwhile the maidens wept continually, not knowing what to do. Hearing of their plight, Nicholas, one night when the maidens were asleep and their father sat watching and weeping, took a handful of gold, tied it in a handkerchief, and threw it into an open window, and it fell at the feet of the father. With this he dowered his eldest daughter. And so Nicholas did on a second and a third occasion. After some years he took a voyage to the Holy Land. A terrible storm came up, and the sailors begged him to save them. He rebuked the storm, and it ceased. Returning from Palestine he journeyed to Myra, where he lived in obscurity and humility for some time. But one day the bishop of the city died, and Nicholas was chosen his successor. As such he practiced every saintly virtue, particularly charity, and later performed many miracles. Nicholas was, after Jesus and the Virgin Mary, perhaps the most popular Christian religious figure in the Middle Ages. Indeed, Saint Nicholas eventually metamorphizes via political cartoonist Thomas Nast's drawings, a nineteenth-century poem ("'Twas the Night Before Christmas'"), and an early 20th-century advertising campaign by the Coca-Cola company) into the modern Santa Claus, a figure who has in some ways (at least in the United States) eclipsed Mary and Jesus—at least during the month of December.]

Donatus, a heretic from Africa['Africa' in Latin usually refers to North Africa, specifically the lands of Libya and Tunisia.], wrote much against the Christians at this time, and with his poisoned teachings he misled almost all Africa and Judea. He erred, saying the Son was less than the Father, and the Holy Spirit less than the Son. Finally, in great distress, he was driven out of Carthage. He wrote many things, especially a book on the Holy Spirit containing the Arian doctrine.[Donatus, bishop of Casa Nigra, Numidia, originated the Donatist movement in the fourth century CE. The predisposing causes of the Donatist schism were the belief that the validity of all sacerdotal acts depended upon the personal character of the agent and the question, arising out of that belief, as to the eligibility for sacerdotal office of the traditores, or those who had delivered up their copies of the Scriptures under the compulsion of the Diocletian persecution; the exciting cause was the election of a successor to Mensurius, bishop of Carthage, who died in 311. He had held moderate views as to the treatment of the traditores, and a strong fanatical party, supported by Secundus, primate of Numidia, had formed in Carthage in opposition to him and secured the election of Caecilian, the archdeacon before the other party was ready for action. This election was confirmed by the Synod of Arles in 314 and at Milan by the emperor two years later. The Donatist position was that the church is a society of holy persons. The Catholic standpoint was that holiness is not destroyed by the presence of unworthy members. After varying fortunes the severest punishments were pronounced against the Donatists by Emperor Honorius should they fail to return to the Catholic faith. They were denied all civil rights and the holding of assemblies was forbidden them on pain of death. But they lived on, suffering with their orthodox brethren in the Vandal invasions of the fifth century, and like them, finally disappearing before the Muslim onslaught two centuries later.]

Eunomius, another heretic of this time, was a leper in body and soul and not otherwise within nor without. He was afflicted with the royal disease[The 'royal disease' here is jaundice.]. He at first was an adherent of the Arian faithlessness, but then added and disseminated another false belief. He was affirming that the Son was unlike the Father in all things and that the Holy Spirit had nothing in common with either the Son or the Father.[Eunomius was born at Dacora, in Cappadocia, early in the fourth century. He studied at Alexandria and held ecclesiastical office at various places. His sect held that Christ was created by God and was a wholly subordinate being. The Eunomian heresy was condemned by the Council of Constantinople in 381.]

Macedonius (whom our people, before he erred, made a bishop at Constantinople) was driven out by the Arian heretics because he acknowledged the Son equal to the Father. He blasphemed the Holy Spirit and thus stirred up many controversies by those who were called Macedonian heretics.[Macedonius, bishop of Constantinople, in succession to Eusebius of Nicomedia, was elected by the Arian bishops in 341, while the orthodox party elected one Paul. In 342 Macedonius was recognized as patriarch and Paul was banished. The distinctive tenet of the Macedonians was that the Holy Spirit is but a being similar to the angels, subordinate to and in the service of the Father and the Son, the relation between whom did not admit of a third. Macedonius was expelled from his see by the Council of Constantinople in 360.]

Donatus, a master of rhetoric, oratory and philosophy, was the teacher of the holy Jerome, and was held in great esteem at Rome. And, among other things, he wrote a commentary on Terence. And, as they say, this Donatus is the author of a little book that up to the present is read in schools by boys learning the first elements of grammar.[ Donatus was a celebrated grammarian. He taught at Rome in the middle of the fourth century and was the teacher of Jerome. His most famous work is a system of Latin grammar that has formed the groundwork of most elementary treatises upon the subject from his own time to the present.]

Julian (Julianus), the emperor, was vainly addicted to the black arts. To the distress of the Christians, he rebuilt the Temple at Jerusalem for the Jews, saying he did not care to worship elsewhere. For that reason the Jews were so inflated with vanity that they contributed more to the work than usual. But before long the Temple was destroyed by an earthquake and many Jews were crushed. On the second day fire came down from above and consumed the building's ironwork. Through fright caused by this miracle, many Jews turned to the Christian faith. Some write that Julian was shot through with an arrow, but no one knows from where; and that with upraised hands he cried to heaven, You have conquered, Galilean, you have conquered! for he called Christ a Galilean and a carpenter's son.[Julian, see Folio CXXXII recto, and note.]

John and Paul, brothers, were very Christian men and very famous Romans. When Julian (Julianus) heard that they supported the poor from their estates they were taken prisoner; and at Rome, upon the command of Julian, they were beheaded on the 26th day of June after receiving numerous scourgings.[John and Paul were officers in the service of Constantia, whom the old legends persist in representing as a most virtuous Christian (though she was probably otherwise) and were put to death by Julian the Apostate.]

Gordian (Gordianus) and Epimachus, highly renowned men, were crowned with martyrdom at Rome in the disturbances of these times. The first, because he acknowledged the Christian faith, was beaten with leaden scourges, and finally beheaded on the 10th day of May; and his corpse was thrown to the dogs. His body was buried at night by the members of his household.[Gordian and Epimachus. Gordian was a magistrate (vicarius) of Julian the Apostate, and was sent by the emperor to visit a Christian priest, named Janisarius, who was imprisoned for his faith, and to endeavor to make him abjure Christ. But the result of the interview was the conversion of Gordian, who was now degraded from office and cruelly martyred. His body was buried by a servant in the same tomb as Epimachus, a martyr of Alexandria, who had been brought to Rome in the previous reign.]

Juliana and Demetria, the virgins, also attained the crown of martyrdom by order of Julian (Julianus), the tyrant in this persecution.

Cyriacus (Quiriacus), also called Judas, a bishop of Jerusalem, at this time, together with his mother, Anna, suffered martyrdom with fortitude for the Christian faith. This is the man who showed St. Helena the place where the cross lay buried; and because of the miracles that took place at the discovery of the cross, he determined to proclaim everywhere the glory and honor of the same. For that he was taken prisoner by the pagans, and was nailed to a cross. And therefore (as many say), the order of the Crusaders had its origin with him.[Cyriacus (also spelled Quiriacus, Quiricus, and Kyriakos) also called Judas (and most commonly Judas Cyriacus), was, according to Eusebius, the fifteenth bishop of Jerusalem. This Judas is venerated on April 10th, but is supposed to be the same person also called Quiriacus by the martyrologists commemorated on this day. That he was the true discoverer of the wood of the true cross is hardly possible; and the claim that he was a martyr in the reign of Julian is unsupported. He is said to have been a Jew, the nephew of Stephen the first martyr, and grandson of Zacharias. He is also said to have revealed to Helena the place where the cross of Christ was hidden, to have been converted by the miracles wrought on its discovery, and to have been baptized under the name of Quiriacus or Cyriacus, and to have become bishop of Jerusalem. But there was no patriarch of the name of Cyriacus, and Judas died in 133. Helena did not visit Jerusalem until 326.]


At this time real wool, mixed with the clouds, fell in rain in the land of the Atrebates (Atrabatas).[The Atrebates were a people in Gallia Belgica, in the modern Artois, which is a corruption of their name. In Caesar's time (57 CE) they numbered 15,000 warriors; their capital was Nemetocenna. Part of them crossed over to Britain, where they dwelt in the upper valley of the Thames, Oxfordshire and Berkshire.] Marvelously large hailstones fell at Constantinople, killing a number of persons; and an earthquake occurred throughout the earth. In these turbulent times Athanaricus, king of the Goths, cruelly persecuted the Christians among his people, and elevated them to martyrdom.[Athanaricus was a king of the Visigoths during their stay in Dacia. In 367-369 CE he carried on war with the emperor Valens, with whom he finally concluded a peace. In 374 Athanaric was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending himself for some time in a stronghold in the mountains of Dacia, was compelled to fly in 380, and take refuge in the Roman territory. He died in 381.] Over 80,000 armed Burgundians settled down on the banks of the Rhine, and before long they accepted the Christian faith. At this time, while Valens reigned, the Huns lay concealed in the inaccessible mountain fastnesses for a long while. They came forth against the Goths with such swift vengeance and ferocity that they drove them out of the country. Fleeing over the Danube, the Goths were taken in by the emperor Valens without entering into a treaty or alliance. Afterwards they were subjected to such unendurable poverty by Maximus that starvation drove them to take up arms. They fought against the army of Valens, and invaded all of Thrace, ravaging everywhere with fire and death. Now, when the Goths asked him to send them a bishop to instruct them in the faith, he sent a teacher of the Arian heresy; and so this entire people became Arian. After the emperor was slain the Goths appeared before Constantinople; but Dominica, the august wife of Valens, gave them a large sum of money and thus ransomed the city, and preserved the loyalty of her subjects to the empire.

It is agreed that the people who are called Progethic(?) Gothic had their origin from the Scythians, and that the Scythians first were in Europe in the north and at the border of the Tanais.['Tanais' is the ancient name for the River Don in Russia. Strabo ( 11.1) regarded it as the boundary between Europe and Asia.] They were a savage people who were very ready to die. Above them were the Ostrogoths, and below them the Visigoths. The first dwelling in that region of the west, the latter in that region of the east in which they lived, having the names they are called in their country. The Huns themselves are also Scythians. But the Goths are far more savage since they, dwelling nearer to the Riphean Mountains[The 'Riphean Mountains' is the ancient name for the Ural Mountains in Russia which, like the Tanais River, were regarded as the boundary between Europe and Asia.], are exposed to the harsh and cold environment of the north.[This paragraph is not in the German edition of the . The translation offered here is, at points, highly speculative. Suggestions/corrections for improving it are eagerly sought.]

Basil (Basilius) the Great, bishop of Caesarea, in Cappadocia, was illustrious for his great virtue and wisdom in these times. He was the father of many monks. Among the stories of his virtue and piety is one relating to a youth, who, for the love of a maiden, surrendered himself to the Devil; but Basil reconciled him to God, and commanded the Devil to return the document of surrender. Being a very celebrated teacher, Basil wrote excellent books against the heretic Eunomius; also a book concerning the Holy Spirit, and other short works. In Greece he founded the order of the isolated or monastic people. This holy father died on the first day of the month of January in the sixth year of the reign of Valentinian, and was illustrious for his numerous miracles.[Basil (Basilius) the Great, was born in 329 CE at Caesarea. He studied at Antioch or Constantinople under Linanius, subsequently continuing his studies at Athens, chiefly under the sophists Himerius and Proaeresius. Among his fellow students were the emperor Julian and Gregory of Nazianzus, the latter becoming his intimate friend. After acquiring the greatest reputation as a student for his knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy and science, he returned to Caesarea where he pleaded causes. However, he soon abandoned his profession, devoting himself to a religious life. For many years his life was that of an ascetic. He was elected bishop of Caesarea in 370 in the place of Eusebius. He died in 379.]

Gregory (Gregorius) Nazianzus (Nazianzenzus), the bishop, who conducted Basil to a monastery, was a teacher of Jerome in the Holy Scriptures, and was held in great esteem at this time for his piety, knowledge of letters, and eloquence. He wrote many things, particularly in praise of Cyprian (Cipriani), Athanasius, and Maximus the Wise. He wrote two books against Eunomius, and one against the Emperor Julian. He also wrote of the obligations of marriage, and eulogized virginity in poetry. For legitimate reasons he relieved the people of Constantinople of heresy. When very old he elected a successor, and from that point on lived a secluded life in the country. Gregory died in the time of Theodosius, Basil and Gratian.[Gregory (Gregorius), surnamed Nazianzen, was born in a village near Nazianzus, in Cappadocia, about 329 CE. His father took the greatest pains with his education, and he afterward pursued his studies at Athens, where he earned the greatest reputation for his knowledge of rhetoric, philosophy, and mathematics. Among his fellow students were Julian, future emperor, and Basil, with whom he formed a most intimate friendship. He returned home from Athens after a sojourn of six years. Having received ordination, he continued to reside at Nazianzus, where he discharged his duties as a presbyter, and assisted his aged father, bishop of the town. After the latter's death he refused to continue as bishop, being averse to a public life, and fond of solitary meditation. After living some years in retirement, he was summoned to Constantinople to defend the orthodox faith against the Arians and other heretics. In 380 he was made bishop of Constantinople by the emperor Theodosius, but resigned the office in the following year, and withdrew altogether from public life. He lived in solitude at his paternal estate, and died there in 389 or 390. He wrote orations, sermons, letters and poems.] Epiphanius, a bishop of Salamis, in Cyprus, attacked all heretics with exceptional courage, and in his great age wrote various books. He died like a saint on the fourth day of the Ides of May.

At this time there lived in Syria two holy men of great faith, named the Macharii. They were disciples of St. Anthony. One lived in the upper desert, the other in the lower. Hilarion, a most pious abbot, lived in the island of Cyprus, not far from the city of Salamis. After he saw Anthony, he led a severe life and died on the 12th day of the Kalends of November. Arsenius, born of a Roman senator, became a hermit in response to a voice that spoke to him, saying, Arsenius, if you would be saved, flee mankind and be silent. From that point on he persevered in a holy life and performed miracles in the service of Christ. He died at the age of ninety-five, concluding a blessed life.[Arsenius (c. 354-450), an anchorite, is said to have been born of a noble Roman family. He was appointed by Theodosius the Great, tutor of the young princes Arcadius and Honorius; but at the age of forty he retired to Egypt, where for forty years he lived in monastic seclusion at Scetis in the Thebais, under the spiritual guidance of John the Dwarf. He died at the age of ninety-five, near Memphis. His biography by Simeon Metaphrastes is largely fiction.] Paphuntius, the abbot, converted Thais, a very shameless prostitute, to Christ at Thebes. And after he had written the life of St. Onuffrius, he was taken to heaven by the angels in the presence of the hermits. Agathon, the abbot, also lived at this time. For three years he carried a stone in his mouth in order to acquire the virtue of silence.

Mary (Maria) of Egypt, first known as a prostitute, became an example of piety, penitence and perseverance. She lived in the desert for forty-seven years, concluding a severe penance. She carried with her over the Jordan only two loaves of bread that soon became as hard as rock. By these she sustained herself for several years. On the 9th day of April she ascended to the Lord. Her body was buried by Zozimas, a very holy abbot.

Mary of Egypt, according to tradition, ran away from home to the pleasure-loving city of Alexandria, where she spent seventeen years of her life in prostitution. One day she joined a party on the way to Jerusalem by sea, to keep the solemn festival of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross to (first instituted by Constantine in 325), but with no religious purpose in her heart, only with a wicked desire to introduce disorder and vice among the pilgrims; and in her evil she went with the crowd on the feast day to the Church, but a mysterious power held her back. Filled with shame and fear, she fell upon the pavement and wept. Becoming penitent at the sight of an image of the Virgin Mother, she crept to the door, the angelic barrier was withdrawn, and the penitent entered. Then a voice came to her as from a mighty distance, "Pass over Jordan, and you will find rest." She hastened to put this command into execution, bathed her face and hands in the sacred water, and on the next day crossed the river, taking with her a few loaves, and praying the Virgin to be her guide. She spent 47 years in the wilderness, seeing no man, and living on herbs and wild dates. Her clothes wore out, and she suffered from alternate heat and cold, and often from hunger. She was discovered by Zozimus, a holy anchorite in Palestine, who gave her his mantle. And when they parted, the penitent made Zozimus promise to return next Lent and bring with him the most precious Body and Blood of our Lord, and to wait for her on the banks of the Jordan nearest to the desert in which she dwelt.

Next year, in Lent, when the brethren dispersed, Zozimus was detained at his monastery by sickness, but by the end of Lent he recovered and made his way to Jordan. Night drew on, and the holy woman did not come. But as the moon rose, he saw her on the other bank. She crossed the stream and received the sacred mysteries that Zozimus had brought with him. And again they parted.

Next Lent Zozimus again traversed the solitude; but when he came to the banks he found Mary lying there, wrapped in the shreds of his old mantle, quite dead. Stooping down, he saw traced on the sands these words, "Abbot Zozimus, bury here the body of the sinner Mary." But he had no spade. A lion came out of the desert, and with his feet dug a hole; and there the old man laid the penitent to await the resurrection of the just.


Year of the World 5593

Year of Christ 394

Anastasius the pope, a Roman, successor to Siricius (Syricium), elected under the Emperor Gratian (Graciano), ordained that the priests should in no event sit, but stand with heads bowed while the Gospel was being read or sung in the churches of God; also that pilgrims, and most of all those who wandered overseas, should not be admitted to the clergy or to consecration, unless they could produce the signatures of the five bishops. This came about (as they say) because of the Manichean heretics, who were in great veneration at that time in Africa, to the destruction of the faith because of the letters they sent forth. He also ordained that those who were physically weak[The Latin adjective debilis usually refers to physical weakness or frailty (including those who are crippled, lame, etc.), but can also refer to a general sense of helplessness or weakness.], and those who lacked an arm, or any other member, should not be accepted in the number of the clergy or the consecrated. After he had made a number of priests, deacons and bishops, he died on the 5th day of the Kalends of May; and the chair was vacant 21 days at that time.[Anastasius I, pope from 399 to 401, condemned the writings of Origen shortly after their translation into Latin.]

Year of the World 5603

Year of Christ 404

Innocent (Innocentius), the first pope with this name, was born in Albano in the time of Theodosius the emperor. He was a holy man, who understood many good things pertaining to the Christian and spiritual being. He was esteemed during the peace of the Roman Empire, and was favored with the good will of the emperor. He ordained that one should fast on Saturday, because Christ was laid in his grave on that day, and his disciples fasted. He made certain rules concerning the Jews, the pagans, and monks. He desired that a church once consecrated should not be consecrated again. He drove the Cathaphrygian heretics out of home, and condemned Pelagius, the monk or hermit; also Celestinus, another heretic; because they denied the necessity of divine grace, and said that for the fulfillment of the divine commandments the will alone was sufficient. This pope also ordained that on all festive days observed by the churches, before partaking of the Holy Sacrament, peace was to be given to all believers in Christ. He died and was buried in the cemetery Ad Ursum Pileatum[Ad Ursum Pileatum is Latin for 'to the bear wearing a helmet.' ] on the 5th Kalends of August. He sat 15 years, 2 months and five days. And the chair was vacant for 22 days.

Innocent I, son of Anastasius I, was pope from 402 to 417. During his papacy the siege of Rome by Alaric took place. He maintained and extended the authority of the Holy See as the ultimate resort for the settlement of all disputes. He took a decided view on the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the synod of the province of pro-consular Africa held in Carthage in 416 which had been sent to him. He wrote in a similar sense to the fathers of the Numidian synod of Mileve who, Augustine being one of their number, had addressed him. He died March 12, 417. His successor was Zosimus.

The text speaks of the controversies among the theologians on the question of grace and free will, but the Pelagian doctrine is rather vaguely stated. In one sense grace is described as inspiration, in another as favor, or as power, or as pity; but the fundamental feature of the experience is man's perception that he is in touch with a wider Self from which there flow into him streams of rich and full energy. Some of his greatest achievements seem to have come to him from external sources, and he feels that he could never have attained them without that external influence. In Christianity the conception of grace has developed proportionately to the richness of the experiences of the believers. The Christian believes himself in touch with a deity whose character and influence are equivalent to the historical Jesus.

The largest single contribution on this question was made by Augustine, the Bishop of Hippo in Africa. The experiences of his stormy youth and impressive conversion led him to stress the irresistible power of God, and he therefore undervalued the importance of the co-operation of the free human will. According to his own past wickedness, interpreted as evidence of the correctness of the meaning of the early chapters of Genesis describing the Fall, man is not only by nature inclined to evil, but is now in such condition that he cannot by his own natural strength and good works carry out the will of God. According to the Roman Catholic catechism, we can do no good works of our own accord, but need the help of God's grace.

But Pelagius, a native of Britain, a learned layman and monk, contemporary with Augustine, saw no safeguard for righteousness unless men recognized the complete freedom of the will and realized that they were accountable for their own actions. In 417 Augustine secured the condemnation of Pelagius by imperial decree, which was confirmed by the Council of Ephesus fourteen years later. In the sixteenth century Erasmus tended to the side of Pelagius, but Luther, and even to a greater extent Calvin, leaned to the side of Augustine. Calvin seemed to insist that God predestines some to blessedness, others to damnation, and that man himself is so helpless and corrupt that all he can do is to thankfully receive whatever grace and mercy may be dealt out to him. The teaching and experience of Luther, however, that faith alone was needed to receive grace, was a great simplification of life.

Modern psychology has led to a clearer apprehension of the reality of grace. The notion that behind consciousness lies a large realm has suggested to some that grace is the inflow into consciousness (as through a mental sluice) of spiritual power existing in the realm of the subconscious or superconscious. Extension of Protestant principles has led many to discard sacraments, services, and institutions as means of grace, and to assert that the individual can find the power he needs ready to hand at all points in ordinary daily life.

Zosimus the pope, a Greek, succeeded Innocent in the time of Arcadius and Honorius, the emperors. He was a holy and pious man, and not unmindful of the many perplexities which affected divine matters. He ordained that in celebrating (the mass), the deacons should use a covering of cloth woven from flax and wool; that on holy Easter Eve the Easter candles be blessed in the parishes; that the clergy and consecrated ones do not drink in public; although this was quite permissible in the homes of the faithful. He also ordained that serfs and servants shall not be admitted to the clergy. It is said that Zosimus sent Faustinus the bishop and two priests of the city of Rome to the Council held at Carthage, in order to indicate that nothing was to be done there without the acquiescence of the Roman Church. He died after having sat one year, three months and twelve days; and then the chair rested eleven days.[Zosimus, bishop of Rome from March 18, 417 to December 26, 418, succeeded Innocent I. He took a decided part in the protracted dispute in Gaul as to the jurisdiction of the see of Arles over that of Vienne, but without settling the controversy. Of his attitude in the Pelagian controversy we have already spoken elsewhere.]

Year of the World 5613

Year of Christ 414

Boniface the First, a pope, and a Roman, whose father was Jucundus, lived in the time of Honorius. After he was chosen pope a schism occurred among the churchmen, for Boniface had been elected at one place, and Eulalius at another; and this is said to have been the fourth schism in the Church. When the emperor Honorius, then at Milan, became aware of this, both men were driven out of Rome. Seven months later, however, Boniface was recalled, and he alone was installed as pope, at Rome. And now having peacefully entered upon his pontificate, he made a number of laws for the benefit and honor of the clergy—particularly one to the effect that no one, during his absence, should under any circumstances be accused or condemned in court; also, that no man should be ordained as a priest until he had attained the age of thirty years. Boniface died and was buried on the Salarian Way with the body of Saint Felicity on the 8th of the Kalends of November. He sat three years, eight months and seven days. Immediately afterwards some chose Eulalius from the priesthood, and called him to Rome; but either because he was unwilling to act, or because he scorned worldly affairs, he ignored the summons. He died one year after Boniface.[Boniface I occupied the pontificate from 418 to 422. When his predecessor died, the clergy were divided, one faction electing Eulalius, the other Boniface. In the interest of public order the imperial government commanded the competitors to leave the town, the decision being reserved to a council. Eulalius having broken his ban, Honorius decided to recognize Boniface, and the council was countermanded.]


Gratian (Gracianus[Gratian's name is spelled 'Racianus' in the Beloit College copy of the since space was left for the initial letter 'G' to be painted in later.]), eldest son of Valentinian, held the sovereignty for six years after the death of Valens, although he had reigned a long time previously with Valens, his uncle, and Valentinian, the latter's brother. From youth he was stern in military affairs, and also a good Christian. Then, when a countless horde of the enemy overran the country of the Romans, he armed himself, and although but a youth, yet having faith in Christ, he raised a small army unequal to that of the enemy; and at Strasbourg he fought a fierce battle with incredible good fortune. Although the Roman losses were few, 30,000 Alamanni were routed. Thus Gratian was rewarded for his true love of the faith. When Ambrose (Ambrosius) was elected bishop all Italy returned to the true faith. He ordered all the ruined churches restored. Now when Gratian saw Thrace and Dacia in the hands of the Goths, and the Roman welfare in danger, he recalled from Spain Theodosius, then 33 years of age, and at Sirmium, with the unanimous consent of all, appointed him ruler of the East and of Thrace. This man, placing every faith in Christ's help, attacked the cruel and mighty Scythians, Alamanni, Huns, and Goths, and defeated them in many great battles. In the meantime Maximus ravished Britain, and then marched into Gaul; and at Lyons he slew Gratian, who was then 29 years of age. Nevertheless, Gratian was a learned and eloquent man, moderate in his meals and hours of sleep, and a victor over licentiousness.[Boniface I occupied the pontificate from 418 to 422. When his predecessor died, the clergy were divided, one faction electing Eulalius, the other Boniface. In the interest of public order the imperial government commanded the competitors to leave the town, the decision being reserved to a council. Eulalius having broken his ban, Honorius decided to recognize Boniface, and the council was countermanded.]

Theodosius the Elder, a Spaniard, whose father was Theodosius and mother Termancia, after the death of Gratian (Graciano), was sole ruler of the Roman Empire for eleven years. At Aquileia he slew the tyrant Maximus, the murderer of Gratian. This was prophesied to that same tyrant by St. Martin. By divine assistance Theodosius suppressed many tyrants; for he was an augmenter and protector of the general welfare. Morally and physically he resembled Trajan. In addition to his military training he was very intelligent, and was devoted to a Christian life. Once upon a time when he wanted to attend church at Milan, a thing forbidden him because he had not done penance for a certain offense, and was refused admittance, he took this in good part, thanked Ambrose the bishop, and did penance. He married Flacilla, by whom he begot Arcadius and Honorius. He died at Milan in the fiftieth year of his life, leaving the sovereignty to his sons in peace. His body was taken to Constantinople and buried there.[ Theodosius I, surnamed the Great, Roman emperor of the East (378-395 CE), was the son of the general Theodosius, who restored Britain to the empire and was beheaded at Carthage in the reign of Valens in 376. The future emperor was born in Spain in 346. He received a good education, and learned the art of war under his father, whom he accompanied in his British campaigns. After Valens fell in battle against the Goths, he was proclaimed emperor of the East by Gratian, who felt himself unable to sustain the burden of the empire. The Roman Empire in the East was then in a critical position; for the Romans were disheartened by the bloody defeat which they had sustained; and the Goths were insolent in their victory. Theodosius, however, gained two signal victories over them, and concluded a peace in 382. In 383 Maximus assumed the imperial purple in Britain, and invaded Gaul with a powerful army. In the war which followed Gratian was slain, and Theodosius, who did not consider it prudent to enter into a contest with Maximus, acknowledged him emperor of Spain, Gaul, and Britain, but he secured for Valentinian, the brother of Gratian, Italy, Africa, and western Illyricum. When Maximus expelled Valentinian from Italy, Theodosius espoused the latter's cause, and marched into the West at the head of a powerful army. After defeating Maximus in Pannonia, Theodosius pursued him across the Alps into Aquileia. Here Maximus was surrendered by his soldiers to Theodosius, and was put to death. In 389, Theodosius entered Rome in triumph, accompanied by Valentinian and his own son Honorius. In 390, while the emperor was at Milan, a serious riot broke out at Thessalonica, in which the imperial officer and several of his troops were murdered. To avenge this offense, Theodosius sent an army of barbarians to Thessalonica; the people were invited to the games of the Circus; and as soon as the place was filled, the soldiers received the signal for a massacre. This lasted for three hours, and over 7,000 paid the penalty of the insurrection. Ambrose, archbishop of Milan, revealed to Theodosius his crime in a letter, and told him that penitence alone could efface his guilt. When Theodosius was about to perform his devotions in the great church of Milan, the archbishop stopped him at the door, demanding an acknowledgment of his guilt. The conscience-stricken emperor humbled himself before the church, which has recorded his penance as one of its greatest victories. He laid aside the insignia of imperial power, and in the posture of a suppliant entreated pardon for his sin before the entire congregation. After eight months he was restored to communion with the church. Theodosius spent 3 years in Italy, establishing Valentinian II on the throne in the West, and returning to Constantinople in 391, and there he died in 395. His two sons, Arcadius and Honorius, had already been elevated to the rank of Augusti, and the empire was now divided between them, Arcadius taking the East, Honorius the West. Theodosius was a firm Catholic, and a fierce persecutor of the Arians and all heretics. It was in his reign that the formal destruction of paganism took place, with pagan worship being prohibited under severe penalties.]

Arcadius (Archadius), son of Theodosius the Great, ruling in the East, and Honorius, his brother, in the West, held the sovereignty in common. Arcadius lived eleven years after his father's death.[ Arcadius (378-408), Roman emperor, the elder son of Theodosius the Great, was created Augustus in 383, and succeeded his father in 395. The empire was divided between him and his brother Honorius, Honorius governing the two western prefectures (Gaul and Italy), and Arcadius the two eastern (the Orient and Illyricum). There was estrangement between the two governments throughout the reign of Arcadius. Honorius's general Stilicho was always on the watch to annex Illyricum. Arcadius was guided at first by the praetorian prefect Rufinus, and after his assassination, probably instigated by Stilicho, at the end of 395, by the eunuch Eutropius (executed at the end of 399). His wife, Eudoxia (daughter of a Frank general, Bauto), had great influence over him. She died in 404. In the last years of his reign, Anthemius (praetorian prefect) was his minister. In 395-400 the Gothic general Gainas, with the aid of partisans in Constantinople, tried to set up a German domination. But he fell after having held the city for six months. The banishment in 404 of John Chrysostom, patriarch of Constantinople, who had offended the empress and quarreled with the bishop of Alexandria, was important in determining the supremacy of the emperor to the patriarch.] They were still young when their father died; so he provided three mighty men as guardians, namely, Rufinus (Ruffinum) to rule the East; Stilicho (Stilconem), the West; and Gildo (Gildonem), Africa. But they were so ambitious to rule that they determined to ignore these youths and to reign for themselves; however, because of his cruelty, Gildo was driven out by his brother Masceleger, and died of poison or of despondency. However, as Masceleger, after his victory, spared neither God nor man, his soldiers killed him. Rufinus was subjugated by Arcadius. Stilicho worked much harm to the common good; and when he was finally defeated by the Goths, and asked for help, the emperor ungratefully sent a number of officers, who killed Stilicho.[Rufinus, chief minister of state,under Theodosius the Great, was a dangerous and treacherous man. After the death of Theodosius in 395, he exercised paramount influence over the weak Arcadius; but toward the end of the year a conspiracy was formed against him by Eutropius and Stilicho, who induced Gainas, the Gothic ally of Arcadius, to join in the plot. In consequence Rufinus was slain by the troops of Gainas. Stilicho, son of a vandal captain under Valens, became a distinguished general under Theodosius I, and on the death of the latter in 375, the real ruler of the West under Honorius. His power increased when Rufinus died, as well as by the marriage of his daughter to Honorius. His military ability saved the Western Empire. In 403 he deafeated Alaric, compelling him to retire from Italy. In 405 he gained a great victory over Radagaisus, who had invaded Italy with another horde of barbarians. These victories caused him to aspire to the mastery of the Roman empire; but he was apprehended and put to death at Ravenna in 408. Gildo, a Moorish chieftain, governed Africa for some years as a subject of the Western Empire. In 397 he transferred his allegiance to the Eastern Empire, Arcadius accepting him as a subject. Stilicho, guardian of Honorius, sent an army against him. Gildo was defeated, and being taken prisoner, hanged himself. Arcadius, emperor of the East (395-408), eldest son of Theodosius I, was born in Spain in 383. On the death of Theodosius he became emperor of the East, while the West was given to his younger brother Honorius. Arcadius possessed neither physical nor mental vigor, and was entirely governed by unworthy favorites. At first he was ruled by Rufinus, the prefect of the East, and on the murder of the latter soon after the accession of Arcadius, the government fell into the hands of the eunuch, Eutropius. The latter was put to death in 399, and his power now devolved upon Gainas, the Goth; but upon his revolt and death in 401, Arcadius became entirely dependant upon his wife Eudoxia. Arcadius died in 408 leaving the empire to his son Theodosius II.]

Honorius was the brother of the aforesaid Arcadius. In moral and Christian life he resembled his father Theodosius. When, after accepting the sovereignty, he saw the strength of the commonwealth declining daily, he sent Constantius, a strong and warlike man, with an army into Gaul; and afterwards he married him to his sister Galla Placidia, to the joy of all. By her Constantius begat Valentinian, his son, who afterwards carried on the government. And therefore he took him to Ravenna to rule the empire jointly with him. However, before the expiration of seven months he passed away. In the meantime Placidia was driven out by her brother, and with her sons, Honorius and Valentinian, she went to the East. There she was honorably received by Theodosius. After Honorius had reigned fifteen years with the younger Theodosius, his brother's son, he died at Rome and was buried in a mausoleum next to the atrium of the blessed apostle Peter, leaving no living issue of his body.[Honorius, Roman emperor of the West (395-423 CE) was the second son of Theodosius the Great, and succeeded to the sovereignty of the West upon his father's death. During his minority the government was in the hands of Stilicho, whose daughter Honorius married. Stilicho for a time defended Italy against Alaric and Radagaisus. However, after Honorius put Stilicho to death on a charge of treason, Alaric invaded Italy, and took and plundered Rome in 410. Honorius then lived an inglorious life at Ravenna, where he died in 423.]


Ambrose (Ambrosius), bishop of Milan, was a Roman and a worthy advocate. He was a very pious man and among all the teachers of his time the highest and most distinguished. Upon the death of Auxentius he was elected bishop by divine indication and by the choice of the people, although he had been a pagan judge until then. And soon he was baptized and consecrated. For a child's voice was heard to say, This Ambrosius is worthy to be a bishop. He was the ninth bishop of Milan. Now, as he delivered several books to the emperor Gratian (Graciano) for the sake of the Christian faith, and was received with due honor, all Italy soon reverted to the true faith, and Gaul, lying on this side of the mountains, accepted the true faith. This Ambrosius was of such a good disposition, pious ways, acute intelligence, and was so divine in learning, that, not alone during his lifetime, but also after his death, he was commemorated in Italy and the surrounding countries. When this Ambrosius was still an unspeaking child, sleeping in the cradle, a swarm of bees covered his face as though it were a bee-hive, flying from it to symbolize that out of his mouth honeyed learning would flow; which actually occurred afterwards in the great sweetness of his teachings and writings of which he contributed a remarkable number to strengthen the faith and the churches. Among the Latin writers he shone like a flower. This very holy bishop died on the 4th day of the month of April.[Ambrose, one of the most celebrated Christian fathers, was born in 340 CE, the son of a prefect of Gaul. It is said that when an infant in the cradle a swarm of bees alighted on his mouth without injuring him. The same story was told of the archaic Greek poet Archilochus and the Greek philospher Plato, and considered prophetic of pure eloquence. After an education at Rome he practiced with great success as an advocate at Milan. In 370 he was appointed prefect of the provinces now known as Genoa and Piedmont. On the death of Auxentius, bishop of Milan, in 374, the appointment of a successor led to a conflict between Arians and Catholics. Exerting his influence as a prefect to restore peace, Ambrose addressed the people in a conciliatory speech, at the conclusion of which a child in the farther part of the crowd cried out "Ambrosius episcopus!" ('Ambrose (should be) bishop!'). The words were received as an oracle from heaven, and Ambrose was elected bishop by the multitude, the bishops of both parties uniting in the election. But it was in vain that they attempted to influence Ambrose to accept; however, at length, he yielded under the express command of the emperor Valentinian I; and he was consecrated on the 8th day after his baptism, for at the time of his election he was only a catechumen. Ambrose was a man of eloquence, firmness and ability, and distinguished himself by maintaining and enlarging the authority of the church. He was a zealous opponent of the Arians. It was he also, who, after the massacre of Thessalonica in 390, refused the emperor Theodosius admission into the church of Milan for a period of 8 months, and only restored him after a public penance.]

Martin (Martinus), the bishop of Tours, highly illustrious for his piety and goodness, was a native of the city of Sabaudia, in Pannonia. He was reared at Ticin, that is Pavia, in Italy. With his father, a captain under the Emperor Constantius and later under Julian, he reluctantly practised the art of war. Once he met a poor man, with whom he shared his cloak. On the following night he saw Christ, clothed in it. Immediately, therefore, he left the army and went to Hilarius, bishop of Poitiers, submitting himself to his discipline; and there he later built a cloister of which Hilarius made him a bishop; and his life afterwards was noted for miracles, the like of which have not been seen since the apostles. He was known to have awakened three from the dead. Finally, at the age of 81, he journeyed to God, on the 11th day of November, in the first year of Pope Anasthasius. St. Ambrose greatly marvelled at his accomplishments, and when he afterwards became aware of his piety and virtue, he commended him with many fine expressions of veneration.[Martin of Tours is, perhaps, second to Nicholas in the popularity index of medieval saints (but only because he is confined to Western Christendom). He was born in the reign of Constantine the Great, at Saberia (Sabaudia), a city in Pannonia (now Stain in Hungary). He was the son of a Roman tribune in the army, and his parents were pagans. But while still a child, he himself was touched by the Christian religion and received a catechumen at fifteen. Before he could be baptized, he was enrolled in the cavalry and sent to join the army in Gaul. He at once excited the admiration and love of his comrades. One day while passing out of the city gate of Amiens, he met a poor naked beggar, and having nothing but his clothes and weapons, Martin severed his cloak with his sword, giving half to the beggar. The same night he saw Christ in a dream, having half the cloak with which Martin had parted on his shoulders. At forty he left the army that he had led for many years and took to a religious life. In 371 he was elected bishop of Tours. According to legend he performed a number of miracles, and was distinguished for the determined manner in which he uprooted paganism. After governing his diocese for thirty years, he died and became an object of worship by the people. In art he is distinguished from other bishops by a naked beggar at his feet.]

Theodosius, the emperor, entered into an alliance with Athanaric, the Gothic king. At that time Athanaric came to Theodosius at Constantinople, and was received with great rejoicing. When Athanaric saw the buildings of the city, and the multitudes which had come to the celebration, and later saw the imperial court and its many and various servants and officials, he said, Without doubt the emperor is an earthly god. He who is sent to raise a hand against him, shall have his blood upon his head. But soon afterwards Athanaric was afflicted by a malady, of which he died. The emperor caused him to be honorably buried, and was personally present. Now when the Gothic king thus died, and these same Goths saw and noted the virtue and goodness of the Emperor Theodosius, they unanimously gave themselves up to this same emperor and the Roman Empire.[Athanaric was king of the Visigoths during their stay in Dacia. In 367-369 he carried on a war with the Emperor Valens, with whom he finally concluded a peace. In 374 Athanaric was defeated by the Huns, and, after defending himself for some time in a stronghold in the mountains of Dacia, he was compelled to fly and take refuge in Roman territory. He died in 381.]

Claudian (Claudianus), a poet of Spain, was renowned at Florence in these times. He wrote two excellent books of proverbs; also a bound book of poems in praise of the aforesaid Theodosius.[Claudian (Claudianus), last of the Latin classic poets, flourished under Theodosius and his sons Arcadius and Honorius. He was a native of Alexandria, but moved to Rome where we find him in 395. He enjoyed the patronage of Stilicho, by whom he was raised to offices of honor. The last historical allusion in his writings belongs to the year 404, by which it is supposed he became involved in the misfortunes of Stilicho, who was put to death in 408.]

Prudentius, also a poet, and a Christian, and highly informed in secular literature, was celebrated in these times. He wrote a number of commendable things of a divine nature, such as a book On the Martyrs, On the Origin of Sin, On the Origin of Sins, Hexameron, On the Trinity, etc. Also a book against one Symmachus (Simacum), who defended idolatry, and certain other works.[Prudentius, earliest of the Christian poets of any celebrity, was a native of Spain, and was born in 348. After practicing as an advocate, and discharging the duties of a judge, he received a high military appointment at court; but as he advanced in years he began to view worldly honors as empty of meaning, and so turned to the spiritual. His poems were composed in a great variety of meters.]

Apollinaris, bishop of the city of Laodicea, in Syria, lived in this period. He was an earnest disputant, and so sharp that he dared to say that in the dispensation that the body of the Lord and not the soul was referred to. But when urged to give reasons, he said that he also had a soul—not rational, but as a thing that gives life to the body; that to supply and constitute the rational element, the word of God had been given. This same interpretation had already been nullified and wiped out by Damasus and by Peter, the Alexandrine bishop. And from this the Apollinarian heretics had their origin and received their name.

Apollinaris, "the Younger" (died 300), bishop of Laodicea in Syria, collaborated with his father, Apollinaris the Elder, in reproducing the Old Testament in the form of Homeric and Pindaric poetry, and the New Testament after the fashion of Platonic dialogues, when the Emperor Julian had forbidden Christians to teach the classics. In his eagerness to combat Arianism he went so far as to deny the existence of a rational human soul in Christ's human nature, this being replaced in him by a prevailing principle of holiness, namely the Logos. In theology the Logos has been defines as the divine creative Word, the Son of God, the second person of the Trinity, both in his pre-existent and in his incarnate condition.

It was held that the system of Apollinaris was really Docetism, a doctrine that Christ's body was either a phantom, or, if real, of celestial origin, so that he acted and suffered in appearance only and not in fact. The position of Apollinaris was accordingly condemned by several synods, and in particular by that of Constantinople (381). He had a considerable following, which after his death divided into two sects, the more conservative taking its name (Vitalians) from Vitalis, bishop of Antioch, the other (Polemeans) adding futher assertion that the two natures were so blended that even the body of Christ was a fit object of adoration. The Apollinarian type of thought persisted in what was later the Monophysite school.

Although Apollinaris was a prolific writer, scarcely anything has survived under his own name. He must be distinguished from the bishop of Hierapolis who bore the same name, and who wrote one of the earliest Christian "Apologies" (c. 170).


Ambrose (Sanctus Ambrosius), celebrated Christian father, is here represented by a large woodcut. He is seated, an open book in his hands, and clad in Episcopal vestments. In the background is a small gabled structure, with an arched doorway, and a piece of tapestry or other embroidered material laid over the roof, as though the object might at the same time be used as a lectern. The meaning is not clear, unless this is the symbolical beehive, introduced to bear out the legend that a swarm of bees alighted on the mouth of Ambrose while an infant in the cradle, presaging the honeyed words thereafter to proceed from his lips. Ambrose is also given a nimbus, as is the bovine creature in the lower right hand corner, and whose symbolism is not clear. It resembles an ox, the symbol of St. Luke; and as it is said that the Old Testament and the New met in the person of Ambrose, this may explain the thought of the artist.


Martins of Tours is represented by a small woodcut. His robes are ornate and princely. He appears to be unclasping a belt, probably that of his cloak, which according to legend he divided with the poor little beggar in tattered garments, who peeps out of the portrait from beneath the open mantle.


Jerome (Hieronymus), a very pious and celebrated teacher, cardinal of the Roman church, and a priest, whose father was Eusebius, was born in the city of Stridonium, which was devastated by the Goths. To some extent it was bounded by Dalmatia and Pannonia. This man, brilliant in the learning and art of all the world, lived at Bethlehem in the land of Palestine, and enlightened that same country. Too much cannot be said of the extent to which he promoted the churches of God by his life and writings, while his most holy life brilliantly shone before all mankind. His teachings and writings are highly esteemed and held in veneration; for he was a very eloquent man and knew many tongues and writings. When he came to Rome he was consecrated a cardinal and priest. Gregory (Gregorius) Nazianzen was his master and teacher in the Holy Scriptures. Subsequently he donned the garb of monks in the desert of Syria. After four years he returned to Bethlehem. There with verse and the writing of many books he erected an invulnerable tower for the Christian churches against the poisoned darts of unbelievers. It is impossible to comprehend all that concerns this pious man. Once at vespers while St. Jerome and his brethren were sitting at a lecture, a great lion came limping into the cloister. The brethren were frightened, but Jerome approached the lion as a guest. And the lion showed Jerome his wounded feet; and Jerome healed them. And the lion lived among them as a domestic animal. At last, in the time of Honorius and Theodosius the Younger, at Bethlehem of Palestine, Jerome completed the ninety-eighth year of his life and journed to Christ.[Jerome (whose name in Latin was Eusebius Sophronius Hieronymus) was born about 342 at Stridonium in Dalmatia. His father, Eusebius, was rich, and as his son showed a disposition for learning, he was sent to Rome to complete his studies. There, through his own passions and evil company he fell into temptation, and for a time abandoned himself to worldly pleasures. He took up the law and became a celebrated lawyer. When over 30, he traveled to Gaul, visiting the schools of learning. It was about this time he was baptized, and vowed perpetual celibacy. In 373 he went east to animate his piety by dwelling for a time in the places where Jesus lived. On his way he visited some of the famous hermits and ascetics, of whom he has given a graphic account, and who inspired him to a monastic life of solitude. Shortly after his arrival in Syria, he retired to the desert in Chalcis on the confines of Arabia; and there he spent four years in study and seclusion. He has left us a most vivid picture of his life in penance, his trials and temptations, his fastings and his sickness of soul and body in the wilderness. He overcame the difficulties of Hebrew; and then, wearied by the religious controversies of the East, he returned to Rome, where he boldly combated the luxurious self-indulgence of the clergy, and preached religious abstinence and mortification. After three years at Rome he returned to Palestine, taking up residence in a monastery he had founded at Bethlehem. He died there in 420, leaving, beside his famous translation of the Scriptures into the Latin tongue (called The Vulgate) numerous controversial writings, epistles and commentaries. Jerome, Ambrose, Augustine and Gregory are called the Four Latin Fathers or Doctors.]

Paula, Roman matron of marvelous piety, disciple of St. Jerome and daughter-in-Christ, died in this year at Bethlehem (like St. Martin), on the 27th day of January at the age of 56 years. Her worthiness, retired life, abandonment of the fatherland, and her wanderings to Jerusalem, are spoken of by St. Jerome with great praise in a small book in which he described her pilgrimages to holy places, her humility and moderation, her kind deeds to the poor, her incredible patience, deeds, and faith, her firmness against heretics, her blessed demise, and the assembly of the holy at her interment. They say this Paula was descended of the race of Agamemnon, the king who destroyed Troy. She was espoused to a renowned man born of the Roman Julian family. On her tomb he (i.e., Jerome) inscribed the following verse: You are gazing upon a narrow tomb made from hewn rock. It is the resting place of Paula, who holds the celestial kingdoms, etc.

Jerome was particularly remarkable for his influence over the Roman women. We find them subdued or excited by his eloquent exhortations, devoting themselves to perpetual chastity, distributing their possessions among the poor, attending the sick, and ready to follow their teacher to the Holy Land – to the desert – even to death. His most famous female convert was Paula, the noble Roman matron, a descendant of the Scipios and the Gracchi.

All the text from the phrase "On her tomb…" until the end of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Pelagius, a certain monk, and very evil heretic, went from Rome to England, and poisoned this whole island with his despicable errors; for he proclaimed that any person may be saved without the grace of God, and that a man might be influenced to righteousness by his own conduct and his own virtue. He also said that children are born without sin, and that it is not necessary to baptize them to relieve them of their inherited sins. But the holy Augustine, together with other priests, mightily opposed this heretic, and wrote a book on the baptism of children. Jerome also wrote a book against this heretic.

Pelagius (c. 360-c. 420) was an early British theologian, of whose origin little is known. He seems to have been one of the earliest of those remarkable men who issued from the monasteries of Scotland and Ireland, and carried back to the Continent in a purified form the religion they received from it. Coming to Rome in the beginning of the fifth century (his earliest known writing is from 405), he found a scandalously low tone of morality prevalent; but his remonstrances were met by the plea of human weakness. To remove this plea by exhibiting the actual powers of human nature became his first object. It seemed to him that the Augustinian doctrine of total depravity and of the consequent bondage of the will both cut the sinew of all human effort and threw upon God the blame that really belonged to man. His practical counsels are marked by sagacity, and are expressed with the succinctness of a proverb. When Rome was sacked by the Goths, Pelagius and his friend Coelestius, who had abandoned the legal profession for an ascetic life, crossed to Africa. Soon afterwards Pelagius sailed for Palestine, where he expected his opinions to be more cordially received, while his companion remained at Carthage with a view of receiving ordination. But the bishop of Carthage, being warned, summoned a synod, at which Coelestius was charged with holding the following six errors: (1) that Adam would have died even if he had not sinned; (2) that the sin of Adam injured himself alone, not the human race; (3) that new-born children are in the same condition in which Adam was before the fall; (4) that the whole human race does not die because of Adam's death or sin, nor will the race rise again because of the resurrection of Christ; (5) that the law gives entrance to heaven as well as the gospel; (6) that even before the coming of Christ there were men who were entirely without sin. To these propositions a seventh is sometimes added, "that infants, though unbaptized, have eternal life," a corollary from the third. Although Coelestius maintained that these were open questions on which the church had never pronounced, the synod condemned and excommunicated him. After a futile appeal to Rome, he went to Ephesus and there received ordination.

In Palestine Pelagius lived unmolested and revered until 415, when he was cited by Jerome before John, the bishop of Jerusalem, and charged with holding that man may be without sin, if he only desires it. This prosecution broke down, but in December of the same year Pelagius was summoned before a synod of 14 bishops; and although he repudiated the assertion of Coelestius, that the divine grace and help consists only in free will, and in the giving of law and instruction, he at the same time affirmed that a man is able, if he likes, to live without sin and keep the commandments of God, inasmuch as God gives him this ability. They synod expressed itself satisfied with these statements, but in 418 Zosimus, bishop of Rome, invited the bishops of Christendom to subscribe to a condemnation of Pelagian opinions, and the cause of Pelagius was rendered hopeless when the Eastern Church (Ephesus 431) confirmed the decision of the West. Pelagius himself disappears after 420.

The first principle of Pelagianism is a theory that affirms the freedom of the will, in the sense that in each volition, and at each moment of life, no matter what the previous career of the individual has been, the will is in equipoise, able to choose good or evil. We are born characterless and with no bias towards good or evil. It follows that we are uninjured by the sin of Adam, save in so far as the evil example of our predecessors misleads and influences us. There is in fact no such thing as original sin, sin being a thing of will and not of nature; for if it could be of nature, our sin would be chargeable to God the creator. This will, capable of good as of evil, being the natural endowment of man, is found in the pagan as well as in the Christian, and the pagan may therefore perfectly keep such law as they know. Pelagius maintains that it is the human will which takes the initiative, and is the determining factor in the salvation of the individual; while the Church maintains that it is the divine will that takes the initiative by renewing and enabling the human will to accept and use the aid or grace offered by God.

Alexis (Alexius), a Roman, a very holy and worthy confessor, died at Rome, unbeknown, on the 16th day of the month of July, under a staircase in the house of his father, a counsellor named Eufemian, after much patient suffering; and he ascended to God. The emperors Arcadius and Honorius were present at his interment; for, by the will of God, he left a very beautiful spouse.

Alexis was born of a mother who had long been sterile. He escaped from the nuptial chamber, deserted his bride, and lived in exile from his country in great poverty; but where is not stated. He returned to his native place, where he took up his abode in the house of his parents, unknown to them, and was abused and mocked by the servants; he finally disclosed himself to his parents. Immediately the clergy, the emperor, and all the people crowded to see him, and to witness the miracles he wrought. He was buried by the patriarch in the presence of the emperor and a great train of monks. There were various accounts of this saint—a Greek life, a Syriaic life, and an Arabic life. According to the Acts, Alexis was born at Rome where his father, Euthemian, was a senator. His mother's name was Aglamades. According to some of these versions Alexis spent seventeen years in his father's house, lodged in the atrium, and fed on scraps from the kitchen. The servants used to mock him and throw dishwater over him.

According to the Latin version Alexis died at Rome, and it was not long before the stone step under which he had spent so many years in his father's house was also found. This step is now in the church of Alexis, and those who venerate it on ordinary days receive indulgence of one hundred years, and forty times as many on every double festival and in Lent. The Acts say nothing about his having lived under a step, but popular imagination speedily amplified the story and gave the saint a den in which to sleep under the stairs of his father's mansion.

John (Iohannes), surnamed Chrysostom (Crisostomus), a bishop of Constantinople, came to rest in peace at this time. He led a Christian life in word, example, and teaching. At the hands of Eudoxia and Arcadius he suffered many hardships for defending truth and righteousness. Also, in addition to his great holiness, he wrote very elegant books and sermons and letters.

John Chrysostom was born at Antioch of illustrious parents. He lost his father when young, and his mother superintended his education with care and intelligence. At the age of 20 he was already a renowned pleader at the bar, but six years later he felt a strong urge to retire from the world altogether. The law became hateful to him and he wanted to become a hermit. For a time he yielded to the entreaties of his mother not to leave her. However, two years later he fled society, passing five or six years in the wilderness near Antioch, devoting himself to reading the Bible, penance, and prayer. His abstinence was so severe that his health failed, and he was obliged to return to Antioch. Soon after he emerged from the desert, the bishop of Antioch ordained him and appointed him preacher. He entered on his true vocation as a Christian orator, the greatest next to Paul. He was next appointed patriarch of Constantinople, and was a model of a Christian bishop—humble, self-denying, content with little, hospitable to the poor, and an indefatigable preacher. He denounced vice and thundered against the irregularities of the monks, the profligacy of the Empress Eudoxia, and the servility of her flatterers. Because of that he brought down upon himself the vengeance of that haughty woman. He was banished; but the voice of the people obliged the empress to recall him. Persisting in his old course, he was again banished. On his way to exile, he sank under fatigue and the cruel treatment of his guards, who exposed him bare-headed and bare-footed to the burning sun of noon; and thus he perished at the age of sixty-three.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Cassianus, also a monk, of Constantinople or Scythia, and a deacon of the aforesaid John (Iohannis) Chrysostom (Crisostomi), was sent to Marseilles (Masilliam) by the latter. There he built two monasteries, and collected many people of both sexes for monastic life. He wrote and left many and various books serviceable to the clergy.[Cassianus (aka, Joannes Eremita Cassianus, or Joannes Massiliensis) (360-435), a celebrated recluse, was one of the founders of the monasticism in the west. His early life was spent in the monastery of Bethlehem, and after dwelling for several years among the ascetics of the Nile desert, in 403 he went to Constantinople where he was ordained deacon by Chrysostom. Becoming a priest at Rome, he journeyed to Marseilles, where he founded a convent for nuns and the abbey of St. Victor. He was a Semi-Pelagian, and of these one of the first, maintaining that while the immediate gift of grace is necessary to salvation, conversion may begin by the exercise of man's will. He wrote two treatises on the monastic life, and a number of other works.]


Jerome. Represented by a large woodcut, in the robes and headdress of a cardinal, seated at a writing desk, with open books before him. Looking cut from behind him, its paws on a parapet, is the (rather sad-looking) lion he healed, and which became a domestic pet in the cloister according to legend. The artist has sanctified both man and beast by a nimbus.


The Second Ecumenical Council, held at Constantinople, was attended by one hundred fifty fathers, and was held at the time of the Emperors Gratian (Graciani) and Theodosius, and of Pope Damasus, Cyril, the bishop of Jerusalem, and Nectarius, the patriarch of Alexandria. It was called to proceed against Macedonius the bishop of Constantinople, and against Eudoxius because they had denied that the Holy Spirit was God. And all these fathers, having condemned this heresy, established four rules; for this Macedonius had occupied and embarrassed the patriarchal chair by theft and tyranny. After his deposition the fathers elected Nectarius. And they declared that the Holy Spirit is God, and life-giving, and co-eval with the Father and Son. And they cursed Apollinarius and Sabellius, the blasphemers of God, who also held that the body of Christ is spiritless and without a rational soul and without human understanding, and that the divinity passed away with the death of Christ in three days. The Emperor Theodosius was opposed to the assembled fathers, and by flattery he influenced them unwittingly to elevate the episcopal chair at Constantinople to a patriarchal one without the knowledge of the pope. And this was the cause of the schism that followed.[The Second Ecumenical Council was held at Constantinople in 381. In reality it was only a synod of bishops from Thrace, Asia and Syria, convened by Theodosius to unite the church in the orthodox faith. No Western bishop was present, nor any Roman legate. A few bishops came from Egypt, but tardily. In spite of its sectional character, the council came in time to be regarded as ecumenical in both East and West. It affirmed the Nicene faith and denounced opposing doctrines.]

Didymus (Dydimus) of Alexandria suffered with impairment of sight from his youth and therefore lacked a knowledge of the alphabet. Nevertheless, in his old age he acquired a knowledge of geometry and dialectics, subjects requiring much experience in letters. He also studied the Holy Scriptures and wrote much against the Arian heretics. His industry and labors were such as no other person could have carried on without the sense of sight; but Didymus relied on his sense of hearing.[]

Radagaisus (Radagasus), king of the Goths and among ancient and contemporary enemies the most cruel, ravaged Italy in the time of Emperor Honorius. With his violent horde of over two hundred thousand Goths he overran the countryside with fire and sword. He not only had a countless number of undisciplined men under him, but he himself was a rough Scythian pagan, who loved to spill the blood of all mankind as a libation to his god. Great terror and fear seized Rome, the pagans assembling and attributing their suffering to their neglect of the sacrifices due to their gods. And there arose in the city a great cursing and condemnation of Christ, but by God's intervention Radagaisus was driven to flight and captured by the Romans. Before long he was deprived of his life. It is said the Gothic prisoners were so numerous that they were sold like base animals.[Radagaisus, a Scythian, invaded Italy with a formidable host of barbarians in the reign of Honorius, but was defeated by Stilicho near Florence in 408. He was put to death although he had capitulated on condition that his life be spared.]

Alaric was successor to Radagaisus. He was protected by Stilicho, who might well have defeated him; and he came to Italy. Pursuant to counsel, Honorius gave him Gaul. When Alaric arrived there, Stilicho, contrary to the common good, ordered Saulus the pagan to attack the Goths. At Easter while the Goths were engaged in their festivities, Saulus attacked and slew a great number; but the Goths made a counterattack and won. Enraged, they left Gaul and marched on Rome ravaging everything on the way with fire and sword. They took Rome and plundered and burned it in the year of the founding of the same (city) one thousand sixty-four.[The year 412 CE.] But Alaric was kind and circumspect, ordering his men to avoid bloodshed as far as possible and to spare those who fled to the churches of St. Peter and St. Paul. Finally Alaric died suddenly.[Alaric was elected king of the Visigoths in 398. He twice invaded Italy: in 402-3, when he was defeated by Stilicho, and again in 408-410, when he took and plundered Rome. Soon afterwards he died at Consentia, in Bruttium, while preparing to invade Italy.]

Ataulf (Athaulphum), relative of Alaric, was, on the score of relationship and race, made king of the Goths. And they proceeded to Rome, and what still remained they destroyed like locusts. They led away Gallia (Gallam) Placidia (Placidam), daughter of the elder Theodosius and sister of Honorius; and Ataulf himself married her. This later proved a common good, for although Ataulf had decided to destroy Rome and to build a new city there, and to call it Gothia not after the Roman emperors but after himself and his people, Placidia influenced him to abandon his cruel resolve. She made peace between him and Honorius and Theodosius the Younger. Then Ataulf went to Gaul, where he was slain through the treachery of his own people.[Ataulf (Athaulphus) succeeded his brother-in-law, Alaric, as king of the Goths. After ravaging Italy for two years he made peace with Emperor Honorius, married the latter's sister Placidia, and led the Visigoths into Gaul in 412. From there he passed into Spain, which had been overrun by the Alans, Sueves, and Vandals. Under Adophus the Visigoths drove the Sueves into northwestern Spain, the Alans into the southwest, and the Vandals into the south; and thus Ataulf founded the kingdom of the Visigoths in Spain and southern Gaul, eventually embracing the entire Spanish peninsula and lasting three centuries.]


Augustine (Augustinus) was a disciple of Saint Ambrose in the faith, and of all who lived at this time the most learned. He was a bishop at Hippo, in Africa, and a mighty protector and protagonist of our faith. He was born of honorable parents, his father a worthy counselor, and Monica, his mother, a very good Christian matron, zealously devoted to the rearing of her son. In his youth Augustine became very well versed in secular literature, as well as in the liberal arts, which he acquired through his own efforts and understanding without the aid of an instructor. Through pagan error he fell into the Manichean heresy, in which he remained for nine years. By an unmarried woman he had a son, called Adeodatus, a man of subtle intelligence, but who died in his youth. At Carthage Augustine for many years first read the liberal arts and rhetoric. Afterwards, without his mother knowing, he went to Rome to study, and then to Milan to teach rhetoric at the request of Symmachus (Symacho) the governor. Then his mother soon followed him. Not long afterwards he was converted to the correct and true faith pursuant to her prayers and the teachings of Saint Ambrose. At the age of thirty, together with his son, he was baptized on Easter Day by the same Ambrose; and they both wrote the hymn of praise, Te Deum Laudamus. Afterwards, at the suggestion of his mother he went to Rome, traveled through the country of Etruria, and visited the pious hermits at Pisa, and their hundred cells not far from Rome. At Rome he contested with the Manichean heretics, and then returned with his mother from Rome to Africa. When his mother died Augustine and his brothers journeyed to Carthage; and he distributed his inheritance among the poor. He began to live in a monastery in the woods according to rule among the apostles. He was afterwards elected bishop of Hippo against his will. He lived another forty years, and after having written so many books in all branches of learning that they could neither be counted nor read, he died blessed at the age of seventy-five, and his body was buried in St. Stephen's Church. From here it was carried to Sardinia, and finally to Pavia, where it was held in veneration.[Augustine (Augustinus), one of the Four Fathers (or Doctors) of the Church, was born at Tagaste, in Numidia, in 354. His father was a pagan; his mother, Monica, a Christian. Endowed with splendid talents, a vivid imagination and strong passions, he passed his restless youth in dissipation, in desultory study, changing from one faith to another, dissatisfied with himself, and unsettled in mind. His mother wept and prayed for him, and in her anguish sought the bishop of Carthage. After listening to her sorrows he dismissed her with these words: "Go in peace; the son of so many tears will not perish!" Augustine soon afterwards went to Rome, gaining fame and riches by his eloquence at the bar, but still unhappy and restless. From Rome he went to Milan, where he was converted by the preaching of Ambrose and was baptized in the presence of his mother, Monica. On this occasion the hymn, Te Deum, was composed, still in use in the churches. After some time spent in study Augustine was ordained as a priest, and then bishop of Hippo, a small down and territory not far from Carthage. Once installed, he never again left his flock or accepted any higher office. He spent all he possessed in hospitality and charity. In 430, after having presided over the diocese for 35 years, Hippo was besieged by the Vandals. In the midst of the horrors that ensued, Augustine refused to leave his people, and he died during the siege at the age of 75. It is said that his remains were afterward removed from Africa to Pavia, by Luitprand, king of the Lombards. The writings of Augustine in defense of Christianity are numerous and celebrated, and he is regarded as the patron saint of theologians and learned men. Most important are his in 13 books, written in 397, and containing an account of his early life, and thus famed as perhaps the earliest (and greatest?) autobiography in the western tradition, and ('The City of God') in 22 books, commenced about 413, and not finished before 426. The first ten books are a refutation of the various systems of what he viewed as the false religion of paganism; the last twelve, a systematic view of what Augustine considered the true religion, Catholicism.]

Monica, mother of Saint Augustine, died in blessedness on the 7th day of May at the age of 56 years. She was a virtuous, kind, discreet, and patient woman, devoted to prayer and contemplation, and zealous in watching, fasting and giving alms. For about 1020 years her saintly corpse remained in the country where Augustine was buried, until the time of Pope Martin the Fifth. During Martin's time, about the Year of the Lord 1429, her remains were brought to Rome with great solemnity, and given a rich and costly funeral, attended with many eulogies.

Monica was born in the year 332, in Africa, of a Christian family, and was education by a relative, perhaps an aunt, with strictness. This lady forbade her to drink water except at mealtimes, admonishing the young girl that "If you get into the habit of drinking water now, when you are married and have the keys to the cellar, you will then sneak some wine." And this happened, for when she was sent by her father with the pitcher to the cellar to draw wine for the table, she got into the habit of sipping from the pitcher before she brought it up to the dining hall. As the habit grew she drank more. A slave whom she reprimanded cast her clandestine drinking into her teeth and this brought Monica to her senses. Soon after she was baptized, and from baptism lived an edifying life.

Monica married a young pagan gentleman named Patricius, by whom she had two sons, Augustine and Navigius, both of whom preferred the paganism of their father to the Christianity of their mother. But Patricius in his older years was instructed in the true faith and allowed himself to be baptized. Monica was accustomed daily to assist at mass. Patricius died in 371 when Augustine was seventeen and studying at Carthage. To the grief of his widowed mother Augustine became involved in certain non-Christian beliefs and philosophical schools of thought, and he sank into a life of dissolute morals. At twenty-nine he went to Rome to teach rhetoric. There he fell dangerously ill, and he attributed his recovery to his mother's prayers. In 384 he went to Milan, where he fell in with Ambrose who quickly dispersed his heretical errors. In the meantime his mother came to Milan, seeking him; and there she found in Ambrose a teacher to refresh her weary soul. She was growing old, but at last, what she had longed for was accomplished – she beheld the baptism of her son Augustine at Easter in the year 387.

Monica now felt the call of home, and she persuaded Augustine and his brother Navigius to return to Ostia with her; and it was there where occurred the memorable evening conversation that Augustine has described to us in his Confessions. At Ostia, Monica fell ill and died at the age of fifty-six in the year 387.

Rufinus (Ruffinus), an Aquileian priest and a highly renowned and informed man, flourished at this time. From Jerome (Hieronymus) he received many letters of friendly praise. He was very industrious in making translations from the Greek tongue into the Latin.[Rufinus (Ruffinus), celebrated ecclesiastical writer, was born in Italy about 345. At first a member of the monastery at Aquileia, he later resided for many years at a monastery in Palestine where he became intimate with Jerome. But they quarreled, Jerome attacking Rufinus on account of his support of the tenets of Origen. After a stay of twenty-six years in the East, Rufinus returned to Italy, where he published a Latin translation of the by Pamphilus, and two books of Origen. In the preface of one of these he quoted a panegyric that Jerome had at an earlier date pronounced against Origen. This led to a bitter correspondence between Rufinus and Jerome, which was crowned by the Apologia of the one, adversus Hieronymum ('Against Jerome') and the Apologia of the other, adversus Rufinum ('Against Rufinus'). When Alaric invaded Italy, Rufinus fled to Sicily, where he died in the year 410.]

Lucian (Lucianus), a priest at Jerusalem, an excellent man in piety and art, through divine revelation at this time found the remains of Saint Stephen, the first martyr, and of Gamaliel, teacher of Paul; and being a man of learning, he wrote to all the churches, proclaiming this revelation and discovery in the Greek tongue. These letters Habundius, the Spaniard, later translated into Latin.

Alexander, a physician of this period, nicknamed the Wise, who by reason of his great intelligence was regarded as the prince of physicians, wrote three books, comprehending the entire field of medicine.

At this time crept forth the heresy of the predestined, who affirmed that nothing more was necessary for (eternal) life than that all men live virtuously.

Nestor, bishop of Constantinople, a heretic, held and preached that although Christ was a pure man, he was not God; and he cited 72 articles of the Holy Scriptures in support of his erroneous interpretation.[Nestor (Nestorius) was appointed patriarch of Constantinople in 428, but in consequence of his heresies was deposed by the Council of Ephesus in 431. His great opponent was Cyril. Nestori was subsequently banished to one of the oases in Egypt, and he died in exile probably before 450. He carefully distinguished between the divine and human nature attributed to Christ, and refused to give to the Virgin Mary the title of Theotokos, or "Mother of God." The opinions of Nestor are still maintained by Nestorian Christians.]

Proba, a very beautiful woman, wife of Adelphus the Roman proconsul, with much industry so beautifully and neatly assembled all the history found in the poems of Virgil the poet, as well as in the Old and New Testament up to the time of descent of the Holy Spirit, that he who is not well informed upon this composition, might believe that Virgil was an evangelist.

Euphrosina (Eufrosina), who was taught the Scriptures by her father, entered a monastery in male attire, and she called herself Smaragdus. To her end she remained there in strict abstinence in the garb of a monk.

Marina, a virgin, did likewise, entering a monastery in male attire, and calling herself Marinus. When she was accused of deflowering a virgin, she scornfully and patiently remained before the gates of the monastery until the end of her life.


Augustine, one of the four Fathers or Doctors of the Church, is portrayed by a large woodcut. He is clad in his Episcopal vestments, for he was bishop of Hippo for many years. Before him is a reading desk, with open books, upon which his left hand rests, while his right is raised in benediction. On the wall behind him hangs a piece of tapestry or embroidery. The child kneeling at his right in the attitude of prayer is symbolic of the story told by Augustine himself: While writing his Discourse on the Trinity, and wandering along the seashore lost in meditation, he saw a child, who having dug a hole in the sand, appeared to be bringing water from the sea to fill it. Augustine asked the purpose of the task and the child replied that he intended to empty into this cavity all the water of the great deep. 'Impossible!' exclaimed Augustine. 'Not more impossible,' replied the child, 'than for you, Augustine, to explain the mystery on which you are now meditating.' Both Augustine and child are in possession of a halo.


Euphrosina (Eufrosina), is represented with heavy braids coiled about her head. She holds in her hands an open book, probably to symbolize her devotion to learning (an unusual depiction of a woman at this time).


Celestine (Celestinus) the pope, a native of Campania, succeeded Boniface in the time of Theodosius the Younger. In his zeal and devotion to divine service he established ordinances to be observed in the singing and reading of the Mass, differing from customs observed before his time. As Gratianus says, he ordained that all the priests should know ecclesiastical laws, ordinances and privileges. Having consecrated a number of priests, deacons and bishops, he died and was buried in the cemetery of Priscilla on the Salarian Way on April 6th. He sat 8 years, 10 months and 17 days; and the chair then rested 21 days.[Celestine I was pope from 422 to 432. He was active in the extirpation of heretical doctrines, and was the first pope known to have taken a direct interest in Britain and Ireland.]

The Third Ecumenical Council was held at Ephesus under Emperor Theodosius the Younger, Pope Celestine, and Juvenal, bishop of Constantinople. At Ephesus 200 bishops assembled, also the antagonistic heretic Nestorius with his adherents, and, all the Pelagian heretics. They held that Jesus was born of Mary alone and not of God, and that his divinity was given him for his service. Cyril (Cyrillus), bishop of Alexandria, and Pope Celestine earnestly opposed this. And it was decided to call the Blessed Virgin Theotokos (Theotocos), that is, Mother of the Lord. By unanimous judgment the followers of these heresies were condemned by 13 ordinances, and those who had wandered away from the true faith were cursed.[The Council of Ephesus (Third Ecumenical Council of the Church) was held in 431. It condemned the Nestorian doctrine which, as it was said, invalidated the unity of Christ's person by affirming that the divine Logos (Word) dwelt in Jesus as in a temple, and that inasmuch as the Logos could not have been born, it is absurd to call Mary a "Godbearer." Nestor, patriarch of Constantinople, was excommunicated and deposed at Ephesus and later banished to an oasis in Egypt, where he died, probably before 450.]

Year of the World 5623

Year of Christ 424

Sixtus the Third, a pope, and a Roman, whose father was Sixtus, came to office in the time of Emperor Valentinian. When he became pontiff he was hailed into court by one Bassus, charged with certain offenses; but Sixtus brought the matter before a council and was unanimously acquitted in the presence of 57 bishops. His accuser, with the approval of Valentinian and his mother Placidia, was exiled, while his possessions were forfeited, not to the public purse but to the Church. Sixtus built the Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary (now Mary Maggiore) and endowed it well. Having given his all to the building of churches or their adornment and to the poor, he died and was buried in a crypt on the Tiburtine Way with the body of the blessed Lawrence (Laurentii), having sat eight years and 19 days; and the chair rested twenty-two days.[Sixtus III was bishop of Rome form 432 to 440. During his pontificate the dispute between Cyril of Alexandria and John of Antioch, who had been at variance since the Council of Ephesus, was settled.]

Leo the First, a pope, and a native of Tuscany (Thuscus), whose father was Quintianus, was called Leo the Great because of his worthiness and extraordinary learning. He was held to be the first in merit because no one could equal him in versatility. Accordingly at the Chalcedonian Council, in consequence of great veneration, he was unanimously acclaimed thrice-holy. He made many ordinances for the establishment and extension of the faith, and being a highly learned man, wrote many statutes, orations and sermons. He erected, beautified, renewed, repaired, and established many churches. After having sat 21 years, one month and 13 days he died and was buried with Saint Peter in the Vatican; and the chair rested 8 days.[Leo I, who alone of Roman pontiffs shares with Gregory I the surname of The Great, was pope from 440 to 461. He was a native of Rome, although according to some, a native of Tuscany. When Sixtus III died in 440, Leo succeeded him. In 443 he took stern measures against the Manicheans (who since the capture of Carthage by Genseric in 439 had become very numerous at Rome). In 444 he reported to the Italian bishops that some of the heretics had returned to Catholicism, some had been banished, and others had fled. In seeking out the latter he sought the help of the provincial clergy. In 448 Leo received with commendation a letter from Eutyches, the Constantinopolitan monk, complaining of the revival of the Nestorian heresy there; and in 449 Eutyches asked for Leo's support at the ecumenical council at that time under summons to meet at Ephesus. Leo sent by his legates an epistle to Flavian, setting forth in detail the doctrine ever since recognized as orthodox regarding the union of the two natures in the one person of Jesus Christ. Leo's letter, though submitted, was not read by the assembled fathers, and the papal legates were in danger of their lives from the violence of the theologians who, not content with deposing Flavian and Eusebius, shouted for the dividing of those who divided Christ. When the news of the result of this council reached Rome, Leo wrote to emperor Theodosius to sanction another council, to be held in Italy. Among the reasons urged was the threatening attitude of the Huns. Their invasion took place the following year (452). Aquileia succumbed to Attila, and the conqueror set out for Rome. Leo went forth to meet him, and it is said that his eloquence influenced Attila to turn back. But when Genseric, the Vandal chieftain, arrived under the walls of Rome three years later, the best Leo could secure was a promise that there would be no burning of buildings or murder, and that three of the oldest basilicas would be exempted from plunder. Leo died November 10, 461. He was succeeded by Hilarius.]

Year of the World 5653

Year of Christ 454

Hilarius the pope, a Sardian, ordained that the popes after him should not choose their own successors; this statute to apply to all ecclesiastical offices. He wrote three epistles on the Christian faith, thereby confirming the three Councils held at Nicaea, Ephesus and Chalcedon. He built three chapels, a cloister, and two libraries; and having sympathetically contributed to the beautification of the houses of God, and having given admonitions to encourage learning, for penance, and the giving of alms, and all other matters, as becomes a pious superior, he was buried after a holy life in the crypt of Saint Lawrence (Laurentii) with the body of the blessed Sixtus. He sat seven years, three months and ten days. Then the chair was vacant for ten days.[Hilarius, bishop of Rome from 461 to 468, is known to have acted as the legate of Leo the Great at the "robber" Synod of Ephesus in 449. There he so vigorously opposed the condemnation of Flavian of Constantinople that he was thrown into prison, from which he escaped to Rome. He was chosen to succeed Leo in 461. In 465 he held at Rome a council which put a stop to some abuses, particularly that of the bishops in appointing their own successors. His pontificate was marked by the extension of papal authority in France and Spain. He died November 17, 467.]


Theodosius the Younger was a son of Arcadius the emperor. After he had ruled fifteen years with Honorius, the latter died, and this Theodosius was confirmed in the sovereignty. But while Theodosius ruled in the East, one John (Iohannes), at the behest of Castinus, Master of the Soldiers, sought the sovereignty. When the death of Honorius was reported to Theodosius, he made Valentinian, his aunt's son, an emperor, and sent him forth with his mother to take possession of the empire in the West. Meanwhile John determined upon war in Africa, which was in the possession of Bonifacius, who was too weak to protect it. The war was terminated by the forces of Valentinian. Theodosius, a most Christian emperor and gracious man, received and took possession of the empire in a great tumult and while Roman affairs were in distress; and he lost all of Africa, which was soon taken away from him by Genseric, king of the Vandals. He suffered many ravages in Britain. After that, Valentinian, by common consent of all Italy, was crowned at Ravenna to reign and rule over the Roman Empire; and he silenced the enemy in Italy. After Theodosius had governed the empire for twenty-seven years (not counting the twenty-one years during which he reigned with his uncle Honorius), he died of the plague at Constantinople.[Theodosius II, Roman emperor of the East (408-450), was born in 401, and at the age of seven succeeded to the throne upon the death of his father Arcadius. Theodosius was a weak prince, and his sister Pulcheria became his guardian in 414 and was declared Augusta, or empress. She virtually had the government in her own hands during all his lifetime, and on his death in 450 she still remained at the head of affairs. Shortly afterwards she married Marcian, with whom she continued to reign until her death in 453. She was a woman of ability, celebrated for her piety and virtue. Bonifacius was a Roman general and governor of Africa under Valentinian III. Believing that Placidia meditated his destruction, he revolted against the emperor, inviting Genseric, king of the Vandals, to settle in Africa. In 430 he was reconciled to her, and attempted to drive the Vandals out of Africa, but without success. He left Africa in 431, and in 432 died of a wound received in combat with his rival Aetius.]

Valentinian (Valentinianus), governor and ruler of the empire in the West, made peace with Genseric, king of the Vandals, and gave the Vandals certain territory in which to live. But while Valentinian went to Constantinople to espouse the daughter of Theodosius, the Vandals under the leadership of Genseric began the destruction of the city of Carthage. During this revolt Attila decided to attack the empire in the West, and, accordingly, he speedily assembled a great host and marched forth. When Aetius (Etius) learned of this, he hurried messengers to king Theodoric at Toulouse (Tolosa), urging a peace between them, and suggesting that they make common cause in the war against Attila. On the side of the Romans and Theodoric as allies were the Alans, Burgundians, French, Saxons, and all the peoples of the West. When Attila came on, a battle ensued in the fields of Chalons; and it continued into the night. In this battle there perished on both sides one hundred eighty thousand men. But since victory and power always give birth to envy, Valentinian murdered the said Aetius, being envious of his good fortune; and with Aetius the empire of the West and the hopes of the Roman people fell. But the murder did not remain unavenged, for in the following year Valentinian, after having reigned for thirty years, was stabbed to death by Trusilus, a knight of the aforesaid Aetius.[Valentinian (Valentinianus) III, Roman emperor (425-455), was born in 419, the son of Constantius III, by Placidia, sister of Honorius and the daughter of Theodosius I. He was declared Augustus in 425 by Theodosius II, and was placed over the west. But as he was only six years of age, the government was entrusted to his mother Placidia. During his long reign the empire was repeatedly exposed to barbarian invasions, and it was only the military ability of Aetius which saved the empire from ruin. In 429 the Vandals under Genseric crossed into Africa, which they conquered and held until the reign of Justinian. The Goths likewise established themselves in Gaul; but Aetius finally made peace with them (439), and with their assistance gained a great victory over Attila and the vast army of the Huns at Chalons in 451. The power and influence of Aetius excited the jealousy of Valentinian, who murdered his faithful general in 454. In the following year the emperor himself was slain by Petronius Maximus, whose wife he had violated.]

Marcian (Marcianus) was installed as emperor in the East, in the year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) one thousand two hundred and four. He was a Christian prince, favorably disposed toward the churches. He espoused the sister of Theodosius. When Attila died, Marcian on that same night had a dream in which he saw the bow of Attila broken. During his reign the empire of the West was entirely separated from the empire of the East. Within this period the Romans lost all of Germany, Dacia, Sarmatia, and other regions and countries situated on the Danube and the Rhine; also the hinterland of Spain, Aquitania, Vasconia, and certain regions in Gaul, as well as those lying about Paris. Since then none of these countries have returned to the Roman Empire. This Marcian died at Constantinople in the seventh year of his reign.[Marcian (Marcianus), emperor of the East (450-457), was a native of Thrace (Illyricum), and served for many years as a common soldier in the Imperial army; but he attained such distinction at the death of Theodosius II in 450, that the sister of the latter, the celebrated Pulcheria, offered her hand and the imperial title to Marcian, who thus became emperor of the East. He was a man of resolution and bravery; and when Attila sent to demand the tribute, which the younger Theodosius had engaged to pay annually, the emperor sternly replied, "I have iron for Attila, but no gold." Attila swore vengeance; but he first invaded the Western empire, and his death, two years later, saved the East. In 451 Marcian assembled the Council of Chalcedon, in which the doctrines of the Eutycheans were condemned. He died in 457 and was succeeded by Leo.]

Leo attained to imperial office at Constantinople on the death of Marcian, and immediately made his son Leo a co-ruler of the empire. Leo was the first emperor of Greek ancestry at Constantinople. In this period there was much disorder in the Roman Empire. In the first year of the emperor Leo, a man named Majorian (Maioranum), upon the advice of Leo, was elevated to Caesar by the army at Ravenna; but he was slain in the third year, and the Romans elected Severus (Severianus) in his place. Upon the latter's death, another, called Athenius, was crowned. But in the meantime Leo, at Constantinople, was not without difficulties. At length Leo died of a sickness, and left Leo as a successor to the empire, after having ruled over the empire of the East for seventeen years.[Leo I was a Thracian, a military tribune, whom the Patrician Aspar, most powerful of the Eastern emperor's subjects, elevated to the throne. Leo I interfered in the concerns of the Western empire in 467, in order to secure the Western throne for Julius Nepos. Leo I and his son Leo II died in 474, and were succeeded by his son-in-law Zeno.]


Genseric (Gensericus), king of the Vandals, in the middle of his rule dispersed the Spaniards, Gauls and Romans. But when Bonifacius, the general, governor of Africa and St. Augustine's admirer, considered giving up Africa, he, to the destruction of the common good, allowed the Alans and Vandals, together with Genseric their king, whom the Spaniards had ousted, to march in. With murder, fire and plunder, they cruelly devastated almost all of Africa, and substituted the Arian heresies for the Christian faith. They sent various Christian bishops of the true faith into exile. During the time of this disorder, St. Augustine, bishop of Hippo, in order not to witness the fall of the city, ascended to Christ in the third month of the siege. Afterwards Genseric persecuted the city under deceitful pretenses of peace by frightening the citizens with various forms of martyrdom, and taking their possessions and estates. Nor did he refrain from plundering the churches. And so Carthage was captured by the Vandals, after having been obedient to the Romans for three hundred eighty-five years.[Genseric, king of the Vandals, and most terrible of the barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire, crossed over from Spain to Africa in 429, and ravaged the country with frightful severity. He took Hippo in 431, but Carthage did not fall to him until 439. Having thus become master of Northwestern Africa, he now attacked Italy. In 455 he took Rome and plundered it for 14 days. In the same year he destroyed Capua, Nola, and Neapolis. Twice the empire endeavored to revenge itself, but without success. The first was an attempt of the Western emperor Majorian (457), whose fleet was destroyed in the Bay of Carthagena. The second was made by the Eastern emperor, Leo, whose fleet was burned off Bona. Genseric died in 477 at a great age. He was an Arian and persecuted his Catholic subjects on an extensive scale.] In the following year Genseric journeyed to Sicily and afflicted on it great disasters. Likewise the Picts and Scots harassed the Island of Britain. Now, there was a man named Aetius, very powerful and swift in war, of whom the Britons asked aid. He silenced the Burgundians, who had just revolted and brought on a war. He defeated the Franks, encamped on the Rhine with the intention of overrunning Gaul, in a great battle, driving them back into Germany. He also began a violent war against the Alans, and with the advice and assistance of the kings and their people living on the Danube, he first incited the Huns to invade Italy. Now as the distinguished and foremost Britons who had become accustomed to Roman laws and usages did not wish to endure the barbarism of the Picts and Sects, they sent to this Aetius for assistance; and he loaned them an army of men, who sailed overseas and drove out these barbarians with great slaughter. But when the Britons were abandoned by Aetius, they asked help of the Angles and Saxons. These, however, they found to be enemies rather than allies; for by them they were oppressed, and through them they lost their fatherland as well as their name.

Attila (Athila), of Scythia, was a king of the Huns. His father's name was Mundizicus. His brothers were Ottar and Rhoas, who are supposed to have ruled before him. After their death, he and his brother Bleda succeeded to the kingdom of the Huns. Attila was a man of stately bearing. Turning his eyes around now here, now there, so that his lofty carriage and power also appeared in his bodily movements. He was a lover of war, not very mild, yet moderate, of good counsel and approachable. He was of short stature, broad chest, large head, small eyes, thin beard besprinkled with gray hair, flat nose, and dark skin. These proclaim his ancestry. By craft he did away with his brother Bleda, a man of kind disposition. He made the kings of the Ostrogoths more subservient to himself than companionable. He marched forth with an army of five hundred thousand soldiers, not from Scythia alone, but from far and wide along the Danube. With such an army, together with the men who survived after the battle of Chalons, he undertook to overrun Italy. He first directed his army against Greece (Illirici), and at that time ravaged and burned many celebrated cities which were in the care of Marcian the emperor. From there he came to the Italian border, besieged Aquileia, and soon captured it. He attacked the unfortified cities of the same neighborhood, and then overthrew Rome. He marched on and captured the cities of Padua, Vincenza, Verona, Milan, and Pavia. And now the Roman people and the other inhabitants of Italy, in fear and dread awaited the tyrant Attila, who called himself the Scourge of God and the dread of mankind, attesting this by his deeds. Pope Leo, at the request of the emperor, went forth to meet Attila, whom he persuaded to spare Italy, and to march home. And his army was astonished. To those who asked him the reason he is said to have answered that he did not do this at the solicitation of the pope, but because two men stood beside him with drawn swords, threatening death to himself and his army. And it is believed these two men were Peter and Paul. By this means Attila was turned from his cruel measures and returned home.[Attila, king of the Huns, together with his brother Bleda, in 434, attained to the sovereignty of all the northern tribes between the frontier of Gaul and the frontier of China, and to the command of an army of at least 500,000 men. He gradually concentrated upon himself the awe and fear of the whole ancient world, which expressed itself by affixing to his name the epithet "the Scourge of God." His career divides itself into two parts. The first (445-450) consists of his ravages of the Eastern Empire between the Euxine and the Adriatic, and the negotiations with Theodosius II, which followed. They were ended by a treaty ceding to Attila a large territory south of the Danube and an annual tribute. The second was the invasion of the Western empire (450-452). He crossed the Rhine at Strasbourg, but was defeated at Chalons by Aetius and Theodoric, king of the Visigoths, in 451. He then crossed the Alps and took Aquileia in 452, after a siege of three months; but he did not attack Rome, in consequence, it is said, of his interview with Pope Leo the Great. He recrossed the Alps at the end of the year. He died in 453 by the bursting of a blood vessel. In person, Attila was described as a short thick-set man, of stately carriage, large head, dark complexion, flat nose, thin beard, and bald (with the exception of a few white hairs); his eyes were small but of great brilliance and quickness.]

Venice, the city, had a remarkable origin and rise in the time of the invasion by the tyrant Attila. For when the cries and dread due to the siege of the city of Aquileia reached the region of Venice, the people in that same region fled from the land to the water where the city of Venice now stands. And so, by the grace of God, the building of the city soon took place in this vicinity, which in times of peace human reason would not have chosen for the purpose.

It is said that at this time the Devil in the disguise of Moses defrauded many Jews; for he promised them that in accordance with a like incident recorded in the Old Testament, he would lead them out of the island of Crete across the sea on dry feet into the Promised Land. But many of those who followed this false Moses were drowned in the sea, and only those among them who believed in Christ as the true God escaped.


Attila, king of the Huns, is portrayed (strange to say) in a mitred crown, otherwise used in the Chronicle only for Roman emperors. In his right hand he carries a sword to attest his military prowess; in his left a scourge in symbolism of his reputation as the "Scourge of God."


The Fourth Ecumenical Council, 630 bishops attending, was held at Chalcedon by order of Pope Leo and Emperor Marcian against the Constantinopolitan abbot, Eutyches, who held that Christ, after having accepted human form, did not have two natures but that the divine nature alone remained in him. But the unanimous opinion of the fathers was that Christ had two natures and that he should be believed to be both God and man. Therefore the Nestorian heretics and Eutychea the Manichean bishop were condemned and all Manichean books publicly burned. At this time twenty-eight ecclesiastical laws were made.[The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held at Chalcedon in 451, was occasioned by the Eutychian heresy and the notorious "Robber Synod," which caused protests and a loud demand for a new general council. In response to the imperial summons of Marcian five or six hundred bishops assembled. They annulled the acts of the "Robber Synod," deposed its leader Dioscurus, rejected Nestorianism and Eutychianism, and stood on the doctrine of two natures in Christ.]

Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard, disciple of Saint Augustine, a versatile man, came to Rome at this time upon the death of Augustus. He wrote many books against the pagans, setting forth all the calamities of the world, its troubles and needs, and the vainglory of war. He wrote a history of the world from the Creation to his own time, calling it Ormista, that is, the misery of the world. Augustine sent him to Jerome for further instruction. On his return he brought with him some of the remains of St. Stephen, first martyr, the first to be brought to the West.[Paulus Orosius, Spanish presbyter, flourished under Arcadius and Honorius. Having conceived a warm admiration for Augustine he went to Africa about 413. After two years Augustine sent him to Syria to counteract Pelagius who had resided for some years in Palestine. Orosius not only failed to procure the condemnation of Pelagius, but was himself anathemized by the bishop of Jerusalem. Orosius later returned to Africa and probably died there. His (also called ) was dedicated to Augustine who had suggested the undertaking. The pagans, having been accustomed to complain that the ruin of the Roman Empire must be ascribed to the wrath of their deities because their worship had been abandoned, Orosius, upon his return from Palestine, composed this history to demonstrate that from earliest times the world has been the scene of calamities as great as the Roman Empire was suffering. The work, extending from the Creation down to 417, is, with exception of the conclusion, largely composed of extracts from Justin, Eutropius, and other (mostly inferior) authorities. It was very popular in the Middle Ages, though no one knows why it became known by the title (also spelled ).]

John of Damascus (Iohannem Damascenum), a very good and learned monk, and a distinguished teacher of the Scriptures flourished at this time, as some believe; for he has been found to be a close adviser of Emperor Theodosius. He wrote four books of higher criticism, treating of faith of the human nature of Christ, and of baptism. And so, being a very highly learned man he wrote other books in praise and appreciation of which many remarkable things were said by Prudentius the scholar.[John of Damascus (Johannes Damascenus), eminent theologian of Damascus, derived his surname from that city; and there he was born at the close of the seventh century. His Arabic name was Mausur (the victor), and he received the epithet Chrysorrhoas (gold-pouring) on account of his eloquence. His father Sergius, a Christian, held high office under the Muslim caliph, in which he was succeeded by his son. John wrote several treatises in defense of image-worship, which Emperor Leo the Issurian was making strenuous efforts to suppress. Surrendering his worldly goods, John entered the monastery at St. Sabas, next Jerusalem, where he spent the rest of his life. He was ordained a priest by the patriarch of Jerusalem. In his last years he traveled through Syria, contending against the iconoclasts, and visited Constantinople at the risk of his life during the reign of Constantine Sopronymus. With him the "mysteries," the entire ritual, are an integral part of the orthodox system, and all dogma culminates in image-worship. He died about 752. He is a saint of both Greek and Latin churches, his festival being December 4th and May 6th, respectively.]

Ursula, a virgin worthy of glory, was born in Britain, the only daughter of a prince of that land; and she was beautiful and magnanimous. When she was of marriageable age she was sought in marriage by the son of a pagan king; and she advised her father to give his consent only upon condition that the prince should give her ten unusually beautiful and noble young virgins, and to each of these a thousand attendants; and to prepare a sea voyage for these eleven thousand persons, thereby postponing the wedding for three years. To these virgins was assigned Pontulus, bishop of Basle, who conducted them to Rome. At once Gerasina, queen of Sicily, together with four daughters and a son, left her kingdom, and followed Ursula to martyrdom. And they went from Rome with Pope Cyriacus (Ciriaco). In order that the cause of Christianity might not be augmented, Maximus and Africanus, two pagans, wrote to their uncle Julius, general of the Huns, that when this multitude arrived at Cologne (Coloniam), a city of Germany, he should kill them. And so Ursula was shot through with an arrow, and together with eleven thousand virgins was crowned with martyrdom at Cologne by the Huns and Attila, their king, and ascended to heaven. But one of their number, called Cordula, through human fear stayed in the ship at night. The next day, however, strengthened by God, she came forth, and was killed. And if doubt exists as to the time of their suffering, the Church has no doubt concerning their martyrdom.

There are several different versions of the Ursula legend (The Catholic Encylopedia says that they would fill more than 100 pages!). It is probably a fact that at a period when Christianity and civilization were contending for mastery over paganism and barbarism in Northern Germany, a young woman and several of her companions were murdered for their faith somewhere in the neighborhood of Cologne. The time of this even is variously fixed between 237 and 451, when the Huns invaded Belgium and Gaul. The mention of 11,000 virgins was first made by Herman, bishop of Cologne, in 922, and is said to be founded upon a mistake of abbreviation XI.M.V., that is, "eleven martyred virgins", for undecimilla virgines, "eleven thousand virgins". Others reduce the 11,000 to 1, saying that a virgin named Undecimilla perished with Ursula, giving rise to the mistake.

This is the Cologne version: Once upon a time there lived in Brittany a king, Dionotus (also spelled Theonotus, and in Celtic, Donaut), married to a Sicilian princess, Daria. Both were Christians, rearing their daughter Ursula with great care. The mother died when Ursula was just 15, and the daughter took the mother's place at court. She was beautiful and accomplished, learned and pious. Her father wished to keep her always at his side. Many princes sought her in marriage, but she refused them. The king of England had a son, Conon; but he and his people were still pagans. Of marriageable age, the son sought a wife, and the king sent ambassadors to demand Ursula for him. This worried Ursula's father, and he conferred with his daughter. She would answer the demand herself, and when the ambassadors came again they found her seated on her father's throne. She consented to the match on three conditions: First, that the bridegroom give for her ladies and companions ten virgins of the noblest blood in the kingdom, and to each of these one thousand attendants, and to her another thousand, to wait on her; secondly, for a space of three years she should permit her to honor her virginity, and, with her companions to visit the holy shrines of the saints; and thirdly, that the prince and his court receive baptism. These conditions she hoped would be refused; or if granted, 11,000 virgins would be redeemed and dedicated to the service of God. But the conditions were accepted; the prince was baptized; the required number of virgins was raised, and assembled in the capital of King Theonotus in Brittany; and they were all baptized. The bridegroom came, and Ursula received him graciously, requesting him to remain with her father as a comforter while she journeyed on with her maidens to the shrines in the city of Rome. Some say he remained, others that he accompanied her. There were no sailors on board, but the virgins miraculously steered the ship and managed the sails. But they sailed to the north instead of to the south. The winds drove them into the Rhine as far as Cologne. In a vision Ursula learned that she and her companions would suffer martyrdom at this place. But they proceeded to Basle, where they disembarked, and were miraculously conducted over the Alps by six angels, at length reaching Rome. Cyriacus, the bishop, came forth to meet them and gave them his blessing. In the meantime the prince, out of concern for his bride, had left Brittany, and now, miraculously arrived on the same day. They were baptized by Cyriacus. But the prince no longer aspired to the possession of Ursula, but fixed his hope on martyrdom with her on earth, and a perpetual reunion in heaven. Cyriacus decided to also share martyrdom with them as they set forth on the journey on the Rhine. But it so happened that at Rome were two captains, cruel pagans, commanders of all the imperial troops in Germania; and they feared that this great concourse of maidens would convert the whole nation if they were allowed to return to Germania, and their empire might cease. So they wrote the king of the Huns, then besieging Cologne, instructing him what to do. Ursula and her virgins, and Cyriacus and his churchmen arrived at Cologne. When the pagans saw a number of vessels, filled with virgins and bearded old men, approach, they rushed upon the unresisting victims. The prince fell first, then the churchmen, and finally the women were massacred. But the barbarians were awed by the majestic beauty of Ursula, and they carried her before their prince who offered to make her his queen. She deified him, and he transfixed her with three arrows. And thus all suffered martyrdom.

The last sentence in this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

The bodies of the Seven Sleepers, who under the Emperor Decius were locked up in a cave, and were crowned with martyrdom, were at this time awakened by God, to the scorn and ridicule of those who denied resurrection from the dead.

Merlin, a renowned seer of England, lived at this time (as some say). His mother, a nun, was the daughter of a king. She was reared among the nuns of Saint Peter, and (as she says) never knew a man. But she thought a beautiful man once upon a time embraced her and then disappeared; she then found herself pregnant, and at length bore this Merlin. He afterward became a great man. At his instigation Vortigern (Vortigerius) the king of Britain, greatly increased the Christian faith. His surviving brother was the father of the great Arthur. This Merlin discovered and prophesied many great things, and particularly, that below the ground, where no tower could be built, was a sea, and below the sea two dragons.[ Merlin, famous sorcerer of Welsh tradition, was the enchanter and counselor of Arthurian romance. The personality of Merlin, on one side of demoniac, on the other of human, parentage, is now generally recognized as a combination of diverse traditions. Nennius' story of a boy Ambrosius, "child without a father," who revealed to Vortigern the secret of the insecure foundations of his tower, is the starting point of this combination. Into this framework were introduced elements derived from the much older story of the demon Asmodeus, who acted as familiar spirit to Solomon. The feats of divination with which the boy astonishes the messengers of the king, are derived directly from the source. The second part of Robert de Borron's trilogy, the starting point of the Arthurian cyclic development, dealt with the birth of the seer and his relations with Uther Pendragon. This originally, in verse, was later put into prose and expanded, first with additions dealing with the wars incident to the opening of Arthur's reign, then with a medley of romantic incidents connected with Arthur's court. Merlin is a strange and interesting personality, and his story may quite possibly have been inspired by popular tradition connected with an actual Welsh bard and soothsayer.]


Fourth Ecumenical Council at Chalcedon. In the center of a group of bishops and cardinals appears the pope, an open book in his right hand, his pontifical staff in his left. The Holy Spirit, in the form of a dove, hovers over the assembly in a blaze of light. Some topic or doctrine would appear to be under discussion. All the attendants are waist-deep in a floral design.


St. Ursula, portrayed as a queen, crowned and sainted. In her right hand is a huge arrow; in her left a palm branch; the first, symbolic of the manner of her death; the second, the general symbol of martyrdom.


Buda is a highly celebrated and renowned city in the kingdom of Hungary, and the seat of the kings is there. It is located on the banks of the Danube. Hungary comprises vast lands on either side of it. What lies to the east of the Danube was at one time Pannonia,[Pannonia was a country bounded on the north and east by the Danube, co-terminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BCE, when its inhabitants, who had taken up arms in support of the Dalmationas, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sissek). In the fifth century Pannonia was ceded to the Huns by Theodosius II; but after the death of Attila it passed into the hands of the Ostrogoths, Lombards, and Avars. In upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Arrabona (Raab), a military station; and Savaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius. In lower Pannonia were Sirmium and Sopianae (Fuenfkirchen), an important place at the meeting of five roads.] with Moesia[Moesia, a district inhabited by Tracians, bounded on the south by the Haemus and Scardus mountains; on the west by the Drinus; on the north by the Danube, and on the east by the Euxine. In the main it comprehends modern Serbia and Bulgaria. It became a Roman province in the latter years of Augustus. In the seventh century Slavs and Bulgarians entered the country and founded the modern kingdom of Serbia and Bulgaria.] on the east; to the west of this is Norica;[Norica (Noricum), a district south of the Danube, corresponding to part of Styria and Carinthia, Austria, Bavaria, and Salzburg. The country was mountainous and the soil poor; but it is rich in iron, and the famous Noric steel was used for Roman weapons. The inhabitants were warlike, and paid more attention to cattle-breeding than to agriculture. Gold and salt were found in considerable quantities. In 16 CE, having joined with the Pannonians in invading Histria, they were defeated by the Romans, and from this time Norica was called a province, although not organized as such, but remained a kingdom under the control of the imperial procurator.] to the north, the Danube; while the mountains of Greece are the southern boundary. But what lies to the west of the Danube, that is Hungary, and this was formerly a part of Scythia; and it had two peoples, namely the Gepidae,[Gepidae, one of the principal Gothic tribes. After their first migration they are said to have settled between the Oder and the Vistula, from which they expelled the Burgundiones. In the fifth century they appear under their king Ardaric, joining Attila's hosts, with whom they traversed Gaul, and afterward settled in Dacia on the banks of the Danube. Being regarded as dangerous neighbors to the Eastern Empire, Justinian invoked the aid of the Lombards against them; and in consequence the Gepidae and their kingdom were destroyed.] bordering on the Germans, and the Dacians;[Dacia, a large district of central Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpatians; on the south by the Danube; on the west by the Pathissus (Tisa or Theiss), and on the east by the Pyrus (Dneister), thus corresponding in the main to the modern Romania and Transylvania. The inhabitants were of Thracian stock, and the Getae were most akin to them in language and customs. By the Greeks they were called Dacians, by the Romans Daci. The Dacians believed in the immortality of the soul, and regarded death merely as a change of country. They were divided into an aristocracy and a proletariat. The first alone had the right to cover their heads, and wore felt hats. The second comprised the rank and file of the army, the peasants and artisans, and wore their hair long. They practiced agriculture, cattle raising, and also worked the gold and silver mines of Transylvania, at the same time carrying on a considerable outside trade. Although compelled to recognize Roman supremacy, they were by no means subdued. Trajan resolved to conquer them once for all, and after two campaigns he accomplished his purpose, making Dacia a Roman province. In 129, under Hadrian, Dacia was divided into Dacia Superior and Inferior, the former comprising Transylvania, the latter Little Wallachia, with procurators both under the praetorian legate. Marcus Aurelius rearranged it into three parts. In 256 the Goths crossed the Carpathians and drove the Romans from Dacia, and later Aurelian withdrew the troops altogether, settling the Roman colonists on the south of the Danube in Moesia, where he created the province of Dacia Aureliani.] but these are not those now called the Dacians (whom we call the Danes, whose king possesses a broad but maritime kingdom toward the German Sea, between Sweden and Saxony), but those within whose boundaries lies Transylvania,[Transylvania, a former principality, occupying until 1918 the extreme eastern portion of the kingdom of Hungary, but then added to Romania, since when the Romanian name Ardeal has become the official one. Transylvania is in the form of an irregular circle, and is a high plateau, surrounded on all sides by the Transylvanian mountains, the southeastern continuation of the Carpathian system. The Latin name first appears in the twelfth century, signifying "beyond the woods," that is, from Hungary. The German name is derived from the seven principal fortified towns or bergs founded by the German colonists—Siebenburgen. Until 1848 political rights belonged only to the Hungarians and the closely related Szekler and Saxon inhabitants, the Romanian majority having no recognition. These privileged elements formed about 40% of the population, the Hungarians being Roman Catholics, or Unitarians, and the Germans Protestants. A gypsy element has long been important.] near the Wallachians, a region of circular form surrounded by mountains.[ Wallachia, former principality of southern Europe; later united with Moldavia to form Bulgaria.] In this part of Hungary, inhabited by the Gepidae, there is another province called Scepusium, after Gepudium. Hungary is fertile; there is a little river in which submerged iron is turned to copper. It also has a fertile green bearing soil, gold and silver mines, and a good climate. It may be compared with the most fertile regions in which overproduction does not destroy the fertility of the soil. As the Huns multiplied in Scythia, they assembled and appointed captains; and they marched westward, traversing the land of the Bessi[ Bessi, a fierce Thracian people living along Mt. Haemus as far as the Euxine. They were finally subdued by the Romans.] and the white Cumani; and afterward over the lands of the Ruthenians[The Ruthenians are those Ukrainians or Little Russians who were formerly Austrian subjects. The name is a Latinized form of "Russian," the terms "Red Russian," etc. being false derivations. When the early Ruthene states lost their independence, the name "Russia" was monopolized by the Muscovite state which, anxious to deny the Ruthenes a national individuality, gave them the name "Little Russians." But the Ruthenes adopted the name "Ukrainians," that is, inhabitants of the Turko-Tatar frontier in southern Russia. The Ruthenians are thus neither more nor less than Ukrainians.] and into the land of the black Cumani. They came to the river Tisa (Theiss). At first they were driven off by Martin (Martrinus) Longobardus who governed Pannonia, but finally they obtained peaceable possession of Pannonia. In the Year of the Lord four hundred one, while Attila (who according to the Hungarian is called Etzel[Etzel. By his wars Attila made himself supreme in central Europe, but his own special kingdom comprised the present Hungary and Transylvania, his capital being the modern city of Budapest. For nearly twenty years he appears to have ruled practically without a rival from the Caspian to the Rhine. Under the name Etzel he played a great part in Teutonic legend, particularly in the Niebelungenlied.]) and his brother Buda were still alive, they made Attila king, and he chose the city of Sicambria for his royal seat. Through natural vainglory he harassed other people. He appointed his brother Bleda, or Buda, an associate in the government and placed him over the subjugated countries.[The Huns had various chiefs, of whom Rugilas (Ruas) was the foremost. When he died in 433, his nephews Attila and Bleda took over the sovereignty. They soon subordinated all the chieftains of their people, and finally Attila, having disposed of his brother, became sole ruler.] While Attila and his brother Buda thus ruled,


and with cruel madness overran and destroyed many lands and people and afterwards lived for a time at Sicambria, Attila's brother became hostile to him, apparently intending to supplant him in the sovereignty and usurp the kingdom. Now, upon his departure Attila had ordered that the city of Sicambria was to be named Attila, after himself; but his brother called it Buda, after his own name. Therefore Attila slew his brother with his own hands, ordered him thrown into the Danube, and the city called Attila. But the Huns did not do this; and they called the city Budawara; and so the Hungarians to this day call the city Budawara. However, being concerned about the royal command, the Germans, through fear, called the city Etzelburg (Etzelpurg), after Attila. For the next five years Attila rested at Etzelburg; and he placed his governors and spies in many lands. In more fortunate times Buda at length was built up as the capital of Hungary, in such a vicinity that nothing could be found in all Hungary more secure and wonderful. Among all other cities of the same region, this city is the most renowned for the beauty of its public and other buildings; for this reason it is patronized by royalty. With its high fortifications and wonderful castle, it is the most beautiful of all. This same castle, with others, particularly Miscegradun, where the royal crown is kept, was so beautified with thick walls and mighty halls, and beautiful structures by Matthias Corvinus,[Matthias I, Hunyadi (1440-1490), king of Hungary, also known as Matthias Corvinus, second son of Janos (John) Hunyadi, was born in Transylvania February 23, 1440. He shared in his father's campaign at the age of twelve. In 1453 he was created a count, and was knighted at the siege of Belgrade in 1454. On the death of his father he was inveigled to Buda by his enemies, condemned to death on pretext of a conspiracy, but spared because of his youth. On the king's death he was detained for a time by George Podebrad, governor of Bohemia, who treated him hospitably and had him become engaged to his daughter Catherine. In 1458 he was elected king of Bohemia by the vast majority of the nation. The same year he entered Buda in state and married his bride, whose father was crowned king of Bohemia soon after. In 1468 Matthias joined the league against his father-in-law, and in the following year was elected king of Bohemia by the Czech Catholics. He succeeded in making the Turks respect Hungarian territory. His reign was fraught with many difficulties, and his last days were occupied in endeavoring to secure the succession for his illegitimate son Janos Corvinus; but the matter was still unsettled when Matthias expired very suddenly in 1490. He was equally illustrious as a scholar, statesman, soldier, orator and legislator, and never guilty of cruel or vindictive action—though often provoked. Frequently he spent half the night reading, after the labor of a strenuous day. His camp was a school of chivalry, his court a place of poets and artists.] that it is now justly prized and esteemed above all the old structures.[ Budapest, capital and largest city of Hungary, is situated on both banks of the Danube, and includes the former towns of Buda (German, Ofen) and O-Buda on the right bank, and Pest, together with Kobanya, on the left bank. There is evidence of settlement on the right bank of the Rhine during pre-Roman times. The Romans founded a colony which they called Aquincum, a little north of the site of a previous settlement, and where O-Buda now stands. This acted as an outpost of the Roman Empire until 376 CE, when it fell before the assaults of the barbarians. History is silent about the centuries that elapsed before the Magyar invaders approach, but it is certain that when they arrived at the close of the ninth century that they found Slavonic settlements on the present sites of Buda and Pest (Slav. Pestj = 'oven'; German "Ofen" was used for Buda). In 1241 Pest was destroyed by the Mongols, after whose departure Bela IV, king of Hungary, founded the modern Buda (1247), and repeopled Pest with colonists of German (Swabian) and other nationalities. From this time both towns made rapid progress. In 1361 Buda became the capital of Hungary, while Pest attained to commercial prominence. But neither city was allowed to advance undisturbed. For centuries the Rock of Buda overlooked scenes of strife between East and West; but the attractions of its key position also brought compensations. Crusaders from the West brought with them the glories and advantages of 14th century French civilization. French masons and Italian artists combined to produce in Buda a city fit to rival those of the West, while Flemish and Venetian merchants raised Pest to high rank as a commercial center. In 1464 Matthias Corvinus elevated Buda to a fortified city, built a splendid castle, and there preserved his rich library. And such was the status of Buda and Pest in 1493, when the was published. Thirteen years later (1526) Pest was captured and sacked by the Turks under Suleiman, who turned the fortress over to John Zapolya, of Siebenburgen, whom he designated King of Hungary and obligated him to pay tribute. Ferdinand I, King of Hungary, drove out Zapolya in 1527; but Soliman retook Buda in 1541. On September 2, 1686, the imperial troops under the leadership of Duke Karl of Lorraine, recovered Buda in a siege during which the city was plundered and burned. Architectural and other treasures were stolen or destroyed, and at the close of the occupation both towns were little more than ruins. But they overcame even this catastrophe. It was not until 1873 that both cities were united into one municipality, Budapest, which became the political, commercial, and intellectual center of Hungary. The modern town covers an area of about 80 square miles on both sides of the river. The two banks are connected by six bridges, including one of the largest extension bridges in Europe.]


The City of Buda, since 1873 consolidated as one municipality with Pest, on the opposite side of the Danube, as Budapest, is represented by a large woodcut extending over the verso of one folio and the recto of another. In the foreground is the Danube. To the left is the burg or fortress, surrounded by a wall. In the gable of one of the numerous buildings within this enclosure appears a crown and two shields. The buildings themselves are of a rather generic, nondescript architecture. Within and without the walls churches, by number and prominence of position, are given prime importance. The castle of Buda, though actually located on a high elevation above the city, is shown on low ground. The residences of the city are closely packed about the churches. The only topographical eminence is in the right background—a low, bald hill. The river is without shipping, bridges or wharves. There are no signs of life. The view selected is unfortunately landward, instead of up the river. The muddy waters in the foreground give us little idea of the course of the beautiful Danube and of the relative position of Buda and Pest.


Strasbourg (Argentina), the very old and mighty city called Argentuaria among the Swiss (Helvetios), located on the Rhine, was at first under the rule of Trier (Treveris), of the province of Belgium, the building of which was begun in the time of Abraham. Together with all Switzerland and the adjoining countries, it was subjugated by Julian the emperor; and for this same city he established a treasury department to collect tribute, interest and taxes. From this time on the city was given the name Argentina, which in the Latin is equivalent to silver mine. But afterwards, when the tyrant Attila with his powerful hosts came from the north, and first invaded Greece (Illiricos), and then swept over all of Germany, destroying all the cities and castles on his way, he at length came to the kingdom of Constance. King Sigmund (Sigimundus), a prince of the same land, went forth with a great army to meet him at Basle; but after the dispersion and flight of the army, he was defeated by Attila. Then Attila went forth and laid siege to Strasbourg, which no Roman emperor had been able to overcome entirely. But Attila gave battle, and in many places he destroyed the walls, giving all free entrance to the city without obstacles. And Attila sternly commanded that the walls were not to be rebuilt in his lifetime, and that the city was no longer to be called Argentina, but that it should be called Strasbourg (Straspurg) because of the many entrances and streets passing through its walls. Now, when some time later the kings of the Franks attained to sovereignty over the Swiss (Helvetios), they established their residence in this city. Later they appointed governors over it. And just as Saint Ottilia's[Legend says that Ottilia was a daughter of Duke Aldarich of Alsace. Because she was born blind, her father, a pagan, commanded that she should be carried out of the house and exposed to perish; but her nurse fled with her to a monastery. And the Lord appeared to Erhard, a pious bishop, who by divine revelation was directed to the monastery to baptize the blind girl, after which, he was assured, she would recover her sight. And so it happened. Later her father repented, and on his deathbed left her all his worldly goods. She built a monastery at Hohenburg, in which she lived in great austerity and devotion. She collected 130 nuns who walked with her in the paths of Christianity. She died as abbess of Hohenburg in 720. She is the patron saint of Alsace, and more particularly of the city of Strasbourg.] father held not only the governership of the city but also of the country, and built Hohenburg and others, so after him, his son Albertus, and his descendants reigned there. Later this city, through the Roman emperor, obtained its freedom, and became part of the Roman Empire; and from Saint Materno (Martin?), who was sent to the Rhenish cities by Saint Peter, received the true Christian faith. This city, in addition to its amusements and the good manners and hospitality of its citizens, has a very large church, with a most beautiful spire, built to an extraordinary height. The nobility from castles and from cities in the vicinity gathered there. Here there is also a noble bishopric; and princes have governed the city. In addition to the river Rhine this city has two other rivers, rich in shipping, and which are its tributaries.[ Strasbourg (German Strassburg) was originally a Celtic settlement, which was captured by the Romans, who replaced it by the fortified station of Argentoratum, afterwards the headquarters of the Eighth Legion. It is first mentioned by Ptolemy. In 357 the emperor Julian here gained a decisive victory over the Alamanni, who 50 years later reconquered the whole district. Towards the end of the 5th century the town passed to the Franks, who gave it its present name. The early history of Strasbourg consists mainly of struggles between the bishop and the citizens. The conflict was finally decided in favor of the latter by the battle of Oberhausbergen in 1262, and the position of a free imperial city, which had been conferred upon Strasbourg by the German king, Philip of Swabia, was never again disputed. In 1332 there was a revolution, in consequence of which the guilds were admitted to the government. In 1681, during a time of peace, it was suddenly seized by Louis XIV, and this unjustifiable action received formal recognition at the Peace of Ryswick in 1697. In the French Revolution the city was deprived of its privileges as a free town. In the War of 1870-1 Strasbourg, with its garrison of 17,000 men, surrendered to the Germans. The city and the cathedral suffered considerably from the bombardment. The bishopric of Strasbourg existed in the days of the Merovigian kings, being probably founded in the fourth century; and it embraced a large territory on both banks of the Rhine. The bishopric was in the archdiocese of Mainz and the bishop was a prince of the empire.]

FOLIO CXXXIX verso and CXL recto

This large woodcut shows the old German (and later German-French) city of Strasbourg, dominated by its enormous cathedral, whose spire extends almost to the top of the page. The houses are clustered about it, and among these a number of churches. The city is walled, and the woodcut shows at least two of the many gates of which the chronicler speaks, and which he alleges to be the reason for the modern name of Strasbourg (a burg or city of streets). By way of variation the spire of one of the buildings is surmounted with a weathervane (a cock). A high rugged terrain is indicated in the background at the left.
In speaking of this cathedral, Victor Hugo (Le Rhin, Paris 1842) says:

The enormous cathedral, which is the highest building that the hand of man has made since the Great Pyramid, was clearly defined against the background of dark mountains whose forms were magnificent and whose valleys were flooded with sunshine. The work of God for man and the work of man for God, the mountain and the Cathedral contesting for grandeur. I have never seen anything more inspiring . . . but the real triumph of the Cathedral is the spire. It is a true tiara of stone with its crown and its cross . . . The Münster of Strassburg is nearly five hundred feet high.

Of the Death of Attila, King of the Huns.

When Attila the king (as above stated) marched from his homeland and came to the country of Norica, (in part called Austria, and in part Bavaria), Honoria, the sister of the Emperor Valentinian, through one of her personal attendants, and under the threats of her brother, urged Attila to make her his spouse. This Attila undertook with great zeal in order to attain the object of his desire and secure Honoria.[Early in Attila's reign, Honoria, grand-daughter of Emperor Theodosius II, being subjected to severe restraint on account of an amorous intrigue with one of the chamberlains of the palace, sent her ring to the king of the Huns, and called on him to be her husband and deliverer. Nothing came of the proposed engagement, but the wrongs of Honoria, his affianced wife, served as a pretext for some of the constantly recurring embassies with which Attila worried the two courts of Constantinople and Ravenna.] But he was an unchaste man who would not abstain from women, but always carried many of them with him in his army. One of these was Ildico. By his intimacy with her he brought about his own death; for once upon a time he held an hilarious celebration given to excess and pleasure, after which he fell into a deep sleep of exhaustion; and his arteries of joy were so congested that the blood spurted from his nostrils, suffocating him.[When Attila, after his interview with Pope Leo, returned to his palace beyond the Danube, he remained there until the night of his marriage with a beautiful girl, variously named Hilda, Ildico, or Mycloth, the last of his innumerable wives. At the banquet given in honor of the occasion he suffered a rupture of a blood vessel, whereof he died (454). The instantaneous fall of his empire is well symbolized in the story that on the same night the emperor Marcian at Constantinople dreamed that he saw a bow of Attila broken asunder (Jornandes, Reb. Get., 49).]

Eutyches (Euthices), an abbot of Constantinople, and a heretic, sowed his errors at this time. And in order that it should not appear that he and the heretic Nestorius were of the same mind, he said that the divine and the human nature (of Christ) fused and became one, and should under no circumstances be divided. Now as Flavian (Flavianus), the Constantinopolitan bishop, had condemned this heresy with the approval of the Emperor Theodosius, the Council of Ephesus was called, by which Eutyches was condemned and sent into exile.[ Eutyches (c. 380-c. 460), a presbyter and archimandrite at Constantinople, first came into notice at the Council of Ephesus (431), where, as a zealous adherent of Cyril of Alexandria, he opposed the doctrine of the Nestorians, and affirmed that after the union of the two natures, the human and the divine, Christ had only one nature, that of the Incarnate Word, and that therefore his human body was essentially different from other human bodies. In this he went beyond Cyril and the Alexandrine school generally, who took care not to circumscribe the true humanity of Christ. It would seem that Eutyches differed from this school chiefly in word, for equally with them he denied that Christ's human nature was transmitted into his divine nature. His imprudent assertion led to an accusation of heresy by Domnus of Antioch, and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod of Constantinople in 448, which excommunicated him. At a council held at Ephesus in 449, he was reinstated in his office, and Eusebius, Domnus, and Flavian, his chief opponents, were deposed, the Alexandrine doctrine of the "one nature" receiving the sanction of the church. In 451 the fourth ecumenical council met at Chalcedon, declared the Ephesian synod to have been a "robber synod," and its proceedings were annulled, and, in accordance with the rule of Leo, bishop of Rome, it was declared that the two natures were united in Christ, without any a teration or absorption. Eutyches died in exile, but of his later life nothing was known.]


Year of the World 5670

Year of Christ 471

Simplicius the pope succeeded Hilarius in the reigns of the emperors Leo the Second and Zeno. This holy and righteous man ordained that no one should be appointed bishop against his will; also that any cleric, possessing a benefice from a layman, should not be recognized; and this was afterwards confirmed by other popes. He declared that the Roman See should be the first among all churches. He divided the jurisdiction of the priests into five divisions: First, Peter's; Second, Paul's; Third, Lawrence's; Fourth, John Lateran's; Fifth, Mary Maggiore's. And having consecrated several houses of worship, and having benefitted the Roman churches, not only with order and laws, but with gifts, he died and was buried in the basilica of Peter on the sixth Nones of March, after having sat fifteen years, one month and seventeen days. And the chair rested twenty-six days.[Simplicius, pope from 468 to 483. During his pontificate the Western Empire was overthrown, and Italy passed into the hands of the barbarian king Odoacer. In the East, the usurpation of Basiliscus (475-476), who supported the Monophysites, gave rise to many ecclesiastical troubles, which were a source of great anxiety to the pope. The emperor Zeno who had procured the banishment of Basiliscus, endeavored to compound with the Monophysite party; and the bishop of Constantinople, who had previously fought on the pope's side for the council of Chalcedon, abandoned Simplicius and subscribed to the Henoticon, the conciliatory document promulgated by the emperor in 428. Simplicius died in 483, with the question still unsettled. The Monophysites maintained that Christ had but one composite nature.]

Felix, the third of that name, a pope, and a Roman, also condemned a number of heretics for their errors, through assembled councils; and in the same councils it was ordained that one accused before a judge should always be given time and opportunity to answer; also that the churches were to be consecrated by the bishops. He built the Church of Saint Agapitus, not far from Saint Lawrence the Martyr's Church. And now, having consecrated any number of priests, deacons and bishops, he died in basilica of Paul. He sat eight years, 11 months and 17 days; and then the chair rested for five days.[Felix III became pope in March 483. His first act was to repudiate the Henoticon, deed of union, originating, it is supposed, with Acacius, patriarch of Constantinople, and published by the emperor Zeno with the view of reconciling the Monophysites and their opponents in the Eastern Church. He also addressed a letter of remonstrance to Acacius; but the latter proved refractory, and sentence of deposition was passed against him. As Acacius, however, had the support of the emperor, a schism arose between the Eastern and the Western churches, which lasted for thirty-four years. Felix died in 492.]

Mamertus (Mamercus), bishop of Vienne, was at this time held in great esteem for his piety and learning. And as at that time there was a great earthquake in Gaul, and the wild animals fell upon the people and caused them much distress, Mamertus wrote the litany, called the lesser one, which is to be distinguished from the greater of Saint Gregory the Great, written on the feast day of Saint Mark.[Mamertus. The chronicler probably refers to a presbyter in the diocese of Vienne, France, whose brother was bishop. The presbyter died about 470. He wrote a number of books on ecclesiastical subjects.]

Remigius, bishop of Reims, a holy and highly learned men, lived (as some say) at this time. As the historians state, he baptized Clovis (Clodoveum), king of the Franks, together with innumerable Franks. As a highly renowned man, learned in the Holy Scriptures, he wrote many useful things concerning the Old and New Testament. When he had fulfilled a term of seventy years as bishop, among other miracles, he awakened a little girl from the dead. He died in the Year of the Lord 468, on the first day of October.[Remigius (c. 437-533), bishop of Reims and friend of Clovis, whom he converted to Christianity with 3000 Franks on Christmas day 496, after the defeat of the Alamanni.]

Gelasius the pope, a native of Africa, was a holy man. Whenever he was able to apprehend Manichean heretics, he condemned them to exile and publicly burned their books in Saint Mary's church. Among other things he ordained that one who had had two wives should not be consecrated without the consent of the Papal See; also that no man lame in any member should be made a priest. He wrote many manuscripts and books against the heretics. He consecrated many churches at Rome, and prescribed what books should not be considered canonical. He died and was buried in the basilica of Peter the Apostle on the eleventh day of the Kalends of December. He sat four years, eight months and seventeen days. The chair then rested seven days.[Gelasius I, pope (492-496), succeeded Felix III. He confirmed the estrangement between the Eastern and Western Churches by insisting on the removal of the name of Acacius, bishop of Constantinople, from the Diptychs.]

Anastasius the pope, the second of that name, was a Roman whose father was Fortunatus. He was pope in the time of Anastasius the emperor. Although at first regarded as a good Christian, he was misled by Acacius; for he secretly recalled him; and thereby he estranged the clergy, who withdrew from communion with the pope. He also had communion with Plotinus the deacon, without the consent of the Christians, who followed the errors of Acacius. Therefore some say he died through divine intervention. They say that while evacuating his intestines fell out. This Anastasius (as some state) excommunicated the emperor Anastasius because no was partial to Acacius. He was buried in the basilica of Peter on the 13th day of the Kalends of December. He sat (in office) one year 10 months and 24 days. Then the chair rested four days.[Anastasius II, pope (496-498), lived in the time of the schism of Acacius. He showed some tendency toward conciliation, and thus brought upon himself the lively reproaches of the author of .]


Anastasius II; same as Cletus, Folio CV verso. The nimbus is omitted. As this pope showed conciliatory tendencies toward Acacius, he incurred the reproaches of the author of Liber Pontificalis, and on the strength of this tradition, Dante has placed this pope in hell.


Zeno, the emperor, allotted the sovereignty to his son Leo the Second upon the death of Leo the First. Leo the Second, who was severely ill, prior to his death left the sovereignty to his father Zeno. This Leo, (who is mentioned above), who was called upon by his father to share the sovereignty with him, was secretly made a cleric by his mother, who was concerned about giving the imperial power to Zeno. Now when Zeno earnestly entreated her to bring forth her son, she brought him another who resembled her son in appearance. This Leo afterwards lived in the priesthood up to the time of the emperor Justinian. In the same year Little Augustus (Augustulus) marched against his uncle in Italy with an army. He drove him off, and proceeded with the rule of the empire. Over a year later Orestes (Horesce),[Orestes, regent in Italy, during the short reign of his infant son Romulus Augustulus from August 29, 475 to August 28, 476. He was a Roman by origin, but born in Pannonia, and when Attila conquered that province, he and his father Tatulus both entered the service of the conqueror until the death of the latter and the downfall of the Hun's empire. Orestes was secretary to Attila, and his ambassador at Constantinople. After Attila's death Orestes returned to Italy, where on account of his great wealth he soon rose to eminence, and obtained the title and rank of patrician. In 475, while at Rome, he received orders from the emperor Julius Nepos to assemble an army and sent it to Gaul, as fears were entertained that the West Gothic king Euric intended another invasion of that country. Being once at the head of an army, Orestes availed himself of his power and riches, to make himself the master of Italy, and immediately set out for Ravenna, where Nepos was residing. On his approach Nepos fled to Salona in Dalmatia, where he met with the deposed emperor Glycerius, his former rival, who was then bishop of that place; and on the 29th of August 475 Orestes had his son Romulus Augustulus proclaimed emperor, remaining, however, at the head of affairs himself. His first minister was Parmenus. He sent Latinus and Madusus to Constantinople in order that he might be recognized by the emperor Zeno. And he made peace with Genseric, king of the Vandals. The reign of Orestes was short. In 476 Odoacer rose in arms against him, and Orestes shut himself up in Pavia. He was taken prisoner after the town had been stormed by the barbarians, and conducted to Placentia, where he was beheaded by order of Odoacer on August 26, 476.] the patrician, made an alliance with Genseric, king of the Vandals. While matters were thus proceeding in Rome, Odoacer (Adovacer) with a strong force from the furthermost regions in Pannonia, began to overrun Italy; and for several years Italy and certain cities were in his power. In consequence Little Augustus was seized with so much fear that he willingly abdicated after having been ruler less than eleven months. And so with this Little Augustus the Roman Empire passed away in the year from the founding of the city (i.e., Rome) 1229, and in the year from the Incarnation of the Lord four hundred seventy-five. Zeno died at Constantinople in the 17th year of his reign.

Zeno, Roman emperor of the East (474-491) was an Isaurian of noble birth. Nothing is known of his early life. After his marriage to Ariadne, daughter of Leo I in 468, he became patrician and commander of the imperial guard and of the armies in the East. In 471 he procured the assassination of Ardaburius, the Goth, who had tried to occupy in the East the position held by Ricimer in the West. In 474 Leo I died, appointing as his successor Leo, the son of Zeno and Ariadne. However, Zeno succeeded in getting himself crowned also, and on the death of his son in the same year, he became sole emperor. In the following year, in consequence of a revolt in favor of his brother Basiliscus, he was compelled to take refuge in Isauria, where he was obliged to shut himself up in a fortress. The growing misgovernment of Basiliscus ultimately enabled Zeno to re-enter Constantinople unopposed (476). His rival was banished to Phrygia, where he soon died. The remainder of Zeno's reign was disturbed by numerous but minor revolts. Since 472 the aggressions of the Ostrogothic leader Theodoric had been a constant source of danger. In 487 he induced Theodoric, son of Theodemir, to invade Italy and establish his new kingdom. Zeno is described as a lax and indolent ruler, although he appears to have ably administered the finances of his empire.
In ecclesiastical history the name of Zeno is associated with Henoticon, which The Catholic Encyclopedia (Fortescue, "Henoticon." Vol. 7. New York: 1910) defines as follows:

The story of the Henoticon forms a chapter in that of the Monophysite heresy in the fifth and sixth centuries. It is the name of the unhappy and unsuccessful law made by the Emperor Zeno in order to conciliate Catholics and Monophysites. Really, it satisfied no one and brought about the first great schism between Rome and Constantinople.

When Zeno (474-91) came to the throne the Monophysite trouble was at its height. The mass of the people of Egypt abd Syria rejected the Council of Chalcedon (451) altogether, and found in Monophysitism an outlet for their national, anti-imperial feeling. The three Patriarchates of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem were in schism. The Catholic Patriarch of Alexandria, Proterius, had been murdered in 457; a fanatical Monophysite, Timothy Aelurus (Ailuros), had been elected as his successor. He died in 477; the heretics elected one Peter Mongus—the "Stammerer"—to succeed him; the Catholics, John Talaia. Peter Gnapheus (Fullo), one of the most determined leaders of the heretical party, occupied the See of Antioch; Theodosius, also a Monophysite, that of Jerusalem. Over 500 bishops in these patriarchates were open partisans of Eutyches's heresy. Zeno found himself in a difficult position. On the one hand he was a friend of Peter Fullo of Antioch and sympathized with the Monophysites, on the other he was forced into the defence of the Catholic Faith by the fact that his rival Basiliscus (whom he succeeded in deposing) had made himself the protector of the heretics. Zeno, in spite of his personal feeling, came to the throne as the champion of the Catholic party. At first he protected the Catholic bishops (John Talaia, for instance). But he was anxious to conciliate his old friends in Egypt and Syria, and he realized how much harm this schism was doing to the empire. He therefore issued a law that was meant to satisfy every one, to present a compromise that all could accept. This law was the famous Henoticon (henotikon, "union"). It was published in 482.

As an attempt at conceding what both parties most desired, the Henoticon is a very skillful piece of work. It begins by insisting on the faith defined at Nicaea, confirmed at Constantinople, followed faithfully by the Fathers at Ephesus. Nestorius and Eutyches are both condemned, the anathemas of Cyril approved. Christ is God and man, one, not two. His miracles and Passion are works of one (whether person or nature, is not said). Those who divide or confuse, or introduce a phantasy (i.e. affirm a mere appearance) are condemned. One of the Trinity was incarnate. This is written not to introduce a novelty, but to satisfy every one. Who thinks otherwise, either now or formerly, either at Chalcedon or at any other synod, is anathematized, especially Nestorius, Eutyches, and all their followers. It will be noticed that the Henoticon carefully avoids speaking of nature or person, avoids the standard Catholic formula (one Christ in two natures), approves of Peter Fullo's expression (one of the Trinity was incarnate), names only the first three councils with honour, and alludes vaguely but disrespectfully to Chalcedon. There is no word against Dioscurus of Alexandria. Otherwise it offends rather by its omissions than by its assertions. It contains no actually heretical statement (the text is in Evagrius, "H. E.", III, 14; Liberatus, "Breviarium", XVII). Peter Mongus accepted it, explaining that it virtually condemned Chalcedon and thereby secured his place as Patriarch of Alexandria. His rival, John Talaia, was banished. Peter Fullo at Antioch accepted the new law too. But the strict Monophysites were not content, and separated themselves from Mongus, forming the sect called the Acephali (akephaloi, "without a head" – with no patriarch). Nor were Catholics satisfied with a document that avoided declaring the Faith on the point at issue and alluded in such a way to Chalcedon. The emporer succeeded in persuading Acacius (Akakios), Patriarch of Constantinople (471-80), to accept the Henoticon, a fact that is remarkable, since Acacius had stood out firmly for the Catholic Faith under Basiliscus. It is perhaps explained by his personal enmity against John Talaia, orthodox Patriarch of Alexandria. The Henoticon was addressed in the first place to the Egyptians, but was then applied to the whole empire. Catholic and consistent Monophysite bishops were deposed, their sees were given to people who agreed to the compromise. But the emporer had not counted with Rome. From all parts of the East Catholics sent complaints to Pope Felix II (or III; 483-92) entreating him to stand out for the Council of Chalcedon. He then wrote two letters, one to Zeno and one to Acacius, exhorting them to continue defending the Faith without compromise, as they had done before (Epp. i et ii Felicis III in Thiel, "Epistolae Rom. Pontificum genuinae" Braunsberg, 1868, vol. I, pp. 222-39). Then John Talaia, exiled from Alexandria, arrived at Rome and gave a further account of what was happening in the East. The pope wrote two more letters, summoning Acacius to Rome to explain his conduct (Epp. iii et iv, ibid., pp. 239-241). The legates who brought these letters to Constantinople were imprisoned as soon as they landed, then forced to receive Communion from Acacius in a Liturgy in which they heard Peter Mongus and other Monophysites named in the diptychs. The pope, having heard of this from the Acoemeti (akoimetoi, sleepless) monks at Constantinople, held a synod in 484 in which he denounced his legates, deposed and excommunicated Acacius (Epp. vi, vii, viii, ibid., 243 sq.). Acacius retorted by striking Felix's name from his diptychs. Thus began the Acacian schism that lasted thirty-five years (484-519). The Acoemeti monks alone at Constantinople stayed in communion with the Holy See; Acacius put their abbot, Cyril, in prison. Acacius himself died in schism in 489. His successor, Flavitas (or Fravitas, 489-90), tried to reconcile himself with the pope, but refused to give up communion with Monophysites and to omit Acacius's name in his diptychs. Zeno died in 491; his successor, Anastasius I (491-518), began by keeping the policy of the Henoticon, but gradually went over to complete Monophysitism. Euphemius (490-496), patriarch after Flavitus, again tried to heal the schism, restored the pope's name to his diptychs, denounced Peter Mongus, and accepted Chalcedon; but his efforts came to nothing, since he, too, refused to remove the names of Acacius and Flavitas from the diptychs (see Euphemius of Consstantinople). Gelasius I (492-96) succeeded Felix II at Rome and maintained the same attitude, denouncing absolutely the Henoticon and any other compromise with the heretics. Eventually, when the Emporer Anastasius died (518), the schism was healed. His successor, Justin I (518-27), was a Catholic; he at once sought reunion with Rome. John II, the patriarch (518-20), was also willing to heal the schism. In answer to their petitions, Pope Hormisdas (514-23) sent his famous formula. This was then signed by the emperor, the patriarch, and all the bishops at the capital. On Easter day, 24 March, 519, the union was restored. Monophysite bishops were deposed or fled, and the empire was once more Catholic, till the troubles broke out again under Justinian I (527-65).

Anastasius came to the throne after the death of Zeno, in the 492nd year from the Incarnation of the Lord. He was an ornament to the Roman Empire. He sent a costly robe to Clovis, the king of the Franks, because the latter had wrested certain regions from the Visigoths (who followed the Arian heresy). But later, through the influence of Acacius, the Constantinopolitan bishop, he became a heretic. Although through papal emissaries he was many times admonished to renounce his heresies, he foolishly ignored them. And this, God did not permit him to go unpunished, for in the twenty-seventh year of his reign he was killed by a thunderbolt.[ Anastasius I (c. 430-518), was a palace official at the time of the death of Zeno (491), and bore a high character. He was raised to the throne of the Roman empire of the East through the choice of Ariadne, Zeno's widow, who married him shortly thereafter. He gained popular favor by judicious revision of taxes, and displayed great vigor in the affairs of the empire. The principal wars in which he was engaged were the Isaurian and Persian. The former was stirred up by the supporters of Longinus, brother of Zeno. The victory of Cotyaeam in 493 broke the back of the revolt. In the war with Persia both sides suffered until a peace was made in 506. To protect Constantinople and its vicinity against the invasions of Slavs and Bulgarians he built the "Anastasian Wall" from the Propontis to the Euxine. The emperor was a Monophysite, but his ecclesiastical policy was moderate. He endeavored to maintain the principle of Henoticon of Zeno and the peace of the church. Out of these religious controversies arose his unpopularity in the European provinces. Anastasius died July 9, 518.]

While these events were happening among the Romans, a new revolt occurred: The Heruli[Heruli (or Eruli), a powerful German race, said to have come originally from Scandanavia, although they appear on the shores of the Black Sea in the year 262 during the reign of Gallianus, when in conjunction with the Goths they invaded the Roman Empire. They were conquered by the Ostrogoths, and afterward formed part of the great army of Attila, with which he invaded Gaul and Italy. After the death of Attila, in 453, a portion of them at the command of Odoacer, who is said to have been an Herulian, destroyed the Western Empire in 476. Meanwhile the remainder of the nation formed a powerful kingdom on the banks of the Theiss and the Danube, which was eventually destroyed by the Lombards. Some of the Heruli were allowed by Anastasius to settle in Pannonia, and they served with great distinction in the armies of Justinian.] and the Thuringi,[In the fifth century the Thuringians lived between the Harz Mountains and the Thurigian Forest. They were tributary to Attila, the Hun, under whom they served in the battle of Chalons in 451.] survivors of the army of Attila, living on the Danube, marched into Italy from the remote regions along the Danube. Leaving Aquileia on the left, they turned toward the Tarvisians,[Tarvisium (Treviso) a town of Venetia, in the north of Italy, on the river Silis.] Vincentians,[Vincentia, (more correctly, Vicentia), a town in Venutia in the north of Italy.] and Brixians.[Brixia, a town in Gallia Cisalpina, on the road from Comum to Aquileia.] When the news reached the emperor Little Augustus, he sent his father, Orestes, whom he had made a general, to meet Odoacer. But as he was helpless, he fled to Pavia. Odoacer pursued him, besieging the city round about, and taking it by storm. He also killed the citizens and the Roman soldiers, and not only ravaged the city, but also the country, with fire and murder. Odoacer also captured Orestes, carried him to Placentia, and stabbed him in the presence of the army. Through such cruelty the rest of the Italian peoples became frightened, and one after another gave themselves up. And so Odoacer ruled Italy 14 years as he pleased. Zeno who ruled Constantinople, advised Theodoric to march into Italy to relieve the cities of those who had wrongfully obtained them. But the alliance did not last long, for each distrusted the other. And Theodoric circumvented Odoacer, inviting him to table, and then slaying him.

Odoacer, or Odovacer (c. 434-493), the first barbarian ruler of Italy, son of Aedico or Idico, was born about 434 and probably of the tribe of Scyrri who had invaded Pannonia about 430. It is said that as a tall young recruit for the Roman armies, dressed in skins, on his way to Italy, he entered the cell of Severinus to ask his blessing. The saint had an inward premonition of his future greatness, and in blessing him said, "Go forth into Italy. You who are now dressed in poor clothes will soon give precious gifts to many." Odoacer was probably thirty when he entered the imperial service. By 472 he had risen to some eminence. In 475 the Emperor Nepos was driven into exile, and the successful rebel Orestes was enabled to array in the purple his son, a boy of about 14, who was named Romulus after his grandfather, and nicknamed Augustulus ('Little Augustus'), from his inability to play the part of the great Augustus. Before this puppet emperor had been a year on the throne, the barbarian mercenaries rose in mutiny, demanding to be made proprietors of one third of the soil of Italy. To this request Orestes answered, No. Odoacer now offered his fellow-soldiers all they desired if they would put him on the throne. On August 24, 476, he was proclaimed king, and five days later Orestes was beheaded. Augustulus was compelled to leave the throne, but his life was spared. Odoacer became chief ruler of Italy at 42, and he reigned 13 years with undisputed sway. He conducted his administration as nearly as possible along the lines of the old imperial government.

In 477 or 478 the dethroned Nepos sent ambassadors to Zeno, emperor of the East, begging his aid in the reconquest of Italy. They met ambassadors from the Roman senate, sent nominally by the command of Augustulus, really no doubt by that of Odoacer, to declare that they did not need a separate emperor. The senate had chosen Odoacer, and they therefore prayed Zeno to confer upon him the dignity of patrician, and entrust the "diocese" of Italy to his care. Zeno returned a harsh answer to the senate, commanding them to return to their allegiance to Nepos. In fact, however, he did nothing for the addressed Odoacer as patrician. On the other hand, the latter sent the ornaments of empire to Constantinople as an acknowledgment of the fact that he did not claim supreme power. He does not appear to have called himself king of Italy, but only king of the barbarian tribes that followed him. By the Roman inhabitants of Italy he was addressed as "dominus noster" ('our master'), but his right to exercise power would in their eyes rest, in theory, on his recognition as patricius by the Byzantine Augustus. His internal administration was probably, on the whole, wise and moderate. The chief events in his reign were the Dalmatian and Rugian wars. In the year 480, the ex-emperor Nepos, who ruled Dalmatia, was traitorously assassinated in Diocletian's palace at Spalato by the counts Viator and Ovida. In the following year Odoacer invaded Dalmatia, slew the murderer Ovida, and re-annexed Dalmatia to the Western state. In 487 he appeared as an invader in his own native Dalmatian land. War broke out between him and Feletheus, king of the Rugians. Odoacer entered their territory and captured their king. This Rugian war was probably an indirect cause of the fall of Odoacer. His increasing power rendered him too formidable to the Byzantine court. At the same time Zeno was embarrassed by the formidable neighborhood of Theodoric, the Ostrogoth. In these circumstances arose the plan of Theodoric's invasion of Italy. He entered Italy in August 489, defeated Odoacer on two occasions, who then shut himself up in Ravenna, and there maintained himself for 4 years. Two sallies from the city met with defeat; but with the Goths despairing of ever taking the city by assault, negotiations were opened for a compromise, by which Ravenna was surrendered, Odoacer's life spared, and he and Theodoric set up as joint rulers of the Roman state. However, the relation was soon terminated by the treachery of Theodoric, who slew Odoacer at a banquet.

Theodoric (Theodoricus), son of Theudemir (Theodomiris), king of the Ostrogoths, by Erelieva (Arilena), his concubine, held sovereignty over all Italy in the sixteenth year of Emperor Zeno, and he alone with the Goths ruled the country. His rule was not very harsh. He allowed the cities and their citizens to govern themselves. He set up his throne at Ravenna, and lived there 37 years. Theodoric, while governing Italy, was most kind to the rude inhabitants; and although his throne was at Ravenna, yet he beautified the city of Rome by the erection and repair of various buildings, churches, etc. And for the good of his empire he married Audofleda (Andefledam), daughter of Clovis (Clodovei), the king of France; and he espoused his sister to Honoricus, the king of the Vandals; and his two daughters, one to Alaric, king of the Visigoths, and the other to Gundibato. But not long afterwards he warred against Clovis, his brother-in-law, because he had defeated Alaric and had taken certain parts of his kingdom. After that he warred against the Franks, and he performed many other celebrated deeds, except that in his last years he besmirched himself with savagery in slaying Symmachus (Simachum) and Boethius (Boetium). He surrounded the city of Trient with walls. Finally he suffered a stroke and died at once.[Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, and the greatest ruler of the Gothic nation, was born about 454 CE, the son of Theudemir, one of the three brothers who reigned over the East Goths, at that time settled in Pannonia. Erelieva, Theodoric's mother, was called the concubine of Theudemir. At the age of 7 he was sent as a hostage to Constantinople, and there spent ten years of his life. Soon after his return to this father he secretly attacked the king of the Sarmatians, and wrested from him the important city of Singidunum (Belgrade). He also took the chief part in an expedition into Moesia and Macedonia, the result of which was to settle the Ostrogoths in the heart of the empire. About 474 Theudemir died, and for the fourteen following years Theodoric was engaged in profitless wars, partly against the emperor Zeno, and partly against a rival Gothic chieftain. In 488 he set out with the sanction of the emperor to win Italy from Odoacer. The conquest took more than four years (488-493). He gained two victories over Odoacer, who fled to Ravenna, resulting in a long and severe blockade of that city and ending by a capitulation, the terms of which Theodoric disgracefully violated by slaying Odoacer with his own hand (493). Theodoric's reign of 33 years was a time of unexampled happiness for Italy. The venality of the Roman officials and the turbulence of the Gothic nobles were sternly repressed. Marshes were drained, harbors formed, taxes lightened, and agriculture improved. Theodoric, though an Arian, was impartial in religious matters, and during the contested papal election between Symmachus and Laurentius, Theodoric's mediation was welcomed by both parties. Unfortunately, at the very close of this reign (524), the emperor Justinian's persecution of the Arians led him into a policy of reprisals. He forced Pope John to undertake a mission to Constantinople to plead for toleration, and on his return threw him into prison, where he died. He caused Boethius and Symmachus to be executed. Theodoric died August 30, 526, and his grandson, a boy of ten years, succeeded him, under the regency of his mother Amalasuntha.]


Odoacer and Theodoric; in a dual portrait; they stand side by side; each wears a plain crown (not mitered); each carries a scepter, one in his right, the other in his left hand. Odoacer is on the left; Theodoric, ultimately his treacherous slayer, on the right.


It is said that a very great earthquake, which lasted four consecutive months, occurred at Constantinople. It ceased upon the admonition of a child that people should three times sing, Holy, Holy, Holy God, powerful and eternal, have mercy on us. Afterwards the Chalcedonian Council ordained that these words were to be spoken in the churches.

Many signs appeared in the sky. To the north the heavens appeared fiery, shafts of lightning were seen, the moon darkened, and a comet appeared at Toulouse (Dolosam). Finally, a very large river flooded.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

In these times arose the very wicked heresy of the Acephalonians. Acephali means without a head. This heresy was attacked by the Chalcedonian Council. These heretics contradicted and denied the presence of two natures in Christ, and proclaimed but one nature in one person.[Acephali, a term applied to sects having no head or leader; and in particular to a strict Monophysite sect that separated itself in the end of the 5th century from the rule of the patriarch of Alexandria (Peter Mongus) and remained “without king or bishop” until it was reconciled by Mark I (699-819).]

In these times, as it is said, the remains of Elisha (Elisei) were brought to Alexandria; and the body of Barnabas the apostle, together with the gospel in his own handwriting, was found at this time.

On the 29th day of September, in the time of the aforesaid Pope Gelasius, occurred the revelation of the archangel Michael on Mt. Gargano in Apulaeia. Later a wonderful church was built there; and it is said that at the same place many people gathered annually—not only Christians, but also non-believers, to invoke the holy angel with prayer.

Michael, the illustrious archangel of the Bible, whom Jews and Christians alike have given pre-eminence over all created spirits. All the might, majesty and radiance of Thrones, Dominations, Virtues and Powers, are centered on him. He is the chief over the celestial hosts, conqueror over the “great dragon that deceived the world.” The legends which have grown out of a few mystical texts of Scripture, amplified by the fanciful disquisitions of the theological writers, give Michael three characters: (1) captain of the heavenly host, and conqueror of the powers of hell; (2) lord of souls, conductor and guardian of the spirits of the dead; (3) patron saint and prince of the Church Militant.

According to the Bible, when Lucifer, possessed by pride and ingratitude, refused to fall down and worship the Son of Man, Michael was selected to cast him down from heaven. Then he chained the revolted angels in mid-air, where they are to remain until the day of judgment, being in the meantime perpetually tortured by hate, envy and despair; for they beheld man whom they had disdained, exalted as their superior; above them they see the heaven they forfeited; beneath them the redeemed souls continually rising from earth, and ascending to the presence of God, from which they are shut out forever. To Michael it was given to sound the trumpet and exalt the banner of the Cross on the day of judgment; and to him likewise was assigned the reception of the immortal spirits when released by death. It was his task to weigh them in a balance (Dan. 5:27; Ps. 62:9). Those whose good works exceeded their demerits he presented before the throne of God; those found wanting, he gave up to be tortured in purgatory, until their souls had turned from crimson to the white of the snow. For this reason he is invoked in the hour of death. Lastly, when it pleased God to select from among the nations of the earth one people to become peculiarly his own, He appointed Michael to be president and leader over those chosen people. “At that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who stands for the children of your people.” (Dan. 10:13; 12:1). Christians, taking up and modifying these earlier Jewish traditions about Michael, believe that when the power of the synagogue was supposed to cease, and to be replaced by the power of the church, so that the Christians became the people of God, then Michael, who had been the great prince of the Hebrew people, became the prince and leader of the church militant in Christendom, and the guardian of redeemed souls against his old adversary, the Prince of Hell (Rev. 12:6,7). The worship of Michael originated in supposed visions or apparitions of him. East and West had their own particular angelic apparitions. Michael owes his popularity to three famous visions in the West: (1) In the city of Siponte, in Apulia, lived a rich cattle owner, named Galgano or Garganus. One of his bulls strayed from pasture and was found at the entrance of a cave on the summit of a mountain. Angry with the bull, the master ordered him slain, but the arrow shot at him by a servant, returned to the chest of him who sent it, and he fell dead. The master consulted the bishop, and the bishop after three days of fasting and prayer, beheld Michael in a vision, and from him the bishop learned that the servant had violated hallowed ground, and commanded that a church be erected on the spot. (2) When Rome was nearly depopulated by a pestilence, Gregory ordered a procession about the streets, singing the service since called the Great Litanies. On the third day of these processions Gregory had a vision of the Archangel Michael alighting on the summit of the tomb of Hadrian, and the sheath of his sword dripping with blood. And the pestilence ceased. The tomb has since been called the Castel Sant’ Angelo (‘Castle of the Angel’). (3) In the reign of Childebert II, Aubert, bishop of Avranches, France, had a vision of Michael who commanded him to journey to an isolated rock in the Gulf of Avranches, then the terror of mariners, and erect a church to his honor on the highest point of the rock. This was done.

Epiphanius, the Pavian bishop, a man very learned in sacred and profane wisdom, was held in great esteem in these times by Theodoric, the king, because of his eloquence and piety.[Epiphanius, bishop of Ticinum (Pavia), flourished from 438 to 496.]

Germain (Germanum) of Auxerre (Altissidorensem) and Loup (Lupus) of Troyes (Trecharenum), bishops at this time (as some write) gave the churches much assistance by their learning and writing.[Germain (Germanus) of Auxerre, was one of the most eminent of the early saints of the Gallic church, and lived a little before the overthrow of the Western Empire. He was born at Auxerre about 376 CE, of good family, and at first followed the legal profession. Having embraced the Christian faith and entered the church, he was ordained deacon by Amator, bishop of Auxerre, and succeeded the latter on his death. He held the see from 418-449. He was eminent for his zeal against heresy, his success as a preacher, his holiness and the miracles he is said to have wrought. He made two visits to Britain. On the first visit he was sent over by a council with Loup (Lupus) of Troyes as his associate to check the spread of Pelagianism. His writings are unimportant. One of them, which is still extant, contains an account of the death of Vortigern, the British king.] Genevieve (Genofeva) the virgin, flourished at Paris. Her virginity was praised by the Lord through the testimony of Germanus.[Genevieve was a peasant girl born at Nanterre, a little village near Paris, in 421 CE, and in childhood was employed by a neighboring farmer to tend his sheep. In her early years she was already known for her piety and humility. Germain, passing through Paris, no sooner cast his eyes up on her, than he became aware, through divine inspiration, of her predestined glory. He hung round her neck a small copper coin marked with the sign of the cross, and consecrated her to the service of God. From that point on she regarded herself as separated from the world and dedicated to Heaven. At fifteen she renewed her vow to perpetual chastity. On the death of her parents she went to Paris where she lived with an aged kinswoman, and there her pious conduct rendered her an object of popular veneration. But there were those who did not look upon her with favor, and she had to undergo persecutions of man and of demons. After enduring maltreatment and condemnation at the hands of some of her fellow citizens, she was given an opportunity to prove the efficacy of her piety. For now Attila threatened to besiege Paris. When the people were about to flee, she entreated them to stay, giving them assurance of divine interposition. And suddenly came word that Attila had changed his order of march, and had withdrawn from the vicinity of the capital. The people fell prostrate at the feet of Genevieve, and from this time on she became the mother of the whole city. She is said to have wrought other miracles. She died at the age of 89, and was buried by the side of King Clovis and Queen Clotilde. And so this French maid became the patron saint of Paris.]

Boethius (Boetius) Anicus Manilius Severinus, a very Christian man, and a consul, highly celebrated poet and philosopher, and son-in-law of Symmachus (Simachi), was held in high esteem at Rome at this time. But since he, as a true Christian, refused to agree with the Arian heretics in many matters, therefore by order of Theodoric he was sent into exile at Pavia after his father-in-law; and there he was afterward, at the instigation of the heretics, condemned to perpetual imprisonment. During this life of misery he invented several means of amusing himself; and being a highly learned man, he wrote many books and manuscripts. Finally, after having suffered imprisonment for a long time he was slain by order of the emperor Theodoric on account of his Christian faith in the reign of Justinus the Elder in the Year of Our Lord 520 at Pavia. And (as some say) he was entered in the book of saints as Saint Severinus.[Boethius, whose full name was Anicus Manlius Severinus Boethius, was a Roman statesman and author. He was born between 470 and 475 CE, and was famous for his learning, especially of Greek philosophy. He was consul in 510, and was treated with great distinction by Theodoric the Great. However, having incurred Theodoric’s suspicions by advocating the cause of the Italians against the oppressions of the Goths, he was put to death by Theodoric in 524. During his imprisonment he wrote his celebrated work (‘The Consolation of Philosophy’), in five books, which is composed alternately in prose and verse. The diction is pure and elegant, and the sentiments are noble and exalted. Boethius was the last Roman of any note who understood the language and studied the literature of Greece. He translated many of the Greek philosophers, especially Aristotle, and wrote commentaries upon them. In the ignorance of Greek writers that prevailed from the sixth to the fourteenth centuries, Boethius was looked upon as the great representative of philosophy, as Augustine was of all theology, and Virgil of all literature. But after the introduction of Aristotle’s works into Europe in the thirteenth century, the fame of Boethius gradually died away.]

Symmachus (Symachus), Roman patrician, senator, orator and philosopher, was highly esteemed at Rome in these times; lie was distrusted by King Theodoric, who condemned him to exile at Pavia, where he was imprisoned for some time. He was called home from exile, and finally suffered death by martyrdom. By his wisdom and writings, this man greatly enlightened the Roman people. He wrote a book of epistles, in which, among other things, he said, Nature rejoices in the equality of things.[Boethius (see preceding paragraph and note) was brought up in the house of the aristocratic family of Quintus Aurelius Memmius Symmachus. In fact, Symmachus himself had been consul in 485 just before Boethius’ father.]

Fulgentius, by birth an African, bishop at Ruspe, and a highly learned doctor, flourished at this time. He and other Christians in Sardinia were sent into exile by Thrasimund, king of the Vandals, for protecting the Christian religion. He neglected nothing that pertained to the Christian faith, writing many and various books and manuscripts.[Fulgentius was bishop of Ruspe, a town in Numidia, about the year 508, and was expelled from his see by the Vandal Thrasimund.]

Gennadius, the bishop, versed in the Greek and Latin tongues, edited a book of Christian teachings, in which was set forth everything necessary to one’s salvation; and this, together with his teachings and morals, proved very beneficial to the Christian churches.[Gennadius, a Greek prelate, bishop or patriarch of Constantinople, was a presbyter of the church of Constantinople, and became bishop of that see in 459. He was one of those who pressed the emperor Leo I, the Thracian, to punish Timothy Aelurus (‘the weasel’), who had occupied the see of Alexandria on the murder of Proterius, and his intervention was so far successful that Timothy was banished in 460. He also opposed Peter Gnapheus (‘the fuller’) who, under patronage of Zeno, son-in-law of the emperor, and general of the Eastern provinces, had expelled Martyrius from the see of Antioch, and occupied his place. Gennadius honorably received Martyrius, who went to Constantinople, and succeeded in procuring the banishment of Peter in 464. Genadius died in 471, and was succeeded by Acacius. Theodore Anagnostes (‘the reader’) has preserved some curious particulars of Gennadius, whose death he seems to ascribe to the effect of a vision, in which he saw the Devil, who declared that although things would remain quiet in his lifetime, his death would be followed by the devastation of the Church, or by the predominance of the Devil in the Church.]

Hegesippus, the highly learned man, also brought no small measure of advantage to the churches of God by his writings. He also wrote the regulations for monasteries, and wrote beautifully the life of Severinus, the abbot. Victorius (Victorinus) of Aquitaine (Aquitanus), a famous astronomer, at that time redid when Easter was celebrated by the course of the moon, surpassing Eusebius and Theophilus in that matter.

Victorius (or Victorinus) of Aquitaine, who had been appointed by Pope Hilarius to undertake calendar revision, devised tables for calculating the time of Easter in 457. These tables introduced serious errors that weren’t addressed for several centuries.

This paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Faustus, a bishop among the Gauls, also wrote many and sundry fine books against the Arian heresy.[Faustus was a native of Brittany, and a contemporary and friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Having passed his youth in the seclusion of a cloister, Faustus succeeded Maximus, first as abbot of Lerins, afterwards, in 472, as bishop of Riez in Provence, and died about 490. He wrote of a number of works on ecclesiastical subjects.]


Earthquake, lightning, comet, and eclipse are one and all represented in a small woodcut. To the left is the comet, represented by a large six-pointed star, and from this proceeds a shaft resembling a cudgel, earthward. At the right is the moon; and there is a man in it, but the alleged eclipse is not indicated. In the center of the cut are storm clouds, from which flashes of lightning proceed. Below is a peaceable and desolate valley.


Michael, the archangel; he holds a scale in his left hand, a human being in each cup; in his right is an upraised sword, poised in judgment. The picture is apparently based on the supposition that on judgment day Michael will weigh the souls of men, consigning some to heaven, others to purgatory.


Ravenna is an ancient city. It was developed by the Ostrogoths. At one time it was a small town of the Sabines. Emperor Tiberius surrounded this city with walls, which are still in evidence. Because of its closed port it was called the Golden Gate. Now when Theodoric and the Goths came out of Thrace bringing with them their women and children and all their possessions, they finally besieged King Odoacer in this city of Ravenna; but due to the nature of the region this siege consumed more time than the Goths had anticipated; for this city lies on the sea and cannot be besieged very easily. Nor can it be entered readily from the landward side, for the Po River gives it a moat, and it is enclosed by various lakes and marshes. So the siege of the Goths extended itself for almost three years. They took possession of the city according to a treaty; and they furthered and developed it. King Theodoric, master of all Italy, Dalmatia, Hungary, Germany, and no small part of Gaul, lived at Ravenna for forty-two years. And he erected many tall buildings and churches there. Outside the walls may be seen a memorial erected by the same king to the memory of his daughter Amalasuntha.[See Folio CXLIII recto, below.] In it was built the cloister of Saint Mary, symbolically called the Rotunda, because of the high altar and the choir of twenty cloister people, who while singing according to the custom, are covered by a monolith on top of this rotunda. The emperor Valentinian spent many days there during thirty years of his reign. He enlarged the city, and subordinated to its bishop the bishops of twelve other regions. For a time this city was the seat of the Roman exarch;[Provincial governor under the Byzantine Empire.] but now it is subject to the Venetian council, and does not have very many inhabitants. In former times this city had many pious and learned men, namely, Apollinaris;[See Folio CXV verso, above.] Vitalus and his sons Gervasius and Protasius;[See Folio CXXIV recto, above.] also Urcinus;[Probably Johannes Ursinus, the physician.] all crowned with martyrdom. Pope John, of that name the seventeenth in number;[See Folio CLXXXI verso, below.] Peter, the Foricornelian bishop, who understandingly interpreted many of the Holy Scriptures.[Peter Chrysologus of Imola was chosen bishop of Ravenna. He is said to have found a certain amount of paganism in his new diocese and to have completely extirpated it. He often preached before the Augusta (‘Empress’) Galla Placida and her son Valentinian III. He appears to have died about 450 in Imola.] Cassiodorus, the Roman consul and historian of the epistles of the Ostrogothic kings, and who later retired to a monastery.[Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, distinguished statesman, and one of the few men of learning at the downfall of the Western Empire was born of an ancient and wealthy Roman family at Scylacium, in Bruttium. He enjoyed the confidence of Theodoric the Great and his successors, and under various titles conducted for many years the government of the Ostrogothic kingdom. At 70 he retired to the monastery of Viviera, which he had founded in his native province, and there he passed the last thirty years of his life in study. His most important work ( ), a collection of state papers, drawn up in accordance with instructions of Theodoric and his successors, is still extant. His is a summary of Universal History.] Guilielmus,[Guilielmus, also spelled Gwilhelmus (and anglicized as William). See CCXVI verso, below.] the physician, whom Peter Paul Vergerius highly praises as a most friendly and popular person. Also John (Iohannem),[See Folio CCXXXVI, below.] the highly learned grammarian and orator, of whom Leonardus Aretinus testifies as being the first to reintroduce into Italy, after many years, the art and teaching of oratory as it now flourishes.

Ravenna, an important town in Gallia Cisalpina, on the river Bedesis, and about a mile from the sea, though it is now about five miles in the interior in consequence of the sea having receded all along the coast, was situated in the midst of marshes, and accessible in only one direction by land, probably by the road leading from Ariminum. The town laid claim to a high antiquity. Strabo mentions a tradition that Ravenna was founded by Thessalians (Pelasgians), and afterward it passed into the hands of the Umbrians. However, it long remained an insignificant place, and its greatness does not begin until the time of the Empire, when Augustus made it one of two chief stations of the Roman fleet. He not only enlarged the town, but caused a large harbor to be constructed on the coast, and this he connected with the Po by a canal called Padusa, or Augusta fossa. Ravenna suddenly became one of the most important places in northern Italy. However, in consequence of the marshy nature of the soil, the houses were built of wood; and since an arm of the canal was carried through some of the principal streets, communication was carried on to a great extent by gondolas, as in modern Venice. When the Roman Empire was threatened by the barbarians, the emperors of the West took up their residence at Ravenna, which on account of its situation and fortifications was regarded as impregnable.

Early in the fifth century, Honorius, alarmed by the progress of Alaric in the north of Italy, transferred his court to Ravenna. From this date to the fall of the Western Empire, in 476, Ravenna was the chief residence of the Roman emperors. Here Stilicho was slain; here Honorius and his sister Placidia lived and quarreled; here Valentinian III spent the greater part of his life; here Majorian was proclaimed; here the little Romulus donned the purple robe; here in the pinewood outside the city his uncle Paulus was decisively defeated by Odoacer, who made Ravenna his chief residence. Theodoric’s siege of Ravenna lasted for three years (489-492); ten days after his entry into the city he killed his rival at a banquet in the palace of the Laurel Grove.

After the fall of the Western Empire, Theodoric also made this city the capital of his kingdom. His reign marked another era of magnificence. In the eastern part of the city he built a large palace. The massive mausoleum of Theodoric stands still perfect outside the walls near the northeast corner of the city. It is circular internally and decagonal externally, in two stories, built of marble blocks, and surmounted by an enormous monolith, brought from the quarries of Istria and weighing more than 300 tons. It has been converted into a church dedicated to the Virgin.

After the overthrow of the Gothic kingdom by Narses, Ravenna became the residence of the exarchs or governors of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, until the Lombards took the town in 752. The modern Ravenna stands on the site of the ancient town.

The author’s statement that at one time Ravenna was a small Sabine town is undoubtedly borrowed from Pliny (III.15.20); but the statement is altogether improbable and inexplicable. Strabo gives it an Umbrian origin, and he gives his reasons. When Ravenna received a Roman colony, we do not know. Strabo does not mention the time, and we have no other means of knowing. All we can be reasonably sure of is that this Umbrian town on the verge of Cisalpine Gaul received a Roman colony not before 268 BCE, when Ariminium (now Rienzi) was occupied.

The chronicler’s vague statement that the town was known as the Golden Gate may refer to the gate built by Claudius, called the Porta Aurea (‘Golden Gate’), which was not destroyed until 1582.

Beside the empty tombs of Galla Placida and Theodoric stands the great sarcophagus of Dante Alighieri, who spent the last four years of his life at Ravenna and died there in 1321. It is there that his dear friend Giotto painted his famous portrait. Strange that the chronicler, who informs us that “in former times this city had many pious and learned men,” (a number of whom are now buried in the past, he mentions), does not even name Dante in his story of Ravenna. It is largely as his home and final resting place that one thinks of the city today. A very brief biography of Dante is given at Folio CCXXIII recto, below.


Year of the World 5693

Year of the Christ 494

Symmachus, a native of Sardinia, was elected pope upon the death of Anastasius, but not without considerable dissension. Some of the clergy elected Symmachus; but the others elected Laurentius. In consequence there followed a great tumult and division in the Roman senate and among the people; and as a natural consequence a council was assembled at Ravenna. After considering the matter, Symmachus was confirmed in the office under a decision dictated by King Theodoric. Then, in the exercise of great kindness, Symmachus made of Laurentius a bishop of Nicotera. Symmachus drove the Manichean heretics out of Rome, and burned their books publicly. He also beautified many churches and built some entirely new from the ground up. For the poor he built houses near Saint Peter’s and Saint Paul’s, and he provided the people with necessaries; for he was a lover of the poor; and he released those who suffered in prison. He ordained that the Gloria in Excelsis Dei should be sung on Sundays or on the days of the martyrs; and he neglected nothing that pertained to the honor of the Almighty God. He died and was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the 14th day of the Kalends of August after having sat 15 years, 6 months and 22 days; and at that time the chair rested 7 days.[Symmachus, pope from 498 to 514, succeeded Anastasius II, and was himself followed by Hormisdas. He was a native of Sardinia, apparently a pagan convert, and was in deacon’s orders at the time of his election. The choice was not unanimous, another candidate, Laurentius, having the support of a strong Byzantine party; both were consecrated by their friends, one at the Lateran church, the other at St. Mary’s. A decision was obtained in favor of symmachus from Theodoric, to whom the dispute had been referred. However, peace was not established until 505 or 506, when the king ordered the Laurentian party to surrender the churches of which they had taken possession. An important incident in the controversy was the decision of the “palmary synod.” The remainder of his pontificate was uneventful.]

The Fifth Schism arose between Symmachus and Laurentius, as above stated. But four years later, some of the clergy, by the help and assistance of Festus and Probinus, the consuls, recalled Laurentius. In consequence of that the king sent Peter, the bishop of Altinum[Modern Altino.] to Rome to drive out both of them, and to occupy the papal chair himself. However, Symmachus defended himself against these accusations before a council; and he secured the unanimous decision that the aforesaid Laurentius and Peter were guilty of all the evil and should be exiled. In consequence such uproar arose at Rome that many of the priesthood, as well as the people, and holy virgins were slain. In this dissension Gordianus, the priest, was also killed. This persecution would not have ended if Faustus, the consul, had not sympathized with the priesthood against Probinus and resorted to arms.

Pope Hormisdas (Hormisda), of Campania, at the beginning of his papacy, and according to admonition of Theodoric, also held a national council, which by unanimous decision condemned the Eutychean heretics. In the same assembly many laws were passed: Firstly, that from this point on no public penitents could attend consecrations; also that weddings of Christians were to be held publicly and not privately; that no altars be erected in consecrated churches without special permission of the bishop. This man reconciled the Greeks, reduced the number of the clergy, and received from the French king a costly gift, and the same from the emperor Justinus. King Theodoric richly endowed St. Peter’s Church. And so pope, emperor, and king vied with each other in making gifts to the churches. Hormisdas died and was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the 8th day of the Ides of August after sitting (in office) nine years and 18 days. The chair then rested six days.[Hormisdas, pope from 514 to 523, a native of Campania, engineered the reunion of the Eastern and Western churches which had been separated since the excommunication of Acacius in 484. After two unsuccessful attempts under the emperor Anastasius I, Hormisdas was able to come to an understanding in 518 with his successor Justin. Legates were dispatched to Constantinople; the memorial of the schismatic patriarchs was condemned; and union was resumed with the Holy See. Hormisdas secured Dionysius Exigius to translate the Apostolic Canons and also renewed the so-called Decretum Gelasianum (‘Gelasian Decree’).]

John (Iohannes), first pope of this name, out of Tuscany (Thuscus), an industrious promoter of the Christian religion, drove out the Arians and gave their churches to the true Christians. This greatly distressed King Theodoric, who sent Pope John and others to Justinus, requesting that the churches of the Arians be restored, or he would destroy all Christian churches. But as these messengers could not move Emperor Justinus, they begged him in tears to have mercy and not cause the downfall and destruction of Italy. When John returned and reported this to Theodoric at Ravenna, he was thrown into prison; and there he died after having sat two years and 8 months. The chair then rested 58 days.[John I, pope from 523 to 526, Tuscan by birth, was consecrated on the death of Hormisdas. Theodoric sent him to Constantinople on an embassy to Justin to secure toleration to the Arians. On his return Theodoric had John arrested on the suspicion of having conspired with Emperor Justin. He died in prison on May 18 of neglect and starvation. His body was then transported to Rome and buried in the Basilica of St. Peter. John I is depicted in art as looking through the bars of a prison or imprisoned with a deacon and a subdeacon.]

Year of the World 5713

Year of Christ 514

Felix, the fourth pope of that name, cursed the patriarch of Constantinople who had wandered from the faith. As a good and pious man he erected many buildings at Rome, in particular the Church of Cosimo and Damiano, which is still to be seen there. He ordained that the sick were to be anointed before death. After he had consecrated many priests, deacons and bishops, he died and was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the fourth day of the Ides of October.[That is, October 11.] He sat four years, two months and thirteen days. At that time the chair rested three days.[Felix IV was raised to the papacy in 526 by the emperor Theodoric. The serious riots over his election led him on his deathbed to nominate as his successor the archdeacon Boniface, later Pope Boniface II. But his proceeding was contrary to all tradition and roused much opposition. Felix built the church of Saints Cosimo and Damiano, near the Via Sacra. He died in September 530.]


Justin (Justinus) the Elder attained to the sovereignty 518 years after the incarnation of the Lord. He proved himself an earnest devotee and protector of the true Christian faith. Before long he sent his messenger to the pope to confirm the authority of the papal see and to assure peace to all the churches. To this emperor, Hormisdas the pop, sent the bishop and holy man Germaine (Germanus) concerning lapses in the faith; and he was kindly received; and through him many doubting persons were strengthened in the faith. He attained to the reputation of art industrious administrator of the faith, and through him the heretics were extinguished; and most important of all, all the Arians were driven out of Constantinople and their churches given over to the true faith. Therefore King Theodoric, as previously stated, persecuted Symmachus and Boethius, the Romans, and also Pope John. But divine vengeance quickly punished this cruel persecution, for on the 98th day after this event Theodoric died. His soul was seen between Pope John and Symmachus, the consul, by a hermit in the island of Lipara, sailing in the harbor of idolatrous god Vulcan not far from the residence of the hermit, and drowned. But after Justinus became a very old man and had carried the cares of the empire for eleven years, and had appointed Justinian (Iustiniano), his sister’s son to the sovereignty, he rested in peace at Constantinople.[Justin (Justinus) I, East Roman Emperor, 518 to 527, was born in 450 in Asia. He rose to commander of the imperial guards of Anastasius. On the latter’s death in 518 Justin succeeded in securing his own election. Being ignorant even of the rudiments of letters, Justin entrusted the administration of state almost entirely to his quaestor Proclus and to his nephew Justinian. In 519 he effected a reconciliation of the Eastern and Western churches after a schism of 35 years. In 522 he ceded to Theodoric the right of naming the consuls. On April 1, 527, enfeebled by an incurable wound, he made Justinian his colleague; on August 1st he died.]

Clovis (Clodoneus), the first Christian king in France, attained to the sovereignty after the death of his father Childeric, and he reined for 30 years. He was a mighty warrior, and for wife he won Clothilda (Crothildem), the daughter of Chilperic, king of Burgundy; for when he learned that this same Clothilda was beautiful, and that she excelled all other young maidens of her age in virtue, knowledge and rearing, he secretly sent messengers to find out whether she would marry him. She was informed of the king’s renown and the mightiness of his empire; and she assented, but upon condition that as she was a Christian, he should also become one. And although Clovis promised her that after talking the matter over he would receive baptism, yet because of his position he did not keep his word. However, he permitted his two sons by her to be baptized. Before long he began a war against Gundobaldus, his wife’s uncle, and the Burgundians; and in that war he took several cities. But the war was ended through his wife. And then he undertook a war against the Germans, who sent forth against him forces and arms not unequal to his own. But when in battle he saw his men in flight, he thought of the promise which, in spite of many reminders from his wife, he had failed to perform; and he attributed his defeat to this remissness on his own part. In consequence of that he praised the God of Heaven and Earth, whom his wife worshipped, and vowed that he would fulfill his promise should his forces defeat the enemy and attain the victory. Then his fortune turned to such an extent that the scattered and fleeing Franks drove the enemy into flight. When he returned home he, together with all his Franks, were baptized by Saint Remigius, the bishop, in the twenty-fifth year of his reign; and before long the kingdom of the Franks prospered, and the cause of the Christians was furthered. The Arians were driven out and the Christians reinstated. And the city of Paris was made the capital of the kingdom.[Clovis (Chlodovech in Frankish, Latinized as Chlodovechus, eventually transformed into Latin Ludovicus and, finally, French Louis), king of the Sabian Franks, was the son of Childeric I, whom he succeeded in 481 at the age of 15, but on his history until 486 the records are silent. In 486 he attacked Syagrius, a Roman general, who after the fall of the Western Empire in 476, had carved out for himself a principality south of the Somme. Being defeated Syagrius sought refuge with the Visigothic king Alaric II, who handed him over to the conqueror. It appears that Genevieve defended the town of Paris against Clovis for a long period. In 493 Clovis married a Burgundian princess, Clotilda, niece of Gundobald and Godegesil, joint kings of Burgundy. She was a Christian, and earnestly desired her husband’s conversion. He allowed his children to be baptized, but himself remained a pagan until after the war against the Alamanni, who at the time occupied the country between the Vosges and the Rhine, and the neighborhood of Lake Constance. Clovis attacked and defeated them in the plain of the Rhine. The legend is that in the thickest of the fight Clovis swore he would be converted to the God of Clotilda if that God would grant him victory. After subduing a part of the Alamanni, he went to Reims, where he was baptized by Remigius on Christmas Day 496, together with 3000 Franks. From that time the orthodox Christians in the kingdom of the Burgundians and Visigoths looked to Clovis to deliver them from the Arian kings. Clovis seems to have failed in the case of Burgundy, which was at that time torn between the rivalry of Godegesil and Gundobald. The former appealed to Clovis, who defeated Gundobald; but he had to retire without conquests. Immediately after his departure, Gundobald slew Godegesil and seized the Burgundian kingdom. Clovis was more fortunate with the Visigoths. By 506 he had completely subjugated the Alamanni. Now he marched against the Visigothic king, Alaric II in spite of the efforts of Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, to prevent war. The entire Visigothic kingdom as far as the Pyrennes was added to the Franks’ empire, with the exception of Septimania, which, together with Spain, remained in the possession of Alaric’s grandson, Amalaric, and Provence, which was seized by Theodoric and annexed to Italy. The last years of his life Clovis spent in Paris, which he made the capital of his kingdom. Here he built the church of the Holy Apostles, known later as the church of St. Genevieve. By murdering the petty Frankish kings who reigned at Cambrai, Cologne and other residences, he became sole king of all the Frankish tribes. He died in 511.]

Amalasuntha (Amalasiuntha), daughter (of Theodoric) and now a widow, upon the death of Theodoric, the king of the Goths, who left behind no male heirs, inherited the kingdom with her son Athalaric. Since Athalaric was very young, all the cares of government rested upon the queen. She concerned herself with giving the child an education and training in good manners. She governed with earnestness to maintain their rule over the Goths, and beyond usual feminine custom employed wisdom and prudence. She corrected her father’s bad laws and restored to the children of Boethius and Symmachus their paternal inheritances which had been forfeited to the public treasury. But when the Goths proposed that their king should be taught chivalrous practices rather than letters, Athalaric, on account of the reckless abandon of his sexual life, contracted many illnesses and died at the age of seventeen. Amalasuntha, therefore, associated her friend Theodahad (Theodatum) with her in the government. He was very learned, but sluggish and slow in business and in the handling of civil affairs. Although he was taken into the sovereignty through the kind solicitation of the queen, he was ungrateful, causing her to be made a prisoner and sent away. By such faithlessness he distressed many Goths. Later he caused the queen to be slain, taking her daughter to wife and as an associate in the sovereignty. He reigned with her not over five years.[Amalasuntha, queen of the Ostrogoths (d.535), daughter of Theodoric their king, was married in 525 to Eutharic, an Ostrogoth who had previously lived in Spain. Her husband died, apparently in the early years of their marriage, leaving her with two children, Athalaric and Matasuentha. On the death of her father in 526 she succeeded him at Ravenna, acting as regent for her son; but being herself deeply imbued with the old Roman culture, she gave to that son’s education a more refined turn than suited her Gothic subjects. Conscious of her unpopularity she banished and later put to death three Gothic nobles suspected of intriguing against her rule, and at the same time opened negotiations with the emperor Justinian with the view of removing herself and the Gothic treasure to Constantinople. Her son’s death in 534 made but little change in the situation. Amalasuntha, now queen, invited her cousin Theodahad to share her throne. Notwithstanding a varnish of literary culture, he was a coward and a scoundrel. He fostered the disaffection of the Goths and either by his orders or with his permission Amalasuntha was imprisoned on an island in the Tuscan lake of Bolsena, where in the spring of 535 she was murdered in her bath.]

Dionysius, an abbot, a highly learned man, who was praised at that time at Rome for his computus, that is, he composed with amazing skill the calculation for when Easter will occur.[The computus (‘computation’) is the calculation of the date of Easter in the Christian calendar, one of the most important computations of the Middle Ages. Dionysius Exiguus (his surname means ‘very small’ or ‘meager’, i.e., ‘humble’), was a monk who took the existing Alexandrian computus and converted it from the Alexandrian calendar into the Julian calendar. His computus only lasted for 95 years. His greatest legacy was the creation of the Anno Domini (‘in the Year of the Lord’, or, better known in its abbreviation A.D.) era, which became widespread after the Venerable Bede employed it to date the events in his , written in 731.]

Severinus, the bishop of Trier, a man distinguished for every kind of holiness was famous at this time. And Saint Victorinus, bishop of Marseilles, who released the son of the king of Persia from the Devil; and Eutherius, bishop of Lyons.


The Third Aurelian Council was undertaken at this time at the order of King Clovis (Clodovei). This is said to have been called by St. Mellanius; and so also, four other councils are said to have been held in this city (Aurelia), according to those versed in ecclesiastical jurisprudence.[King Clovis no doubt owed a great measure of his success to his alliance with the church. He took its property under his protection, and in 511convoked a council at Orleans, the canons of which have come down to us. But while protecting the church, he maintained his authority over it. He intervened in the nomination of bishops, and at the council of Orleans it was decided that no one, save a son of a priest, could be ordained clerk without the king’s order or the permission of the count. Orleans was an early trading post among the Gauls. The Romans called it Genadum. In the fifth century it had taken the name Aurelianum from either Marcus Aurelius or Aurelian; and thus the chronicler speaks of the city as Aureliensis in the first Latin edition. The German translator has carried the word over in this form.]

Arthur, king of the Britons, at this time (as it is said) attained to the sovereignty. He was a renowned, warlike, and very strong man. He had the most beautiful armor, as well becomes such a king. On his head he wore a golden helmet, upon which a dragon was engraved. He ordered a golden shield upon which was an image of the Mother of God; so that he might at all times have her before him as a spokeswoman in all matters. He also had a broad, long lance to be carried with him wherever he went; and a sword, with which he slew four hundred and sixty men in a single battle. They say he was a good Christian and an augmenter of the faith, and the conqueror of many kingdoms. At last, after having overcome many enemies in battle, he too was wounded and transported to an island; and there he disappeared, and was never seen again. And it is said of the Britons that they have been waiting for his return up to the present time.

Arthur, British king, and subject of the Arthurian Legend, is represented by Nennius in his Historia Britonum as a Christian warrior leading the kings of Britain against the Saxon kings of Kent. He enumerates 12 battles, of which the eighth battle was on the castle Guinnon, “in which Arthur bore the image of St. Mary the ever-virgin upon his shoulder, and the pagans were turned to flight. . . The twelfth battle was on the Mount of Badon, in which fell 960 men in one day at a single onset of Arthur; and no one overthrew them but he alone, and in all the battles he came out victorious.” There is no other record of these twelve battles, but Gildas who, writing in 550, without speaking of Arthur, mentions the battle of Mount Badon as taking place on the day of his birth, which would be c. 516. We may, therefore, conclude that a man named Arthur was born about the end of the fifth century, and that he was the general of the royal armies fighting in South Britain.

Of course, opinions differ as to whether such a character as Arthur ever lived. While the idea of a king Arthur whose dominions extended beyond the confines of the British Isles is now generally rejected, we may probably accept as a fact the existence of a chieftain of mixed Roman and British parentage, who learned the art of war from the Romans, and successfully led the forces of the British kings against the Saxon invaders. He was not a king, but a general of the royal armies. There is a hypothesis that he was betrayed by his wife and a near kinsman, and fell in battle. These meager facts constitute the historical nucleus about which his legend is woven. Yet he may simply be but a survivor of prehistoric myth, a hero of romance, and a fairy king. In his mystic character he slays monsters—the boar torch, the Giant of Mont St. Michel, the Demon Cat of Losanne. Andre de Coutances tells that Arthur was really vanquished and carried off by the Cat, but that one ought never to tell that tale before the Britons.

Cassiodorus, a monk of Ravenna and a highly learned man, was held in great esteem at this time because of his celebrated learning. At first he was a Roman consul, but later, moved by the Holy Spirit, he left the world, devoting himself to a monastic life. Before that he was the chancellor of Theodoric, king of Italy, and in the king’s name wrote numerous letters to many persons concerning temporal affairs. As a mental exercise he wrote an excellent interpretation of the Psalter. Later he also compiled a chronicle of the popes and emperors, in which he wrote many things about his contemporary, King Theodatus of Ravenna; also a book on the understanding of the soul and a book on orthography.[Cassiodorus. See Note to Folio CXLII recto, above.]

Priscian (Priscianum), a very learned man and philosopher of Caesarea, highly versed in the Greek and Latin tongues, flourished at Constantinople at this time. And as he was regarded as a prince among scholars in the first of the liberal arts, called grammatica, he wrote a very useful booklet upon this same art for the use and instruction of those who wished to grasp the Latin tongue. He also wrote other excellent books.[Priscian (Priscianus Caesariensis), celebrated Latin grammarian, lived around the year 500. His title Caesariensis points to Caesarea in Mauretania. Priscian was quoted by several writers in Britain in the 8th century (e.g., Bede and Alcuin). There is hardly a library in Europe that did not and does not contain a copy of his great work, , and there are about a thousand copies of it in manuscript. The first printed edition was put forth in Venice in 1470. The book is a systematic exposition of Latin grammar. It is divided into 18 books, of which the first 16 deal mainly with sounds, word-formation, and inflexions. The last two, which form about one-third of the whole work, deal with syntax. He has also preserved to us numerous fragments of the works of other writers, which otherwise would have been lost. He also wrote a number of other books.]

Arator, cardinal of the holy Roman Church, and a laureate poet, was in wonderful renown at this time by reason of his art. Among the works born of his intelligence and skill are the Acts of the Apostles in rhymed verse; and he wrote other elegant things.[Arator, Christian poet of Liguria, lived during the sixth century. He practiced as an advocate and held in influential position at the court of Athalaric. About 540 he took orders. His , written about 544, was much admired in the Middle Ages.]

Brandanus, holy abbot of Hibernia, was held in great esteem at this time for his piety and learning. He was a father to 3000 cloister-men, and of him many wonderful things have been written.[Brendan, Brandan or Brandon (Brandanus in the ) (c. 484-578), Irish saint and hero of a legendary voyage in the Atlantic, is said to have been born at Tralee in Kerry in 484. Medieval historians usually call him Brendan of Clonfert, or Brendan son of Finnloga, to distinguish him from his contemporary Brendan of Birr (573). Little is known of the historical Brendan, who died in 578 as abbot of a Benedictine monastery which he had founded twenty years previously at Clonfort in Eastern Galway. The story of his voyage across the Atlantic to the “Promised Land of the Saints,” afterward designated “St. Brendan’s Island,” ranks among the most celebrated of the medieval sagas of western Europe. Its traditional date is 565-573. The legend is found in prose and in verse, as well as with many variations in Latin, French, English, Saxon, Flemish, Irish, Welsh, Breton, and Scotish Gaelic. The oldest extant version of the legend is the 11th-century .]

Sidonius Apollinaris flourished at this time. In the city of the Averni[Auvergne.] he was promoted from governor to bishop. As a layman he was noble, well practiced in learning, and was a well informed man. He wrote many difficult epistles.[Sidonius Apollinaris was born at Lugdunum (Lyons) c. 431. At an early age he married Papianilla, child of Flavius Avitus, and upon the elevation of his father-in-law to the imperial dignity (456) he accompanied him to Rome, and celebrated his consulship in a poem still extant. Avitus raised him to senator, and nominated him prefect of the city. But the downfall of Avitus clouded the fortunes of Sidonius, who having been shut up in Lyons, and having endured the hardships of the siege, purchased pardon by a complimentary address to the victorious Majorian. The poet was not only forgiven, but rewarded with a laurelled bust, and with the title of count. After passing some years in retirement during the reign of Severus he was dispatched to Rome (467) as an ambassador from the Arveni to Anthemius, and on this occasion delivered a third panegyric, in honor of a third prince, for which he was raised to the rank of patrician. This was followed by still another honor; for though not a priest, the vacant see of Claremont, in Auvergne, was forced upon him in 472. During the remainder of his life he devoted himself to the duties of his sacred office, resisting the progress of Arianism. His extant works are: (1) , 24 in number, composed in various measures and on various subjects; (2) , containing 147 letters addressed to a wide circle of relatives and friends on topics political, literary and domestic, but seldom on ecclesiastical subjects.]

Bridget (Brigida), a very holy virgin of Scotland, born of Christian and noble parentage, illustrious during the reign of Justinus the Elder for her piety and miraculous works. From childhood she was entirely devoted to virtuous things, and particularly to chastity, modesty, sobriety, and moderation. At one time her mother sent her forth to collect butter from cow’s milk; but she gave it to the poor. When her mother demanded the butter, Bridget fell to prayer; after which she had more (butter) than her fellow-workers. When her parents wished to marry her off, she praised God for her crown of virginity. On one occasion, during the harvest, the rain overflowed all the land. However, in her field not a drop of water fell. Of the water she made beer; of the stones, she made salt. She gave sight to a person born blind; and she also worked other miracles.[Bridget (Brigida) (453-523), one of the patron saints of Ireland, was the daughter of a prince of Ulster. According to legend, she and her mother, who was a bondmaid, were sold to a wizard, who brought up the little girl, and on being converted to Christianity by her, he restored her freedom. She returned to her father’s house, where she gave many of his goods to the poor, and on her refusal to marry, he tried to sell her to the king of Ulster. The king was so struck by her piety that he freed her from parental control and she founded a church and monastery at Kildare. She died February 1, which is celebrated as her feast day.]


Benedict (Benedictus), an Italian abbot, and father of all the people in the monasteries, at this time assembled all the scattered monks, and by inspiration from the Holy Spirit introduced order into their lives. He was born of a noble family in the country town of Nursius (Norica), highly celebrated for its privileges, but chiefly because of Saint Benedict. There he spent his life observing good morals and indisposed to worldly pleasures. He was sent to Rome to study the liberal arts and letters; but when he noted that many persons were misled into error through these arts, he drew back the foot he had set forward into the world. In his zeal to please the Lord alone, he scorned the study of letters, left his father’s house, estate and possessions, and lived unknown for some time with the hermits in the wilderness. He came to a place forty miles from Rome, and there he lived in a small cave for three years, unknown to anyone except a monk named Romanus. There he led a strict and hard life, subject to many temptations; but about all this he remained silent. In addition to his virtue this most holy man was endowed with the spirit of prophecy by which he revealed many future events and hidden things. Then Totila, the king of the Ostrogoths, heard of this man’s virtue and strength, he desired to learn something of his piety; so he put on the clothes of a servant, and clothed his servant in regal robes. But Benedict, in his wisdom, recognized the king clad in the apparel of a servant, invited him into the monastery, and thus prophesied his future: You will reign nine years, and die in the tenth; and the king held him in high esteem. Benedict also gave many other proofs of his holiness, particularly concerning a glass in which the brethren had mixed poison intended for him. Over this he made the sign of the cross, and the glass broke. Finally he died in the Year of Salvation 536.

The Order of the Benedictine Brothers had its origin not far from the city of Aquinas in the Abruzzi, on Mount Cassino, where formerly the city of Cassina was located, and where later the universally renowned monastery of Cassino was later built. After the erection of this monastery Saint Benedict gave the inmates a fundamental Rule by which to live wisely, whereas previously many of these people had lived in isolation. After this saint had lived as a hermit for a long time, and had distinguished himself by his virtue and miracles, many people gathered about him in the service of God; and he soon built twelve monasteries and provided them with inhabitants. And he gathered about him many disciples by whose aid he conquered almost all the world. Out of this holy man’s illustrious Order emanated many pious and learned men. Although he first gave his Rule to the Black Monks alone, it was subsequently adopted by others. From his Order are said to have come 24 popes, 173 cardinals, 1464 archbishops, 15,070 distinguished abbots, and as Pope John XXII writes, 5,555 canonized and elevated monks.

Scholastica, sister of Saint Benedict, was given over to God from childhood. Her brother usually visited her once a year. On one occasion, after they had spent the day together in praising God and discussing holy matters until evening, and Benedict had received his meal and was about to return to his monastery, his sister, the pious nun, bade him to stay awhile longer and to speak to her of the joys of heavenly life. And when he told her that he did not wish to be absent from his cell, there ensued in response to Scholastica’s prayers such a downpour and storm, that with his brethren, he was not able to pull his feet out of the mired earth. And so they consumed the entire night in holy conversation and spiritual intercourse. On the following day Benedict returned to his monastery, and when, after the expiration of three days, he opened his eyes in his cell, he saw his sister’s soul, in the form of a dove, ascending to heaven.

Benedict (Benedictus) was born of a noble family in the little town of Norica, in the Duchy of Spoleto, about 480. He was sent to Rome to study literature and science, and gave hopes of becoming a distinguished pleader. But, while yet a boy, he became disgusted with the profligacy of his fellow-students, and the evil example about him drove him to the opposite extreme. The religious enthusiasm of such men as Jerome and Augustine led him into a hermitage at the age of 15. Leaving Rome, he fled to a wilderness about forty miles away, and there he met the hermit Romanus, who supplied him with food during the three years that Benedict spent in a cavern. During his solitary life he was subjected to many temptations. Soon the fame of the young man extended through the neighborhood, and shepherds and four villagers brought their sick to his cavern to be healed. A neighboring society of hermits asked him to become their head. Knowing something of the morals and manners of this community, Benedict at first refused. He only yielded after much persuasion, and in the hope of reforming the abuses which had crept into their monastery. But the strictness of his life filled these perverted men with envy and alarm, and while he was there, one of the men attempted to poison him in a cup of wine. Benedict, on the cup being presented to him, blessed it as usual, making the sign of the cross. The cup instantly fell from the hands of the traitor, was broken, and its contents spilled on the ground, a scene often represented in Benedictine convents. Benedict thereupon arose, and telling the monks they must provide themselves another superior, he left them and returned to his solitary cave at Subiaco, where he dwelt alone. But now Subiaco was no longer a “desert,” for it was crowded with the huts and cells of those whom the fame of Benedict’s sanctity, his virtues, and his miracles, had gathered about him. To introduce order and discipline into the community, he directed them to construct twelve monasteries, in each of which he placed twelve disciples, with a superior over them. Many had come from Rome and other cities, among them two Roman senators, Anitius and Tertullus, bringing their infant sons Maurus and Placidus, with the earnest request that Benedict educate them in the ways of salvation. And he took them under his special care. The community increased in number and renown, and in brotherly charity and holiness of life. Of course there were temptations and jealousies, but these were overcome by Benedict.

In a consecrated grove, near the summit of Mount Cassino, stood a temple to Apollo, who was still worshipped, for paganism had not yet been completely banished from Italy. Benedict traveled to the neighborhood of the Mount, and preached Christ to the people. And they were converted, broke the image, threw down the altar, and burned the grove. On this spot Benedict built two chapels, one in honor of St. John the Baptist, model of the contemplative life; the other in honor of St. Martin of Tours, for the active religious life. Then, higher up on the mountain he laid the foundation of that celebrated monastery which has ever since been regarded as the parent institution of their Order. Here was promulgated the famous Rule which became the general law of the monks of Western Europe, and which gave monasticism its definite form. To the rule given the cenobites of the East (poverty, chastity, and obedience), Benedict added: (1) Manual labor for seven hours per day; (2) the vows were to be made perpetual.

Toward the close of his long life Benedict was consoled for many troubles by the arrival of his sister, Sholastica, who had already devoted herself to a religious life, and now took up her residence in a retired cell about a league and a half from the convent. She emulated her brother’s piety, and although it does not appear that she took vows, she was generally considered the first Benedictine nun. When she followed her brother to Mt. Cassino, she drew about her a small community of pious women; but nothing more is recorded of her, except that her brother visited her once a year. On one occasion, legend says, after they had conversed on spiritual matters until late in the evening, and Benedict was about to depart, his sister entreated him to remain awhile longer; but he refused. She prayed heaven to interfere and make it possible for her brother to stay longer; and immediately a furious storm came about, delaying Benedict’s departure until late in the evening. It was a last meeting, for Scholastica died two days later; and in his cell Benedict beheld her soul ascending to heaven in the form of a dove.

The miracles attributed to Benedict are numerous. In the year 540, he was visited by Totila, king of the Goths, who prostrated himself at his feet, entreating his blessing. Benedict reproved him for his cruelties in Italy; and from that time on the ferocious Goth showed more humanity than he had previously. Shortly after this visit Benedict died of a fever that had seized him while attending the poor of the neighborhood. He died on March 21, 543.


Benedict, founder of the Benedictine Order of monks, is represented by a full length woodcut. He is clad in a cap and voluminous habit, a crosier in his right hand, a book in his left. Upon the book rests the poisoned cup offered him by one of the brethren. In it writhes a serpent.


Monastery of Cassino, founded by Benedict, is represented by a woodcut which covers almost a quarter of a page. The architecture of the buildings within the monastery walls is nondescript. This is the first woodcut of a monastery to appear in the Chronicle, and is later repeated for like institutions.


Scholastica, sister of Benedict, represented by a small woodcut here used for the first time. She appears in the garb of a nun, book in hand. She raises the forefinger of her right hand, as though in blessing.


Boniface, the second pope of that name, a Roman whose father was Sigisbald (Sigisbundo), was pope after Felix, during the reign of Emperor Justinian; and (as some say) he was not elected without dissension and division; for Dioscorus was elected in Felix’s place. In this uproar the clergy were troubled for twenty-eight days, but the situation was finally relieved by the death of Dioscorus. This Boniface ordained that no one should nominate his own successor to Episcopal office; which was afterwards confirmed by many popes. He ordained that on the third day after the death of a pope, a new one should be installed. He segregated the clergy from the people when the godly office was being celebrated. He also forbade the summoning of a bishop before a lay judge, whether in civil or criminal matters. And when he had sat two years and two days he died and was buried in the Basilica of Peter. And the chair then rested for two months.[Boniface II (Bonifacius), pope from 530 to 532, was by birth a Goth, and he owed his election to nomination by his predecessor Felix IV, and to the influence of the Gothic king. The Roman electors had opposed to him a priest of Alexandria, called Dioscorus, who died a month after his election, and thus left the position open for Boniface. Boniface endeavored to nominate his own successor, thus transforming into law, or at least into custom, the proceedings by which he had benefited, but the clergy and the senate of Rome forced him to cancel this arrangement.]

Year of the World 5723

Year of Christ 524

John (Iohannes) the Second, pope, a Roman whose father was Projectus, was pope during the time of the emperor Justinian. In the beginning of his episcopacy he condemned the bishop Anthimus for his lapse into the Arian heresy. The emperor Justinian, to honor the Roman see, at this time sent two bishops to Rome with gifts with which to greet the Roman pope, these same gifts to be laid up as offerings at the Church of the Blessed Peter; namely, a golden cup set with jewels and weighing six pounds, two silver cups of twelve pounds and two silver chalices of fifteen pounds, This John (of whom historians have little to say) died after he had created fifteen priests and twenty-one bishops. He was buried in the Basilica of Peter on the sixth day of the Kalends of June. He sat two years and four months. The chair then rested six days.[John II, pope from 533-535, succeeded Boniface II. At the instance of Justinian he adopted the proposition unus de Trinitae passus est in carne (‘one of the Trinity suffered in the flesh’) as a test of the orthodoxy of certain monks accused of Nestorian tendencies.]

Pope Agapetus (Agapitus), a Roman whose father was Gordian, was made pope, and presently was sent by King Theodahad (Theodato) to the emperor Justinian to appease his wrath against Theodahad because the latter had caused Amalasuntha, mother of King Athalaric, to be exiled and slain. But as Agapetus was honorably received by the emperor and succeeded in making peace, he was asked by the emperor to confirm the doctrine of the Eutycheans. But as this holy man opposed this, the emperor threatened him; in consequence of which Agapetus said, I wished that I might come to the most Christian emperor Justinian, but I found Diocletian, an acknowledged enemy of the Christians. In resonse to such free speech and divine talent, Justinian was moved to adopt the true Christian faith, and to drive out Anthimus (Anthemio), the Constantinopolitan bishop and protector of the Eutychean heresy, and to put a true Catholic in his place, who would be consecrated by Agapetus. Before long Agapetus died at Constantinople. His body was brought back to Rome and buried in the Basilica of Peter. He sat eleven months and nineteen days.[Agapetus I, pope from 535 to 536, collaborated with Cassiodorus in founding a library of ecclesiastical authors at Rome. King Theodahad sent him on an embassy to Constantinople, where he died after have deposed Anthimus, the Monophysite bishop of that town, and ordained Mennas as his successor.]

Year of the World 5733

Year of Christ 534

Pope Silverius, of Campania, whose father was the bishop Hormisdas, was made pope at the command of King Theodatus, although this was never done before at the command of a king, but at the command of an emperor. However, the threats of this king exceeded all understanding and interpretation of the law; for at the instance of Vigilius, the Roman deacon and treasurer, he threatened the clergy with death. Under threats the empress Theodora, ordered Silverius to drive out Menas (Menna), the Constantinopolitan bishop, and to recall Anthimus (Anthemium). To this he was opposed. In response the empress wrote her general Belisarius to eject Silverius and to put Vigilius in his place. Belisarius, occupied in a war, referred the matter to his wife Antonina. Then Vigilius summoned several witnesses who accused Silverius of having planned to betray the city of Rome. In response Silverius was forced to give up the papacy and to enter upon a monastic life. He was exiled, and he died not without the blessings of piety after he had lived as pope one year, five months, and twelve days. The seat was vacant six days.[Silverius, pope from 536 to 537, successor to Agapetus I, was a legitimate son of Pope Hormisdas, born before his father entered the priesthood. He purchased his elevation from Theodotus, the Goth. He was one of those who six months later admitted Belisarius into the city. He opposed restoration of the patriarch Anthimus, whom Agapetus had deposed, and thus brought upon himself the hatred of Theodora, who desired Vigilius to be pope. He was deposed by Belisarius in 537, degraded to the rank of monk. He went to Constantinople, where Justinian entertained his complaint and sent him back to Rome; but Vigilius was ultimately able to banish his rival to Pandataria, where he spent the rest of his life.]

Pope Vigilius, a Roman whose father was a consul, was elected pope in the time of Justinian. The empress Theodora requested Vigilius to proceed to Constantinople to reinstate Anthimus (Anthemium). As he objected to this, he was taken to Constantinople, and there, because of his refusal, he was so severely beaten that he almost died; and he was led about the city at the end of a rope until the closing of the gates. After this he was imprisoned, and given only bread and water for a long time; and he was rendered so patient that when he was about to be commensurately punished, he said he deserved severer treatment. Later he was recalled, but died when he arrived in the city of Syracuse in Sicily, and his body was brought back to Rome and was buried with Saint Marcellus on the Salarian Way. He lived as pope seventeen years, six months, and twenty-six days.[Vigilius, pope from 537 to 555, succeeded Silverius, and was followed by Pelagius I. He was ordained by order of Belisarius while Silverius still lived. His elevation was due to Theodora, who had prevailed upon him to disallow the Council of Chalcedon in connection with the “three chapters” controversy. But he did not fulfill his promise, and was summoned to Constantinople. There he issued a document known as the , condemning the three chapters, but expressly disavowing any intention to disparage the council of Chalcedon. After some trimming, he prepared another document, , which was laid before the so-called fifth “ecumenical” council in 553, and led to his condemnation by the majority of that body, some say even to his banishment. Ultimately, however, he was induced to confirm the decrees of the council, and, after an enforced absence of seven years, he was allowed to set out for Rome; but he died at Syracuse on June 7, 555, without having reached his destination.]


Justinian (Justinianus), son of the sister of Justin, and greatest of the Roman emperors, attained to the sovereignty; and soon after he received the imperial supremacy, he set his mind upon the return of the common good. He ruled the Roman empire with good fortune. He not only conducted military affairs with success, but was also wonderfully fortunate in civic and business affairs; for through Belisarius, the great man, he defeated the Persians in war, destroyed the Vandals and their king Gelimer (Gelismero), and brought back into the empire Africa, which for 96 years had been alienated from it. Moreover, with the strength of the aforesaid Belisarius, he defeated the Goths in Italy; and captured their king; while with wonderful power and strength he also defeated the Mauri and their king Attila. Likewise, he also overcame other peoples in war. This emperor also built to the Lord, who is the wisdom of God the Father, a church in the city of Constantinople, and he called it Agia Sophia, that is, Holy Wisdom. This structure so excels all others that its equal is not to be found in all the countries of the world. This emperor was a man of true faith, proficient in his works, and upright in his judgments; for these reasons he was fortunate in all his undertakings. As a man of intelligence, with the advice and labors of a number of highly learned men, he reduced to a small number of books the great uncharted sea of law books, of which there were over two thousand scattered about in disorder; and he brought many doubtful laws into harmony. After he had reigned 38 years he died at Constantinople, a man of great and godly intelligence.[Justinian (Justinianus), surnamed The Great, emperor of Constantinople, 527-565, was born near Tauresium in Illyria in 483. He was adopted by his uncle in 527, and married the beautiful actress Theodora, who exercised great influence over him. He died in 565, leaving the crown to his nephew, Justin II. During his reign Justinian was a firm supporter of orthodoxy, and thus has received from ecclesiastical writers the title of Great; but towards the end of his life he became a heretic, being one of the adherents of Nestorianism. His foreign wars were glorious, but extremely costly. The empire of the Vandals in Africa was overthrown by Belisarius, and their king Gelimer led a prisoner to Constantinople. The kingdom of the Ostrogoths in Italy was likewise destroyed by the successive victories of Belisarius and Narses. Justinian adorned Constantinople with many public buildings of great magnificence, but at the same time taxes were constantly increased. The great work of Justinian is his legislation. He made two influential collections of laws, one of the imperial constitutions, the other of all that was valuable in the works of jurists. The last was entrusted to a commission of ten, who completed their labors in 529; and their collection was declared to be law under the title . This was the first collection. In 530 Tribonian, who had been one of the commissioners on the Code, was authorized to select fellow-workers to assist him in the other divisions of the undertaking, and this commission proceeded at once to lay under contribution the works of those jurists who had received authority from other emperors to interpret the law. They divided their material into 50 Books, and subdivided each book into Titles. Nothing that was considered valuable was omitted; nothing obsolete included. Repetition was not allowed. The work was completed in three years and became law December 30, 533. It comprehended about 9,000 extracts made from nearly 2,000 books. The Code and the Digest contained a complete body of law; but as they were not adapted to elementary instruction, a treatise was produced under the title based on elementary works of a similar character, but chiefly on the of Gaius.]

The Fifth Council begun at Constantinople at the command of the pope Agapetus and the emperor Justinian, was concluded during the time of Pope Vigilius, in the year 538. It was called against Theodorus and all heretics who held that the Most Blessed Virgin Mary bore men alone, and not God and men. In this same Council it was ordained that the Blessed Virgin Mary should be called the Mother of God, because through her bearing, she bore us God. And there fourteen anathemas were written against the blasphemy of Theodorus and his associates.

Fifth Ecumenical Council (Constantinople) held in 553 grew out of the controversy of the “Three Chapters,” which were condemned, and their authors, long dead, anathematized, and the orthodox faith was set forth in fourteen anathemas with special reference to Nestorians.

Justinian’s ecclesiastical policy was complex and varying. For many years before the accession of his uncle Justin, the Eastern world had been vexed by the struggles of the Monophysite party, who recognized only the one nature in Christ, against the view which then and ever since has maintained itself as orthodox, that the divine and human natures coexisted in him. The latter doctrine had triumphed at the council of Chalcedon, but Egypt, a great part of Syria and Asia Minor, and a considerable minority even in Constantinople, clung to Monophysitism. When Justinian came to the throne he endeavored to persuade the Monophysites to come in by summoning some of their leaders to a conference. This having failed, he ejected suspected prelates, and occasionally persecuted them. The Monophysites sometimes alleged that they could not accept the decrees of the council of Chalcedon because that council had not condemned, but virtually approved, three writers tainted with Nestorian principles, namely, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret, and Ibas, bishop of Edessa. It was suggested to the emperor that reconciliation might result if a condemnation of these teachers, or rather of such of their books as were objectionable, could be effected, since in that event the Chalcedonian party would be purged of any appearance of sympathy with the errors of Nestorius. Accordingly Justinian put forth an edict exposing and denouncing the errors in the writings of Theodore generally, in the treatise of Theodoret against Cyril of Alexandria, and in a letter of Bishop Ibas to the Persian bishop Maris. This edict was circulated through the Christian world to be subscribed by the bishops. Long disputes and negotiations followed, the end of which was that Justinian summoned this general council of the church, reckoned the Fifth, which condemned the impugned writings, and anathematized several other heretical authors. Its decrees were received in the East but long contested in the Western Church where a schism arose that lasted for seventy years. This is the controversy known as that of the “Three Chapters,” apparently from the three propositions or condemnations contained in Justinian’s original edict, one relating to Theodore’s writings and person, the second to the incriminating treatise of Theodoret (whose person was not attacked), the third to the letter of Ibas.

Belisarius, an esteemed councilor, sturdy in arms, a leader sent forth by Justinian at the head of a large army, first attacked the Persians, who had seriously ravaged Roman territory, and defeated them in a great battle. With the consent of the emperor he entered Constantinople in triumph. This Belisarius was sent with an army by Justinian, the emperor, to Africa, which the Vandals had occupied for many years. With speed he engaged the Vandals in battle, defeated many of their people, took their king Gelimer (Gelismerum) prisoner, and sent him to Constantinople; and he brought Carthage back into the empire. Afterwards, this Belisarius, renowned for many battles, was sent by Justinian against King Theodahad (Theodatus) to release Italy from its servitude to the Goths. While Belisarius lingered in Sicily, the Gothic king, Theodahad, died. Vitiges succeeded Theodahad, and against him Belisarius continued the war which he had begun. He marched from Sicily into Campania and to Naples, which he took by force, slaying many people, sparing neither women nor children. From there he hastened to Rome; and the Goths, who were there, fled by night, leaving the gates open, and hurried on to Ravenna. But as Belisarius surmised that Vitiges would return to Rome with a great force, he, in the meantime speedily secured the city with fortifications, arms and moats. Now Vitiges came on with about one hundred thousand men. After defending the city for a year and a day, Belisarius decided to give Vitiges battle and to defeat his forces. But Vitiges would not accept the challenge, and fled to Ravenna. Belisarius hastened after him, and captured him in that city; and he brought him to Constantinople in the fifth year of his arrival in Italy.[Belisarius, one of the most famous generals of the later Roman Empire, was born about 505 in “Germania,” a district on the borders of Thrace and Macedonia. As a youth he served in the bodyguard of Justinian, who appointed him commander of the Eastern army. He won a victory over the Persians in 530, but was defeated in the following year. Recalled to Constantinople, he married Antonina, a favorite of the empress Theodora. During the Nika sedition (532) he did Justinian good service, crushing the rebels who had proclaimed Hypatius emperor. In 533 he was put in command of the expedition against the Vandal kingdom in Africa. With 15,000 mercenaries he took Carthage, defeated Gelimer, the Vandal king, and brought him back as a captive to Constantinople. At this time Justinian decided to attack Italy, where the Ostrogothic kingdom was shaken by internal dissensions. Accordingly, Belisarius invaded Sicily (535), and after storming Naples and defending Rome for a year against almost the entire strength of the Goths in Italy, he captured Ravenna, and with it the Gothic king Vitiges. The Ostrogoths offered to acknowledge him Emperor of the West, but he rejected the proposal and returned to Constantinople in 540. The following year he was sent to check the Persians, but achieved no decisive result. In 544 the Goths, having meanwhile reconquered Italy, Belisarius was sent with inadequate forces to oppose them. During five campaigns he held the enemy at bay until he was removed from the command. He remained in retirement at Constantinople until 559, when at the head of a mixed multitude of peasants and soldiers, he repelled the Bulgarian attackers who had invaded the city. But this, like his former victories, aroused Justinian’s envy. The savior of his country was coldly received and left unrewarded by his suspicious sovereign. Shortly afterward he was accused of complicity in a conspiracy against the emperor. His wealth was confiscated, and he was imprisoned in his palace. He was set free and restored to favor in 563. He died in 565.]


Justinian, Roman emperor; full-length woodcut; he wears a mitered crown, carries scepter and orb, and is clad in richly embroidered robes. The head is large, the body small.


Vitiges (Vitigis), a Goth of obscure origin, was at this time, while King Theodahad (Theodato) still lived, crowned as king of Rome; and he reigned five years. In military skill and experience he was a celebrated man. He planned to depose Theodahad. After the latter’s death he hurried to Ravenna, and assembled all the Goths dispersed throughout Italy. This Vitiges proceeded to Rome against Belisarius with a large army, and with his Goths besieged the city, and overran, ravaged and burned all the country about Rome, putting all Romans to the sword. He plundered and laid open all holy things, and was attacking the city continuosly. But Belisarius (of whom we have previously written) held the city. Starvation increased in Rome, and in the same year a great famine occurred throughout the world, principally in Liguria; so that (as Datus, the pious bishop of Milan, has said) any number of mothers ate the limbs of their children. And now Vitiges, the king, and his army, proceeded against Belisarius in great battle; but Vitiges and his forces suffered a great defeat, taking to flight; and during such flight he was captured at night and brought to Belisarius at Rome, and from there was taken before Justinian at Constantinople. Justinian was greatly elated. Before long he made Vitiges a governor on the Persian border. There Vitiges ended his own life and with it the Gothic kingdom.

Totila (Tottila), also called Baduila (Baduilla), was the last king of the Ostrogoths. For when Vitiges was taken prisoner the Goths beyond the Padus made Chelpidarus king. Upon his death the latter was succeeded by Erarius. Before a year had passed he was strangled; and after him this Totila was crowned. Totila speedily assembled an army and afflicted all Italy and Sicily; and he coveted Rome, which he besieged round about. And there was such a famine that the parents threatened to eat the flesh of their own children. And when the Romans could no longer defend their city, Totila came through the Hostian Gate. To spare the people Totila caused the horns and trumpets to be sounded all night long, so that the people might protect themselves or hide from the Gothic arms. To this leniency and kindness Totila, who had been a cruel man, was influenced by the earlier admonitions of the holy father, Benedict. Some of the senators escaped over the walls and hurried to Constantinople to inform the emperor of the calamity. He at once sent Narses, his private advocate and officer, to Italy with a large army. Belisarius fought with Totila and his army, utterly defeated him, and relieved Italy of the Goths, who had ruled there for seventy-two years since the time of Theodoric. And so the Gothic name was wiped out; and those who survived the battle, wished to be called Italians and not Goths, because they were born and reared in Italy.[Totila, king of the Ostrogoths, was chosen king after the death of his uncle Ildibad in 541, his real name being Baduila. At the beginning of his reign he assembled and inspired the Goths to win a victory over Justinian near Faenza. Having gained another victory in 542, in the valley of Mugello, he left Tuscany for Naples, captured that city, and then received the submission of the provinces of Lucania, Apuleia, and Calabria. Totila’s conquest of Italy was marked by mercy as well as celerity. Toward the end of 545 the Gothic king prepared to starve Rome into surrender, at the same time making elaborate preparations to check the progress of Belisarius, who was advancing to its relief. The imperial fleet just barely failed to succor the city, which was plundered by Totila. Its walls and fortifications were soon restored, and when Totila again marched against it, he was defeated by Belisarius. Several cities were taken by the Goths while Belisarius, not following up his advantage, remained inactive before finally leaving Italy. In 549 Totila advanced a third time against Rome, which he took through the treachery of some of its defenders. His next exploit was the conquest of Sicily, after which he subdued Corsica and Sardinia, and sent a fleet against Greece. Justinian then entrusted the conduct of a new campaign to Narses. Totila marched against him, but was defeated and killed in the battle of Tagina in July 552.]

Narses was a eunuch of Justinian, and the personal chamberlain of the emperor. In acknowledgement of his good conduct the emperor promoted him to counselor; and from that time on he acted toward all as an image of kindness, contemplation, mercy, generosity, and graciousness. With the assistance of troops sent to him by Alboin, king of the Lombards, who was his ally, he fought against the Goths and defeated them and their king Totila; and he sent the Lombards, laden with gifts, back to their homes in Pannonia. Sophia, the wife of Justin, egged on by those envious of Narses, attempted to recall Narses, employing the disdainful words that he should return home where the wool, weaving, and spindle awaited him. But Narses answered that he would spin such thread as would leave his enemies and those envious of him no justification for their errors; and although he sought vengeance, he died shortly.

Narses, an important officer of Justinian, was a eunuch of Persarmenia, and was born about 478. If the statement that he died at the age of 95 is correct, he was probably brought to Constantinople while still very young, and obtained a footing in the office of the grand chamberlain. He rose to a position involving the custody of the archives of the household. From this office, probably in middle life, he became praepositus sacri cubiculi. In 532 the insurrection known as the Nika broke out in Constantinople, when for some hours the throne of Justinian seemed doomed to be overthrown. It was saved, partly by the courage of Theodora, and partly by the timely prodigality of Narses, who stole out into the capital and with large sums of money bribed the leaders of the “blue” faction, which was previously loyal to the emperor, to shout as of old Justiniane Auguste tu vincas (‘Justinian Augustus, you are victorious’). He defeated Totila in 552, and with him fell the last hopes of the Gothic kingdom in Italy.

For thirty years Narses governed Italy with firmness and prudence. In the meantime his benefactor, Justinian I, died. At the new court the Empress Sophia, the spouse of Justin II, spoke the final word. With her the complaints against the covetousness of Narses, probably not unfounded, received a ready hearing. She influenced the emperor to recall the exarch, with whom she at any rate found no favor; and it is said that by word of mouth she conveyed a message to Narses, a man not physically strong, suggesting that he return to the distaff in the apartment of the women, and leave matters of war to men. To this Narses replied that he would spin for her a thread that would require the rest of her life to unravel. And speedily he extended to the Lombards, who lived on poor lands in Pannonia, an invitation to emigrate to the fertile fields of Italy. This invitation was heartily accepted by Alboin, the Lombard king, and with his people, including men, women and children, cattle and all their other possessions, he crossed the Julian Alps and entered Upper Italy. He made numerous conquests, and Pavia became the capital of the new Lombard Empire, which extended over entire Northern Italy. Although Alboin was finally assassinated, the empire of the Lombards endured for another two centuries, until the year 774, when Charles the Great deposed the last Lombard king.

Patrick (Patricius), a native of Britain, before he was ordained an archbishop of the Scots, converted the entire island of Hibernia to Christ by his illustrious teachings over a period of 60 years. He awakened many from the dead, released prisoners, built churches, and baptized thousands of people. But there was a savage people who refused to believe unless they saw the sufferings of the evil and the happiness of the good. So the Lord appeared to Patrick and handed him the Gospel and a staff, and led him to a desert region, and showed him a round cave, dark from without, where a true penitent could be purged of all his sins in a natural day[A natural day is 24 hours.], and would see such suffering and joy. There Patrick built a church, and appointed prebendaries of the blessed Augustine, to whom he gave the key to the cave. During his time many people went to the cave, and they testified to what they learned; and this he caused to be noted in the church; for this reason this is called Patrick’s Purgatory.[Patrick, patron saint of Ireland, born probably about 389, was the son of a middle-class landed proprietor. No doubt Patrick was educated as a Christian. At 16 he was carried off by a band of Irish marauders, and tradition represents him as tending the herds of a chieftain for six years, during which time he became subject to religious emotions, and saw visions which encouraged him to escape. He fled, and encountered a vessel engaged in the export of Irish wolf-dogs. After three days at sea, the traders landed, possibly on the West coast of Gaul, journeying for 28 days through a desert. At the end of two months Patrick parted from his companions and went to the monastery of Lerins, where he spent a few years. He seems to have returned home, and it was doubtless during this stay in Britain that the idea of missionary enterprise