First English edition of the Nuremberg chronicle: being the Liber chronicarum of Dr. Hartmann Schedel…

Here begins the Fifth Age of the World, extending from the time when the Jews went into captivity at Babylon, and enduring to the Birth of Christ—a period of 590 years. But some compute the time differently, reckoning the correct time of the Babylonian captivity from the eleventh year of the reign of Zedekiah (Sedechie). According to Eusebius, the seventy years of the captivity ended in the second year of Darius. But Josephus and St. Jerome reckon from the thirteenth year of King Josiah (Josie) to the third year of King Cyrus. Some reckon from the last year of King Jehoiachin (Joachim) to the last year of Cyrus. But, correctly understood, the seventy years which end in the third or last year of Cyrus are really the years of the Jewish captivity; while the period ending with the second year of Darius is in fact the time when the Jews had entirely left the country. According to the calculations of the Holy Scriptures, the Babylonian captivity occurred 4610 years from the beginning of the world; 2369 years from the Flood; 1427 years from the birth of Abraham, and in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of Tarquinius, the Roman king, and while Astyages reigned among the Medes, Europus

Who is king Europus? According to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (s.v. Europus, vol. 2, p. 108), Europus was "a son of Macedon and Oreithyia, the daughter of Cecrops, from whom the town of Europus in Macedonia was believed to get its name." Justin's Epitome (7.1) gives us additional context:

Macedonia was formerly caned Emathia, from the name of king Emathion, of whose prowess the earliest proofs are extant in those parts. As the origin of this kingdom was but humble, so its limits were at first extremely narrow. The inhabitants were called Pelasgi, the country Paeonia. But in process of time, when, through the ability of their princes and the exertions of their subjects, they had conquered, first of all, the neighbouring tribes, and afterwards other nations and peoples, their dominions extended to the utmost boundaries of the east. In the region of Paeonia, which is now a portion of Macedonia, is said to have reigned Pelegonus, the father of Asteropaeus, whose name we find, in the Trojan war, among the most distinguished defenders of the city. On the other side a king named Europus held the sovereignty in a district called Europa.

Rev. John Selby Watson, Epitome of the Philippic History of Pompeius Trogus; London, 1853

among the Macedonians, Alyattes (Alyacte) among the Lydias, Vaphre[Called Vaphres by Eusebius, Apries by Jerome, and Hophra by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 44:30).] among the Egyptians, and Nebuchadnezzar (Nabushodonosor) the First among the Chaldeans.

Here begins the captivity of the Hebrews that occurred with the destruction of Jerusalem and endured for seventy years. As the people of Israel for a long time had practiced idolatry and had spilled the blood of the innocent, God determined to destroy this race, and he ordained that this people should be in Chaldean captivity for seventy years, so that by the expiration of that time a new people, unencumbered with such sins, should go to Jerusalem to rebuild it.


After the people of Israel returned from Babylonia (Babilone) their leaders were Jeshua (Ihseus) the high priest, who was the head, and Zorubbabel (Zorobabel), who was the prince. This arrangement was adhered to until the time of Herod, the high priests being supreme and the princes being subordinate to them. However, according to the prophecy of Jacob, the princes were selected from the tribe of Judah: The scepter will not be taken from Judah, nor the leader from his thigh.[Genesis 49:10, substituting only the singular for ‘thigh' (femore) for the Vulgate's plural (femoribus).] They came in great numbers to Jerusalem to rebuild the Temple. They gathered together the people of the entire country and built an altar on its former site, and kept the feasts of the tabernacle. He (Jeshua?) began to rebuild the Temple, but he died soon afterwards.[The gathering of the people under Jeshua and Zorobabel after their return from the Babylonian captivity, the erection of the altar, and the festivities in celebration of their homecoming are set forth in Ezra 3:1-11.]

Salathiel (Salatiel) (in the Year of the World 4634)[The phrase in the parenthesis is not found in the German edition of the .] was a son of Jeconiah (Iechonie), king of Judah. He was born to him after the Babylonian captivity, as Matthew the evangelist states.[Shealtiel, also called Salathiel, was the father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2; Neh. 12:1; Hag. 12:1, 12, 14; 2:3, 23). According to Chr. 3:17, Shealtiel was the eldest son of king Jeconiah. According to Matthew and Luke (Matthew 1:12; Luke 3:27), he was one of the ancestors of Jesus.]

Joakim (Joachim), the priest, was a son of Jeshua the high priest. As Josephus states he was also called Josedech. Haggai (Aggeo) and Zechariah (Zacharia) prophesied in the time of Zorubbabel, and assisted him in rebuilding the city and the Temple. After the Temple was completed they observed the Passover with countless sacrifices.[Neh. 12:10, 26 and Ezra 5:1.]

Zorubbabel (in the Year of the World 4659)[The phrase in the parenthesis is not found in the German edition of the .] dedicated the Temple according to the commandment of God. Afterwards he was highly regarded by the Jews for a long time; and he was made a prince of the people by King Cyrus. He was the first to bring the Jews out of Chaldea and back into their own land. With the permission of Cyrus he began the erection of the Temple.[Zerubbabel, or Zorobabel, son of Shealtiel, of the royal race of David, held an official position at Babylon and was the leader of the first colony of Jews that returned from the Babylonian captivity in 536 BCE. Cyrus committed to his care the sacred vessels of the Temple, with which he returned to Jerusalem, with valuable gifts of gold and silver, goods and beasts; and with Jeshua the high priest, and perhaps with the prophets Haggai and Zechariah (Ezra 1:11). He had also a royal order for the timber and stones needed for the rebuilding of the Temple. He laid the foundations of the Temple and restored the worship of God with the usual sacrifices. He completed the Temple four years later, restored the courses and maintenance of the priests and Levites, and secured a registration of the returned Jews. The genealogy of both Joseph and Mary is traced to him (Matthew 1:13; Luke 3:27).]

We have nothing from Abiud (in the Year of the World 4709)[The phrase in the parenthesis is not found in the German edition of the .] and his descendants to the time of Joseph, except what Matthew has recorded. Therefore we are certain of nothing except that Abiud begot Eliakim, who begot Zadoc (Sadoch) &c., as Matthew testifies in the beginning of his gospel.[Matthew 1:13-16.]

Haggai (Aggeus) is the eleventh of the prophets, and he wrote his book of prophecies at this time. He recorded the return of the people, the building of the Temple, the renewal of the city, and the laws of the priesthood. He died soon after the Temple was built, and was buried in the graves of the priesthood.[Haggai is one of the minor prophets. He probably accompanied Zerubbabel in the first return of the Jews from Babylon 536 BCE. He prophesied in the second year of Darius Hystaspis (BCE 520), urging his countrymen to resume the building of the Temple, which had been interrupted for about 14 years, and was at last suspended. The Jews became indifferent, and excused themselves from building until the end of the 70 years. Haggai's reproof aroused them for a time, but they soon became despondent, and he was charged with a second message of encouragement.]

Malachi (Malachias) the prophet was renowned at this time; and Malachi (which means angel) was the name given him because of his good life; for when he prophesied, the angel of the Lord came and spoke the same words.[Malachi (messenger of Jehovah) was the last of the minor prophets. He probably prophesied about 416 BCE, at a time of great disorder among the priests. He reproves the people for taking strange wives, for inhumanity to their brethren, for divorcing their wives, and for neglect in paying tithes and first fruits. He also inveighed against the priests. Christians believed that he foretold the coming of John the Baptist and the two-fold coming of Jesus.]

The Hellespontian (Sibyl)[The Latin edition of the inexplicably leaves out the word ‘Sibyl' (found to her left in the woodcut—Sibilla Helespo(n)ti(n)a—and included in the German edition.] was born in the land of Troy. She was clad in old peasant dress, an old veil upon her head, hanging down upon her shoulders. She speaks thus: From the heights of heaven he looked down upon the humble, and in the last days he will be born of a Hebrew virgin and will lie in a cradle.


The Priestly Lineage is resumed at this time from Folio LV verso, which there ended with Jozadak (Josedech). We resume as follows:

  1. Jeshua (Jhesus), son of Jozadak.
  2. Joakim (Joachim), son of Jeshua.


Lineage of Christ is resumed from Folio LX verso which there concluded with Zedekiah (Sedechias), and is now resumed as follows:

  1. Salathiel or Shealtiel (Salatiel), son of Jeconiah.
  2. Zorubbabel (Sorobabel), son of Salathiel.
  3. Abiud, son of Zorobabel.

(C) PROPHETS (Concluded)

The Prophets, who are continued from Folio LXI verso, as follows:

  1. Haggai (Aggeus), eleventh of the minor prophets.
  2. Malachi (Malachias).


The Hellespontian Sibyl (Sibilla Helespo(n)ti(n)a) is represented by a new woodcut which is described in the text. The Sibyls began at Folio XXXV verso, where eight were shown. At Folio LVI verso another was added; and here we have the tenth.


Nebuchadnezzar was a son of Nebuchadnezzar the Great and was the third king of Chaldea. He obtained the kingdom after the death of his father in the 18th year of the Jewish captivity. He reigned ten years and was of a magnanimous disposition. He was very mighty, and initiated more royal works than his father.

Evil-merodach was a brother of said Nebuchadnezzar, and a son of Nebuchadnezzar the Great. He was the fourth king of Chaldea, and obtained the kingdom in the 28th year of the Jewish captivity, after the death of his brother who died without heirs. And he reigned 18 years. He released Jehoiachin (Joachim) from captivity and afterwards made him mighty. He left three sons.[For previous text and note on Evil-merodach see Folio LXII verso.]

Servius Tullius was the sixth Roman king, and he began to reign in the ninth year of the Jewish captivity. He reigned 34 years. Although his mother was a servant, nevertheless he succeeded in acquiring the kingdom. This noble child was brought up by Tanaquil, the housewife of Tarquinius, and by her sage advice came to rule the empire. He levied the first tax in the city. He added three hills, the Quirinal, Viminal, and Esquiline to the city, surrounded them with walls and moats. Later he was murdered by the servants of the haughty Tarquinius, his son-in-law, at the instigation of his own daughter.[Servius Tullius was the sixth king of Rome. His mother, Ocrisia, was one of the captives taken at Corniculum, and became a female slave of Tanaquil, the wife of Tarquinius Priscus. He was born in the king's palace, and notwithstanding his servile origin, was brought up as the king's son, since Tanaquil by her powers of divination had foreseen the greatness of the child; and Tarquinius placed such confidence in him that he gave him his daughter in marriage; and entrusted him with the exercise of the government. His rule was mild and beneficent; and so popular did he become that the sons of Ancus Marcius, fearing that they should be deprived of the throne which they claimed as their inheritance, procured the assassination of Tarquinius. But Tanaquil, pretending that the king's wound was not mortal, told the people the king would recover in a few days, and had commanded Servius to discharge the kingly office in the meantime. Servius immediately began to act as king to the great satisfaction of the people; and when the death of Tarquinius could no longer be concealed, Servius was already in firm possession of the kingly power. His greatest deeds were those of peace, and posterity looked upon him as the author of all its civil rights and institutions. Tradition credits him with a new constitution for the Roman State. He extended the boundaries of the city to include the Quirinal, Viminal and Esquiline hills. He established an important alliance with the Latins, by which Rome and the cities of Latium became the members of one great league. By his new constitution, which gave the plebs political independence, Servius incurred the hostility of the patricians, who conspired with L. Tarquinius to deprive him of his life and of his throne. His death was the subject of a legend: Servius soon after his succession gave his two daughters in marriage to the two sons of Tarquinius Priscus. L. Tarquinius, the elder, was married to a quiet and gentle wife; Aruns, the younger, to an aspiring and ambitious woman. The character of the two brothers was the very opposite of the two wives who had fallen to their lot; for Lucius was proud and haughty, but Aruns unambitious and quiet. The wife of Aruns, feeling that her husband would tamely resign the sovereignty, resolved to destroy both her father and husband. She persuaded Lucius to murder his own wife, and she murdered her own husband; and the survivors straightway married. Tullia now urged her husband to murder her father; and it is said that their design was hastened by the belief that Servius entertained the thought of laying down his kingly power, and establishing the consular form of government. The patricians were equally alarmed at this scheme; and when the conspiracy was ripe, Tarquinius entered the forum arrayed in the kingly robes, seated himself in the royal chair of the senate-house, and ordered the senators to be summoned to him as their king. At the first news of the commotion, Servius hastened to the senate-house and, standing in the doorway, ordered Tarquinius to come down from the throne. Tarquinius sprang forward, seized the old man, and flung him down the stone steps. Covered with blood, the king tried to hasten home; but before he reached it he was overtaken by the servants of Tarquinius, and murdered. Tullia drove to the senate-house and greeted her husband as king; but her transports of joy struck him with horror. He ordered her to go home, and as she was returning, her charioteer pulled up and pointed out the corpse of her father lying in his blood across the road. She commanded him to drive on; and the blood of her father spurted over the carriage and on her dress; and from that day forward the street bore the name Vicus Sceleratus, or Wicked Street. The body lay unburied, for Tarquinius said scoffingly, "Romulus too went without burial;" and this impious mockery is said to have given rise to the surname of Superbus (‘The Proud' or ‘Haughty'). Servius reigned forty-four years. His memory was long cherished by the plebians.]

Tarquinius, a son of Tarquinius Priscus, and a son-in-law of Servius Tullius, was haughty and ambitious to rule. In the 44th year of the Jewish captivity, after the death of his father-in-law, he was made a Roman king; and he reigned 35 years. He undertook to usurp the kingdom of Servius, his ancestor, by force rather than abide his time, and caused to be slain the foremost of the city, who were related to his father-in-law, together with the son of Tarquinia, his sister. And he committed many other tyrannies. This arrogance of the king the Roman people endured to the very end of his insolence, yet did not take the kingdom away from his heirs. He was the one who dishonored the beautiful Lucretia, in consequence of which she stabbed herself. On that account the kingdom did away with kings. He was finally driven out of the kingdom and murdered by Porsemia.[L. Tarquinius Superbus commenced his reign without any of the forms of election. He promptly abolished the rights conferred on the plebians by Servius. At the same time senators and patricians whom he mistrusted, or whose wealth he coveted, were put to death or driven into exile. He surrounded himself with a bodyguard, by means of which he was able to do as he pleased. His cruelty and tyranny obtained for him the name Superbus. Yet he raised Rome to great influence and power. It became the head of the Latin confederacy. n the midst of his prosperity Tarquinius fell from power through a shameful deed of one of his sons. Tarquinius and his sons were besieging Ardea, a city of the Ritulians. Here, as the sons and their cousin Tarquinius Collatinus, the son of Egerius, were feasting together, a dispute arose about the virtue of their wives. As there was no activity in the field, they mounted their horses to visit their homes by surprise. They first went to Rome where they surprised the king's daughters at a splendid banquet. They then hastened to Collatia, and there, though it was late in the night, they found Lucretia, the wife of Collatinus, spinning amid her handmaids. The beauty and virtue of Lucretia fired the evil passions of Sextus. A few days later he returned to Collatia, where he was hospitably received by Lucretia and her husband's kinsmen. In the dead of the night he entered her chamber with a drawn sword; by threatening to lay a slave with his throat cut beside her, whom he would pretend to have killed in order to avenge her husband's honor, he forced her to yield to his wishes. As soon as he departed, she sent for her husband and father. They found her in agony and sorrow. She asked them to avenge her dishonor; then she stabbed herself to death. They carried the corpse to Rome, and all classes were inflamed. The king and his family were banished from the city. War followed, some siding with the tyrant, others opposing him. His sons were slain, his allies defeated, and according to tradition Tarquinius fled to Aristobolus at Cumae, where he died a wretched and lonely death.]

Belshazzar (Balthasar), son of Evil-merodach, king of Chaldea, began to reign after his father; and he reigned 17 years. In the first year of his reign Daniel the prophet had his fourth vision. After that Belshazzar was taken prisoner, the city was surrendered to Cyrus the king of Persia, and razed to the ground, so that no sign of it remains. Cambyses, son of Cyrus, built the city that now exists, in another place.[Belshazzar was the last king of Babylon. During the siege of the city he gave a sumptuous entertainment to his courtiers, impiously making use of the Temple furnishings (of which Nebuchadnezzar had plundered the Temple of Jerusalem) as drinking vessels. In the midst of the festivities, to the terror of the king, a hand miraculously appeared, writing on the wall the words Mene, Mene, Tekel, Upharsin. Daniel explained the mystery as presaging the king's death and the kingdom's overthrow, which took place in the course of the succeeding night, when Darius the Mede captured the city (Dan. 5:25-31).]

Babylon, the great city, was captured and deprived of its power—a city which was the first and greatest of the world; it is not only hard to believe that it was built by human hands, but equally so that it was destroyed by them. The destruction was accomplished by Darius and Cyrus, the first kings of Persia.


The Lineage of Babylonian Kings is here resumed from Folio LXII verso, where it began with Merodach and Nebuchadnezzar. And now we add:

  1. Nebuchadnezzar (Nabuchodonosor) II.
  2. Evil-merodach.
  3. Regusar (Ragusar).
  4. Sabadardacus.
  5. Belshazzar (Balthasar), the last king of the Chaldeans at Babylon, who ruled jointly with his father when Babylon was besieged by Cyrus in 538 BCE. It was he who saw the handwriting on the wall, which was interpreted by Daniel.


The Lineage of the Roman Kings began at Folio LVI recto, was continued at Folio LVI verso, and is here resumed as follows:

  1. Servius Tullius.
  2. Tarquinius (Lucius).


Destruction of Babylon, a woodcut 4¼" x 6-1/8". This catastrophe is certainly not the work of Darius or Cyrus. A whole city is falling on its side and sinking into the ground. There is not a soul about—no human agency in action, no besieged and no besiegers. Nor can we believe this to be the wicked city of the Chaldeans, destroyed by the Persians more than five centuries before the Christian era. Christian churches with architecture, Roman and Gothic, built centuries later, are going down in the cataclysm. The walls of Babylon with their medieval turrets are almost completely sunk into the ground. The woodcut would have served better for an earthquake at Nuremberg than the destruction of Babylon.


At this time, as Orosius says, the night was almost converted into day; and a hail of very hard stones rained down from the clouds.

Here begin the weeks of Daniel (as Bede notes), concerning which scholars have had great controversies and misunderstandings among themselves.

When in the sixth year of Darius the Temple of the Lord was completed, Joiakim (Joachim), the high priest, together with the other priests, praised God by the blowing of trumpets and high festivities.


Eliashib (Elizaphat), a high priest of the Hebrews, came to this honorable office, as Eusebius says, after his father Joiakim; and he held it for 32 years. He is deserving of much praise, for by his wisdom he obtained from Artaxerxes the Persian king, for the servants of the church, freedom from tax and tribute, and the power to change the judges.

Eliakim (Eliachim), in the Year of the World 4759.[This statement does not occur in the German edition of the .]

Joiada (Judas), the fourth high priest, lived in the time of Mordecai, and to him he wrote letters from the city of Susa (Susis) in Persia concerning the good luck attending certain days. He was a man of great learning and piety, but he met much opposition.

Jonathan (Iohannes), son of Joiada the high priest, and fifth high priest of the Hebrews, had a brother named Jesus (Iesus), who coveted the office of high priest; and in that he was encouraged by Vagosus, a prefect beyond the seas, to whom he was specially related. He drew his brother into an argument, and enticing him into the Temple, killed him. As a result of which Vagosus carried away the treasures of the Temple.[Jeshua begat Joiakim, who begat Eliashib, who begat Joiada, who begat Jonathan, who begat Jaddus (Neh. 12:10-11).]

Azor, in the Year of the World 4809.[This statement does not occur in the German edition of the .]

Of this Sadoc (Sadoch; referring to the portrait opposite) (in the Year of the World 4859) [The phrase in the parenthesis does not occur in the German edition of the .] we know nothing except what Matthew has mentioned of him in the genealogy of Christ, in his first chapter.[]

Jeremiah (Hieremias) prophesied for the last time in Egypt; and as he there admonished the people for their sins he was stoned at Tahpanhes (Taphnas) and was buried at the same place. This is where the Pharaoh lived for a time.[This is a repetition of a portion of the text as found at Folio LV verso.]

Ezekiel (Ezechiel), the prophet, having admonished certain people, and by doing making them angry against him, was dragged by horses over the stones until his brains fell out. He was buried in the grave of Shem, the son of Noah, and of Arphaxad (Arphaxat) his (Shem's) son.[A variation of the theme at Folio LXI verso.]

Zecharias (Zacharias) and Haggai (Aggeus), in the second year of Darius, upbraided the people because they were too lax in the rebuilding of the Temple; and they admonished Zorobabel (Sorobabel), and in consequence he spoke to the king, who gave his assent to the work. And the people were aroused to complete the Temple. After many good works and the completion of the Temple, Zecharias died; and he was buried beside Haggai, the prophet.

Lucretia (Lucrecia) was a Roman matron, and above all women chaste, beautiful, elegant, and famous. She was the wife of Collatinus, and killed herself because her chastity was violated by Sextus Tarquinius, son of the haughty Tarquinius. Therefore Tarquinius was driven out; and so ended the Roman line of kings—seven in number, who reigned over a period of 240 years.[The seven Roman kings were Romulus, Numa Pompilius, Tullius Hostilius, Ancus Martius, Tarquinius Priscus, Servius Tullius, and Lucius Tarquinius (Folios LVI recto and verso, and LXV recto).]


The Priestly Lineage is here continued from Folio LXIV verso:

  1. Eliashib (here called Elizaphat), son of Joiakim.
  2. Joida (Joiade, or Judas).
  3. Jonathan (Johannes), son of Joiada.


The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LXIV verso:

  1. Solomon's Temple (Templum Salomonis), a small woodcut, is injected into the genealogic panel without explanation. It represents a circular structure with a low dome, and is approached by a grand staircase. In addition to this there are several small structures in the nature of entries or forehalls to the Temple. The main building is crowned by a tri-lobed object resembling a fully developed tomato.
  2. Eliakim (Eliachim), son of Abiud, Folio LXIV verso.
  3. Azor, son of Eliakim.
  4. Sadoc (Sadoch), son of Azor.


Jeremiah (Hieremias), Ezekiel (Ezechiel) and Zechariah (Zacharias) are each represented by a very small woodcut. The portraits are commonplace, though the German edition, as it does in so many of these cases, replaces all three with different portraits.


Lucretia is honored by a distinctive portrait, hardly adaptable to any other subject. Headdress and gown are strictly medieval. With her right hand she firmly holds a sword, proportionately at least thirty inches long, which she has plunged into her body, just below the waist line, and it has come out of her back, the point of the sword being as high as the top of her head. Throughout her suicide she retains the elegantia that the Chronicle ascribes to her.


A number of enlightened men have written upon the beauty and mighty architecture of the Temple and its ground plans; and particularly so was the divine prophet Ezekiel; for in the twenty-fifth year of the Babylonian captivity, which was also the thirty-third year of the reign of Nebuchadnezzar, in the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of which, the hand of the Lord was upon Ezekiel. And a spirit took him up on a high mountain in the land of Israel, and indicated to him the construction of this city on a mount, and of the Temple.

The Vision of the Temple, given in the last nine chapters of Ezekiel, is, as its title makes clear, a vision and description of the new temple which Ezekiel saw from a high mountain in the 25th year of the Captivity and the 14th after the destruction of the holy city. Although a few commentators maintain it was but a description from memory of Solomon's Temple, the majority hold that it has to do with future events. These latter differ according as they see in it a mere prophetic picture of Zerubbabel's Temple, or a vague announcement of some future blessing, or some kind of Messianic prophecy. Its historical foundation is undoubtedly the first Temple and the hidden springs of the sacred mount, but upon this foundation the writer builds a superstructure of allegory (at least that is the way it was read by late Christians).

As some authorities observe, the description of the new Jerusalem and its temple is not to be taken literally. It is but a visionary city and temple that are here dealt with. And although the vision remained a dream, it seems to have had its influence on the plan of the actual Temple of the future. This is to be noted in the emphasis laid throughout on the sacrosanct character of the sanctionary. The whole sacred area covered by the Temple and its courts is to be protected from contact with secular buildings.
How the vision came about is thus set forth in the Book of Ezekiel 40:1-5:

In the five and twentieth year of our captivity, in the beginning of the year, in the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after that the city was struck, in the selfsame day the hand of the Lord was upon me, and brought me to there. In visions God brought me into the land of Israel, and set me upon a very high mountain, by which was as the frame of a city on the south. And he brought me there, and behold, there was man, whose appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in his hand, and a measuring reed; and he stood in the gate. And the man said to me, Son of man, behold with your eyes and hear with your ears, and set your heart upon all that I shall show you. . . . Declare all you see to the house of Israel.

And since his vision of the city on the mount and of the Temple as shown him by the spirit is somewhat vague and obscure, we have been obliged to amplify it to some extent by illustrations. Although certain teachers have looked upon this as a vision of the spiritual temple of Christ and of the Church, yet Victor has interpreted it as a material temple, which, according to the ancient Hebrews, was built by Zerubbabel (Zorobabel) and Nehemiah (Neemias) in conformity with Ezekiel's vision, on the return of the Jews from the Babylonian captivity. Although some hold a contrary view, the more modern Hebrews asserts that this vision will be fulfilled in the future Messiah, who will rule with power. So we will show the Temple by illustrations and but a small amount of text.


‘The First Figure of the Temple Edifice as Shown to Ezekiel over the Mountain' (Prima figura edificii templi ostensa Ezechieli super montem). This is a very simple drawing consisting of three squares, one within the other, and representing the inner, middle and outer walls of the Temple, the three spaces within each square being respectively designated as follows:

  1. Locus vulgi in hoc spatio per circuitum; or ‘the place of the multitude, which is in this surrounding space.'
  2. Atrium exterius in hoc spatio per circuitum; or ‘outer court which is in this surrounding space.'
  3. Atrium interius; or ‘inner court.'


‘The Second Figure, to Facilitate Understanding' (Secunda figura ad facilius capiendum), consists of a design similar in general outline to the first illustration, but to it are added the following details:

  1. The directions in which the walls face, namely, East (Oriens), North (Aquilo), West (Occidens), and South (Auster), are given in Latin. It will be noted in this and succeeding designs that North appears on our right, South on our left; East is at the lower margin of the design, West at the upper.
  2. The gates are shown as at right angles they pass through the middle of the three walls in succession on all sides except the West (Occidens), which has no gate. The three sets of gates are thus indicated:
    1. Tres portae orientales, or ‘three eastern gates';
    2. Tres portae aquilonares, or ‘three northern gates';
    3. Tres portae australes, or ‘three southern gates'.


‘The Succeeding Two Figures Represent the Ornamentation of the Gate' (Sequentes duae figurae ornatum portae repraesentant) is respectively the ground plan and front elevation of the East Gate:

  1. The Ground Plan, entitled Figura repraesentens situm portae orientalis, porticus &c ut in glosa. Et idem intelligendum de aliis duabus portis eiusdem muri qui sunt similes (‘Figure representing the location of the East Gate, the porch, etc., as in the caption. The same must be understood concerning the other two gates of the same wall, which are similar'), begins at the lower end of the illustration, where we find ourselves on the outside of the ‘East side of the outer wall' (Latus orientale muri exterioris). Through this we pass by the ‘East Gate of the outer wall' (Porta orientalis muri exterioris), into an open space marked Oriens (‘East'), and here we find ourselves at the entrance of a ‘forecourt' (Vestibulum), on either side of which are ‘three little chambers' (Tres thalami). Having gained access to the porch or forecourt, we pass through the ‘East Gate of the middle wall' (Porta orientalis muri medii). On either side of this gate are circles, inscribed to indicate that here is the façade, front or brow (Situs frontis) of the gate. Beyond this is the ‘Porch of the East Gate of the outer court against the middle wall' (Porticus portae orientalis atrii exterioris muri medii).
  2. The Front Elevation of the East Gate is represented by a drawing entitled Aspectus altitudinis portae orientalis atrii exteriore, et idem intelligendum de aliis duabus (‘Front elevation of the East Gate of the outer court, and the same must be understood concerning the other two'). At the lower end of this elevation we find the outer wall, and behind it, on either side a small house with tiled roof, no doubt intended to represent the three little chambers mentioned by Ezekiel and shown in the ground plan opposite. A medieval door with ornamental hinges admits us through the middle wall, above which are chambers which are designated:
    1. Mansio superior portae orientalis, altitudinis XXV cubitorum (‘Upper abode of the East Gate, 25 cubits in height'); and
    2. Mansio inferior altitudinis XXV cubitorum (‘Lower abode, 25 cubits in height'). On either side of these chambers is a circular turret, also two stories in height, with crenellated crown and cone-shaped roof, on the apex of which is a knob out of which proceed three palm branches. Ezekiel makes no mention of turrets, unless the word "posts" is to be so interpreted. He states that "upon each post were palm trees" (40:16, 22, 26, 37). Upon each of these turrets is the inscription, Frons portae altitudinis L cubitorum (‘Front of the gate, 50 cubits in height'). The author explains that in speaking of the gate of the castle these turrets are called the frons (‘front' or ‘forehead') (Folio LXVII recto). Schedel and his woodcutters have attempted to work out this visionary temple of Ezekiel in terms of medieval architecture, and in doing so they have added many details, both in text and by way of illustrations, which were not envisaged by the prophet. Compare with Ezekiel 40-48.


These illustrations occupy all of Folio LXVI verso, without text except as noted on the illustrations themselves, which appear in the following order:


The first illustration covers the full width of the page and about one-fourth of its depth. It has no title itself, though a title for the entire page is given in the illustration of the elevation below it. There, the two lines of text, with two straight lines above and below the words, reads: Figura posterioris partis edificii templi secundum lineas fundamentales Ezechielis XII (‘Figure of the rear part of the Temple edifice according to the groundplan measurements, Ezekiel 12'). This Biblical reference has no application to the subject in hand. True, chapter 12 treats of a vision of the prophet, in the course of which Ezekiel was informed that "the cities that are inhabited shall be laid waste, and the land shall be desolate." (Ezekiel 12:20); while the Temple vision is covered by chapters 40-48. The cardinal points as given in this illustration are: Auster (South), found on the left; Aquilo (North), on the right; Occidens (West), found at the top of the plan, and Oriens (East), at the bottom. The drawing shows the following details:

  1. The Walls:
    1. Outer Wall: Murus exterior australis (‘Outer wall to the south'); Murus exterior occidentalis (‘Outer wall to the west'); and Murus Aquilonaris exterior (‘Outer wall to the north'). All these designations refer to the same wall, of which only that portion is shown which confines the rear structures of what we may call a Temple city.
    2. Middle Wall: Murus medius australis (‘Middle wall to the south'); Murus medius occidentalis (‘Middle wall to the west'); and Murus Medius aquilonaris (‘Middle wall to the north'). What has been observed with reference to the Outer Wall is also true here.
    3. Wall of the Outer Court: Murus atrii exterioris (‘Wall of the Outer Court'), the inscription found at the foot of the plan, refers to a wall which is not to be confused with the outer and middle walls above referred to. It is the wall which divides the portion of the Temple here shown from that lying below it (See complete plan, Folio LXVII verso). The passage through this wall really connects with a chamber one hundred cubits square, not here shown, which contains the Altar of the Burnt Offerings. And so, through this passage we proceed upward (actually westward), to inspect the rear of the Temple structure, remembering that the word "temple" includes a number of buildings in the manner of a city.
  2. The Promenade: Deambulatorium, longitudinis C cubitores, latitudinis X (‘Promenade, length 100 cubits, width 10'). Immediately before us is the Temple proper.
  3. The Temple: We enter through the Porticus (porch), to either side of which are circular structures, round towers, designated as coclea . From the porch we enter the Sanctum , and from thence we proceed to the Sanctum Sanctorum , or Holy of the Holies, which none but the high priest might enter, and he only once a year, on the day of solemn expiation. So by way of the Sanctum and porch we leave these inner chambers to examine the Temple exterior. All about it on three sides, south, west, and north, are a number of small chambers, twenty-four, according to count, which connect with one another in the interior, but to which, according to the plan, there is no access from either sanctum, or from the outside. The text does not enlighten us on this point, nor does Ezekiel give us any description of these twenty-four chambers. In a long court to the left of the Temple structure and its accompanying little chambers, we find the inscriptions Longitudo edificii centum cubitorum (‘Length of the edifice 100 cubits'), and Appenditia templi australia (‘Appendages to the Temple on the south'). On the right, in a similar elongated court, are the inscriptions Appenditia templi aquilonaris (‘Appendages to the Temple on the north'); the second being the words Longitudo centum cubitorum (‘Length 100 cubits'). Above the structure (west) are the words Appenditia templi occidentalis (‘Appendages to the Temple, on the west'). In this latter case the dimension is not given. No doubt the small chambers, in series, constitute the "appendages" or wings, about the Temple structure, to which these inscriptions refer; for there is no such inscription at the Temple front where we enter, and where of course there are no such chambers.
  4. Outbuildings: The chronicler states that there were two other buildings, each 100 cubits in length and 50 cubits in width, one of the south (left), the other to the north (right), and each 20 cubits removed from the Temple itself (Folio LXVII recto). What their use was we do not know. Each building has two large chambers with an outside entrance but no communicating doors. We consider first the structure to the left (or south) of the Temple proper: It is inscribed Latitudo L cubitorum (‘breadth fifty cubits'). The chamber immediately before us (east) contains the words Pars orientalis edificii australis (‘East part of the edifice to the south'); while the adjoining chamber is inscribed Pars posterior edificii australia (‘Rear part of the edifice to the south'). Let us next consider the structure to the right (north): the chamber immediately before us (east) is inscribed Pars orientalis edificii aquilonaris (‘East part of the edifice to the north'); while the adjoining chamber is entitled Pars posterior edificii aquilonaris (‘Rear part of the edifice to the north'). Over the breadth of this building are the words Longitude L cubitorum (‘Length fifty cubits'), which should have read Latitudo L cubitorum (‘Breadth fifty cubits').


Elevation of the East Gate and Appendages. Immediately below the ground plan of the rear portion of the Temple structure (Folio LXVI verso) is the Aspectus altitudinis templi portae orientalis et appenditorum secundum ipsum Ezechielem XII (‘Elevation of the east gate of the Temple, and its appendages, according to Ezekiel XII itself'). The illustration portrays a medieval structure, the general features of which give the impression of a castle, or other fortified place; but the windows and doors are purely gothic, even to the extent of stained glass and a rose window above the door. The structure is three stories in height and flanked on either side by towers of the same altitude, designated coclea. The walls are crenellated, and the roofs of the towers cone-shaped; but the palm branches are omitted. The stories of the structure are inscribed:

  1. Mansio templi inferior habens XL cubitos altitudinis. (‘Lower abode of the Temple, having an altitude of 40 cubits').
  2. Mansio media templi habens XL cubitos in altitudine. (‘Middle abode of the Temple which has a height of 40 cubits').
  3. Mansio templi superior habens 40 cubitos altitudinis. (‘Upper abode of the Temple which has a height of 40 cubits').

To the left of this imposing façade, and apparently but not actually leaning against the same, is a miniature three-story appendage or wing, beside which we find this inscription: Haec appendentia stant retro coclea sed qui non possunt sic depingi. Ideo hic posita sunt (‘These appendages stand behind the tower, but they are not able to be depicted thus. Therefore they are placed here').


Elevation of the North Edifice. To the right of the foregoing, being the lower right hand corner of the page is a small three-story structure with crenellated walls but no towers. It is entitled Aspectus edificii aquilonaris secundum altitudinem et longitudinem secundum Ezech. XII. Et simile edificium debet imaginari situatum esse in parte australi templi (‘Elevation of the north edifice according to its height and length, according to Ezekiel XII. And a similar edifice should be imagined to have been situated on the south part of the Temple'). All this undoubtedly refers to the outbuildings on either side of the Temple itself, and which are shown on the ground plan of the rear portion of the Temple properties (Folio LXI verso, first illustration).

Temple Illustrations continued on Folio LXVII verso.


When the Jews were taken into captivity at Babylon with Jehoiachin (Joachim) king of Judah, the divine prophet Ezekiel, together with Mordecai (Mordecheo), was also taken there. In the eleventh year of Zedekiah, Jerusalem and the Temple were destroyed. Fourteen years later, Ezekiel had his vision of the future. The Temple, as the illustrations show, was made up of various houses, like a city. Its walls were fortified like those of a city. The mount on which the city was built was lower in the south than in the north. And the angel stood in the gate of the outer wall, and spoke; and he measured with a rod larger than an ordinary one. One side of the Temple faced east, another west; one north, the other south. In all there were three walls—inner, middle and outer. The space between the middle and inner walls was called the outer forecourt; and the space between the middle and outer walls was a place for the common people; for pagans also came to worship there. The whole square structure was built in part on level ground and in part on the slope of the mount. No distinction is here made in the illustration between elevated and level ground, but both are shown as one view. To clarify the matter, the first illustration is given.

In the middle of the outer wall to the east was an opening ten cubits wide; likewise in the second and third walls; and these gates faced each other. In the sides of the walls facing to the north and to the south were similar gates, as the second illustration shows.

Because of the slope of the mount, the east gate had steps; and so the common people of the city were obliged to ascend seven steps to the gate. The court before the opening in the middle wall had a width of five cubits from east to west, and a length of fifteen from north to south; and it also had a fore-structure at the opening of the middle wall, and it led from a part of the inner wall, over the middle, into the forecourt outside, eight cubits. And the height of the fore-structure was fifty cubits, measured from the ground. Beside the two small rear doors of the gate are two towers to adorn the entrance, which in case of the gates of a castle are called the foreheads (frontes). The towers are sixty cubits high and at their apex are carved knobs and palm leaves. Before those towers were six chambers. These details are illustrated by two drawings: The first, according to scale, shows the position of the gate, forecourt, chambers and front; the second, the elevation of the forecourt and the front of the east gate. The superstructure over the gate has two chambers, one above, the other below, with narrow windows. Behind the gate of the second wall, between the middle and the third wall, was a paved court, about which were thirty treasure chambers; ten to the south side, and containing one hundred cubits; four in part of the outer court, and four at another end of the same gate, and these, together with the gate, also contained one hundred cubits. The other two were at the chambers of the gate, against the east side of the inner court, one on either side. These, together with the chambers, contained one hundred cubits. To distinguish between the chambers and treasure chambers, the latter were red.[Ezekiel 40:6-19.] The gates to the north and south were like the east gate; and the appearance of the gates and forecourts was also similar to the inner and outer walls. Ingress to the front of the structure was by various gates. There they washed the tables of flesh to be used in the sin offering. Beside this were two walls, on either side of the entrance; and before these, in the fore-structure or forecourt, were two columns as in Solomon's Temple. However, the length of the walls of the Temple was one hundred cubits, the height one hundred twenty; the width within the walls, twenty cubits. The two walls contained twelve cubits; the pillars along the walls, ten cubits; the width of those before these, eight cubits; and the wall there about had ten cubits. Altogether, according to computation, this gives seventy cubits, as Ezekiel shows. After this, on the inside, was the Sanctum Sanctorum (Holy of Holies). The other part, on the inside, was called the Temple, as in the tabernacle of Moses the outer part was called the tabernacle. The wall, which was not very high and did not support upper chambers, divided the Sanctum and Sanctum Sanctorum. The length was twenty cubits. There were also six apses on the outside of the Temple toward the east. Also on the north side, which is much longer. Likewise toward the south, which has the same length, there were thirty apses. To the east there were none, for here was the entrance to the Temple. There were also columns outside the walls, as in other buildings, three toward the west, two on the ends, and one in the middle; and they were five cubits distant. They had holes in three ends, one above the other, wherein drains were laid, as prescribed. The first was six cubits from the ground, and likewise distant, one from the other; and so in the elevation of the walls of the Temple there were eighteen cubits. The lower chamber of the Temple to the first tabernacle was (as in the Temple of Solomon) thirty cubits; and so the light might come through the windows without hindrance, there remained ten cubits. Beside the Temple, to the north and to the south, were two buildings twenty cubits from the Temple walls. They were one hundred cubits in length and fifty in breadth. To make these matters understood, three drawings are given: The first shows the rear, according to ground plan; the second shows the front elevation; the third shows the elevations of the buildings to the north and south, which are alike. The altar was made in sections; the first, on the ground, called the foundation, was one cubit in height; the second, recessed by one cubit, was two cubits high and was called the small hole; the third, also recessed, was four cubits, and was called the great hole; the fourth, also four cubits high, was called Ariel (Arieb). So the height of the altar from the ground was eleven cubits. Water flowed as from three live springs from the Sanctum Sanctorum down through the Temple, slightly to the right; and from there down to the forecourt of the Temple, and then to the inner forecourt from west to east. Some say that the waters, before they flowed to the forecourt, were externally divided into four branches, and thereafter, as one stream, came from the inner walls of the east gate. Some disregard this theory. And so were completed the structure and appurtenances of the Temple. Now follows one illustration of the whole structure, which has already been shown in sections, according to the ground plan of all these things.

(G) Consolidated Ground Plan of the Temple Structures.

Covering all of Folio LXVII verso is a consolidated ground plan of the Temple and all its appurtenant structures. The marginal directions are indicated in the usual manner: At the foot of the drawing is Oriens (‘East'); at the top is Occidens (‘West'); to the left, Auster (‘South'), and to the right, Aquilo (‘North').

  1. The Three Walls
    • Outer Wall:
      1. At the top of the plan (West): Murus exterior in circuitum habens in quolibet laterum quingentos calamos (‘Exterior wall roundabout, having on each of its side's fifty calamos'[Calamos are reeds. The Hebrew reed is supposed to have been about eleven feet long.]).
      2. At the foot of the plan (East): Latus orientale muri exterioris (‘East side of the outer wall').
      3. To the right (North): Latus aquilonare muri exterioris (‘North side of the outer wall').
      4. To the left (South): Latus australi muri exterioris (‘South side of the outer wall').
    • Middle Wall:
      1. The middle wall has but one inscription, found at the head of the plan: Murus medio cuius determinato quantitas in circuitum quattuor laterae est incerta (‘Middle wall, the extent of whose boundary roundabout, on its four sides, is uncertain').
    • Inner Wall:
      1. And so the inner wall has but one inscription: Murus interior in circuitum cingens atrium (‘Inner wall which girds the courtyard roundabout').
  2. Gates and Outer Courts

    The Temple grounds face east, as indicated at the foot of the plan. The three walls, outer, middle and inner, each have gates to the east, north and south, which are in direct line with one another. There are no openings in outer or middle wall to the west, although there seems to be a west gate leading from the rear of the inner court in the direction of the Temple proper.

    The gates through the outer wall all bear the same inscription, Porta muri exterioris (‘Gate of the outer wall').

    The gates through the middle wall, leading to a tiled court or pavement in each case, are designated on the left and right sides of the drawing as Porta atrii exterioris (‘Gate to the outer court'). This inscription is omitted in case of the East gate because the line of direction which runs through that gate occupies the place where such inscription would have to appear. The paved courts are called "outer" because they are to the outer side of the great central court in which the altar is located. The gates through the middle and inner walls are indicated to have been of the same construction, with one minor exception which will be noted presently. In case of the middle wall, we approach each gate through a vestibule (Vestibulum), on either side of which are three small chambers (Tres thalami). On either side of the gate itself is a circular tower or turret, which are designated by the word frons, meaning ‘front', ‘forehead', or ‘brow' of the gate; for, as the chronicler reminds us in the text, these turrets or towers, in technical phrase, are called the forehead in case of a castle. As we leave the outer vestibule and pass through the gate of the middle wall we find ourselves on a porch (Porticus). And as we stand on this porch, inside the middle wall, there lies before us, whether we have entered by the east, north or south, a paved area or outer court. These outer courts are respectively inscribed as follows:

    • Pavimentum orientale (‘East Pavement')
    • Pavimentum australe (‘South Pavement')
    • Pavimentum aquilonare (‘North Pavement')

  3. Inner Court and Its Gates

    In the center of the plan and girded by the inner wall we find the Atrium interius centum cubitorum in quadrato (‘Inner court which is one hundred cubits on each of four sides'). There are four gates, including the rear passage to the Temple itself and which is really not a gate. The gates proper that lead into the inner court from the three outer pavements on the east, north and south, are similar in construction and detail to the gates through the middle wall. As we leave the pavement and approach the inner court we come upon a vestibule (vestibulum), and before we pass through the inner wall we proceed to a porch (porticus), to either side of which are three small chambers (Tres or 3 thalami). Note that the porch in this instance is on the outside of the wall while in case of the middle wall the porch was on the inside and the vestibule on the outside. The gates through the inner wall, from the right and the left, are designated as Porta atrii interioris (‘Gate of the inner court'). These words do not appear on the east gate, probably for lack of room.

    The principal piece of furniture in this inner court was the ‘Altar of the Burnt Offering' (Altare holocausti).

  4. Smaller Courts and Chambers
    1. In each of the four corners of the middle wall a small court (Atriolum) is indicated. For what it was used is not mentioned in the text nor by the prophet.

    2. According to Ezekiel, the man "whose appearance was like the appearance of brass, with a line of flax in his hand, and a measuring reed" took him to the east gate of the grounds, and having entered, he brought him "into the outward court, and lo, there were chambers, and a pavement made for the court round about: thirty chambers were upon the pavement." (Ezekiel 40:17) And so on either side of the East Pavement or court we find a series of ‘fifteen treasure chambers' (Gazophilatia quindecim).

    3. "And without the inner gate was the chambers of the singers in the inner court, which was at the side of the north gate; and their prospect was toward the south: One at the side of the east gate having the prospect toward the north." (Ezekiel 40:44) And so we find indicated on the ground plan, in the lower right hand corner (north east corner) of the central or inner court two small chambers entitled Gazophilatia cantorum (‘Chambers of the Singers').

      "And he said to me, This chamber whose prospect is toward the south is for the priests, the keepers of the charge of the house." (Ezekiel 40:45) And so we find also indicated in the central or inner court, in the lower left hand (southeast) corner of it an apartment entitled Gazophilatia latium sacerdotum minorum (‘Side chamber for the lesser priests').

      "And the chamber whose prospect is toward the north is for the priests, the keepers of the charge of the altar: these are the sons of Zadok among the sons of Levi, which come near to the Lord to minister unto him." (Ezekiel 40:46) This chamber is indicated in the upper right hand corner of the inner court in close proximity to the altar, and is entitled Gazophiliam filiorum Sadoch (‘Chamber for the sons of Zadok').

  5. The Temple

    Three chapters of Ezekiel (41-43) are devoted to a description of the Temple proper, and in connection with the illustrations on the verso of Folio LXVI we have already described the rear portion of the consolidated plan, which was there given separately. If we follow the irregular line on the consolidated plan which begins at the east or lower portion of it, we find ourselves passing through the gate of the outer wall, the vestibule gate and porch of the inner wall, over the pavement of the outer court in the east, through the vestibule, porch and inner wall, through the inner court, and as we veer slightly to the left we pass the altar, make our exit through the rear door of the inner court and find ourselves on the promenade before the porch of the Temple proper. And so we proceed through the Sanctum, and do not find ourselves halted until we reach the door of the Sanctum Sanctorum. And here our journey ends.

    The irregular line beginning at the Sanctum Sanctorum probably represents the stream of water flowing through the precincts of the Temple, and out of the East Gate of the outer wall.


Verona or Bern, the beautiful and picturesque city of the Venetians, lying against the mountains (as Justinus[Justinus = Justin. See note to Folio XLVIII verso.] , quoting Trogus Pompeius, says) was, with Milan (Mediolanum), Brescia (Brixia)[Brixia, the modern Brescia, was originally a town in Gallia Cisalpina on the road from Comum to Aquileia, through which the river Mella flowed. It submitted to the Romans in 225 BCE, and in 27 BCE Augustus founded a civil colony here. It was plundered by Attila in 425 CE, but became the seat of a duchy in the Lombard period. In 1258, it fell into the hands of Eccelino of Verona and belonged to the Scaligers (della Scala) until 1421, when it came under the Visconti of Milan and in 1426 under the dominion of Venice.] and Bergomum,[Bergamo, anciently Bergomum, was originally the tribal center of the Orobii in Gallia Cisalpina, between Comum and Brixia. It is located at the foot of the alps northeast of Milan. After destruction by Attila, it became the capital of a Lombard duchy. From 1264 to 1428 it was under Milan, but then became Venetian, and so it remained until 1797.] built by the Gauls, who were conquered by the Romans; although some, including Siccardo of Cremona, says that it was built earlier, and after the destruction of Troy. Through it flows the Athesis,[Athesis, the Adige or Etach, rises in the Rhaetian Alps, flows past Verona and into the Adriatic.] by which it is made picturesque and secure. The river is of use in the transportation of merchandise and fruit. The fields about it produce good fruit—all sorts of apples, oil, various kinds of wine, as well as wool, out of which the soft and beautiful Italian cloth is made; and in this the Italians by reason of good pastures carry on an extraordinary trade. The fields and meadows give city and country a natural and pleasant aspect. Balbus, a high mountain, produces various kinds of herbs and roots and these are gathered to promote the health of the living. In the fields are natural springs. The Romans also found this city agreeable and set up an amphitheater and other buildings there. Many high structures, beautiful temples and strongholds were erected, including the castles of the kings of the Goths and Lombards. Wine is grown here which has an exceptionally agreeable taste. This wine (as Cassiodorus[Cassiodorus, Magnus Aurelius, was a distinguished statesman and one of the few men of learning at the downfall of the Western Empire. He was born about 468 CE, and came of an ancient and wealthy Roman family. He enjoyed the full confidence of Theodoric the Great and his successors, and under a variety of different titles he conducted for a long series of years the government of the Ostrogothic kingdom. At 70 he retired to the monastery of Viviera, which he founded in his native province, and there passed the last 30 years of his life. His time was devoted to study and the composition of elementary treatises on history, metaphysics, the seven liberal arts and divinity. His leisure hours were employed in the construction of philosophical toys, such as sun-dials, water-clocks, etc.] states) was brought in ships on the Athesis and over the sea to Rome by Theodoric (Theodatum)[Theodoric, surnamed the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, was at first an ally of Zeno, the emperor of Constantinople but was afterwards involved in hostilities with him. In order to get rid of Theodoric, Zeno gave him permission to invade Italy, and expelled the usurper Odoacer from the country. Theodoric entered Italy in 489, defeated Odoacer in three great battles, and finally became master of Italy, ruling it for 33 years till his death in 526. His long reign was prosperous and beneficent. He was a patron of literature, and among his ministers were Cassiodorus and Boethius, the two last writers who can claim a place in the literature of ancient Rome.], the third king of the Ostrogoths, who highly prized it. There is also much history connected with the place. Attila, king of the Goths, burned and destroyed the city. Here also Alboin (Alboninus)[Alboin, king of the Lombards and barbarian conqueror of northern Italy, succeeded his father Audoin about 565. The Lombards at that time were engaged in constant war with the Gepidae. Alboin finally destroyed them, slew their king Cunimund in battle, and married his daughter Rosamund. On April 1, 568 he assembled his people with a great number of allies to cross the Alps and form a new settlement in Italy—a migration rather than an invasion. The Roman defenses were overrun and Lombard rule was established in northern Italy. But Alboin was murdered at the instigation of his wife whom he insulted by making her drink wine from her father's skull. ], the first king of the Lombards, was killed by his wife Rosamund. And here the Emperor Rudolphus defeated the Emperor Berengarius, and killed him. Here also the noble House of La Scala was in power, and ruled illustriously for seventy years.[The reference is to the great Della Scala family, whose name is Latinized to Scaliger, and is given in the German as "von der Leiter", there being a ladder in the coat of arms. To this family belonged two great scholars, Julius Caesar Scaliger (1484 to 1558), and Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540 to 1609), the greatest scholar of his day. For a fuller consideration of this house, see Folio CCXXIII verso).] Then the city came into the hands of the Venetians. Here, as in other noted cities, flourished distinguished men. Zeno was the first bishop of Verona. He wrote much in interpretation of the Old and the New Testaments.[St. Zeno, or Zenone, the eighth bishop of Verona, was famous for his learning and for the piety of his life. According to some traditions he reduxit Veronam ad baptismum (‘led Verona back to baptism,' i.e., rechristianized the city). His writings have come down to the present day, and besides their doctrine and devotion, also have some literary merit. He died about 380 or 390.] Eusebius states that Aemilius Marius was a poet of Verona, and that he died in Asia. And later came Catullus, the poet,[Valerius Catullus, a Roman poet, was born at Verona, or in the immediate vicinity, in 87 BCE. He inherited considerable property from his father, who was the friend of Julius Caesar. His extant works consist of 116 poems— lyrics, elegies, epigrams, etc; while the Wedding of Pellus and Thetis, in 409 hexameter lines, is a ‘little epic'. He adorned all he touched, and his shorter poems are characterized by original invention and felicity of expression. In fact, Catullus is now considered one of the greatest of all Roman poets.] and the two Plinys, as well as Guarino, a celebrated orator[Guarino da Verona (1370-1460) was one of the restorers of classical learning. He was born at Verona, and studied Greek at Constantinople, where for five years he was the pupil of Manuel Chrysolaras. In 1436 he became professor of Greek at Ferrara, where he died in 1460. His principal works are translations of Strabo and of some of the Lives of Plutarch, a compendium of the Greek grammar of Chrysolaras, and a series of commentaries on Persius, Juvenal, Martial, and on some of the writings of Aristotle and Cicero.] ; and there were many others.

Verona is an important town in what was anciently Gallia Cisalpina, on the river Athesis, now called the Adige. It belonged to the Cenomani, a Gaulish tribe, whose chief town was Brixia. It became a Latin colony in 89 BCE. Its territory stretched as far as Hostilia on the Padus (Po), thirty miles to the south. It lay on the road between Mediolanum and Aquileia, while here diverged to the north the roads over the Brenner. It was the birthplace of the poet Catullus. In 69 CE, it became the headquarters of the legions which were siding with Vespasian. It was defended by a river along two-thirds of its circumference. The existing remains of walls and gates date back to the year 265. The emperor Constantine, while advancing toward Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here too that Odoacer was defeated in 499 by Theodoric the Goth, known to the German writers as Dietrich von Bern, after whom the town was named Dietrich Bern, to distinguish it from Berne in Switzerland. He built a castle at Verona, and frequently resided there. He enlarged the fortified area by constructing a wall and ditch (now called Adigetto), to the southwest of the amphitheatre, and also built baths and restored aqueducts, which had long been out of use.

In the Middle Ages Verona gradually grew in size and importance. Alboin, the Lombard king, captured it in 568, and it was one of the chief residences of the Lombards and later of the Frankish monarchs. It rose to importance under the rule of the Della Scala family. The first prominent member of this family and founder of his dynasty was Mastino I, della Scala, who ruled over the city from 1260 till his death in 1277. Verona had previously fallen under Ezzelino da Romano (1227-1259). Alberto della Scala was succeeded by his eldest son Bartholomew, who was confirmed as ruler of Verona by popular vote, and died in 1304. It was at this time that Romeo and Juliet are said to have lived. Alboino, the second son, succeeded his brother, and died in 1311, when the youngest son of Alberto, Can Grande, who since 1308 had been joint-lord of Verona with his brother, succeeded to the undivided power. Can Grande was the best and most illustrious of his line, and is specially famous as the hospitable patron of Dante. The dynasty lasted for rather more than a century.

In 1387 Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duke of Milan, became by conquest lord of Verona. Soon after his death the city fell by treacherous means into the hands of Francesco II, di Carrara, lord of Padua. In 1404-5 Verona, together with Padua, was finally conquered by Venice, and remained subject to the Venetians until the overthrow of the Republic by Napoleon in 1797, who ceded it to Austria in the same year with the rest of Venetia.

The Roman remains of Verona surpass those of any other city in northern Italy. The most conspicuous of them is the great amphitheatre, which closely resembled the Colosseum in Rome. Its axes measured 505 and 404 feet. It was partly thrown down by an earthquake in 1183, and was subsequently used to supply building materials. The interior, with seats for about 25,000 people, has been restored.


The woodcuts of Verona in the Latin and German editions of the Chronicle are different.

THE BEGINNING OF THE KINGDOM OF THE PERSIANS[This title does not exist in the German edition of the .]

Cyrus the first and mightiest king of the Persians, in this year, being the 30th of the Captivity of the Jews, and the 55th Olympiad, founded the kingdom and empire of Persia; and he reigned 30 years. He was a grandson of Astyages, king of the Medes by his daughter Mandane. As Herodotus and Justinus state, Cyrus defeated this same Astyages, and added his kingdom to Persia. After subjugating many of the cities that had been antagonistic to him, he made war against Belshazzar, king of Chaldea and Babylonia, and defeated him; and soon afterwards he destroyed Babylon. Cyrus then marched against Croesus, the Lydian king, who had given aid to the Babylonians, defeated him, and deprived him of all his wealth of empire, reducing him to poverty. After he had subjugated Asia, that is, almost all the lands to the East, he attacked the Scythians, who were then under the leadership of Queen Tomyris (Tamiris). In the first engagement he defeated and killed her son and his entire army. When Tomyris learned of the death of her only son and the defeat of her people, she did not cry as women in general do, but assembled and encamped the remainder of her people in a manner to give the impression that she had no faith in the mountains, and luring Cyrus into the narrow passes of the high mountains, killed him and his force of two thousand, not a man escaping. She had a search made for the corpse of Cyrus, and when found, had his head struck off and submerged in a vat which she had prepared for the purpose, filled with the blood of his own people, as a fitting grave for the haughty king. And she said: Cyrus, take the blood for which you have always thirsted! But his body was taken to the city of Pasargadae and buried in a park. The following epitaph was placed upon the grave: O man, I am Cyrus, king of Asia, who founded the Persian Empire.

Cyrus I was the founder of the Persian Empire. The account of Herodotus best preserves the Persian legends and romances interwoven in the history of his life. Cyrus was the son of Cambyses, a noble Persian, and of Mandane, daughter of the Median king Astyages. In consequence of a dream, which seemed to portend that his grandson should become the master of Asia, Astyages sent for his daughter, when she was pregnant; and upon her giving birth to a son, he committed the child to Harpagus, his confidential attendant, with orders to kill the babe. But Harpagus gave the child to a herdsman who was to expose it. However, since the herdsman's wife had brought forth a still born child, they substituted the latter for Mandane's child, which they reared as their own. When the child was ten years of age, his true parentage was discovered, and Cambyses sent for the child, in whose person he discovered the son of his daughter Mandane. The king forgave the herdsman, but revenged himself on Harpagus by serving up to him at a banquet the flesh of his own son. When Cyrus grew up, he conspired with Harpagus to dethrone his grandfather. They defeated him and the supremacy of Persia passed to Cyrus. He next overthrew the Lydian monarchy, subdued the Greek cities in Asia Minor, made ware against the Assyrians, and captured Babylon. In his later attempt to subjugate the Massagetae, a Scythian people, he was slain, as related in the Chronicle. In the East Cyrus was long regarded as the greatest hero of antiquity, and hence the fables by which his history is obscured.

His sepulcher at Pasargada was visited by Alexander the Great; and although the tomb has perished, his name is found on monuments at Murghab, north of Persepolis.

Persia is a country in Asia Major and derived its name from Perseus,[Perseus, the famous Argive hero, was a son of Zeus and Danae, and grandson of Acrisius. He occupies an important place in Greek mythology as the slayer of the Medusa, rescuer of Andromeda, etc.] grandson of Acrisius,[Acrisius was a son of Abas, king of Argos. Danae, his daughter, was the mother of Perseus by Zeus, who defeated the plans of her father to keep her a virgin, by coming down upon her in her prison chamber in the form of a shower of gold.] king of the Argives. He made Persepolis (Persipolim) the capital of the kingdom. This city was later burned by the Greeks, who conquered the country. Persia borders on Carmania, Bactria and Media, and is divided into many small countries. Quintus Curtius (Curcius)[Quintus Curtius was the Roman historian of Alexander the Great. Nothing is known of his life. Some place him as early as Vespasian, others as late as Constantine. The earlier date is more probable. His work, (‘The Accomplishments of Alexander the Great') consisted of ten books. The first two are lost, and there are many gaps in the remaining eight. Although taken from good sources, the author frequently shows his ignorance of geography, chronology and tactics.] writes of this in his fourth book on the history of Alexander the Great. The country is largely mountainous, and because of the heat and wind it is not productive. It is said there are many wealthy cities in it, such as Persepolis and Pasargada,[Pasargada was the oldest of the two capitals of Persia, the other and later one being Persepolis. Pasargada is said to have been founded by Cyrus the Great on the spot where he gained his victory over Astyages. The tomb of Cyrus stood there in the midst of a beautiful park. Persepolis was situated in the heart of Persia, in the region called Hollow Persia, not far from the border of the Carmanian desert, in a beautiful and healthy valley. The city stood on the north side of the Araxes, and had a citadel on the level surface of a rock. It was enclosed by triple walls, rising one above the other to the height of 16, 58 and 60 cubits, within which was the palace with its royal sepulcher and treasures. In the palace Alexander the Great found immense riches, which were said to have accumulated from the time of Cyrus. It had been greatly enlarged and adorned by Darius I and Xerxes, and preserved its splendor till the Macedonian conquest, when it was burned. Alexander set fire to the palace, as the story goes, with his own hand, at the end of a revel, at the instigation of Thais the courtesan in 331 BCE. It was not, however, so entirely destroyed as some historians think, for it appears frequently in subsequent history, both ancient and medieval. It is now deserted, but its ruins are considerable.] and many others, which lie in the uppermost region of Gabiana (Gabiis). Several rocky mountains, which Cambyses (Cambises), the king's son, later added to the kingdom, lie between Persia and Susa, which contained many great buildings erected by Arphaxat. And although the kingdom of Cyrus was formerly great, it was afterward broken up by the Macedonians and reduced in size. Nimrod (Nembroth) the giant was the first to teach the Persians to worship the sun and fire as gods, and to make sacrifices to the moon and Minerva. But now they have given up this idolatry, and follow the law of Mohammed (Mahumeteam legem). From this city, as Pliny states in book 15, comes the fruit called Persica.[Persica, the Latin name for the peach, which belongs to the almond family. The peach is a native of Persia, though now cultivated in all temperate climates.] This region or the city of Persepolis is glorified by the victories of that most holy martyr and knight, Saint George.[The legend of St. George comes from the East. Although we generally associate him with England, the particular veneration paid him in that country dates from the time of Richard I, who in the wars of Palestine, placed himself and his army under the especial protection of St. George. It was not until 1222 that his feast was ordered to be kept as a holiday throughout England; and the institution of the Order of the Garter, in 1330, seems to have completed his inauguration as a patron saint. Previous to the Normans, Edward the Confessor was the patron saint of England. St. George is particularly honored by the Greeks, who place him as a captain at the head of the noble army of martyrs, with the title of The Great Martyr. The reverence paid him in the East is of such great antiquity that one of the first churches erected by Constantine was in honor of St. George, and this within twenty years after the Saint's death, as is supposed. This is the same St. George who slew the dragon. He was a native of Cappadocia, and was born of noble Christian parents. He is said to have lived in the time of Diocletian and to have been a tribute in the army. It is related that in travelling to join his legion he came to a certain city, called Selene, in Libya, which was being greatly troubled by the ravages of a monstrous dragon. And to this St. George put an end. At this time Diocletian issued his edict against the Christians, which was affixed to the gates and temples in public places. Other men read it in terror, but St. George tore it down and trampled it under foot. For this he suffered martyrdom, enduring all manner of torture, finally being dispatched by the sword. According to legend St. George was condemned to martyrdom by Dacian, the proconsul. Unfortunately the chronicler does not give the authority upon which he connects the saint with the city of Persepolis.]

Anaximander, philosopher and celebrated scholar, was at first a disciple of Thales (Taletia), and in time (as Eusebeus states) he became his successor in his school. He was the first to teach things about the heavens and invented the notation of the hours. He first described the course of the earth and the sea, and the circuit of the heavens. Therefore Pliny in his second book called him a master of the stars. He died at the age of 64.[Anaximander of Miletus was born in 610 BCE and died in 547, in his 64th year. He was one of the earliest philosophers of the Ionian school, and the immediate successor of Thales, its first founder. He first used the Greek word denoting the origin of things, or rather the material out of which they were formed. He was a careful observer of nature, and was distinguished by his astronomical, mathematical and geographical knowledge.] There is also another Anaximander of Miletus, a historian of no mean reputation, of whom Laertius writes.

Anaximenes, a philosopher and scientist, was a disciple of the Anaximander last mentioned. He contended that the air was the origin (of all things), and that the stars do not move but pass by the earth endlessly. He died on the day (as Laertius says) Sardis was taken.[Anaximenes of Miletus was the third in the series of Ionian philosophers. He flourished about 544 BCE; but as he was the teacher of Anaxagoras (c. 480 BCE), he must have lived to a great age. He considered air to be the first cause of all things, the primary form, as it were, of matter, into which the elements of the universe are resolvable.]

Ionian Philosophers

The Ionian school of philosophers had its inception with Thales of Miletus, its founder (Folio LIX recto), and is here continued as follows:

  1. Anaximander, immediate successor of Thales. The youthful portrait of the Latin edition is replaced by an aged gentleman in the German edition.
  2. Anaximenes, third of the series of Ionian philosophers.

NOTE: This page has a headpiece of orb, crown and scepter in the usual form.


Ezra (Esdras), a pious and learned man, was esteemed and regarded as a second Moses by the people. He, together with others, was the first to return from Babylonia; but prompted by fatherly concern, he went back there in order to be of service to many more people in bringing them back also. At this time he restored the laws and other holy books which the Chaldeans had burnt; and he also gave to the world a blessed testament in the form of books setting forth new experiences, and clearly written. After accomplishing this work with the aid of the Holy Spirit, he again returned with a great throng to Jerusalem, having the royal consent to teach the people. He died at a venerable age and was buried there.

Ezra (Greek from Esdras) was a celebrated priest and leader of the Jewish nation. He was "a ready scribe in the law," a learned, able, and faithful man, and appears to have enjoyed great consideration at the Persian court. During the eighty years embraced in his narrative, most of the reign of Cyrus passed, and the whole reign of Cambyses, Smerdis, Darius, Hystaspis, Xerxes, and eight years of Artaxerxes. From the last king he received letters, money, and very considerable help, and went at the head of a large party of returning exiles to Jerusalem in 487 BCE (Ezra 7). Here he instituted many reforms in the conduct of the people and in the public worship, and established synagogues, with reading of Scriptures and prayers (Ezra 8-10; Neh. 8). After this he generally believed to have written the books of Chronicles, Ezra, and part of Nehemiah; and to have collected and revised all the books of the Old Testament which form the present canon. In his work he was aided by Nehemiah and probably Malachi.

The Book of Ezra contains a history written partly in Chaldea, of the return of the Jews from the time of Cyrus (ch 1-6); then, sixty years later, and comprising a single year (ch. 7-10), an account of his own subsequent proceedings. There are two apocryphal books ascribed to him under the name of Esdras.

Darius was a cousin of Astyages, who gave him the kingdom. Both were defeated by Cyrus, who was the first king of the Persians, and the monarchy was added to Persia. He defeated the Babylonians and slew Belshazzar, elevated Daniel, and permitted Israel to return and to rebuild the Temple; and he took good care of these captives. Cyrus bestowed Hyrcania on Astyages, and Media upon Darius.

Nehemiah was a cupbearer to Artaxerxes the king of Persia, and was sent by him to restore the walls of Jerusalem. This he did during the captivity. He was a very good and pious man. When he accomplished this work of God, and found a miraculous fire, he dedicated the wall and returned to the king. Afterwards he again returned to Jerusalem. There he died and was buried beside the wall which he had constructed.[Nehemiah was of the tribe of Judah. He was born at Babylon during the captivity, and held the office of cupbearer to the Persian king Artaxerxes at Susa. Touched by the calamitous state of the colony of Jews which had formerly returned to Jerusalem, he laid their case before God in penitent and importunate prayer, and at length begged the king to permit him to go to Jerusalem and aid in rebuilding it. He was accordingly sent there as governor about 444 BCE, and directed his attention chiefly to the task of rebuilding the walls. The enmity of the Samaritans, under which the colony had formerly suffered, was not increased. Under great difficulties the wall was completed in one year. Nehemiah also instituted many civic improvements. In 432 BCE he returned to his post at the court of Babylon, but was later recalled to Jerusalem to reform certain growing irregularities—neglect of the Temple services, breaches of the Sabbath, intermarriage with pagans, etc. The Jews who had married pagan wives, he compelled to abandon them, or quit the country. He rededicated the Temple, suppressed usury and exaction from the poor, fed the destitute, and provided for the Temple service. ]

Cambyses (Cambises), son of Cyrus, and second king of Persia, assumed the throne in the sixtieth year of the Jewish captivity and he reigned eight years. By Ezra he is called Artaxerxes or Ahasuerus (Assuerus)[], and in the Book of Judith he is referred to as the ancestor of Nebuchadnezzar. He forbade the building of the city of Jerusalem and its Temple. After he assumed the sovereignty he acted with military distinction and justice, but with an admixture of cruelty and haughtiness toward his subjects; and in the latter qualities he excelled his father. He subjugated the Ethiopians, conducted many wars through Holofernes, journeyed to Egypt and there overran many lands, and there he built a second Babylon. Valerius says that Cambyses caused an unjust judge to be flayed, and his skin to be stretched upon the judgment seat, and he appointed the judge's son to sit on it as a judge in his father's place.[Cambyses, second king of Persia, reigned 529-522 BCE. In 525 he conquered Egypt; but an army which he sent against the Ammonians perished in the sands, and the forces which he led in person against the Ethiopians were compelled by failure of provisions to return. On his return to Memphis he treated the Egyptians with great cruelty, insulting their religion and killing their god Apis with his own hands. He acted tyrannically toward his own family and the Persians in general. He caused his own brother Smerdis to be murdered; but a Magian impersonated the deceased prince and set up a claim to the throne. Cambyses promptly set out from Egypt against the pretender, but died at Ecbatana in Syria of an accidental wound. His crimes provoked the rebellion in which the pseudo-Smerdis secured the throne.]

Mordecai (Mardocheus), the holy man, was at this time highly renowned throughout the kingdom of Persia. He flourished in the year 295, according to the Latin reckoning.[Mordecai, one of those who returned from the Babylonian captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7).]

Smerdis, third king of Persia, reigned seven months in the sixty-eighth year of the Jewish captivity, for Cambyses died without heirs. Patizithes (Patizetes), whom Cambyses had placed in charge of his possessions, proclaimed as king his own brother, who had the same name and bore a likeness to the king, and he killed the elder one. Because of this treacherous deceit, Darius, the son of Hystaspis (Histaspis), soon afterwards killed this second Smerdis and his brother Patizithes; and after three days he himself was made king of the Persians.

Smerdis, son of Cyrus, was murdered by order of his brother Cambyses. The death was kept a profound secret; and accordingly when the Persians became weary of the tyranny of Cambyses, one of the Magians, name Patizithes, who had been left by Cambyses in charge of his palace and treasures, availed himself of the likeness of his brother to the deceased Smerdis, to proclaim this brother king, representing him as the younger son of Cyrus. Cambyses heard of the revolt while in Syria, but he died of an accidental wound in the thigh as he was mounting his horse to march against the usurper.

The Persians acknowledged the pseudo-Smerdis as king, and he reigned for seven months without opposition. The leading Persian nobles were not, however, free from suspicion, and this suspicion was increased because the king never invited any of them to the palace, and never appeared in public. Among these nobles was Otanes, whose daughter Phaedima had been one of the wives of Cambyses, and had been transferred to his successor. The new king had some years before being deprived of his ears by Cyrus for some offense. Otanes persuaded his daughter to ascertain whether her master had really lost his ears. Having ascertained that such was the fact and given the information to her father, the latter formed a conspiracy, and in conjunction with other Persian nobles, succeeded in forcing his way into the palace, where they slew the false Smerdis and his brother Patizithes in the eighth month of their reign, 521. The usurpation of the false Smerdis was an attempt on the part of the Medes, to whom the Magians belonged, to obtain the supremacy, of which they had been deprived by Cyrus. The assassination of the false Smerdis and the accession of Darius Hystaspis again gave the ascendancy to the Persians; and the anniversary of the day on which the Magians were massacred, was commemorated among the Persians by a solemn festival, called Magophonia. On this day no Magian was allowed to show himself in public. The nature of the transaction is also shown by the revolt of the Medes that followed the ascension of Darius.

Holofernes, a general of the hosts of Nebuchadnezzar, subjugated much territory for him; and finally marched against Bethulia; and there he was slain in his bedchamber by Judith, a widow of rare disposition and incredible beauty, and all his hosts dispersed. After she had done away with Holofernes she was held in esteem by the Jews to such an extent that for the rest of her days she was honored and elevated by praises of her victory and everlastingly prized. And when she had attained the age of one hundred and fifty years she was buried beside her husband with great pomp and lamentations.[According to the Book of Judith, one of the books of the Apochrypha, Arphaxad, king of Ecbatana fortified his city. Nebuchadnezzar, king of the Assyrians at Nineveh, made war against him, and summoned all who dwelled in the lands between Persia and Memphis to his aid. They refused. Vowing vengeance, he marched alone against Arphaxad and destroyed him. Later he appoints Holofernes general over his army, and sends him against the nations which refused to aid him. He lays siege to Bethulia, a city of the Israelites. They lose heart and urge Ozias and the rulers to give way. Now in those days there lived a widow named Judith, of rare piety and beauty. She blames Ozias and the rulers for considering submission, and urges them to place their trust in God. The rulers excuse themselves, and Judith promises to do for them something that shall go down to all generations. She decks herself bravely and goes to the camp of Holofernes accompanied by her maid, who carries a bottle of wine, a cruse of oil, and a bag filled with parched corn and fine bread and cheese. She tells him that her nation cannot be punished, neither can the sword prevail against them, except they sin against their God, but that now they are about to eat all those things which God charged them not to eat, and that they will therefore be delivered into his hands. She offers to show the way to the town, and to lead him until he comes to Jerusalem. Holfernes is pleased and invites her to a banquet, and she accepts. He drinks deeply and is left alone with her. Praying to God for strength, she smites off his head with his own scimitar; and putting the head into her bag of victuals, she hastens to Bethulia. The next morning the Israelites fall upon their besiegers, who, finding their leader dead, lose heart and flee in wild disorder. After a long life Judith dies at the age of 105 years, and was buried at Bethulia in the cave of her husband Manasseh. ]



Judith is here represented by a special woodcut. She wears the headdress and garb of the time of woodcutter. Her veil flutters about her, and in her right hand she holds a sword on the extreme sharp point of which is poised, like a marshmallow for toasting, the head of Holofernes. His eyes are closed in death, his mouth is wide open. The other hand of the heroine is engaged in bestowing a blessing.

With the exceptions of the portrait of Ezra (labeled Edras, a misspelling of Esdras) and the special woodcut of Judith and Holofernes, all of the portraits on this page are different in the German edition of the Chronicle.


In the 224th year after the building of the city of Rome, when the line of the Roman kings came to an end, the people appointed consuls in the place of kings, who were to govern for but one year so that in the passage of years they would not become too arrogant. Of these we will here mention the foremost. The first two conducted a war against Porsena (Porsemia)[Porsena or Porsenna, Lars, king of the Etruscan town of Chisium, marched against Rome at the head of a vast army in order to restore Tarquinius Superbus to the throne. But the campaign did not accomplish its object.], king of the Etrurians. Brutus had two sons who wanted to re-establish the kingship. Brutus caused them to be beaten with rods and then to be killed with an axe. Collatinus was relieved of his office, for it was decided that the name of Tarquinius was to be banished from the city of Rome.[L. Junius Brutus was the son of M. Junius and Tarquinia, the sister of Tarquinius Superbus. His elder brother was murdered by Tarquinius, and Lucius escaped his brother's fate only by feigning idiocy, from which he received the name Brutus. The story of the rape of Lucretia, wife of L. Tarquinius Collatinus, by Sextus the son of Tarquinius Superbus, and the consequent expulsion of the latter and his sons has already been related. It was Brutus who incited the Romans to this course, and it was he and Tarquinius Collatinus who were set up as the first consuls to govern the empire in lieu of a king; but as the people could not endure the rule of any of the hated race of the Tarquins, Collatinus resigned his office and retired from Rome to Lavinium.]

The Cumaean Sibyl (Sibylla Cumana), who lived in the time of Tarquinius Priscus, is clad in a dress of gold, and has a tall open book in her hand, and also a book in the left hand, resting on her knee. Her head is bare. She foretold that out of eternity a miraculous birth would take place in this world through a virgin; and that the iron people would come to an end and a golden people would spring up.[Sibyls were first mentioned by the chronicler at Folio XXXV verso, and two others were spoken of later (Folios XLVI verso and LVI verso). The mention of the Cumaean Sibyl at this point is apparently intended merely as a description of the opposite portrait, which, however, in no way conforms to the description. In the portrait she has no book in either hand, nor on her knee. She is not bareheaded, but wears a flowing veil. Her hands are in an attitude of gesture.]

These two Romans (referring to woodcut opposite) defeated the Sabines and were accorded a triumph; but Valerius died poor.

The reference is apparently to P. Valerius Publicola and Posthumus. Publicola took part in the expulsion of the Tarquins, and was thereupon elected consul with Brutus (509 BCE). He secured the liberties of the people by several laws and ordered the lectors to lower the fasces before the people as an acknowledgement that their rights were superior to those of the consuls. He became a great favorite with the people, receiving the surname Publicola (‘Honored by the People' or ‘Guardian of the People'). He died in 503.

In the opposite portrait Publicola is associated with Postumus without text reference to the latter.

Two hundred twenty-five years after the building of Rome, the Romans, having been defeated by the Sabines, elected a regent whom they called a dictator, with authority and powers greater than those of the consuls. This was a worthy office.

Manlius (Manilius) Torquatus, son of Laelius Manlius, made war against the Gauls. He slew a Gaul who challenged him, took away his golden necklace, and put it about his own neck. For this reason he and his descendants were called Torquati, which means necklace.

T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus, son of L. Manlius Capitolinus Imperiosus, dictator in 363 BCE, was a favorite hero of Roman story. Manlius is said to have been dull of mind in his youth, and was brought up by his father in the in the country. When the tribune M. Pomponius accused the elder Manlius on account of the cruelties he had practiced in his dictatorship, he endeavored to excite public enmity against him by representing him as a cruel and tyrannical father. As soon as the younger Manlius heard of this he hurried to Rome, obtained admission to Pomponius early in the morning and compelled the tribune by threatening him with instant death to take an oath to drop the accusation against his father.

In 361 Manlius served under the dictator T. Quintius Pennus in the war against the Gauls, and in this campaign earned immortal glory by slaying a gigantic Gaul, from whose dead body he took the chain (torquis) which had adorned him, and placed it about his own neck. From this circumstance he obtained the surname Torquatus. He was dictator in 353 and again in 349. He was also consul three times. Torquatus and his colleague P. Decius Mus gained a great victory over the Latins at the foot of Vesuvius, which established forever the supremacy of Rome over Latium. Shortly before the battle, when the two armies were encamped opposite one another, the consuls published a proclamation that no Roman should engage in single combat with a Latin on pain of death. But the young Manlius, the son of the consul, provoked by the insults of a Tuscan noble, accepted his challenge, slew his adversary, and bore the bloody spoils in triumph to his father. Death was his reward. The consul would not overlook this breach of discipline, and the unhappy youth was executed by the lector in the presence of the assembled army. This severe sentence rendered Torquatus an object of detestation among the Roman youths as long as he lived; and the recollection of his severity was preserved in after ages by the expression Manliana imperia.

The Senonian Gauls were by nature a cruel and uncivilized people, and by reason of their great stature and their weapons a frightful race born, as it seems, for the extinction of mankind and the destruction of the city of Rome. These barbarians leveled and devastated the whole city with fire and sword for six months.[The Senones were a powerful people in Gallia Lugdunensis, who dwelt along the upper course of the Sequana (Seine). Their chief town was Agendicum, afterwards called Senones (Sens). A portion of this people crossed the Alps about 400 BCE, in order to settle in Italy; and as the greater part of Upper Italy was already occupied by other Celtic tribes, they were obliged to penetrate a considerable distance to the south, and took up their abode on the Adriatic Sea between the rivers Utis and Aesis (between Ravenna and Ancona) after expelling the Umbrians. In this country they founded the town of Sena. They extended their ravages into Etruria; and it was in consequence of the interference of the Romans, while they were laying siege to Clusium, that they marched against Rome and took the city in 390 BCE. From this time we find them engaged in constant hostilities with the Romans, till they were at length completely subdued and the greater part of them destroyed by the consul Dolabella in 283.] At that time Manlius, awakened by the cry of a goose, drove down the hill those who were attempting to enter the city by night.[When Rome, in 390 BCE, was taken by the Gauls, the Roman consul Marcus Manlius took refuge in the Capitol. One night when the Gauls endeavored to ascend the Capitol, Manlius was aroused from his sleep by the cackling of the geese. Hastily collecting a body of men, he succeeded in driving off the enemy, who had just reached the summit of the hill. From this heroic deed he is said to have received the surname Capitolinus. In 385 he defended the cause of the plebians, who were suffering from their debts and the cruel treatment of their harsh patrician creditors. The patricians accused him of aspiring to royal power, and he was thrown into prison by the dictator Cornelius Cossus. The plebians put on mourning for their champion, and were ready to take up arms in his behalf, when the patricians became alarmed and released Manlius; but this act of concession made him bolder, and he instigated the plebeians to open violence. In the following year the patricians brought him to trial on a charge of high treason. He was condemned, and the tribunes threw him down the Tarpeian rock. The members of the Manlia gens accordingly resolved that none of them should ever bear in future the praenomen of Marcus.]

Popilia, a Vestal virgin, was, by reason of the loss of her virginity, buried alive.

In the time of these two Romans (referring to a dual portrait of Marcus and Aeneas Manlius), occurred the Vientian (Vegentian) wars in which as many of the victorious Romans fell as defeated Vientians.[Veii (Veiens, Veientis or Veientanus) was one of the most powerful and ancient cities of Etruria, situated on the river Cremera, about 12 miles from Rome. It possessed a strongly fortified citadel, built on a steep hill. It was one of the twelve cities of the Etrurian Confederacy, and apparently the largest of all. It was about seven miles in circumference, equal in size to Athens, and was a powerful city at the time of the foundation of Rome. The Veientians were engaged in almost constant hostilities with Rome for more than three and one half centuries, and there is a record of fourteen distinct wars between the two peoples. Veii was at length taken by the dictator Camillus after a siege which is said to have lasted ten years. The city fell into his hands, according to the common story (doubted by Livy and Plutarch), by means of a cuniculus or mine that was dug all the way from the Roman camp under the city into the citadel of Veii. So well built was the city that the Romans were anxious after the destruction of their own city by the Gauls in 390 BCE to remove to Veii; but the eloquence of Camillus against this plan finally prevailed. So Veii was abandoned; but after the lapse of ages it was colonized by Augustus, and made a Roman municipum. But by the time of Hadrian the city again sank into decay. From this time Veii disappears entirely from history. It stood in the neighborhood of the present Isola Farnese.]


In the ninth year after the conclusion of the Roman line of kings (as Eusebius states) the new office of Dictator was established in Rome; also that of Master of the Horse, who was subordinate to the dictator in all things. Largus became the first dictator, and Sp. Cassius the first Master of the Horse. The dictator was superior in power to the consuls against the enemies of the state.

A dictator in ancient times was an extraordinary magistrate in the Roman commonwealth. The earlier official title was magister populi (‘Master of the People [i.e., the infantry]') as opposed to his subordinate, the magister equitum (‘Master of the Horse [i.e., the cavalry'). Emphasis was thus placed on the military aspect of the dictatorship, and, in fact, the office seems to have been instituted for the purpose of meeting a military crisis too serious for the annual consuls with their divided command. The repression of civil discord was one of the motives for the institution of a dictatorship. This function of the office is attested by the internal history of Rome. In the crisis of the agitation at the time of the Licinian laws (367 BCE) a dictator was appointed. The dictator appointed to meet the dangers of war, sedition, or crime, was described as "the administrative dictator." For minor purposes we find dictators appointed to hold elections, to celebrate games, to establish festivals, and to drive the nail into the temple of Jupiter – an act of natural magic that was believed to avert pestilence. These dictators retired from office as soon as their function was completed; but the administrative dictator held office for six months.

The powers of a dictator were a temporary revival of those of the kings, with some limitations. He was never concerned with civil jurisdiction. His military authority was confined to Italy; and his power of life and death was limited. By the lex Valeria of 300 BCE he was made subject to the right of criminal appeal within the limits of the city. However, all the magistrates of the people were regarded as his subordinates. The dictator was nominated by one of the consuls. But the senate claimed authority over the magistrates, and suggested not only the nomination but also the name of the nominee. After the nomination, the imperium of the dictator was confirmed by a lex curiata. To emphasize the superiority of this imperium, the dictator might be preceded by 24 lectors, and, at least in the earlier period of the office, these lectors bore the axes, the symbol of life and death, within the city walls.

The first dictator is said to have been created in 501 BCE; the last of the "administrative" dictators belongs to the year 216 BCE. The epoch of the Second Punic War was marked by experiments with the office, such as the election of Q. Fabius Maximus by the people, and the co-dictatorship of M. Minucius. The emergency office of the early and middle republic has little in common with the dictatorship as revived by Sulla and by Caesar. That of the former took on the form of a provisional government. Sulla was created dictator "for the establishment of a republic." Caesar's renewed dictatorships created a temporary monarchy, whatever may have been his wishes as to its permanency. Ostensibly to prevent its further use for such a purpose, M. Antonius in 44 BCE carried a law abolishing the dictatorship. The term is used in our day to designate a tyrannical ruler.

This happened first when Porsena (Porsemia), king of Chisium (Clusium) (that was an an Etruscan state) had tried with his army to restore Tarquinius Superbus. And so that this might not occur, a dictator stopped him. But when peace had been made, Porsena became friends with the Roman people and retreated with the highest honors.[For the interesting history between Porsena and Rome, see Livy, (‘From the Founding of the City') 2.9-15. This sentence and the two sentences preceding it are not in the German edition of the .] Quintius (Quincius) Cincinnatus[L. Quintius Cincinnatus was a favorite hero of the old Roman republic, and a model of old Roman frugality and integrity. He lived on his farm, cultivating the land with his own hand. He was born about 519 BCE and played a conspicuous part in the civil and military transactions of the period in which he lived. He particularly distinguished himself as a violent opponent of the plebeians. In BCE 460 he was appointed consul suffectus in the room of P. Valerius. Two years afterward, according to the common story, Cincinnatus was called from the plough to the dictatorship, in order to deliver the Roman consul and army from the perilous position in which they had been placed by the Aequians. The story of the manner in which he effected this is given in Livy. During his dictatorship, in defiance of the tribunes, he held the comita for the trial of Volscius, whose evidence had condemned his son Caeso, and whom he now charged with perjury. The accused went into voluntary exile. After holding the dictatorship for 16 days, Cincinnatus returned to his farm. In 439 BCE, at the age of 80, he was again appointed dictator to oppose the alleged machinations of Spurius Maelius. This is the last event recorded of him.] was later taken away from his plough by the Roman consuls, and made dictator; and he was one of the most noted. He accepted the office reluctantly. He not only rescued the besieged Romans, but brought countless spoils of war back to Rome, and many prisoners. Thus, with the expedition completed, he returned to his oxen, understanding that the victory was secure.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Under the consulship of this Valerius (referring to the portrait opposite), the exiled citizens and the fugitive slaves invaded the capitol and burned it. It was a gruesome war, and the consul himself was slain. Publicola as well, who was also a Roman patrician, to whom the name previously had been Publius Valerius, at this time, when the Tarquins had been expelled, together with Brutus was made consul in place of Collatinus (as mentioned above). He himself, when the battle had been engaged in which Brutus died, killed fifteen thousand three hundred men from the army of the Tarquins. And with this victory he was the first of the consuls who, carried in his chariot, celebrated a triumph, a thing that provided a very lovely spectacle to the common people without any envy. He was, moreover, a man of great justice and fairness.[The last four sentences in this paragraph are not in the German edition of the .]


The Lineage of the Roman Consuls begins here. It consists of a panel of the following portraits:

  1. Brutus and Tarquinius (Tarquinus) Collatinus, jointly the first consuls of Rome, until the latter was forced to resign; represented by a commonplace double portrait of two men facing one another and gesturing.
  2. Valerius Publicola and Postumus, a commonplace dual portrait of men in medieval dress.
  3. Largus, first dictator, a rather imposing portrait of a distinguished looking medieval citizen—gesturing as usual.
  4. The Decem Tribuni, a group of ten magistrates of ancient Rome, injected into the lineage of the Roman consuls. They are represented by a small group-portrait.
  5. Marcus and Aeneas Manlius; dual portrait of not particular significance.
  6. Valerius, apparently a relative of Valerius Publicola; represented by a woodcut of an old man.


The Cumaean Sibyl has been assigned a portrait that does not agree with the text of the Chronicle. The portrait here used has already done service for the Sibyl Persica, Folio XXXV verso.


Manlius (Manilius) Torquatus, strangely represented holding an open book instead of being portrayed as a soldier.


Popilia the Vestal Virgin; small woodcut of a rather sad looking middle-aged woman, without headdress or veil, arms folded.


Aratus (Aracus), the highly renowned astrologer and poet, distinguished himself, as Augustine states, in that, together with Eudoxus, he comprehended and described all the stars. However, Augustine states that this is contrary to the Scriptures, in which God spoke to Abraham, saying: Look at the stars, count them if you can. But how can they all be counted since they cannot all be seen? And as Aratus was not unfamiliar with astrology, he wrote an excellent book of beautiful verses on the subject[Aratus was the author of two Greek astronomical poems, which have generally been joined together, as if parts of the same work. The design is to give an introduction to the knowledge of the constellations, with the rules for their risings and settings; and of the circles of the sphere, amongst which the milky way is reckoned. The positions of the constellations, north of the ecliptic, are described by reference to the principal groups surrounding the North Pole (the Bears, the Dragon and Cepheus), while Orion serves as a point of departure for those to the South. The immobility of the earth, and the revolution of the heavens about a fixed axis are maintained; the path of the sun in the Zodiac is described; but the planets are introduced merely as bodies having a motion of their own, without any attempt to define their periods; nor is anything said about the moon's orbit. The opening of the poem asserts the dependence of all things upon Zeus. From the general lack of precision in the descriptions it would seem that Aratus was neither a mathematician nor an observer; or, at any rate, that in this work he did not aim at scientific accuracy. Such is the first poem, which consists of 732 verses. The second, consisting of 422 verses, is made up of prognostications of the weather from astronomical phenomena, with an account of its effects upon animals. The style of these two poems is distinguished by the elegance and accuracy of their diction, resulting from a study of ancient models; but it lack originality and poetic elevation; and variety of matter is excluded by the nature of the subjects. Several other poetical works on various subjects, as well as a number of prose epistles, are attributed to Aratus; but none of them have come down to us.], to which Cicero gives witness in the first book of his On the Orator: "It is established among scholars that Aratus, a man ignorant of astrology, has spoken about the sky and the stars in the most ornate and finest lines of poetry."[Cicero, (‘On the Orator'), 1.16. The German edition of the does not cite the quote from Cicero's text, nor does it even mention the actual book by Cicero, stating only: "to which Cicero gives witness."]

In the midst of the city of Rome appeared a horrible gap or crevice, and the soothsayers interpreted this as portending the burial of a living person. Then at Rome (as Livy states), the earth opened up in a public place, and a wide chasm was formed without displacement of the soil or other force; and it could not be filled with any material. Marcus Curtius heard about this, and he thought of the temples of the gods in the vicinity. He mounted his beautiful horse, and fully accoutered, he leaped into the chasm for love of his country. And when he died the chasm closed.[Mettus or Mettius Curtius (Marcus Curcius), a distinguished Sabine, fought with the rest of his nation against Romulus. According to one tradition, the Lacus Curtius, which was part of the Roman forum, was called after him, because in the battle with the Romans he escaped with difficulty from a swamp into which his horse had plunged. But the more usual tradition respecting the name of Lacus Curtius is that in 362 BCE the earth in the forum gave way, and a great chasm appeared, which the soothsayers declared could only be filled up by throwing into it Rome's greatest treasure; that thereupon M. Curtius, a noble youth, mounted his steed in full armour; and declaring that Rome possessed no greater treasure than a brave and gallant citizen, leaped into the abyss; upon which the earth closed over him.]

Aesop (Esopus) Adelphus, the highly renowned poet and teller of fairy tales, flourished in the time of Cyrus, the Persian king. He was a Greek, intelligent and witty, and composed excellent fables, which Romulus afterwards translated from the Greek tongue into Latin and sent to his son Tibertinus. In his stories Aesop taught people how they were to conduct themselves; and to this end he gave speech to the birds, trees and irrational animals. If these fables are carefully studied, one will find in them not only matter for admonishment and laughter, but for sharpening of one's wits. It is said that Aesop was slain in the first year of Cyrus.

Aesop, author of Fables about animals, generally with a didactic purpose, which have given their name to a whole class of stories, lived about 620 to 560 BCE. According to tradition he was the slave of Iadmon of Samos and met with a violent death at the hands of the inhabitants of Delphi. When a pestilence came upon them the Delphians offered a reward for his death, and it was claimed by Iadmon, grandson of Aesop's old master. Herodotus, who is authority for this (2.134), does not state the cause of Aesop's death; but various reasons have been assigned by later writers – his insulting sarcasms, embezzlement of money entrusted to him by Croesus for distribution at Delphi, and the theft of a silver cup.

Aesop must have been freed by Iadmon, or he could not have conducted the defense of a Samian demagogue (Aristotle, Rhetoric 2.20). Legend says that he afterwards lived at the court of Croesus, where he met Solon, and dined in the company of the Seven Sages of Greece with Periander at Corinth. The obscurity in which the history of Aesop is involved has induced some scholars to deny his existence altogether.

Very recently Rinutius, a certain learned man, translated all those fables, together with the life of Aesop himself, most accurately into Latin

Rinutius translated Aesop's fables in 1478 in Milan. This book may be the first printed edition of a Greek author (the text provides both the Greek original and a Latin translation) in Western Europe.

This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the Chronicle

for cardinal Antonius of the holy parish church Chrysogonus (Crisogonus).[Saint Chrysogonus (San Crisogono in Italian) is a church in Rome (Trastevere) dedicated to the martyr Saint Chrysogonus. The church was one of the tituli (as the notes), the first parish churches of Rome, known as the Titulus Chrysogoni. It was probably built in the 4th century under Pope Silvester I (314–335), then rebuilt in the 12th century by John of Crema.]


In the twelfth year of the kingdom of Artaxerxes, and 300 years [The German edition of the changes this number of years to 202.] after the building of the city of Rome, when Menevius and P. Saxtillus Capitolinus were consuls, the Romans decided to suspend the power of the consuls, and elected ten men by whom the city was to be ruled without tumult. The period of their rule was a happy one (as Livy says); but they later exceeded their authority and fell. After a year had elapsed, they were removed because of the misdeeds of Claudius Appius.[Appius Claudius was consul in 451, and on the appointment of the decimvir in that year, he became one of them, and was reappointed the following year. His real character now betrayed itself in the most tyrannical conduct toward the plebeians till his attempt against Virginia led to the overthrow of the decemvirate. Appius was impeached by Virginius, but did not live to abide his trial. He either killed himself, or was put to death in prison by order of the tribunes. For more on the ‘Ten Men' and their period of rule (451-449 BCE), see Livy, (‘From the Founding of the City') 3.]


Inasmuch as the Romans had no laws up to this time, and a dispute arose between the tribunes, who judged various matters for the common people, and the consuls, the Romans, in the 13th year of Artaxerxes, sent messengers to Athens, who not only brought back the laws of Solon, but also the laws and customs of other Greek cities. From these laws ten tables were prepared, and two tables were added to those by the Romans; so originated the celebrated Law of the Twelve Tables, in which the entire law was codified.


Greed for riches gave rise to a fourth conflict; so the common people created magistrates. Fabius Ambustus, the father of two (daughters), gave one to Sulpicius, a man of patrician blood, and the other to a plebeian.[According to the story recorded by Livy, (‘From the Founding of the City') 6.34, Marcus Fabius Ambustus had two daughters, of whom the elder was married to Ser. Sulpicus, and the younger to C. Licinius Stolo. The younger daughter (Fabia) induced her father to assist her husband in obtaining the consulship for the plebeian order, into which she had married.] The tribunes of the people were created in the 16th year of Artaxerxes[Here Artaxerxes II is meant. He ruled from 404-358 BCE.]; and although this office was not of particular importance, it was greatly respected in the state.[The office of tribune is one that was born of the oppression of the people by rulers against whom they rebelled. In compromise the people were allowed to choose their own magistrates from their own order, who were to have the power of opposing with effect every measure which they might judge in anyway prejudicial to their interest. These new magistrates were to be elected annually. At first they were five in number, but in time they were increased to ten. They were called tribunes because the first of them was chosen from among the tribune militum of the different legions. Their authority was confined to the city limits and one mile beyond the walls. Two officers, called Aediles, were appointed to aid them. The Aediles had charge of the public buildings, and later, also of the games, spectacles, and other matters of police within the city. By the appointment of the tribunes the aristocracy was to a certain extent weakened, and the government took on even more distinctive aspects of a ‘representative-democracy.']

Veturia, the mother of Coriolanus, the Roman consul, was an old woman at this time. By good works she lengthened her years to eternal youth. When Coriolanus without cause besieged the city, and refused to see the embassies that were sent to him, and would not listen to the high priests, his mother diverted him from his stubborn anger and from the course which he had entered upon. He abandoned the siege and released the city. In gratitude to those women the Romans erected a temple; and afterwards no honor was withheld from the women by the men. And the Romans ordained that the people should stand up for the women, and give them the right of way; a custom which to this day is still observed by the respectable. It was also considered fit and proper for the women to wear gold, purple dresses, and golden girdles and ornaments.[Coriolanus is the hero of one of the most interesting early Roman legends (and a later life by Plutarch, which in turn was the basis of Shakespeare's play, ). His original name was C. Marcius, and he received the surname Coriolanus from the heroism he displayed at the capture of the Volscian town of Corioli. But his haughty bearing toward the common people excited their fear and dislike, and when he was a candidate for the consulship they refused to elect him. After this, when there was a famine in the city, and a Greek prince sent corn from Sicily, Coriolanus advised that it should not be distributed to the commons until they should give up their tribunes. For this he was impeached and condemned to exile in 491 BCE. He now took refuge among the Volscians, and promised to assist them in a war against the Romans. He was appointed general of the Volscian army, took many towns, and advanced unresisted until he came to the Cluilian dyke close to Rome in 489. Here he encamped, and the Romans in alarm sent to him embassy after embassy, consisting of the most distinguished men of the state. But he would listen to none of them. At length the noblest matrons of Rome, headed by his mother Veturia, and Volumnia, his wife, with his two little children, came to this tent. His mother's reproached, and the tears of his wife and the other matrons, bent his purpose. He led back his army, and lived in exile among the Volscians till his death; though other traditions relate that he was killed by the Volscians on his return to their country.]


Marcus Curtius (Curcius), the noble Roman youth, fully accoutered and mounted on his beautiful steed, is depicted in the act of plunging into the great chasm that opened in the earth in the region of the forum, as related in the text and accompanying note. Rider and horse are sinking into the earth, which immediately closed over them, sealing the gap. The title is unsually large for such a relatively small-sized image.


Darius, a son of Hystaspis (Histaspis), the fourth king of the Persians, began his reign in the 70th year of the Jewish captivity; and, together with six other nobles, slew Smerdis and his brother Patizithes (Patizitem). They agreed among themselves that the one whose horse should neigh first on the following morning should become king of Persia. Darius so arranged matters with his master of the stables that his horse neighed before all the others, and in consequence, he was presently chosen king. When he received the kingdom, he married Atossa (Atosam), the daughter of Cambyses. By her he begot Xerxes and other sons. He gave Zerubbabel (Zorobabel) authority to lead the Jews back to Jerusalem, to restore to them the vessels of the Temple, and to give them annually twenty talents of silver. And so the Temple was built. Before Darius died, Egypt seceded from him.

Darius, king of Persia (521-485 BCE), was the son of Hystaspis. He was one of the seven Persian chiefs who destroyed the usurper Smerdis (Folio LXIX recto and note). The chiefs agreed that the one of them whose horse neighed first at the appointed time should become king, and by this token Darius was chosen. He married Atossa and Arystone, the two daughters of Cyrus, and Parmis, daughter of Cyrus's son Smerdis, and Phaldime, daughter of Otanes, one of the seven chiefs. He set his vast empire in order, dividing it into twenty satrapies, assigning to each its amount of tribute. Persia proper was exempted from all taxes except such as it had been accustomed to pay. The Babylonians revolted but were put down. Later Darius invaded Scythia, marching far into the interior of modern Russian; but after losing a number of men by famine, and being unable to meet the enemy, he was obliged to retreat.

On his return to Asia Darius sent part of his forces under Magabasus, to subdue Thrace and Macedonia, which thus became subject to the Persian Empire. The most important event in this reign was the commencement of the great war between the Persians and the Greeks. In 501 the Ionian Greeks revolted; they were assisted by the Athenians, who burnt Sardis. Thereby they provoked the hostility of Darius. In 492 Mardonius was sent to invade Greece with a large army, but he lost a large part of his fleet and land forces. He was recalled, and Artaphernes appointed to command the invading army but they were again defeated, this time by Miltiades at Marathon. Darius now called out the whole force of his empire to subdue Greece, but after three years of preparation his attention was diverted by the rebellion of Egypt. He died in 485, leaving the execution of his plans to his son Xerxes.

Xerxes (Xerses), son of Darius and Atossa, and fifth king of Persia, began to reign in the 104th year of the Jewish captivity; and he reigned twenty years. He appeared to be the successor of his father's wishes, to honor and worship the God of Israel. He treated the Israelites with kindness and was very friendly to Esdra, the priest. Yet he followed his father's cruelty and grimness. He conquered Egypt, and became the ruler of entire Asia. He swept over Greece with war and an innumerable host of warriors. He burned Athens and killed many people. But finally he was twice wounded by Leonidas, the Spartan prince, and pursued so strongly that he, whose ships formerly swarmed over the seas, was barely able in fear to make good his escape on a small fishing craft. Some time later he was slain by Artabanus, his commander.[Xerxes was king of Persia from 485 to 465 BCE. His father Darius had died in the midst of his preparations against Greece, which had been interrupted by the revolt of the Egyptians. The first care of Xerxes was to reduce these people to submission. This done, he returned to Persia, leaving his brother as governor of Egypt. In the spring of 480 he set out from Sardis on his memorable expedition against Greece. He crossed the Hellespont by a bridge of boats, and continued his march through the Thracian Chersonese till he reached the plain of Doriscus. His land forces contained forty-six nations. In his march through Thrace and Macedonia he received further accession of strength, and when he reached Thermopylae his land and sea forces are said to have amounted to 2,641,610 fighting men (obviously an exaggeration!). Xerxes continued his march through Thrace. After joining his fleet at Therme, he marched through Macedonia and Thessaly without meeting with any opposition until he reached Thermopylae. Here the Greeks opposed him. His fleet was overtaken by a violent storm and he lost at least 400 ships of war, as well as an immense number of transports. He attempted to force his way through the pass of Thermopylae, but was repulsed again and again by Leonidas, until the treachery of a Greek from neighboring Malis, named Ephialtes, enabled him to fall on the rear of the Greeks. Leonidas and his Spartans refused to leave, and were all slain. Then followed the memorable battle of Salamis, in which the Greeks won a glorious naval victory. Xerxes witnessed the battle from a lofty seat on the shore, but only to behold the defeat and dispersion of his mighty fleet. He became alarmed for his own safety and resolved to leave Greece immediately. Leaving behind Mardonius, who undertook to complete the conquest with 300,000 of his troops, Xerxes returned to Sardis. And though the war continued for several years longer, the invasion proved a failure in the end. In 465 Xerxes was murdered by Artabanus, who aspired to the kingship of Persia. He was succeeded by his son Artaxerxes I.]

Artabanus, the sixth king of Persia, began to reign; and he reigned for seven months, which the historians call a year. Since Xerxes had died and had left behind two sons, Darius and Artaxerxes (Artaxerses), Artabanus instigated the younger brother to slay the elder one, saying that the elder brother had slain their father. But Vado (Vagabasus), who had knowledge of this evil deed, disclosed all to Artaxerxes, who in consequence of that mustered his troops as if about to count them. Artaxerxes, pretending that his armor was too short, went about to exchange it for that of Artabanus, who was among them. But when Artabanus was exposed, he and his seven sons were stabbed to death by order of Artaxerxes. And so the latter avenged himself upon Artabanus for the death of his father and brother.[Artabanus was a Hyrcanian, and commander of the bodyguard of Xerxes, whom he treacherously assassinated in 465 BCE, with a view of setting himself upon the Persian throne. According to Aristotle he had previously killed Xerxes' son Darius, and was afraid that the father would avenge him. According to Ctesias, Justin and Diodorus, he killed Xerxes first, and then pretended that Darius had murdered him, and instigated his brother Artaxerxes to avenge the deed. During the first four months of the reign of Artaxerxes I, Artabanus was the ruling power in the state; for this reason some erroneously reckon him as king for seven months. However, as soon as Artaxerxes learned the truth about the murder of his father and brother, he slew Artabanus and his sons. ]

Artaxerxes, the seventh king of the Persians, reigned forty years. He was the most handsome of men; but his arms were so long that they reached to his knees; for this reason he was called Longimanus (Long-hands). From the very beginning he levied heavy taxes upon the Persians, for he spent much gold and silver in the construction of buildings in which to deposit tribute money and the interest that accrued from it, in anticipation of public needs. Being an advocate of peace, all men loved him. Ezra, the priest and highly enlightened prophet, brought renown to his kingdom. Nehemiah was his and Darius' cupbearer.

Artaxerxes I, surnamed Macrocheir in Greek (‘Long-hand') and translated as Longimanus in Latin (‘Long-hands') because his right hand was longer than his left, was the younger son of Xerxes, and was raised to the throne in 465 BCE by the vizier Artabanus, the murderer of his father. After a few months he became aware of the crimes of the vizier, and slew him and his sons. On the whole his reign was peaceful, and he was famed for his mild and magnanimous character. Nepos says he was exceedingly beautiful and valiant. According to Nehemiah, his cupbearer, he was kind, but a rather weak monarch. His reign was disturbed by several insurrections. The war with Athens was terminated in 448, Cyprus and Egypt being ceded to the Persians. In his reign the Jewish religion was definitely sanctioned by law in Jerusalem on the basis of an edict granted by the king to the Babylonian priest Ezra in 458 BCE, and the appointment of Nehemiah as governor of Judea in 445 BCE.

Artaxerxes died in December 425. A great many tablets dated from his reign have been found in Nippur, and a few at other places in Babylonia; but inscriptions of the king himself are not extant. His grandson mentions his buildings in Susa.

Democritus of Abdera (Aberides)[Democritus was born at Abdera in Greece. His father possessed so much property and wealth that he was able to entertain Xerxes on his march through Abdera. The tradition that he blinded himself that he might be less disturbed in his pursuit is probably the invention of a later age, fond of anecdotes of that character. His studies embrace the natural sciences, mathematics, mechanics, grammar, music, philosophy, and various useful arts. With Leucippus he invented the atomic theory of matter. For his biography see note, Folio XXII verso.], the philosopher, flourished at this time. At first he listened to Chaldean Magi, and even as a child he became well versed in theology and in astrology. He journeyed to Persia by sea to study geometry there, and later went to Chaldea and to Athens to acquire knowledge of spiritual matters. At Athens he made the acquaintance of Socrates. He finally returned home, a very learned man; and he gave away his paternal inheritance for the common good. Democritus said that he preferred that peace of mind which poverty affords, rather than to be enslaved by the cares of wealth. He betook himself to a small garden by the city wall in order that he might observe nature in solitude, and, as Cicero says in the fifth book of his Tusculum Disputations, so that his mind might prove more productive. In order that he might not see the conduct of evil disposed citizens, he put out his own eyes. He lived 109 years. From his aphorisms we consider this one best: It is more agreeable to keep moderation in your life than excess in another; for moderation is the medicine of necessity.

Heraclitus, the philosopher, was held in esteem at this time. His books were so obscure that they were hardly understood by other philosophers. Toward the end of his life he was asked to say something remarkable; but he answered not. Instead, he twirled his finger about in a steady motion. According to Macrobius, he stated that the soul was a spark of stellar existence.[Heraclitus of Ephesus, was a philosopher, generally considered as belonging to the Ionian school, though he differed from their principles in many respects. In his youth he traveled extensively, and after his return to Ephesus the chief magistracy was offered to him, which however, he transferred to his brother. He appears afterwards to have become a complete recluse, rejecting even the kindnesses offered by Darius, and at last retreating to the mountains, where he lived on pot herbs. Some time later he was compelled by illness, consequent on such meager fare, to retire to Ephesus, where he died at the age of sixty. He flourished about 513 BCE. He wrote a work that contained his philosophical views. From the obscurity of his style he gained the title of the Obscure or the Riddler. He considered fire to be the primary form of all matter; but by fire he meant to describe only clear light fluid, "self-kindled and self-extinguished," and therefore not differing materially from the air of Anaximenes. His most famous utterance, cited in several authors, but most famously by Plato ( 402a), is: "You can't step twice into the same river." His ideas on flux and paradox/the unity of opposites still provoke philosophical discussion today.]


Themistocles, an Athenian philosopher, was highly regarded in these times, not only in the art of letters, but also in deeds of valor and in naval warfare. Following his advice, the Athenians defeated Xerxes in a naval battle. Even as a child, by reason of his natural intelligence, he always took note of exceptional matters. Ever seeking to satisfy his zeal for learning, and to comprehend beautiful sayings, he spent no time in play or misbehavior. He was ambitious for honor, and sought to become the ruler of the city. When asked by a certain person whether he should give his daughter in marriage to an accomplished poor man or to a securely rich one, he replied: I prefer a man lacking money to money lacking a man.[Themistocles, the celebrated Athenian, was born about 514 BCE. In youth he was impetuous, but displayed great intellectual powers and a lofty ambition for political distinction. He began his career by setting himself in opposition to those who had most power, among whom Aristides was the chief. The fame which Miltiades acquired by his generalship at Marathon made a deep impression upon him, and he said that the trophy of Miltiades would not let him sleep. In 483, his rival Aristides was ostracized (an event to which Themistocles had contributed). From this time on he was the political leader in Athens. In 481 he was Archon Eponymus. He persuaded the Athenians to employ the silver from the mines of Laurium in building ships instead of distributing it among the citizens. He was sure that it was only by a fleet that Athens could repel the Persians and obtain the supremacy in Greece. Later, as the commander of the Athenian fleet, he defeated Xerxes, and to his courage the Greeks owed their salvation from Persian dominion. This victory established his reputation among the Greeks. He was honored by the Spartans, who gave Eurybiades the palm of bravery, and Themistocles the palm of wisdom and skill, with a crown of olive and the best chariot the Spartans possessed. On his advice the Athenians then fortified Athens and the port of Piraeus. But the reputation of Themistocles suffered under accusations of enriching himself by unfair means, and in 471 he was ostracized from Athens and retired to Argos. Under charges of treasonable correspondence with the enemy, he fled from Argos to Corcyra, and then to Epirus, where he took refuge in the house of Admetus, king of Molossi, who refused to surrender him up. He finally reached the coast of Asia in safety. Xerxes was now dead, and Artaxerxes was on the Persian throne. The new king received Themistocles at his court, and in the hope of using him against the Greeks, gave him a handsome allowance, after the Persian fashion, and made him governor of the Persian province of Magnesia where he spent the rest of his life. He has a star turn in the second half of Herodotus' , and was the subject of one of Plutarch's biographies—the two most important sources for his life.]

Aristides, the Athenian philosopher, a most excellent man, flourished at this time (so Cicero relates in the third book of his On Duties). He was a man of such virtue and righteousness in matters concerning the common good that he acquired the name of the Just. He was so highly regarded by Plato that among all the celebrated men who flourished at Athens he considered Aristides alone worthy of praise. They say that he died so poor that he did not leave enough to pay his burial expenses.[Aristides, an Athenian, surnamed the "Just" was of an ancient aristocratic family. He was the political disciple of Cleisthenes (founder of the Athenian democracy), and partly on that account, partly from personal character, opposed from the first to Themistocles. He fought as the commander of his tribe at Marathon in 490 BCE, and in 489 was made Archon. In 483 he was ostracized, probably in consequence of the triumph of the maritime and democratic policy of his rival. He was still in exile in 480, when the battle of Salamis was fought, but did good service on that occasion by dislodging the enemy with a band of soldiers raised and armed himself from the islet of Psyttaleia. He was recalled from exile in the following year and appointed general, commanding the Athenians at the battle of Plataea. In 477 he and his colleague Cimon obtained for Athens the command of the maritime confederacy. He died after 471, the year of the ostracism of Themistocles, and very likely in 468. He died so poor that he did not leave enough to defray his funeral expenses. Plutarch wrote a biography on Aristides.]

Anaxagoras, the philosopher, was also at this time held in regard in the city of Clazomenae[Clazomenae was an important city of Asia Minor on the north coast of the Ionian peninsula on the gulf of Syrna. It had considerable commerce, was celebrated for its temples, and still more as the birthplace of Anaxagoras. Under the Romans it was a free city.]. He was so zealous for learning that he gave his entire paternal inheritance to his friends, and went to distant lands in search of knowledge. When he returned to his home after a long absence and saw his father's estates lying in waste, he said, I would not be safe if these riches had not been dissipated. When asked whether he was concerned about his fatherland, he replied, I carry no small but great cares about my fatherland; and he pointed his finger to heaven. When asked to what purpose he was created, he replied, To observe the sun, moon, and heaven. To one who informed him of the death of his son, he said, You tell me nothing new, for I knew he was mortal when I begot him. At the age of 72 years he was imprisoned by the Athenians and put to death by a drink of poison, because he called the sun, which they worshipped as a god, a fiery stone.[Anaxagoras, a celebrated Greek philosopher of the Ionian school, was born at Clazomenae in Ionia in 500 BCE. He gave his property to his relatives, in order to devote his life to higher ends. He went to Athens at the age of 20, and there he remained for 30 years. He became the teacher of the most eminent men of the time, including Euripides and Pericles. His doctrines gave offense to the religious feelings of the Athenians, and he was accused of impiety by the enemies of Pericles. It was only through the eloquence of Pericles that his life was spared; but he was sentenced to pay a fine of five talents and to go into exile from Athens. He retired to Lampsacus, where he died in 428, at the age of 72. Anaxagoras was dissatisfied with the philosophic system of his predecessors who had endeavored to explain nature and its various phenomena by regarding matter in its different forms and modifications as the cause of all things; but Anaxagoras, on the other hand, conceived the necessity of seeking a higher cause, independent of matter, and this he considered to be mind, thought or intelligence.]

Empedocles, also an Athenian philosopher, flourished in esteem at this time. He was so accomplished in song that by his sweet singing he calmed down an angry and raging youth (a guest of Empedocles) who was about to pursue another guest who had complained against his father. He taught that in all the manifold forms of nature there are three things: Disdain of affluence; zeal for future salvation, and enlightening of the mind. Of these nothing is more honorable than the first; nothing more real than the second; and for the quick acquisition of both, nothing more necessary than the third. He caused himself to be cremated on the supposition that the soul is immortal.[Empedocles, of Agrigentum in Sicily, flourished about 444 BCE. Although of an ancient and wealthy family, he joined the revolution in which Thrasydaeus, the son and successor of Theron, was expelled. He was magnanimous in the support of the poor, severe in the persecution of the aristocrats, and declined the sovereignty which was offered him. His brilliant oratory, his penetrating knowledge of nature, his reputation for marvelous powers in curing disease, his exertions in removing marshy districts and in averting epidemics, spread a luster around his name. He was called a magician. He traveled in Greece and Italy, and made a stay at Athens. His death is said to have been marvelous, like his life. One tradition has it that he was removed from the earth, like a divine being; another, that he threw himself into the flames of Mount Aetna, that by his sudden disappearance he might be believed to be a god; but it was added that the volcano threw up one of his sandals, and thus revealed the manner of his death. His works were all in verse, the most important being a didactic poem on nature. He believed in the migration of souls. He first established the number of four elements, which he called the roots of all things.]

Sappho (Sapho)[Sappho, surprisingly, has two entries in the . In addition to the one here, Schedel previously devoted a short paragraph to her in the Fourth Age at Folio LXI verso, where she follows Pythagoras. The two entries are quite different (e.g., in the former she is strangely called Sappho Crexea). ], born in the city of Lesbian[Sappho was born on the island of Lesbos. ‘Lesbian' is an adjective describing any citizen or place on that island.] Mytilene (Mitilena), another poetess, lived in high esteem at this time. She was the offspring of honorable and famous parents, and was, therefore, of (such) a noble disposition that, in the bloom of youth and beauty, she was not content only to write in prose but, spurred on by the widening passion of her spirit and by the vivacity of her innate talents, and with a zeal for learning, she ascended the steep slopes of the lofty peak of Parnassus. And with happy daring she joined the welcoming Muses. What more (is there to say)? By that passion of hers it has turned out that all the way up to our day her poetry, very famous in the testimony of the ancients, is (still) shining. She did not hesitate to bring forth lyric melodies. Therefore a bronze statue was erected in her memory. And she herself was counted among the famous poets. Nevertheless, her works were lost through the neglect of our ancestors.

All but the last sentence in the Latin edition of the Chronicle is taken from Boccaccio. The German edition, in fact, removes it, in addition to changing (mostly abridging) some of the Latin text's information on Sappho:

Sappho, a native of Lesbian Mytilene, another poetess, lived in high esteem at this time. She was the offspring of honorable and noble parents, and was therefore of a noble disposition. In the bloom of her youth she was of beautiful stature. In her passion and zeal for learning, she cast herself down from the heights of Mount Parnassus. She left behind many of her lovely poems. Therefore a bronze statue was erected in her memory.

The German entry on Sappho is less florid and more logical than the Latin text. There are no non-sequitur sentences in this version, and the removal of the last line eliminates problems with the claim that Sappho's poetry is still "shining in our (i.e., Boccaccio's or Schedel's) own day" when it didn't really exist in the West before the year 1500 (after that period, especially in the 19th and 20th centuries, many fragments were discovered in Egypt). The German version thus shows clear evidence of a strong editorial hand.

Zeuxis (Zeusis), a great painter, was at this time (as Eusebius states) in great renown. He acquired such great riches that he gave away his paintings, saying that they were priceless and therefore not for sale. As Pliny states in book 35 of his Natural History, he brought the painter's brush to great glory. And he acquired so much wealth that he decided to give away as gifts his own works. And he was saying that they could not be exchanged for a price that was of sufficient worth.

Cf. Schedel's source, Pliny, Natural History 35.36:

Opes quoque tantas adquisivit, ut in ostentatione earum Olympiae aureis litteris in palliorum tesseris intextum nomen suum ostentaret. Postea donare opera sua instituit, quod nullo pretio satis digno permutari posse diceret, sicuti Alcmenam Agragantinis, Pana Archelao.

And he acquired such great wealth that he advertised it at Olympia by displaying his own name embroidered in gold lettering on the checked pattern of his robes. Afterwards he set about giving away his works as presents, saying that it was impossible for them to be sold at any price adequate to their value: for instance he presented his Alcmena to the city of Girgenti and his Pan to Archelaus.

(H. Rackham, Pliny, Vol. IX; Loeb Classical Library, 1957; pp. 307, 309)

This sentence along with the preceding two are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Moreover he painted, as the same Pliny says, a child carrying grapes, to which (fruit) the birds flew. And he became angry, and said, I painted the grapes better than the child, for if I had created a child, the birds would have feared it. He is also given credit by Quintilian for having discovered shadows. There also lived at this time a highly celebrated artist named Parrhasius, who entered upon a contest with the aforementioned Zeuxis. For as Zeuxis exhibited his grapes, painted with such skill that the birds flew to them, Parrhasius brought forth a curtain painted with birds, and Zeuxis thought they were in truth birds. But when the curtain was moved away, and it was seen to be a painting, the mistake was understood. So Zeuxis yielded the palm to his rival Parrhasius, for he had deceived him with the birds.[Zeuxis, the celebrated painter, who excelled all his contemporaries except Parrhasius, was a native of Heraclea (probably of the city of that name on the Euxine), and flourished 424-400 BCE. He came to Athens soon after the Peloponnesian War, when he had already achieved a great reputation, although but a young man. He spent some time in Macedonia, at the court of Archelaus, for whom he decorated the royal palace at Pella with paintings, probably soon after 413. He painted a picture of Helen of Troy for the city of Croton in Magna Graecia. He also visited Sicily, where he gave away his paintings to the Agrigentines. Again we find him at Olympia where he made an ostentatious display before the eyes of all Greece, of the wealth which his art had brought him, by appearing in a robe embroidered with his own name in letters of gold. After acquiring a great fortune he adopted the custom of giving away his pictures because no adequate price could be set upon them. The time of his death is unknown. The picture of Helen is his masterpiece, and for this he had as models the five most beautiful virgins of Croton. It was painted for the city's temple to Hera. The art of accurate imitation of still life was carried almost to perfection by Zeuxis and his younger rival Parrhasius. The well-known story of the trial of skill, if not literally true, indicates the opinion which was held in ancient times of their powers of imitation. In this contest Zeuxis entered his painting of a bunch of grapes, so realistic that the birds flew at the picture to eat the fruit. Confident of victory, he called upon his rival no longer to delay to draw aside the curtain to show his picture; but the picture of Parrhasius was the curtain itself, which Zeuxis had mistaken for a real drapery. On discovering his error Zeuxis honorably yielded the palm to Parrhasius, saying that he had himself deceived birds but that Parrhasius had deceived an artist.]


Sappho is represented by a woodcut borrowed from a genealogical vine at Folio XXVI recto, and there entitled "Zephala (Zilpah), handmaid of Rachel." Note the dual branch proceeding from her waist. A different portrait of Sappho is used on Folio LXI verso.


Zeuxis and Parrhasius are portrayed by a single woodcut. Zeuxis is seated at a table, his arms folded. Before him lies a picture, which may or may not be his painting of Helen of Troy, but certainly not of a bunch of grapes. His expression is one of deep thought and disappointment. He may be meditating upon his defeat, and apparently his grapes have turned sour. Yet we may be wrong. Possibly he is just a weary sitter, having his portrait painted; for to the right is another artist busily engaged at his easel, with palette and brush in hand. This must be the triumphant Parrhasius. Surely Parrhasius is not painting his famous curtain, which Zeuxis mistook for a real one; for the canvas is a very small one. And after all, he seems to be painting the sitter behind his easel, a rather awkward position in which to pose a subject.


Toulouse (Tolosa), a city lying within the mountainous regions of Gaul, was founded by the Trojan, Tolosus. Now when the Romans took the city, they established themselves there in residence and improved it with a large market-house, capitol, and other buildings, of which some are still to be seen there. It lies near the Narbonensian city which was built by the associates of Aeneas, and is not far from Aquitania and the Sonciatic[The Senones are probably here meant. They were a powerful people in Gallia Lugdunensis, who dwelt along the upper course of the Seine. Augustus divided Gaul into four provinces – Gallia Narbonensis, the same as the old Provincia; Gallia Aquitania, extending from the Pyurennes to the Loire; Gallia Lugdunensis, the country between the Loire and the Seine and Saone – so called from the colony of Lugdunum (Lyon); and Gallia Belgica, between the Seine, Saone and the Rhine.] people. Here Paulus, the disciple of Saint Paul, performed miracles and rests in peace. It is a capital city, and through Pope John XXII was first endowed as an archbishopric. Castles were erected there, and the city became subject to the arch-episcopal jurisdiction. It is subject to the king of France. A university has also been built there. Here also is the body of Saint Saturninus and various relics of the apostles, which are held in great veneration. He was the first bishop there. He was taken by the pagans and thrown down all the steps from the top of the capitol building, and his head was crushed, his brains were beaten out, and his whole body was torn to pieces. And so at this place he breathed out his worthy soul to Christ.[Toulouse (Tolosa), a town of Gallia Narbonensis, was situated in Garumna, near the Aquitanian frontier. It was subsequently made a Roman colony, surnamed Palladia. It was a large and wealthy town, and contained a celebrated temple in which it is said there was deposited a great part of the booty taken by Brennus, leader of the Senonian Gauls, from the temple at Delphi. Town and temple were plundered by the consul Q. Servilius Caepio in 106 BCE; but the subsequent destruction of his army and his own unhappy fate were regarded as a divine punishment for his sacrilege. The city stands on the right bank of the Garonne, and is the capital of the department of Haute-Garonne in southwestern France. The church of St. Sernin, or Saturnin, whom legend represents as the first preacher of the gospel in Toulouse, where he was perhaps martyred about the middle of the third century, is the largest Romanesque basilica in existence, being 375 feet in length by 210 feet in breadth. In the crypts are many relics, which, however, were robbed of their gold and silver shrines during the Revolution. Toulouse is the seat of an archbishopric, a court of appeal, a court of assizes, and a prefect.]

Tours (Turo), a capital of Gaul, was built by Brutus, king of the Britons. He named it Turon after his grandson Turnus, who was there slain in battle by Aewalfredo (Gualfredo), Duke of Aquitania. It is a great industrial city on the river Loire (Liger), which divides the Bituriges[The Bituriges were a numerous and powerful people in Gallia Aquitanica, and in early times were supreme over the Celtic tribes of Gaul.] from the Hedius(?). Above it is a sea that gives it shipping advantages. It is also an arch-episcopal seat, to which eleven other bishops, chiefly in Celtica, are subject. And although the region retains the tribal name of Brittany, yet it lies in the kingdom of France. Although the city is very rich and has many estates, it also contains many ordinary buildings. It had many excellent and virtuous men, renowned for their piety. One was the most holy bishop Martinus, who awakened three persons from the dead. Another was Perpetuus, also a bishop of marvelous holiness.[Tours (Turo, but correctly Turoni), on the Loire River, was originally called Altionos, and later Caesarodunum. It was the chief town of the Turones, a people in the interior of Gallia Lugdunensis. Tours became Christian about 250 CE through the preaching of Gatien, who founded the bishopric. When Gratian made tours the capital of Lugdunensis Tertia, it became an archbishopric. In the fifth century the official name of the city was changed to Civitas Turonorum. It fell to the Visigoths in 473, and later became part of the Frankish dominion under Clovis. The arts flourished in tours during the Middle Ages. In the 17th and 18th centuries it was the capital of the government of Touraine. Balzac was a native of Tours. Today the city, a university town, is noted primarily for its medieval cathedral (Cathedral of St. Gatien, also known simply as Tours Cathedral) and its central position in the heart of the Loire Valley with its numerous chateaux.]

City of Tolosa (Toulouse

The city is represented by a woodcut that has also done service for Troy (Troya) at Folio XXXVI recto.


Milan (Mediolanum), the mighty city of the Insubres,[The Insubres were a Gallic people who crossed the Alps and settled in Gallia Transpadana in northern Italy. Their chief town was Mediolanum (present day Milan). They were a powerful tribe, but were conquered by the Romans shortly before the Second Punic War. It was taken by the Romans in 222 BCE and later became the residence of the emperors of the West, till the coming of Atilla, who plundered the town and induced the people to transfer the seat of government to the strongly fortified Ravenna. Mediolanum was one of the foremost cities of the empire, and on the fall of the Western empire it became the seat of Theodoric the Great and the capital of the Ostrogothic kingdom, surpassing even Rome in population and prosperity. It received a fearful blow in 539 CE, when, having sided with Belisarius, it was taken by the Goths under Vistiges, a great part of it destroyed and the inhabitants put to the sword. It again became important under the Lombards.] located on this side of the mountainous region of Gallia, and mother of other cities, had its origin, as narrated by Livy of Padua and Trogus Pompeius, with the Gauls, who under their commander Brennus marched into Italy. Many say this city was not built in the reign of king Assuerus by the Senonian Gauls, but was enlarged and improved by them. Yet others say it was built in the time of Joshua, the judge of the Hebrews, and was illustrious in the time of the Trojans. Then when the Sicambri,[The Sicrambri (Sygambri, Sugambri, Sigambri or Sycambri) were one of the most powerful peoples of Germany at an early time. They belonged to the Istaevones, and dwelt originally north of the Ubii on the Rhine, from where they spread toward the north as far as Lippe. They were mentioned by Caesar, who invaded their territory. They were conquered by Tiberius in the reign of Augustus, and a large number of them were transplanted to Gaul, where they received settlements between the Maas and the Rhine as Roman subjects. The portion who remained in Germany withdrew farther south, probably to the mountainous country in the neighborhood of the Taunus, a large range of mountains, at no great distance from the confluence of the Moenus (Main) and the Rhine. Shortly afterwards they disappear from history, and are not mentioned again till the time of Ptolemy, who places them much farther north, close to the Bructeri and the Langobardi, somewhere between the Vecht and the Yssel. At a still later period we find them forming an important part of the confederacy known under the name of Franci.] a people of Germany in the time of Samson, the judge, marched toward Milan with hostile intent, they were intercepted by Julius the Insubrian king; and they made peace, and entered into an alliance to become a single people and kingdom. Until the time of Brennus[Brennus was the leader of the Senonian Gauls. In 390 BCE he invaded Italy. He defeated the Romans at the Allia, some twelve miles from Rome. He then appears to have delayed a day or two, giving the Romans time to fortify the Capitol; he then sacked Rome, besieged the Capitol for six months, accepted the offer of the defenders to ransom themselves, and then, probably departed safely with his booty. It is difficulty to disentangle the facts of this invasion from the legends. We may or may not believe the massacre of the Patricians in their chairs; the night attack on the Capitol, the sacred geese and the exploits of Manlius; the false weights at the paying of the ransom, and the hurling by Brennus of his sword into the scales, with the famous words, "Vae Victus." Livy says that at the time of the payment, Brennus and his forces were wiped out by Camillus.] it was not a large city, but he increased it in a wonderful manner. It is the industrial center of the entire country of Lombardy, and it has a very fertile soil. Hercules Maximianus[Maximianus was Roman emperor from 286 to 305 CE. He was born of humble parents in Pannonia, and had acquired such fame in the army that Diocletian selected this rough soldier for his colleague, as one whose abilities were likely to prove valuable in the disturbed state of public affairs. Accordingly, he created him first Caesar (285), and then Augustus (286), conferring at the same time the honorary appellation of Herculius, while he himself assumed that of Jovius. After having been reluctantly compelled to abdicate, at Milan (305), he was again invested with the imperial title by his son Maxentius, in the following year (306) to whom he rendered the most important service in the war with Severus and Galerius. Having been expelled from Rome shortly afterwards by his son, he took refuge in Gaul with Constantine, to whom he had previously given his daughter Fausta in marriage. Here he again attempted to assume the imperial throne, but was easily deposed by Constantine in 308. Two years afterwards he endeavored to induce his daughter Fausta to destroy her husband, and was in consequence compelled by Constantine to put an end to his own life.] improved the city with battlements, surrounded it with another wall, enlarged the city, and named it Herculeum, after himself. In honor of Hercules he also built a temple, now dedicated to Saint Lawrence. After a long period of prosperity the city sustained a misfortune; for, while Saint Ambrose was still a bishop, it suffered from the Arian heresy.

Arianism was the belief of Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, who died in 336 CE. He held that Christ was the first and noblest of all created beings, but that, as there was a time when he did not exist, he was not the Eternal Son of God, and that there was no Trinity, as the Son was of the same substance as the Father.

Clovis, king of the Franks, was baptized at Rheims with 4000 of his followers in CE 496. He accepted the orthodox faith; on the other hand Ulfilas and those who had received Christianity through his influence were adherents of Arianism, a form of faith which had been declared heretical by the Council of Nicaea in 325 CE.

Later the tyrant Atilla marched into Italy, and ravaged Milan. After its reconstruction the city was at peace for a brief period, but was then overrun by the Lombards. However, after Charles the Great subdued the Lombards, the city flourished for 360 years, but was then leveled to the ground by Frederick Barbarossa. Afterwards the Milanese, with the help of the Parmensians[Parmensians, the inhabitants of Parma or Parmensia (originally in Gallia Cispadana).] and Placentians[Placentians, the inhabitants of Placentia or Placentinus, now Piacenza. Formerly a Roman colony in Cisalpine Gaul.], rebuilt their city with such zeal that in three years the city became richer, mightier, and stronger than it formerly was, and increased marvelously. Pope Alexander writes that Milan has a very good natural position; that it suffers neither from extremes of heat nor cold—for that reason it is very habitable, has good air and fresh wholesome water; that it has 17 beautiful seas and 60 waterfalls which give moisture to the soil in this region. How the city flourished is indicated by the great temples which stood there, and which still stand there—the royal houses; the nobility of its celebrated buildings; its mighty lords and the assemblies of the clergy; the swarm of travelers and of the learned; its industries and trade in weapons, cloth, and many kinds of garments. The above named pope also states that Barnabas, a disciple with Paul, was the first bishop there; and not long after him came Saint Ambrose, who converted Saint Augustine to the Faith. In recent times the lords built a very tall castle there and a very praiseworthy hospital and a church to Our Lady was erected there. And they adorned the city in many other ways.

Milan was an important place from remote antiquity. It was founded by the Celts, and during the Roman period rose to be one of the chief cities of northern Italy, and in the fourth century it was often the residence of the emperors, particularly of Constantine the Great (324-37) and Theodosius (379-95) whose edicts in favor of Christianity were issued from there. The Lombard kingdom was overthrown by Charlemagne, whose successors ruled over the country by means of governors. It was against the walls of the Lombard cities that the power of the Hohenstaufen was broken. Their league was headed in 1167 by Milan, which was soon rebuilt after its destruction by Frederick Barbarossa in 1162. Feuds between the nobles and the people led in 1277 to domination by the Visconti, who by successful wars and diplomacy gained possession of a great part of northern Italy, and who proved famous patrons of the arts and sciences. Gian Galeazzo Visconti (1378-1402) founded the Cathedral of Milan and the certosa of Pavia. In 1450 the condottiere Francesco Sforza forced his way into power. He built the Castle and the Ospedale Maggiore, and invited Italian and Byzantine scholars to his court. Still more brilliant was the court of Lodovico Sforza, surnamed il Moro, who in 1477 usurped the guardianship of Francesco's grandson, Gian Galleazzo Sforza. During his sway Beamante and Leonardo da Vinci came to Milan, raising it to the pinnacle of its artistic fame. The marriage of the Emperor Maximilian I with Bianca, Gian Galleazzo's daughter, and Lodovico's diplomatic alliance with Charles VIII of France ushered in a European war for the possession of upper Italy. Expelled by Louis XII in 1499, Ludovico ended his days in a French prison, but the victory gained by Charles V at Pavia in 1525 resulted in the cession of the duchy to his son Philip II of Spain. In 1714 the War of succession transferred the duchy to the House of Austria. An insurrection in 1848 compelled the Austrians to vacate the city, and the patriotic agitations which ensued were happily ended by the desired union with the new kingdom of Italy in 1859.

The plain around Milan is extremely fertile, owing to the richness of the alluvial soil deposited by the Po, Ticino, Olona, and Adda, and to the excellent system of irrigation. From the cathedral roof it presents the appearance of a vast garden divided into square plots by rows of mulberry or poplar trees. To the east, this plain stretches as far as the eye can see towards Venice and the Adriatic; on the southern side the line of the Apennines from Bologna to Genoa closes the view; to the west rise the maritime Cottian and Graian Alps; while northward are the Pennine, Helvetic and Rhaetian Alps.

The principal architectural attraction is the Cathedral of Milan, built of brick cased in marble from the quarries that Gian Galeazzo Visconti gave in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter. Begun in 1386, it was then the largest church in existence, and now, after St. Peter's at Rome and the cathedral of Seville, it is the largest church in Europe. It covers an area of 14,000 square yards and has a capacity of 40,000 people. The interior is 486 feet long, 189 feet wide; the nave is 157 feet high, and the distance from the pavement to the top of the tower is 356 feet. The style is a very elaborate Gothic. The cathedral is regarded by the Milanese as the eighth wonder of the world. The roof, marble like the rest of the building, is adorned with 98 turrets, and the interior with upwards of 2,000 statues in marble. The stained glass windows in the choir are said to be the largest in the world. The church is cruciform in shape, with double aisles and a transept, the latter also flanked with aisles. The interior is supported by immense pillars.

The Castel Sforzesco, or Castle of Milan, stands in the Parco Nuovo. It was built in 1450 by Francesco Sforza on the site of the one erected by Galeazzo II. Visconti (1355-1378), and demolished in 1447 by the populace after the death of Filippo Maria Visconti. After many vicissitudes it was restored – including especially the splendid entrance tower by Antonio Averulino (Filarete, 1451-1453), destroyed by a powder explosion in 1521 – in the 15th century style, and it is now a most imposing structure.


Xerxes (Xerses), the second of that name, eighth king of Persia, reigned only two months; and after him Sogdianus, the ninth king, reigned only seven months. Because of these brief periods there is nothing memorable to mention.[Xerxes II, the only legitimate son of Artaxerxes I, succeeded his father as king of Persia in 425, but was murdered after a reign of only two months by his half-brother Sogdianus, who thus became king. Sogdianus was one of the illegitimate sons of Artaxerxes I. Sogdianus, however, was murdered in turn, after a reign of seven months, by his brother Ochus, who reigned under the name of Darius II.]

Jesus (Iesus), son of Sirach (Syrach), a Hebrew, wrote the Book of Ecclesiasticus, in which he treated of the virtues, both spiritual and moral in a very beautiful manner. He called the book Ecclesiasticus because it speaks of and teaches everything that concerns spiritual discipline and ethics.[Jesus, son of Sirach, was the author of (or ‘The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach'), one of the most valuable of the Apochryphal books. It resembles the books of Proverbs, Ecclesiastes and Job in its ethical characteristics. The author was a Jew, and he wrote the book probably early in the third century, although the Greek translation was issued about 132 BCE. It was originally written in Hebrew, and in this language about one half of it has recently been discovered in Egypt and published. It is one of the works that gives us a vivid idea of the Wisdom literature produced in the centuries preceding the Christian era.]

Herodotus, a Greek historian, to be extolled above all others in Greece, at this time wrote his books of history.[Herodotus, Greek historian, and father of history, was born at Halicarnassus, a Doric colony in Caria, in 484 BCE. He later spent time in Athens, and was honored by being allowed to settle in the newly created Athenian colony at Thurii, in Italy, where he died. Where he wrote his history is not definitely known; but Lucian relates that he read his work to the assembled Greeks at Olympia, which was received with such universal applause, that the nine books of the work were in consequence honored with the names of the nine muses. On almost every page of his work he records the results of his personal observations and inquiries (the Greek word ‘historia' means ‘inquiry'). He spent much time in many parts of Greece, and in Asia Minor and Syria. He probably traveled extensively in Egypt and the lands of the Middle East. The object of his work is to give an account of the struggles between the Greeks and the Persians, and the second half of his history in particular is a brilliant recounting of the various Persian invasions of Greece, culminating in Xerxes' massive expedition in 480 BCE. His work concludes with the taking of Sestos by the Greeks in 478 BCE. The history is full of digressions and episodes, the most famous being book 2, which is almost entirely devoted to Egyptian history, culture, sociology, anthropology, and religion.] After he read them in the public assemblies at Athens, he attained to great honor as one (whose style), as Quintilian[Quintilian (M. Fabius Quintilianus), most celebrated Roman rhetorician, was born in Spain in 40 CE, attending lectures at Rome in his youth. Pliny the Younger was one of his pupils. He is also celebrated as the first public instructor to receive a regular salary from the imperial exchequer. After devoting twenty years to his profession, he retired to private life and died at about seventy-eight years of age. His greatest work is a complete system of rhetoric in twelve books.] says, is sweet and brilliant. Pliny, in book 12 of his Natural History, says that he wrote a history.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Darius, surnamed Nothus (Notus), tenth king of Persia, reigned 29 years. After he ascended the throne, he waged severe wars against the Athenians and put them to flight, so that afterwards they dared not resist him. In the tenth year of his reign the Egyptians seceded from him.[Darius II was king of Persia from 424-405 BCE. He was called Ochus before his accession, and then named Nothus (‘Bastard'), from his being one of the bastard sons of Artaxerxes I. He obtained the throne by murdering his brother Sogdianus. Darius was governed by eunuchs, and the weakness of his government is shown by the repeated insurrections of his satraps. In 414 the Persians were expelled from Egypt.]

Sophocles, the Athenian tragic poet, was by reason of his great ingenuity called the divine poet by Cicero. In the last days of his life he sent his poetry to be read before an assembly of the learned; and when he heard that he was the victor, he died for joy.[Sophocles, the celebrated tragic poet, was born in 495 BCE in the village of Colonus, about one mile from Athens. His first appearance as a dramatist took place in 468, under peculiarly interesting circumstances. On this occasion, so the story goes, at the age of 27, he came forward as the rival of Aeschylus, whose supremacy had been maintained through an entire generation. The solemnities of the Great Dionysia (the festival in honor of the god Dionysus held in March in Athens) were rendered more imposing by the occasion of the return of Cimon from the expedition to Scyros, bringing with him the bones of Theseus. Public expectation was so excited respecting the approaching dramatic contest, and party feeling ran so high that Apsephion, the Archon Eponymus, whose duty it was to appoint the judges, had not yet ventured to proceed to the final act of drawing the lots for their election, when Cimon with his nine colleagues in the command, having entered the theater, the Archon detained them at the altar, and administered to them the oath appointed for the judges in the dramatic contests. The first prize was awarded to Sophocles, the second to Aeschylus, who was so mortified that he left Athens and retired to Sicily. From this time on Sophocles held the supremacy of the Athenian stage, until Euripides came forth as a new rival and won the first prize in 441. The following year Sophocles brought forth the earliest of his extant dramas, , a play which gave the Athenians such satisfaction, especially on account of the political wisdom which it displayed, that they elected him one of the ten generals that year (Pericles was also one). Sophocles died in 406 at the age of 90.]

Artaxerxes (Artaxerses), the second of that name, whose nickname was Mnemon (Memnon), whom the Hebrews call Assuerus, was the eleventh king of the Persians for 40 years. He was the son of the above named Darius (II), and the mightiest of all those who had preceded him, for he ruled over 127 provinces from India to Ethiopia. In the third year of his reign he made a great feast and dined his subjects in a wonderful tabernacle. And the queen Vasci (Vasti), who declined to come, he deposed, and gave the honor to Hester, and made her queen in the former's place.[Artaxerxes II, nicknamed Mnemon (Greek for ‘ever-mindful,' ‘having a good memory'), from his good memory, succeeded his father Darius II, and reigned from 405-359 BCE. Cyrus, his younger brother, and supported by Greek mercenaries, invaded upper Asia. Cyrus fell in battle in the neighborhood of Cunaxa, near Babylon. Notwithstanding perpetual conflicts with the Greeks, the Persian empire maintained itself by the internal discord among the Greeks themselves, which was fomented by Persian money. The peace of Antalcidas (388 BCE) gave the Persians even greater power and influence than they possessed before. But Persia too was suffering from internal disturbances, and Artaxerxes had to carry on frequent wars with his tributary princes and satraps, who endeavored to make themselves independent. His attempts to recover Egypt failed. Toward the end of his reign he put to death his eldest son Darius, who had formed a plot to assassinate him. His last days were still further embittered by the unnatural conduct of his son Ochus, who caused the destruction of two of his brothers in order to secure the succession of himself. Artaxerxes was succeeded by Ochus, who ascended the throne as Artaxerxes III.]

Artaxerxes (Artaxerses) the Third, also known as Ochus, and a son of Assuerus (Artaxerxes II) by Hester, was the twelfth king of Persia, and reigned for 26 years. He was so serious and cruel a man that by his acts he earned for himself an everlasting place in the memory of the Persians. He recalled to power Nectanabis[Nectanabis II came to the throne of Egypt in 361 BCE. For some time he defeated all the attempts of Artaxerxes III (Ochus) to recover Egypt, but he was at length defeated himself, and despairing of making any further resistance, he fled into Ethiopia in 350. He was the third king of the Sebennite dynasty, and the last native sovereign to rule over Egypt.], the king of Egypt, who had been driven into Ethiopia. Suspecting a conspiracy among his subjects, he spared neither his relatives nor the princes (of his realm) from murder and death, disregarding blood and tribal relations, and age. Nor did he himself escape divine vengeance, for he was slain by his own people.[Artaxerxes III, also called Ochus, reigned from 359-338 BCE. In order to secure his throne, he began his reign with a merciless extirpation of the members of his own family. A reckless despot, the great advantages which the Persian arms gained during his reign, were alone due to his Greek generals and mercenaries. By this means he put down the revolt of the satrap, Artabazius, reduced the Phoenicians and several towns which had revolted in Cyprus, and finally Egypt, in 350. The reins of government were entirely in the hands of Bagoas, the eunuch, and of Mentor, the Rhodian. Finally he was poisoned by Bagoas, and was succeeded by his youngest son Arses.]

Arses (Arsanus Ochus), the king's son, and thirteenth king of Persia, reigned 4 years and had many sons about whom Herodotus makes mention[There is no mention of this king or his sons in Herodotus' . Th phrase, "about whom Herodotus makes mention," in fact, is not found in the German edition of the .]; but of him we hear nothing memorable.[Arses was the youngest son of Artaxerxes III (Ochus). He was raised to the Persian throne by the eunuch Bagoas, after he had poisoned Artaxerxes in 339 BCE; but he too, was murdered by Bagoas in the third year of his reign, when he attempted to free himself from the bondage in which he was kept. After the death of Arses, Bagoas made Darius III king.] But Jaddua (Jaddus) the sixth Jewish priest, in this year, succeeded his deceased father Johanan in the priesthood; and he held the office 50 years—a good man and a lover of peace.[Jaddua, the son of Jonathan, was high priest of the Jews, and officiated a considerable time after the Captivity. He is believed to be the same who lived in the time of Alexander the Great, and is the last of the high priests mentioned in the Old Testament.]

Parmenides, an Athenian philosopher, fled the company of humankind and lived on a mountain ridge in the Caucasus. He first discovered logic, and was a master of Zeno.

Parmenides was a distinguished Greek philosopher, but a native of Elea (not Athens), in Italy. According to Plato, Parmenides at the age of 65 came to Athens to the Panathenaia (the annual festival in honor of the patron goddess of the city, Athena), accompanied by Zeno, then 40 years old, and became acquainted with Socrates, who at that time was quite young. Parmenides was regarded with great esteem by Plato and Aristotle; and his fellow citizens thought so highly of him, that every year they bound their magistrates to obey the laws which he had enacted for them. The philosophical opinions of Parmenides were developed in a didactic poem in hexameter verse entitled On Nature, of which only fragments remain. In this poem he maintained that the phenomena of sense were delusive, and that it was only by mental abstraction that a person could attain to the knowledge of the only reality, a One and All, a continuous and self-existent substance, which could not be perceived by the senses. His insights have haunted philosophers for millennia.

Zeno, the Eleatic philosopher, also a native of Elea (modern day Velia) in Italy, was one of the favorite disciples of Parmenides. His famous logical paradoxes have provided philosophers, mathematicians and writers from the time of Aristotle to the present with much to think about.

Darius, son of the aforementioned Arsanus (Arses), was the last king of the Persians. He received the rule in the first year of the empire of Alexander, and he reigned six years. And as he was the mightiest, and nothing oppressed his royal majesty, he undertook a war with Alexander with varying fortune. But Alexander finally defeated him. He was slain by his own relatives, and thus ended his own life and the kingdom of Persia as well.[Darius III (336-331 BCE) was the last king of Persia. He was the son of Arsames and Sisygambis, and a descendant of Darius II. He was raised to the throne by the eunuch Bogoas, after the murder of Arses. Alexander the Great defeated him in a number of successive engagements. While Alexander was pursuing Darius into the Parthian desert, the king was murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria.]

Melissus, the philosopher, native of the island of Samos, was a disciple of Parmenides. Aristotle often remembered him. He taught the virtues he practiced.[Melissus of Samos, a Greek philosopher, the son of Ithagenes, was according to common account, the commander of the fleet opposed to Pericles in 440 BCE. But he is not mentioned by Thucydides, and ought probably to be placed much earlier, as he is said to have been connected with Heraclitus, and to have been a disciple of Parmenides. It appears from the fragments of his work, which was written in prose, and in the Ionic dialect, that he adopted the doctrines of Eleatics.]

Brennus (Brenus)[We have already encountered Brennus at Folio LXXII recto and will shortly see him appear again in the .], leader of the Senonian Gauls, son of Monuchris, king of the Angles, in the 13th year of the reign of Artaxerxes (Assuerus) left his own land with an army of three hundred thousand Gauls and invaded Italy. And after driving the ancient Etruscans into exile and having occupied their cities, he (according to the reports of Polycritus (Policrates) and Justin) threw down the foundations of many cities, as soon will be described.[The German edition of the removes this paragraph devoted to Brennus.]


Hippocrates, a son of Heraclides (Eraclidis), as Galen (Galienus) in the first (book of his commentary) of (Hippocrates') Regimen of Acute Diseases (though some say that he was a son of Asclepius), and a disciple of Pythagorus (Pitagore), a prince among all physicians, born in the island of Cos (Choo), was highly renowned at this time. He brought back to light the study of medicine that was lost for a long time, and which lay hidden for five hundred years after the death of Aesculapius. He greatly disdained all sensual pleasures. And (as Saint Jerome writes) he bound all his disciples by an oath of secrecy, to modesty in dress, and to good morals. He was (so they say) small of body and well built; had a large head and was slow of movement. He was a man of many ideas, slow of speech, and slender fare. He lived ninety-five years. His teaching was this: He who would be free should not desire that which he may not have. He who would have what he desires should not wish to have that which he may not have. He who would live here in peace should become like one who is invited to a feast, and who is thankful for all that is placed before him, and does not grumble because of the lack of anything.[Hippocrates was the most celebrated physician of antiquity. He was born on the island of Cos about 460 BCE. He belonged to the family of Aesclepiadae, and was the son of Heraclides, who was also a physician. His mother's name was Phaenarete, who was said to be descended from Hercules. He was instructed in medical science by his father and by Herodicus. He wrote, taught, and practiced his profession at home; traveled in different parts of Greece. He is said to have died at Larissa in Thessaly, about 357, at the age of 104. He had two sons and a son-in-law, all of whom followed his profession, and who are supposed to have been the authors of some of the works in the Hippocratic collection. This is all we know of the life of Hippocrates, but much has been added by way of stories, clearly fabulous. Thus he is said to have stopped the plague at Athens by burning fires throughout the city, by suspending chaplets of flowers, and by the use of an antidote. The writings that have come down to us under the name of Hippocrates were composed by several different persons, and are of very different merit. They are more than 60 in number, but of these only a few may be by his hand as opposed to those written later by members of his school. The ancient physicians wrote numerous commentaries on the works in the Hippocratic collection. Of these the most valuable are the commentaries of Galen. Hippocrates divided the causes of diseases into two principal classes; one comprehending the influence of seasons, climates, water, situation, etc., and the other the influence of food, exercise, etc. He considered that while heat and cold, moisture and dryness succeeded each other throughout the year, the human body underwent certain analogous changes, which influenced the diseases of the period. He supposed that the four fluids or humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile) are the primary seat of the disease; that health is the result of the due combination (Greek crasis = ‘mixing') of these and that, when this combination was disturbed, disease was the consequence; that, in the course of a disorder that was proceeding favorably, these humors underwent a certain change in quality, which was the sign of returning health as preparing the way for the expulsion of the morbid matter (Greek crisis); and that these morbid matters (crises) had a tendency to occur at stated intervals, which were for this reason called "critical dyas." Hippocrates apparently had much experience and knew how to turn it to best account; and the number of moral reflections and sayings that we meet with in his writings, some of which (as, for example, "Life is short, but the Art (of Medicine) is long") have acquired a sort of proverbial notoriety (especially in their somewhat incorrectly understood Latin translations; e.g., Vita brevis, ars longa = ‘Life is short, Art long'). The Hippocratic Oath, which in modified form is still taken by medical students when they become doctors, is another of his lasting legacies. ]

Zeno, an Attic philosopher from Cyprus, the Greek city, with many Phoenicians as neighbors, was the son of Napseus (or, as others say, of Demeus). Apollonius of Tyre[Apollonius of Tyre was a Stoic philosopher who lived in the reign of Ptolemy Auletes. He wrote a history of Stoic philosophy from the time of Zeno.] said that he was lean of body, straight in build, and had dark skin. His limbs were swollen, weak and sickly. For this reason Chrysippus called him an Egyptian palm. Therefore he shunned many meals. He enjoyed fresh figs grown in the sun. He was a disciple of Crates (Cratis), Stilpo (Stilpionis), and Xenocrates. Together with Cytheus[No such person exists, as far as we know. Perhaps ‘Cytheum' is a garbled remembrance of his hometown, Citium.] the philosopher he was a teacher of the Stoic school. They said that the greatest possession is that which is honorable; for nothing will prevent such a person from living righteously and in virtue. Zeno was considered so worthy by the Athenians that the keys of the city were entrusted to him. And they honored him with a golden crown and a bronze statue. His fellow-citizens did likewise. He had many excellent students, particularly Antigonus, to whom he wrote letters from time to time. To a talkative youth he said, We have two ears and but one mouth so that we may hear much and say little. He died at 90 years of age, in good health and without affliction.[Zeno, a native of Citium in Cyprus, was the founder of Stoic philosophy. He began to study philosophy at an early age. According to some he was rich, according to others poor; but whichever is right, his moderation and contentment became proverbial. He studied under Stilpo of the Megaric school; also under Cronus, Philo, Zenocrates and Polemo. Zeno studied philosophy for 20 years, and after having developed his peculiar philosophic system, he opened his school in a certain porch (Stoa Poecile ‘The Painted Stoa') in Athens, which at an earlier time was a meeting place of poets. From this place his disciples were called Stoics. Antigonus Gonatus, king of Macedonia, was an admirer of Zeno. The Athenians placed the greatest confidence in him, depositing with him the keys to their fortress, as the most trustworthy man. The date of his birth and death are unknown. He is said to have still been alive in 260 BCE and to have died at the age of 98 years.]

Socrates, the highly renowned Athenian philosopher, of the village of Alopece, was the son of Sophroniscus and Phaenarete (Phanarete), his father being a sculptor, his mother a midwife. As some say, he was at first an attendant upon Anaxagoras, and later of Archelaus.[Archelaus was a philosopher, probably a native of Athens, though others say he was born at Miletus. He flourished about 450 BCE. His philosophic system is remarkable as forming a point of transition from the older to the newer form of philosophy in Greece.] He was the master of Plato. He was the first to discover the art of ethics, and he flourished at this time. As Cicero writes, he called the art of wisdom down from heaven, and set it down in the cities, and brought it into the houses. He urged the investigation of good and evil, of morals and life. Therefore (as Solinus states) he was not esteemed the wisest man by the opinion of the people alone, but also by the oracle of Apollo. He was an alert, extraordinary and excellent orator who first opened the field of public speaking with Aeschinus (Eschino), his disciple, as Favorinus states. To obtain wisdom, he traveled even when old, through the most distant regions of the earth. And although he was the most wise, he made no pretentions to knowledge. Therefore he often said (a thing which Jerome often said to Paulinus), This one thing I know, that I know nothing. Socrates was also a man of marvelous chastity, righteousness, and other virtues. In his seal was written (as it is said) A man's friend is his wisdom; but a man's enemy is his stupidity. Among many others of his teachings was this: Manage a strange business in such a way that you do not forget your own. As you wish to appear, so should you be. Finally he was accused of laughing at the oaks, dogs, and roebucks that the Greeks worshipped as gods. For this he was put to death with a dose of poison. But after his death the Athenians repented, and they set up a golden image of him in the temple in his memory.[Socrates, the celebrated Athenian philosopher, was born c. 470 BCE in the Attic deme of Apolece, near Athens. In his youth he was said to have followed the profession of his father, attaining some proficiency as a sculptor. He was robust and possessed great endurance. He went barefoot at all seasons of the year and wore the same homely clothing, no matter what the season. He was very ugly looking, having a flat nose, thick lips, and prominent eyes like a satyr or Silenus. He filled no political office until 406, when he was a member of the senate of Five Hundred. He was man of great moral courage. Much of his life was devoted exclusively to teaching, to the neglect of more material things. Yet he never opened a school nor delivered a lecture; but everywhere, in the market place, the workshop, etc., he sought opportunities for awakening people of all ages to moral consciousness and self knowledge. He fought pretensions and conceit of knowledge in order to pave the way for correct knowledge. He incurred the bitter hatred of the mentally proud, to whom he therefore appeared an intolerable bore. He was persecuted and finally impeached for corrupting the youth and despising the tutelary deities of the State, and for putting new ones in their places. He was found guilty and condemned to death. He drank the cup of hemlock that was given to him, and died with composure and cheerfulness in his seventieth year (399 BCE). His friends and followers, who included Xenophon and Plato, wrote many works about him. Because of them (especially the latter), Socrates is, after Jesus, remembered today as perhaps the most important figure from antiquity (at least in the Western world), and can be said to be (unknown to himself) the beginning of various philosophical schools of thought through his various students/disciples (e.g., Plato, Antisthenes), and their students/disciples (e.g., Aristotle, Diogenes).]

Isocrates, by birth a Greek, was a celebrated orator and disciple of Gorgias. He was an excellent teacher of many natural philosophers, as Macrobius says. And so Quintilian says that he was well versed in many branches of oratory, and better practiced in debate than war. He was a follower of all lovers of good oratory, short on invention, devoted to things honorable, and so industriously labored in the collecting and assembling of literature that he became careless. Among other works he wrote a book in which he says: You should so behave toward your parents as you would have your children behave toward you. You should hold your word more sacred than your possessions. He lived 94 years.

Isocrates (436-338 BCE), an Attic orator, was the son of Theodorus, a successful manufacturer of musical instruments. He received the best education that Athens could provide. He took no part in public life, for which he was unfitted in physique as well as temperament, and he withdrew to Chios. He had already started teaching rhetoric, having lost his fortune in the tumult of the Peloponnesian Wars. He returned at about the time of the restoration of the democracy in 403. For the next ten years he continued to write occasional speeches for the law courts. He himself despised this branch of his work. His real vocation was teaching, and at about 392 he founded his famous school near the Lyceum, where for the rest of his life he may be said to have had the Greek-speaking world from the Black Sea to Sicily for his pupils. There is a tradition that at the panegyric contest on the death of Mausolus of Caria in 351, there was not a competitor who had not been trained by Isocrates. In the meanwhile he was also active as a publicist.

Isocrates amassed considerable wealth in his profession, and fulfilled the usual public services of the rich man at Athens. His political views were in accord with the prevailing tendency of Greek political thought at the time. Whatever may be thought of his political tenets, there is no doubt of his place in the history of literature. He was regarded by the Greeks as representing the smooth or florid school of prose style. His real eminence consists in the fact that by giving an artistic finish to the literary branch of rhetoric, he set a standard in form and rhythm for prose style. This is his legacy to Cicero, and through him to the modern literature of Europe. His extant works consist of 21 speeches or discourses and 9 letters.

Thucydides, a Greek historian, and a certain very serious man, also (lived) at this time, as Eusebius states. And Quintilian adds: He is dense and concise and always hastening forward.[This sentence, from Quintilian's (10.73), is not in the German edition of the .] Thucydides, and later also Herodotus, were taught to speak in Latin by Lorenzo Valla (Laurentius Vallensis).[Lorenzo Valla (Laurentius Vallensis; 1407-1457), was a celebrated (and controversial) Italian humanist, philosopher, and literary critic. Pope Nicholas V (r. 1447-1455) commissioned him to translate the historians Thucydides and Herodotus (Schedel's fanciful way of putting it—"were taught to speak in Latin"—is one of his best phrases in all the ).] Their works are still held in great esteem.[Thucydides, historian of the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BCE), was born near Athens about 460 BCE. He was one of those who suffered from the terrible plague at Athens, and one of the few who recovered. An aristocrat and military officer, he commanded an Athenian squadron of seven ships at Thasos (424), when he failed to relieve the city of Amphipolis from the brilliant Spartan general Brasidas; and, condemned (unfairly) after this event as a traitor, took refuge in exile, and retired to his Thracian estates. He lived in exile twenty years, and probably returned to Athens in 404. He must have died soon after 400. Thucydides was, in certain ways, the first modern, ‘critical' historian. He removes the element of religion from his work, and focuses primarily on the militaristic, economic, sociological, and psychological aspects of the events of his day. The speeches that he puts into the mouths of the various political figures at the time are masterpieces of philosophical thought and sophistic rhetoric (often at the same time). Together with Herodotus, his predecessor of only a few years, he mapped out the limits of the field of history and historiography (adding also his special interests and talents in the field of political science).]


Xenophon, a philosopher and distinguished commander of the army of the Athenians, the son of the Athenian Gryllus, was a modest man, incredibly handsome, of good morals, and agreeable to all. He was a disciple of Socrates and a rival of Plato. When he heard the first two books of Plato on the general welfare and care of the State, he was opposed to their ideas and wrote against them; and when Plato heard of that he was affected. He was the first to take note of the things Socrates had said, and brought them to general attention; and he, first of all philosophers, wrote a history. He was also a strict military commander who brought the army back home from the remotest parts of Babylonia through dangerous territory and barbarian nations without loss. He lived to the age of 89 years.[Xenophon (c. 435-354 BCE), Greek historian, essayist, and military commander, was the son of Gryllus, an Athenian knight. He came under the influence of Socrates at Athens. As he recounts in his celebrated military memoir, , in 401 he accepted the invitation of Proxenus of Boeotia, a commander of Greek mercenaries, to join him at Sardis and take service under the Persian prince, Cyrus, ostensibly against the Pisidians, but really against Cyrus's own brother, King Artaxerxes Mnemon. After the failure of this bold scheme and the death of the rebel prince at Cunaxa, Xenophon succeeded Proxenus in the command of the Ten Thousand Greeks. He became the life and soul of the army in his march of 1500 miles, as they fought their way against the ferocious tribes through the highlands of Armenia and the ice and snow of an inclement winter; and with such skill did he lead them that within five months they reached Trapezus, a Greek colony on the Black Sea, and ultimately Chrysopolis (Scutari) opposite Byzantium (399). He secured for his soldiers permanent service in the Lacedaemonian army against the Persians. Sentence of banishment was passed against him from Athens for thus taking service with Sparta. In 396 he formed a close friendship with Agesilaus, the Spartan king, and accompanied him in his eastern campaign; was in his company when he returned to Greece to conduct the war against the anti-Spartan league of Athens, Corinth, and Thebes, and witnessed the battle of Coronea. He went back with the king to Sparta, where he resided on and off until the Spartans presented him with an estate at Scillus, a town taken from Elis. And here he spent some twenty years of his life indulging his taste for literary work and the pursuits of a country gentleman. But the break-up of Spartan ascendancy after the battle of Leuctra drove him from his retreat. The Athenians who had now joined the Spartans against Thebes repealed his sentence of banishment. He settled at Corinth, where he died. His writings are divided into four classes: historical, technical and didactic, politico-philosophical, and ethic-philosophical.]

Archytas (Archita) of Tarentum, the son of Mnesagoras (or, as Aristoxenus said, of Histiaeus) (Estei), was a Pythagorean philosopher highly celebrated at this time, and in all branches of ethics was looked upon as a marvel. By a letter that he wrote to Dionysius he saved the life of Plato who was to be put to death. He also wrote many things, among which is the following: There is no greater plague than the carnal pleasures of the body, whose desires are excited to foolish and unrestrained uses. From these arise betrayal of the fatherland and destruction of the common good. There is no vice, no evil action, to which licentiousness does not lead.[Archytas of Tarentum was a distinguished philosopher, mathematician, general and statesman. He lived about 400 BCE, and onwards, so that he was a contemporary of Plato, whose life he is said to have saved by his influence with the tyrant Dionysius. He was seven times the general of his city, and he commanded in several campaigns, in all of which he was victorious. After a life which secured to him a place among the very greatest men of antiquity, he was drowned while upon a voyage on the Adriatic. As a philosopher he belonged to the Pythagorean school, and he appears to have been himself the founder of a new sect. He paid much attention to mathematics. To his theoretical science he added the skill of a practical mechanician, and constructed various machines and automatons, among which his wooden flying dove in particular was the wonder of antiquity. He also applied mathematics with success to musical science, and even to metaphysical philosophy. Plato was indebted to him for some of his views; and Aristotle is thought by some writers to have borrowed of him the idea of the categories, as well as some of his ethical principles. (This entry on Archytas was taken word-for-word by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 1, pp. 273-4 s.v. Archytas.)]

Plato, the most celebrated philosopher at this time (as Eusebius writes), was the most renowned of all philosophers, and the most brilliant. He was born at Athens to his father Ariston and his mother Perictione (Perictonia) (or as others say, Potone (Petona)), on the same day that Apollo was born at Delos (as Apollodorus states). His mother was of the line of Solon, and his father was descended from Codrus,[Codrus was the last king of Athens.] the son of Melanthus. Plato had two brothers, Adeimantus and Glaucon, and a sister named Petona, from whom sprang Speusippus, the philosopher. He learned grammar and literature with Dionysius the Grammarian, while Aristone supervised his physical exercise in the gymnasium. Plato at first learned to paint, and also wrote poetry, as well as tragedies. Because of the lordly appearance of his body he was called Plato; although he was first named after his ancestor Aristocles. He studied under (literally ‘listened to') Socrates, but upon his death he studied under Cratylus (Crathylus) and Hermogenes, and then, at the age of 29, took himself to Megara to (study with) Euclid; and afterwards he went to Cyrene to study under Theodorus. He later traveled to Egypt where he heard the priests and prophets. On this journey Euripides was his traveling companion. Then he returned to Athens and lived in the Academy. He made three voyages to Sicily, and while fleeing to escape the menace of death, he was sold (into slavery). Being asked how one may attain to wisdom, he replied: Not by waiting for something that may never come to pass, nor by dwelling on the past. Plato, at last, died while seated at a feast at the age of 81.

Plato was born at Athens or in the neighboring islands of Aegina about 429 BCE. Paternally he boasted descent from Codrus, maternally from Solon. He was originally named after his grandfather Aristocles, but because of his fluency of speech, or the breadth of his chest, he received the name by which we know him (Platon = ‘broad [shoulders/chest?]'). When a youth he is said to have competed in the Isthmian and other games. He did not devote himself to philosophy until later, probably after he was drawn to those in Socrates' circle. He received instruction from some of the most distinguished teachers. In his twentieth year he started listening to Socrates, becoming one of his most ardent admirers. After the latter's death he withdrew to Megara where he probably composed several of his dialogues. Through friendship for the mathematician Theodorus, he went to Cyrene. He also visited Egypt, Sicily, and the Greek cities in Lower Italy in his quest for knowledge. During his residence in Sicily he became acquainted with the elder Dionysius, but very soon fell out with the tyrant (and, we are told in later, probably legendary, accounts that he was sold by the tyrant into slavery). After his return he taught gratuitously. A narrow circle of his disciples assembled in his garden at simple meals. From his house came his nephew Speusippus, Xenocrates of Chalcedon, Aristotle, Heraclides Ponticus, Hestiaeus of Perinthua, Philippus the Opuntian, and other men from many parts of Greece. With the exception of two visits to Sicily, Plato was occupied from the time he opened his school in the Academy in giving instruction and in the composition of his works. He died in 347 at the age of 82 years. According to his last will and testament, his garden remained the property of the school and passed, considerably increased by subsequent additions, into the hands of the Neo-Platonists who kept as a festival his birthday as well as that of Socrates. (This entry on Plato was taken, and massively abridged, by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities, Vol. 3, pp. 392-405 s.v. Plato.)

Plato is, perhaps, the most famous and influential philospher in the western tradition. In addition, he is a master prose stylist (his Symposium, for example, in addition to being the most sophisticated—and influential—exploration of the idea of ‘love' in western civilization, is also one of the greatest of all literary works from the ancient world).

Antisthenes, the Athenian philosopher, first heard the orator Gorgias,[Gorgias of Leontini, Sicily, was a celebrated rhetorician, orator, sophist and philosopher. He was born about 480 BCE and lived to be about 109 years old, so it is said.] and later became associated with Socrates. He lived in Piraeus and walked 40 stadia[40 stadia are equal to approximately 4.5 miles] to hear him. From Socrates he learned patience and serenity. Antisthenes originated the sect of the Cynics and was a master among them. He derided the haughty and pompous Plato; and when he heard Plato speak ill, he remarked: It is edifying to hear evil when you have been virtuous yourself. Antisthenes wrote many books on various subjects. According to Jerome (when writing his Against Jovinian[Jerome's (‘Against Jovinian') was a polemical treatise in two volumes written in 393 CE to counter pagan pride in pagan culture. It was titled ‘Against (the monk) Jovinian', because that monk had asserted, among other things, the equality of virginity and marriage. The citation is from 2.344.]) Antisthenes, after hearing Socrates, made this observation to his disciples: Go forth and seek a master for yourselves, for I have found one for myself; for all this learning is nonsense, and what you know amounts to nothing.[Antisthenes, an Athenian, was the founder of Cynic philosophy. He was a disciple, first of Gorgias, and later of Socrates, whom he never abandoned. He taught in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for Athenians born of foreign mothers; this is probably the origin of the name Cynics, although others derived the name from the doglike behavior and neglect of all forms and usages of society by its adherents. His writings, chiefly dialogues, were numerous, his style pure and elegant, and he possessed considerable wit and sarcasm. Being an enemy of all speculation he opposed Plato. His philosophical system was confined almost entirely to ethics. He showed contempt for luxury and the comforts of life by his mean clothing and hard fare. The Stoics later sprang from his school. (This entry on Antisthenes was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 1, pp. 207-208 s.v. Antisthenes. It has been every so slightly modified by the current editor.).]

Speusippus, Athenian philosopher, was the son of Eurymedon and a nephew of Plato by the latter's sister. He was master of Plato's school for eight years. He was easily angered and extended his hand to pleasures. Indeed, he gave his hand to the doctrine of Epicurus. For these faults Diogenes, the philosopher, severely criticized him. Having become afflicted with paralysis, he begged Xenocrates to take his place as teacher. According to Plutarch he died from an accumulation of lice. Timotheus says he was lean of body. He left many books and dialogues. Favoronius says that Aristotle bought his books for three talents, and that Simonides wrote a biography of him. He was the first to discover how to make large receptacles out of thin wood.[Speusippus, the philosopher, native of Athens, was a son of Plato's sister Potone, and succeeded Plato as president of the Academy, over which he presided for eight years. He developed the doctrines of his master in a number of works, all of which are now lost.]


Pavia (Papia), a city of Cisalpine Gaul, whose more ancient name was Ticinum, was (as Pliny says) built by the peoples called Laevi (Levii) and Maricii, who lived on the other side of the mountains; but as the historian Paulus Longobardus states, it was begun and its foundations laid in the time of Assuerus (Artaxerxes II) the king of Persia, by the Senonian Gauls. However, the region had been occupied as a village for a long time by the Insubres of Gaul. The city lies in the region of the Ticinus, the river that flows out of Lake Verbanus.[Verbanus Lacus (Lake Maggiore), one of the principal lakes of Northern Italy.] Over this river a beautiful stone bridge was built; and the city was named Ticinum after the river. It was here that the celebrated Scipio obtained his victory over Hannibal. In this city, because of its location and wholesome climate, the Ostrogothic and Lombardian kings loved to dwell. For this reason it has a history, and many deeds were wrought there; and therefore also it rivaled Milan in greatness, age and esteem. Now, however, Milan excels Pavia, although both were now and then celebrated and illustrious. The city was ravaged by Attila, the king of the Huns. When sometime afterwards it regained its strength, Odoacer[Odoacer, usually called king of the Heruli, was the leader of the barbarians who overthrew the Western empire in 476 CE. He took the title of king of Italy, and reigned till his power was overthrown by Theodoric, king of the Goths. Odoacer was defeated in three decisive battles by Theodoric (489-490) and took refuge in Ravenna, where he was besieged for three years. He at last capitulated on condition that he and Theodoric should be joint kings of Italy; but Odoacer was soon afterwards murdered by his rival.], the king of the Heruli (Erolorum), besieged Orestes[Orestes was regent of Italy during the short reign of his infant son Romulus Augustulus (475-6 CE). He was born in Pannonia, and served for some years under Attila; after whose death he rose to eminence at the Roman court. Having been entrusted with the command of an army by Julius Nepos, he deposed this emperor, and placed his son Romulus Augustulus on the throne; but in the following year he was defeated by Odoacer and put to death.] there, took him prisoner and put him to death; and he also cruelly destroyed and wasted the city. The defeat of the Roman citizens at this time was so great that the like of it has not occurred elsewhere since the decline of the Roman Empire. But while Rudolf, Duke of Burgundy afflicted the Italian kingdom, the Hungarians, under their commander Salade, in the time of Pope Stephen the Seventh, overran Italy and laid siege to this city, captured it, and ravaged it with fire and sword. In the meantime Pope Agapitus, and the nobility and people of Italy, asked Otto I of Germany to come to Italy; after which Italy began to recover from the oppressions which it had suffered for a long time. Petharit, the Lombard king, here built the cloister of Saint Agatha; and Theodolinda the queen, the Church of Our Lady. Luitprandus (Linthprandus), king of the Lombards, caused the bones of St. Augustine to be brought to Pavia from Sardinia. And with wonderful alacrity a tomb of very white marble was prepared. The same king also called the monastery of St. Peter the Ciel d' Oro (cellula aurea); and in the region where the kings often held court, he erected the monastery of St. Anastasias the martyr. And so here also Gondiberta, the queen, erected the Church of St. John the Baptist; and bishop Peter, the friend of King Luitprandus, the Church of St. Savini. Later still Gian Galeazzo Maria Visconti, the first duke of Milan, industriously devoted himself to the adornment of this city; and after he erected many buildings there, he also built a mighty castle in lordly style, with a large library; and beside the castle was a large forest supplied with game and enclosed by walls. In the midst of this forest he caused to be erected at great expense a tall Carthusian monastery and his tomb. The circumference of the forest is one hundred and twenty cubits. At this time Pavia has in its university many men celebrated in the spiritual arts, jurisprudence, philosophy and medicine. Many illustrious men were also born there, such as Syrus the bishop, highly esteemed in learning and holiness; Ennodius, the most eloquent poet; Antonius Guanerius, the most famous doctor of his age, who composed many works for medicinal cures; Cattonis, Saccus, Silanus; Nigrus, and others.[Pavia, was originally called Ticinum, after the Ticinus (now the Ticino) on whose left bank it is located. This was an important river in Gallia Cisalpina. It rises in Mons Adula, and after flowing through Lacus Verbanus (‘Lake Maggiore'), it falls into the Po near Ticinum. It was upon the bank of this river that Hannibal gained his first victory over the Romans by the defeat of P. Scipio in 218 BCE. The chronicler seems to have the situation reversed. Ticinum was a town of the Laevi, or, according to others, of the Insubres. It was subsequently a Roman municipum; but it owed its greatness to the Lombard kings, who made it the capital of their dominions. The Lombards gave it the name of Papia, which it still retains under the slightly changed form of Pavia.]


Hermes of Egypt, the philosopher, by our people called Mercury, at one time a disciple of Plato, was celebrated during this time. Although an old man, he was well versed in all branches of learning. By reason of his great knowledge and art he was surnamed Hermes Trismegistus (Trimegestus), that is, three times greater. He wrote many books giving information of things divine; and, among others, a book on the perfect word. And he said—as it it well known in the eighth book of (Augustine's) City of God—that the gods of the pagans were dead people.[Hermes Trismegistus is the reputed author of a great variety of works, some of which are still extant. The Greek god Hermes was identified with the Egyptian Thot, or Theut, as early as the time of Plato. The New Platonists regarded the Egyptian Hermes as the source of all knowledge and thought, and hence called him Trismegistus. A vast number of works on philosophy and religion, written by the New Platonists, were ascribed to Hermes; from which it was pretended that Pythagoras and Plato had derived all their knowledge. The most important of these works is entitled Poemander, apparently in imitation of Pastor of Hermas. It treats of nature, of the creation of the world, the deity, his nature and attributes, the human soul, knowledge, etc.]

Apuleius of Madaura in Africa (Apuleius Aphar Madaurensis), also a disciple of Plato, was famous at this time. This same person wrote many books; for within him were combined a peculiar surplus and grace of knowledge and the means of expression. He wrote books about the golden ass, Metamorphoses, that they call a Greek fable; the four books of his Florida; On the God of Socrates; a book On the World, etc.[This sentence and the preceding one are not in the German edition of the .] An aphorism of his was the following: Nothing is more like God than a man perfectly good in his soul.[Apuleius of Madaura in Africa, was born about 130 CE. He received the first rudiments of education at Carthage, and afterwards studied the Platonic philosophy at Athens. He traveled extensively in Italy, Greece, and Asia, becoming initiated in most mysteries. He returned home, but soon thereafter journeyed to Alexandria. On his way he was taken ill at the town of Oea, and was hospitably received into the house of a young man, Sicinius Pontianus, whose mother, a very rich widow of the name of Pudentilla, he married. Her relatives being indignant that so much wealth should pass out of the family, impeached Apuleius of gaining the affection of Pudentilla by charms and magic spells. The cause was heard before the proconsul of Africa in 173, and the defense spoken by Apuleius is still extant. Of his subsequent career we know little except that he declaimed in public with great applause. His most important work is the novel the (also called ), apparently intended as a satire on the hypocrisy and debauchery of certain priests, fraudulent pretenders to supernatural power, and the general profligacy of public morals. (This entry on Apuleius was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 1, pp. 248-250 s.v. Apuleius.) ]

Plotinus, a philosopher, also a disciple of Plato, and a teacher of Porphyry (Porphirius), also flourished at this time. He was skilled in all the arts of virtue, and fortified himself in all the divine ordinances with righteousness, strength, moderation and wisdom. He believed that arbitrary fortune could be overcome by the intelligence of his wisdom. Therefore he selected as his seat a place where he would be removed from the unrest of all human activities and severed and relieved from all envy of good fortune. This man did not permit himself to be overcome by any desire, and he wrote a beautiful book of the virtues; and he said that the rational soul, which as he did not doubt has its residence in the seats of heaven, has no superior in nature, and is subject to God alone; for as the sun lights the moon, so God gives light to the soul.[Plotinus was the originator of the Neo-Platonic school of philosophy. He was born at Lycopolis in Egypt in 203 CE. Of his life his disciple Porphyry wrote a biography that has come down to us. From him we learn that Plotinus began to study philosophy at the age of 28 years, and for eleven years remained under the instruction of Ammonius Saccas. In his 39th year he joined the expedition of the emperor Gordian (242) against the Persians, in order to become acquainted with the philosophy of the Persians and Indians. After the death of Gordian he fled to Antioch, and from there to Rome (244). For the next ten years he gave only oral instruction to a few friends, but was at length induced to commit his instructions to writing. In 264 Porphyry came to Rome, and joined himself to Plotinus. By this time twenty-one books had already been written by Plotinus. During the six years that Porphyry lived with Plotinus at Rome, the latter at the instigation of Amulius, Porphyry wrote twenty-three books on the subjects discussed in their meetings, to which nine were later added. In all, Plotinus wrote fifty-four books, and those he committed to the care of Porphyry for correction. On account of the weakness of his sight Plotinus never read them through a second time, to say nothing of making corrections. Porphyry divided the fifty-four books into six Enneads or sets of nine books each. Plotinus lived very modestly, and his hours of sleep were restricted to the briefest time possible. He was regarded with admiration and respect by men of science, philosophers and statesmen. He enjoyed the favor of the emperor Gallienus, and the empress Salonina. He died in 262. His philosophical system is founded on Plato's writings, with the addition of various tenets drawn from the philosophy and religions of the Persians and Indians.]

Diogenes (Dyogenes) of Sinope was a great philosopher (according to Diocles). He was the son of Hicesias, a banker. He left his fatherland and went to Athens, where he found Antisthenes. He estranged himself from all pleasures. He was the first to wear a double mantle on account of the cold; and in it was a pocket in which he carried his food. He wrote and requested a man to build a small room for him; but as the man was slow about it, Diogenes used a tub as a house. In cold weather he turned the opening to the south; and in summer, toward the north. In summer he rolled himself in hot sand, while in winter he embraced statues covered with snow. He once saw a child drinking out of the hollow of its hand, so he threw down his own ordinary cup and said, A child has surpassed me in scornfulness. He said all things are of the gods, and the wise are the friends of the gods. At one time he sat in the sun, and Alexander spoke to him, saying, State what you desire. Diogenes answered, Make no shadow upon me. And it is said that Alexander stated, If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes. This, among other things, was his teaching: If someone gives you advice with kindness, you should listen to him in kindness. He later died in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus.[Diogenes, the Cynic philosopher, was born at Sinope in Pontus, about 412 BCE. His father was a banker, who was convicted of certain illegal transactions, in consequence of which Diogenes left Sinope and went to Athens. His youth is said to have been spent in dissolute extravagance; but at Athens his attention was arrested by the character of Antisthenes, who at first drove him away, but soon relented. His new pupil soon plunged into the most frantic excesses of austerity and moroseness. In summer he used to roll in the sand, and in winter he embraced statues covered with snow. He wore coarse clothing, lived on the plainest food, slept in porticoes or on the street, and finally, according to a well-known story, took up his residence in a tub belonging to the Metroum, or temple of the Mother of the Gods. In spite of his eccentricities, Diogenes was respected at Athens, and apparently was privileged to rebuke anything of which he disapproved. He seems to have ridiculed and despised all intellectual pursuits that did not directly and obviously tend to some immediate practical good. He abused literary men for reading about the evils of Odysseus, and neglecting their own; musicians for stringing the lyre harmoniously, while they left their minds discordant; men of science for troubling themselves about the moon and stars, while they neglected what lay immediately before them; orators for learning to say what was right, but not to practice it. On a voyage to Aegina, Diogenes was taken prisoner by pirates and carried to Crete to be sold as a slave. He was purchased by Xeniades of Corinth, over whom he acquired such influence that he soon received his freedom, was entrusted with the care of his master's children, and passed his old age in his house. During his residence at Corinth his famous interview with Alexander is said to have taken place. The king said, "I am Alexander the Great;" to which the philosopher replied, "And I am Diogenes the Cynic." Alexander then asked him whether he could oblige him in any way. Diogenes replied, "Yes, you can stand out of the sunshine." We are further told that Alexander admired Diogenes so much that he said, "If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes." The cynic died at Corinth in 323 at the age of 90. (This entry on Diogenes was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 1, pp. 1021-1023 s.v. Diogenes.) ]

Philip (Philippus), son of king Perdiccas (Perdice), was the twenty-third king of the Macedonians; he reigned for 27 years. He was a warrior, and with his strength conquered Armenia, Bithynia, Thrace and Thessaly. He was a man of friendly address, more loved than feared. Yet he was a man of valor, although too fond of wine. However, after his intoxication wore off, he was moderate in his dealings. Once upon a time, in order to protect his kingdom, he had marched away some distance when Nectanabis, then king of Egypt, and a man most skilled in astrology, fled to Philip in fear of the Persians; but when Nectanabis saw Olympias, the very beautiful wife of Philip, he violated her through deceit by means of black magic (in which he was highly learned); for in the night that Olympias conceived she dreamed that she was struggling with a huge snake. And after the return of Philip, Olympias gave birth to Alexander, a son. Although she acknowledged to her husband that she had not born the child by him, but by a huge snake, yet Philip reared Alexander as his own beloved son. And, once Alexander had been born, he wrote Aristotle: You are to know that a son has been born to me; therefore thanks be given the gods, not only because he was born, but also because he was born in your lifetime. I hope that through your teachings he will become worthy. Afterwards Aristotle took the son under his care, and there he remained for five years. Later he tamed a wild horse and rode it without fear. Seeing this, Philip said that he had learned by the answers of the gods that Alexander would reign after him. Therefore he gave him a royal chariot, horses, and a certain amount of gold. Alexander started a war against the king of the Peloponnesians; and from there he brought home to his father the crown of victory. When he later received the reins of government, he called himself king of all lands and of the world.[Philip II of Macedon was the youngest son of Amyntas II and Eurydice. He reigned from 359-336 BCE. He was born in the year 382, and was brought up at Thebes, to where he had been carried as a hostage by Pelopidas; and there he received a careful education. Upon the death of his brother (not his father as the chronicler states) Perdiccas III, who was slain in battle, Philip obtained the government of Macedonia, at first merely as regent and guardian of his infant nephew Amyntas; but at the end of a few months he was able to set aside the claims of the young prince and to assume the title of king. His military exploits are too numerous to mention here; suffice to say that he conquered all of Greece, and attempted to unify it. In the course of his preparations for an Asiatic expedition against the Persian Empire, Philip was murdered at a grand festival which he held at Aegae to solemnize the wedding of his daughter with Alexander of Epirus. He died at 47 in the 24th year of his reign, and was succeeded by his son Alexander the Great.]


Alexander the Great (Magnus), the twenty-fourth king of the Macedonians, began to reign in the last year of Arsanus (Arses), the Persian king; and he reigned 12 years and 6 months. He began to reign at the age of 20 years. After Philip the king died, Alexander soon subjugated Illyria (Illiria) (which now we call Slavonia (Sclavonia)), devastating it with fiery zeal. He conquered the islands of the Romans, and sailed to Africa and completely vanquished it. He then marched into hostile Syria and devastated it. He attacked Damascus and captured Sidon. He then moved swiftly against Jerusalem. There he honored the high priest of the Jews, marched into the city and allowed the Jews their freedom. In the meantime he silenced many hostile peoples, and allayed much discord in the East. By those accomplishments he attained to such power that he entered Greece without difficulty. Afterwards he resumed the war that his father had begun against the Persians. While upon this expedition he learned that the Athenians, Thebans, and Lacedaemonians had allied themselves with the Persians; but he armed his forces and speedily subdued Greece. And as the Athenians were the first to secede from him, so they were the first to suffer and rue the day. However, through Anaximenes the Wise they and Alexander again became reconciled, so that he restored to them freedom and peace. He set fire to the hostile Theban cities and reduced the Lacedaemonians to submission. He also marched into Egypt and there built a wonderful city, which he named Alexandria after himself. Afterwards, when he marched against the Persians, Darius disdained his youth; and Olympias, the mother of Alexander, sent him a message to come to her, for she was very ill. He returned homeward, and on the way conquered Phrygia. As he proceeded from greater Asia through the Hellespont into Asia Minor and reached home, he found his mother recovering. In consequence of that he again assembled his forces, and when he had subjugated all the regions along the river Euphrates, he made a bridge over which he marched; and he approached the city of Persepolis, in which Darius the king of the Persians resided. Alexander had thirty-two thousand footmen, four thousand five hundred horsemen, and 182 ships; and it seemed doubtful that he could conquer the world with such a small force. But Alexander decided that such a precarious war required not strong young men, but older men—such as had been men at arms under his father and had fought for him. So his warriors consisted of select men, and his leaders were likewise. No man was a commander under sixty years of age. In consequence none of them thought of flight in battle, but only of victory. Against them Darius sent six hundred thousand men; but those were defeated, no less by the wisdom of Alexander than by the strength of the Macedonians, and were forced to flight. After this victory the greater part of Asia joined Alexander. Later Alexander learned that Darius was again proceeding against him with a great and mighty army. So he took advantage of a narrow pass and hastened over Mt. Taurus, coming to the city of Tarsus. Being attacked by illness, he rested there. In the meantime Darius came up with three hundred thousand infantry and one hundred thousand cavalrymen in the lead. But by this time Alexander had recovered, and he turned his forces against the enemy. And a battle of great daring took place, in which both kings were wounded; and the result was long doubtful, until Darius decided to flee. In consequence of this battle the Persians were defeated; one hundred sixty thousand infantrymen and ten thousand cavalrymen were slain; and forty thousand were made prisoners. Of the Macedonians there fell 130 men on foot and 150 on horse. In the camp of the Persians was found a large quantity of gold and other forms of wealth. Among the prisoners were the mother, wife, sister and two daughters of Darius. And when Alexander saw the wealth of Darius, he was seized with wonderment; and he began to love Barsine (Bersane) because of her elegant manners. By her a child was born to him, and it was named Hercules. Darius fled to Babylonia. From there he offered Alexander a great sum of money for the release of the prisoners. Alexander desired no money, but the kingdom. Having given up hope of peace, Darius again prepared for war against Alexander, enlisting four hundred thousand footmen and one hundred thousand horsemen. And there was a battle. The Macedonians fought with fixed determination; and the Persians decided to die rather than suffer defeat. It has seldom happened that in a single engagement so much blood was shed. And when Darius saw that his troops were defeated, he also decided to die; but those nearest him desired him to flee. By this battle Alexander conquered the empire of Asia. He was so fortunate that from this time on no one dared resist him.

Darius was captured by his own people and, in order to gain favor with the conqueror, he was bound in golden chains. Then, pierced with many wounds, he died. And so ended the kingdom of Persia which had endured through 14 kings for 254 years. Afterwards he subjugated Hyrcania (Hircaniam) and the Mardians (Mardos). There the queen of the Amazons with 300 hundred thousand women[Justin's text ( 12.3), from which Schedel is compiling this section, says that only 300 women accompanied the Amazon queen.] encountered him. After these things he sought India, were King Porus (Porrus) was captured, and he obtained the kingdom of the Indians. Finally, when he had returned to Babylon, he gave himself over to leisure for many days. And then, when he had accepted a cup in the midst of drinking, suddenly, just as if struck by a spear, he groaned. He died of a poisoned drink given to him by Cassander, the son of Antipater, and which was so strong that it could not be kept in a vessel of bronze or iron, but in the hoof of a horse. And on the fourth day, sensing that his death was most certain, he said that he knew that he himself would suffer the fate of his ancestors. At last he ordered his body to be buried in the temple of Ammon (Hammontis). When he was asked what heir there should be to the Empire he responded: the most worthy. On the sixth day, being unable to speak, he took his ring from his finger and gave it to Perdiccas (Perduce). And so passed away Alexander, at the age of 33 years and one month; a man of superhuman power and endowed with magnanimity.

Alexander the Great, son of Philip II and Olympias, was born at Pella in 356 BCE. His early education was committed to Leonidas and Lysimachus; and he was also placed under the care of Aristotle, who acquired an influence over his mind and character, which manifested itself to the latest period of his life. At the age of 16 Alexander was entrusted with the government of Macedonia by his father when Philip was obliged to leave his kingdom to march against Byzantium. He first distinguished himself, however, at the battle of Chaeronea (338), where the victory was due mainly to his impetuosity and courage. On the murder of Philip (336), Alexander ascended the throne, at the age of 20, and found himself surrounded by enemies. He first put down rebellion in his own kingdom, and then rapidly marched into Greece. His unexpected activity overawed all opposition; Thebes, which had been most active against him, submitted when he appeared at its gates; and the assembled Greeks at the Isthmus of Corinth, with the sole exception of the Lacedaemonians, elected him to the command against Persia, which had previously been bestowed upon his father. He now proceeded against the barbarians of the north, marched across Mount Haemus, defeated the Tribali, and advanced as far as the Danube, which he crossed; and on his return subdued the Illyrians and Taulantii. A report of his death having reached Greece, the Thebans once more took up arms. But a terrible punishment awaited them. Alexander took Thebes by assault, destroyed all the buildings with the exception of the house of Pindar, slew most of the inhabitants, and sold the rest as slaves. He now prepared for his great expedition against Persia. In the spring of 334 he crossed the Hellespont, with about 35,000 men, of which 30,000 were foot and 5,000 horse; and of the former only 12,000 were Macedonians. Alexander's first engagement with the Persians was on the river Granicus in Mysia (May 334), where they were entirely defeated by him. This battle was followed by the capture or submission of the chief towns on the west coast of Asia Minor. Halicarnassus was not taken till late in the autumn, after a vigorous defense by Memnon, the ablest general of Darius, and whose death in the following year relieved Alexander from a formidable opponent. He now marched along the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia, and then north into Phrygia and to Gordium, where he cut or untied the celebrated Gordian knot, which it was said, was to be loosened only by the conqueror of Asia. In 333 he marched from Gordium through the center of Asia Minor into Cilicia.

Darius meantime had collected an army of 500,000 or more men, whom Alexander defeated in the narrow plain of Issus. Darius escaped across the Euphrates, but his mother, wife and children fell into the hands of Alexander, who treated them with the utmost respect.

Alexander now directed his arms against the cities of Phoenicia, most of which submitted; but Tyre was not taken until after an obstinate defense of seven months. Next followed the siege of Gaza, which again delayed Alexander two months. According to Josephus, Alexander then marched to Jerusalem, intending to punish the people for refusing assistance; but he was diverted by the high priest, and pardoned the people. Alexander next marched into Egypt, which willingly submitted, for the Egyptians hated the Persians. At the beginning of 331, Alexander founded at the mouth of the west branch of the Nile the city of Alexandria.

In the spring of the same year (331) Alexander set out to meet Darius, who had collected another army, said to have amounted to more than a million men. They met in the plains of Gaugamela, and the Persians were completely defeated. Darius fled to Ecbatana in Media. Alexander was now the conqueror of Asia, and began to adopt Persian habits and customs, by which he conciliated his new subjects. He next marched to Babylon, Susa, and Persepolis, and, according to some accounts, is said to have fired the palace in the revelry of a banquet, at the instigation of Thais, and Athenian courtesan.

At the beginning of 330 Alexander marched from Persepolis into Media, in pursuit of Darius, whom he followed into the deserts of Parthia, where the king was murdered by Bessus, satrap of Bactria, and his associates. Bessus escaped to Bactria, and assumed the title of king of Persia. In 329 Alexander marched into Bactria against Bessus, whom he pursued across the Oxus into Sogdiana, where Bessus was betrayed to him and put to death. At the beginning of 327 Alexander took a mountain fortress, in which Oxyartes, a Bactrian prince, had deposited his wife and daughters. The beauty of Roxana , one of the latter, captivated the conqueror and he made her his wife.

Alexander did not leave Bactria till late in the spring of 327, and crossed the Indus, probably near the modern Attock. He defeated Porus, an Indian king, at the Hydaspes, but restored to him his kingdom, and treated him with distinguished honor. He founded two towns, one on each bank of the Hydaspes: One he called Bucephala, in honor of his horse Bucephalus, who died here, after carrying him through many victories; and the other Nicaea, to commemorate his victory. From there he marched across the Acesines (the Chinab) and the Hydraotes (the Ravee), and penetrated as far as the Hyphasis (Garra). This was the furthest point he reached, for the Macedonians, worn out by long service, and tired of the war, refused to go on; and Alexander was obliged to lead them back. He returned to the Hydaspes, sailing down the river with about 8,000 men, while the remainder marched along the banks in two divisions. He reached the Indian Ocean about the middle of 326, and reached Susa in 325. Here he allowed himself and his troops some rest. Anxious to form his European and Asiatic subjects into one people, he assigned Asiatic wives to about 80 of his generals, and gave them rich dowries. He himself took a second wife, Barsine, the eldest daughter of Darius, and according to some accounts, a third, Parysatis, the daughter of Ochus. About 10,000 Macedonians followed the examples of their leaders. Alexander also enrolled large numbers of Asiatics among his troops, directed his attention to the increase of commerce, made the Euphrates and Tigris more navigable by removing obstruction, etc. On his way to Babylon, Alexander was met by ambassadors from every part of the known world. He entered Babylon in the spring of 324, intending to make it the capital of his empire. But on his return to Babylon he was attacked by a fever probably brought on by his recent exertions in the marshy districts about the city, and aggravated by the quantity of wine he had drunk at a banquet given to his principal officers. He died in 323 after an illness of eleven days, at the age of 32, after a reign of 12 years and 8 months.

The German edition of the Chronicle abridges this paragraph substantially (only half of its text is kept).


Jaddua (Jadus), the sixth priest of the Jews, possessed the priesthood for 50 years. He was a pious man and a lover of peace. When Alexander was angry with the Jews and decided to destroy Jerusalem, this Jadus went forth in his priestly robes to meet him. In consquence of that Alexander put aside his anger, dismounted from his steed, invoked the name of God, and honored the priest. Now as Alexander went into the city they brought him Daniel's prophecy concerning himself. After it was read to him, he was filled with great joy and with greater confidence to fight against Darius. He gave the Jews freedom in the observance of their laws and relieved them from the payment of tribute in the seventh year.[According to Nehemiah 12:12, Jeshua begot Joiakim, who begot Eliashib, who begot Joiada, who begot Jonathan, who begot Jaddua (Jadus). See also 12:22. If this was the Jaddua of whom the legend of Josephus is that he went forth from Jerusalem at the head of the priests to meet Alexander the Great, and tender to him the submission of the city, his name must have been subsequently added to the list as made up by Ezra.]

Onias, son of Jaddua (Iadi), and of the Hebrews the seventh priest, succeeded his father in the priesthood in the second year of Ptolemy's reign; and he occupied it 17 years. During his time the laws were well observed by the Jews, and the city of Jerusalem was occupied in peace; and therefore the pagan kings held the city and Temple in great esteem, adorned it, and gave it great gifts.


Syria, a country in Asia, is bordered on the East by the river Euphrates, on the West by the Little Sea (i.e., the Mediterranean) and Egypt; on the north by Armenia and Cappadocia; and on the south by Arabia.

Seleucus, one of the commanders under Alexander, obtained the Syrian kingdom after Alexander's death; but he was driven out by Antigonus. After the death of Antigonus and the defeat of his son Demetrius, he was reinstated by Ptolemy. After that he reigned 32 years, and was constantly engaged in wars until his eightieth year; and at that point he finally died.[Seleucus (surnamed Nicator) was the founder of the Syrian monarchy (312-280 BCE). He was the son of Antiochus, a Macedonia of distinction among the officers of Philip II, and was born 358 BCE. He accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, and distinguished himself in the Indian campaigns. After the death of Alexander (323) he espoused the side of Perdiccas, whom he accompanied on his expedition against Egypt; but he took a leading part in the mutiny of the soldiers that ended in the death of Perdiccas. In the second partition of the provinces that followed, Seleucus obtained the wealthy and important satrapy of Babylonia. In the war between Antigonus and Eumenes he afforded efficient support to the former; but after the death of Eumenes (316) Antigonus began to treat the other satraps as his subjects. Thereupon Seleucus fled to Egypt, where he induced Ptolemy to unite with Lysimachus and Cassander in a league against the common enemy. In the war that ensued Seleucus took an active part. At length, in 312, he recovered Babylon; and it is from this period that the Syrian monarchy is commonly reckoned to commence. Soon afterwards Seleucus defeated Nicanor, the satrap of Media. He gradually extended his power over all the eastern provinces that had formed part of the empire of Alexander. In 307 he formally assumed the regal title. In league with Ptolemy, Lysimachus and Cassander, he decisively defeated Antigonus at Ipsus (301) and in this battle Antigonus was slain. In the division of the spoils Seleucus was rewarded with the greater part of Asia Minor, including Syria. His empire now was the largest of those that had formed part of Alexander's dominions. Feeling it difficult to exercise control over so vast an empire, he consigned the government of all the provinces beyond the Euphrates to his son Antiochus. In 288, the ambitious designs of Demetrius (now become king of Macedonia) once aroused the common jealousy of his adversaries, and led Seleucus again to unite with Ptolemy and Lysimachus against him. Demetrius was driven out of his kingdom. Seleucus crossed the Hellespont to take possession of the throne of Macedonia which had become vacant by the death of Lysimachus; but he advanced no farther than Lysimachus, when he was assassinated by Ptolemy Ceraunus, to whom as the son of his old friend and ally, he had extended a friendly protection. Seleucus died in his 78th year, and in the 32nd year of his reign. He appears to have carried out with great energy the projects originally formed by Alexander and himself, for the Hellenization of his Asiatic empire. He founded Greek or Macedonian colonies in almost every province, which became so many centers of Greek civilization. ]

Antigonus, son of Philip the king, and brother of Alexander, began to reign after him in Asia; and he reigned 18 years. He was one of the generals of Alexander and a very haughty man, and so he practiced much war, in which he was finally defeated. His son Demetrius ran away in flight and sought his own safety.[Antigonus, king of Asia, surnamed the One-eyed, was a son of Philip of Elymiotis and father of Demetrius Poliorcetes by Stratonice. He was one of the generals of Alexander the Great, and upon the latter's death received a substantial part of the empire. On the death of the regent Antipater in 319, he aspired to the sovereignty of Asia. In 316 he defeated Eumenes and put him to death. He carried on war against Seleucus, Ptolemy, Cassander and Lysimachus. By the peace of 311, he was allowed to have the government of all Asia. The peace lasted but a year. He invaded Egypt, but was compelled to retreat. His son Demetrius carried on a successful war against Cassander in Greece, but he was compelled to return to Asia to assist his father, against whom Cassander, Seleucus, Ptolemy, and Lysimachus, had formed a fresh confederacy. Father and son were defeated at Ipsus in Phrygia in 301. Antigonus fell in the battle at the age of 81 years. ]

Sarabella, the governor, erected a superfluous temple on Mount Gerizim and appointed Manasseh, the brother of Jaddua, as priest there; and he was his son-in-law. And here began the Jewish schism or division; for to him many were attached, called Samaritans, who were banned. The schism lasted until the Temple was destroyed by the Romans.[The Samaritans were descendants of the Cuthites, Avvites, Sepharvites, and Hamathites, established by Sargon in Samaria after he had put an end to the Israelite kingdom. They were instructed in a form of the Hebrew religion (which they grafted on to their own worships) in order to appease the "God of the land" (2 Kings 17:24). The enmity between Jews and Samaritans began to make its appearance immediately after the return from the Captivity. The Samaritans endeavored to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7; Nehemiah 4:7), and from time to time their aggressions and insults to the refounded Jewish State are recorded by Josephus. After the battle of Issus the Samaritans offered assistance to Alexander, and were allowed to build a temple at Gerizim, where they sacrificed after the manner of the Jews, though they were quite ready to repudiate Jewish origin, rite and prejudice whenever occasion arose (Jospehus, , 12.5—admittedly a biased account). The temple was destroyed by Hyrcanus. The disputes between the Jews and Samaritans were finally referred to Rome. Throughout the gospel history the ill feeling is conspicuous; the Samaritans were "strangers" (Luke 17:18), and considered ‘third-class' Jews by the Judeans. Vespasian inflicted a crushing blow upon them by massacring 11,600 on Mount Gerizim. From this and other sufferings later inflicted by Zeno and Justinian they never recovered.]

Antiochus Soter (Sother), a son of Seleucus the king, and second king of Syria, reigned 19 years. After him the succeeding kings of Syria were surnamed Antiochus.[Antiochus Soter reigned from 280-261 BCE, and was the son of Seleucus I, founder of the Syrian kingdom of the Seleucidae. He married his stepmother Stratonice, with whom he fell violently in love and whom his father surrendered to him. He fell in battle against the Gauls in 261.]

Alexander the Great, who was extinguished in the flower of his age and victory (in consequence of which every man and all Babylonia were cast into silent mourning), by his last will named twelve who had been with him since his youth as successors to his kingdom. But the twelve were not able to agree, and in consequence there were endless wars, and the last will of Alexander could not be made effective. After the dispersion of the others, these four obtained the kingdom according to the prophecy of Daniel: Seleucus reigned in Syria, Ptolemy in Egypt, Philip in Macedonia, and Antigonus in Assyria.


Demas, the Athenian philosopher, flourished in the time of Alexander. He withstood Alexander at the time the latter besieged the city of Athens and tried to take it; and he counseled the Athenians not to give it up. But after Alexander had taken the city, Demas attached himself to Alexander with friendly solicitude. But when the Athenians were about to sacrifice to Alexander, he said: See that you do not lose the earth while you are waiting upon the heavens. This was his saying: When a friend asks me to borrow money, I will lose both the friend and the money.[Demas is unknown outside of Water Burley's (1275-after 1343; also known by his Latin name Gualteri Burlaeus) Liber de vita et moribus philosophorum (‘Book on the Life and Character of the Philosophers'), ch. 62: Demas. The entire passage is taken (slightly abridged) from this chapter of Burley's work.]

Quintus Curtius (Curcius), the philosopher, criticized Alexander because he asked him to accord him divine honors; and he said to him: If you are a god, give us the gift of immortality; and take it not from us. But if you are a human being, then think of it yourself and lay aside all else.[Quintus Curtius was not a philosopher, nor a contemporary of Alexander the Great. He was, in fact, a Roman biographer of Alexander who lived sometime in the period between Augustus and Constantine (i.e., anywhere from three to six centuries after the death of Alexander!).]

In these days, when Alexander was born, the Romans were frightened by dreadful signs. For one saw the sun fighting with the moon; and rocks sweated blood. In the daytime many moons appeared in the sky. The night in large measure yielded to the day. Rocks fell from the clouds; and hail beat the earth for seven days, far and wide, with a mixture of stones, the residue of slate and shells.

Olympias (Olimpias), the mother of Alexander, was slain; and she suffered death unmoved by any womanly fear.[Olympias, wife of Philip II of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great, was the daughter of Neopotolemus I, king of Epirus. She married Philip in 359 BCE. His numerous relationships and the jealousy of Olympias occasioned frequent disputes between them; and when he married Cleopatra, niece of Attalus (337) Olympias withdrew from Macedonia, taking refuge with her brother Alexander, king of Epirus. She was believed to have lent her support to the assassination of Philip in 336. After his death she returned to Macedonia, where she enjoyed a great influence through the affection of Alexander. On his death she again withdrew from Macedonia, where her enemy Antipater held undisputed control, and took refuge at Epirus. Here she lived in exile until the death of Antipater (319) presented a new opening to her ambition. She gave her support to the new regent Polysperchon, in opposition to Cassander, who had formed an alliance with Euridice, the wife of Philip Arrhidacus, nominal king of Macedonia. In 317 Olympias resolved to obtain supreme power in Macedonia. She invaded the country along with Polysperchon, defeated Euridice, and put her and her husband to death. She followed up her vengeance by the execution of Nicanor, the brother of Cassander, as well as of one hundred of his leading partisans among the Macedonian nobles. Cassander, who was at that time in the Peloponnese, hastened to turn his arms against Macedonia. Olympias on his approach threw herself (together with Roxana and the young Alexander) into Pydna, where she was closely blockaded by Cassander throughout the winder. In the spring of 316 she was compelled to surrender to Cassander, who caused her to be put to death. Olympias was not without something of the grandeur and loftiness of spirit that distinguished her son, but her ungovernable passions led her to acts of sanguinary cruelty that must forever disgrace her name. (This entry on Olympias was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 22-23 s.v. Olympias.)]

Of Philip and his kingdom there is no mention in the Holy Scriptures; but there is mention of the kings of Egypt and Syria; for these were at times favorable to the Jews, and at times not. The reason was this: Those kings fought almost continually with the Egyptians. Israel lay in the middle, and there they fled when they were in danger. And Ptolemy followed hard upon them. Therefore they (the Jews?) were dispersed among other peoples.

Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, the first king of Egypt after Alexander the Great, reigned 40 years. He was the son of a certain common soldier whose name was Lagus.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He left Egypt, Africa and a large part of Arabia to his descendants; and the kings of Egypt who followed him were therefore called Ptolemy.[Ptolemy I, surnamed Soter (‘Savior') but more commonly known as the son of Lagus, reigned 323-285 BCE. His father Lagus was a Macedonian of ignoble birth, but his mother Arsinoe had been a concubine of Philip of Macedon, on which account it seems to have been generally believed that Ptolemy was in reality the offspring of that monarch. Ptolemy is mentioned among the friends of the young Alexander, whom he accompanied throughout his campaigns in Asia, and was always treated by the king with great favor. On the division of the empire after Alexander's death (323) Ptolemy obtained the government of Egypt. He enlarged his dominion by conquests. He allied himself with Cassander and Lysimachus. The latter years of Ptolemy's reign appear to have been almost entirely devoted to the arts of peace, and to promoting the internal property of his dominions. In 285 he abdicated to his son Ptolemy Philadelphus, the child of his latest and most beloved wife, Berenice. Two years later the father died. By his able and vigorous administration he laid the foundation of the wealth and prosperity that Egypt enjoyed for a long time. He laid the foundation of the Library and Museum of Alexandria, which his son fostered after him. He surrounded himself with literary men and artists, and was himself an author. He composed a history of the wars of Alexander, which is frequently cited by later writers and is one of the chief authorities that Arrian made the groundwork of his own history. (This entry on Ptolemy I was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 581-586 s.v. Ptolemy I.)]

Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, reigned 38 years. He was the youngest son of Ptolemy Lagus. His father, before his death, abdicated to him, and by the example of his goodness the father caused the people to love the son. And as this Ptolemy was the most learned in all the arts, and had Straton, the philosopher, for a teacher, he founded the most celebrated library in all the world; and this endured to the time of the first Alexandrine war with the Romans. He released from Egyptian bondage about one hundred twenty thousand Jews and sent them back to Jerusalem, together with all the vessels that belonged to the Temple service, as a reward to Eleazar the high priest for the Holy Scriptures the he placed in the library. Ptolemy's mother was Berenice (Beronice), and his wife was Arsinoe (Asinoe). By her he begot Euergetes and Berenice, a daughter, whom he espoused to Antiochus, son of Seleucus.[Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 BCE) was the son of Ptolemy I by his wife Berenice. His long reign was marked by few events of a striking character. He was engaged in wars with his half-brother Magus, and frequently engaged in hostilities with Syria, which were terminated toward the close of his reign by a treaty of peace, by which Ptolemy gave his daughter Berenice in marriage to Antiochus II. His chief care was directed to the internal administration of his kingdom and the patronage of literature and science. The Museum of Alexandria, founded by his father, became the abode of all the most distinguished men of letters of the day, and in the library attached to it were accumulated all the reassures of ancient learning. Philadelphus founded new cities or colonies in great number in different parts of his dominion. He raised Egypt to great power and wealth. (This entry on Ptolemy II was abridged by our translator and indefatigable note gatherer, Walter Schmauch, without attribution—it was a more innocent time—from Smith's 1870 , Vol. 3, pp. 586-587 s.v. Ptolemy II.) ]

FOLIO LXXV verso and LXXVI recto

The Lineage of the Priests is here continued from FOLIO LXV verso:

  1. Jaddua (Jadus);
  2. Onias (Onyas), son of Jaddua. New portraits, in each of which the priest wears a mitre with crown superimposed. Each has a sceptre. Why the crowns are introduced is not clear. Neither was a king and neither holds an orb.


To the Lineage of Christ, here continued from Folio LXIV verso, is now added Achim (Achym), who is not mentioned in the text. Achim is an abbreviation of Jehoiachim, the name of an ancestor of Jesus, in the genealogical register five degrees removed from Joseph (Matt. 1:14). He is there mentioned as Achim, son of Sadoc, with whom the line ended at Folio LXV verso.


The Monarchy of Alexander the Great is represented by a genealogical arrangement of vines, of which he is the central figure. With long hair and unkempt beard, wearing an odd felt hat of many folds, and in full medieval armor of an ornate pattern, he stands astride a branch. His left hand rests on a pointed shield that he holds in position on the ground before him. It is emblazoned with three bells, probably just the random notion of the woodcutter. In his right hand Alexander holds a heavy branch, which proceeds to his right shoulder, there branching off into two forks, the first branch proceeds to the left terminating with:

  1. Antigonus, who firmly holds one of the extremities of the vine in his right hand; his sceptre is in his left. He is bearded, weary looking old man, and wears a crown. He was a son of Philip II, and a brother to Alexander. As one of the generals of the latter he received a substantial portion of Alexander's empire upon his death.
  2. Seleucus I holds the other extremity of the fork, as though about to break a wishbone with Antigonus. It will be remembered Seleucus was a son of Antiochus, an officer of distinction under Philip II, who accompanied Alexander in his Asiatic campaign. On the division of the empire after Alexander's death, Seleucus was rewarded with a great part of Asia Minor, and thus became the founder of the Syrian monarchy. He is here represented crowned, and with sceptre in hand. Below Seleucus is his son and successor.
  3. Antiochus Soter, second king of Syria.

The second branch proceeds over Alexander's head to the opposite Folio (LXXVI recto) to

  1. Ptolemy Lagus, surnamed Soter, commonly called the son of Lagus, a Macedonian of ignoble birth. He was the first Ptolemy of Egypt. Being a friend and able general under Alexander, he shared as such in the partition of his empire; and thus he became the king of Egypt. In his right hand he holds one of the branches that proceeds from the hand of Alexander. He wears a crown and carries a sceptre. After a long reign he abdicated in favor of his son.
  2. Ptolemy Philadelphus, portrayed just below his father.

The main branch on which Alexander stands proceeds to

  • Olympias and Nectanabis (Nectabanus), respectively the mother and putative father of Alexander. According to the chronicler Nectanabis became enamored of Olympias, the wife of Philip, and in the latter's absence, taking on the form of a serpent, took advantage of Olympias. The birth of Alexander was the result. In this dual portrait the mother of Alexander appears with crown and sceptre, and a branch proceeds from her waist to Alexander. She has the appearance of a very weak and distressed woman. Behind her stands Nectanabis, pointing a finger at the queen.

Philip of Macedon, who looked favorably upon Alexander, even though not his own son, is portrayed by a separate and distinct woodcut set beside his spouse though not directly connected with Alexander.


The Greek Philosophers are here continued from Folio LXXIV verso as follows:

  1. Demas.
  2. Quintus Curtius.


Battle of the Sun and Moon. The former is shining forth in all its heated glory, while the moon, a narrow crescent (and there is a "Man in the Moon"), seems to be giving up the battle in the torrid heat of the sun.


Camillus Furius made war upon the Veientes[See Veii, Folio LXIX verso, and note.], and for ten years the Romans subjected them to severe attacks. But in the time of Fabius, the Senonian Gauls defeated the Romans within eleven miles of the city of Rome. Then under Brennus,[See Brennus, Folio LXXII recto, and note.] their king, they proceeded against Rome, nearly extinguishing the Roman name and taking the city. Nor was it possible to protect the Capitol against them. And when the Romans were suffering from famine, Camillus, who was in exile in a neighbouring city, attacked the Gauls unexpectedly, and gave them a severe defeat.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] They accepted one thousand pounds of gold, which was paid to keep them from besieging the Capitol. In consequence of that they departed. But Camillus followed them, and so pressed them that he recovered the gold twice paid them and all knightly honors. And he was honored as a second Romulus.

Furius Camillus was one of the great heroes of the Roman republic. He was censor in 403 BCE, and was consular tribune for the first time in 401, and for the second time in 398. In 396 he was dictator and gained a glorious victory over the Faliscans and Fidenates, took Veii, and entered Rome in triumph, riding a chariot drawn by white horses. In 394 he was consular tribune for the third time, and reduced the Faliscans. In 391 Camillus was accused of having made an unfair distribution of the booty of Veii, and went voluntarily into exile at Ardea. The next year (390) the Gauls took Rome, and laid siege to Ardea (See Senones, Folio LXIX verso, and note). The Romans in the Capitol recalled Camillus, and appointed him dictator in his absence. He hastily collected an army, attacked the Gauls, and defeated them completely. His fellow citizens saluted him as the Second Romulus. In 389 he was dictator for a third time, and defeated the Volscians, Aequians, and other nations. In 386 he was consular tribune for the fourth time; in 384 for the fifth; and in 381 for the sixth time. In 363 he was appointed dictator for the fourth time to resist the rogations of C. Licinius Stolo. In the next year, 367, he was dictator a fifth time, and though eighty years of age, he completely defeated the Gauls. He died of the pestilence in 365. Camillus was the great general of his age, and the resolute champion of the patrician order. His history, like that of most great national heroes, has been interwoven with many legendary and traditional fables.

This paragraph is a very slight abridgment taken from Eutropius' Breviarium historiae Romanae (‘Abridgement of Roman History') 1.20. Eutropius' text is a complete compendium, in ten books, of Roman history from the foundation of the city to the accession of the emperor Valens (364-378 CE), Eutropius' contemporary.

Quintius Cincinnatus (Cincinatus), having been found in his field and called from the plow, was made a dictator; and he relieved the besieged city of the enemy and received Praeneste.[See L. Quintus Cincinnatus, Folio LXIX verso.]

In the time of these consuls (?) the city was visited by pestilence every two years. In order to drive away this pestilence, the authorities set up shameful plays or spectacles. And so in order to eliminate bodily illness a plague of the soul was sought.[This paragraph undoubtedly refers to one of the dual portraits on this page. Three pairs of consuls are portrayed, but not named in the text.]

In the time of these two consuls (?) many people were killed by poison administered by Roman women. Of these same women, 370 in number were betrayed by a maid; and when their crimes were discovered they were put to death by the poison which they themselves had brewed.

In the 388th year after the founding of the city of Rome, Gaius (Gayus) defeated the Gauls as they rushed into war again.

Marcus, with 60,000 Romans, put the Gauls to flight and defeated them with severe losses.[Marcus Valerius Corvus (c. 370-270 BCE), Roman general of the early republican period. According to the legend a raven settled on his helmet during his combat with a gigantic Gaul, and distracted the enemy's attention by flying in his face. He was twice dictator and six times consul, and occupied the curule chair twenty-one times. In his various campaigns he defeated successively the Gauls, the Volscians, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Marsians. His most important victory (343) was over the Samnites at Mount Gaurus. ]

Under these consuls, Publius Cornelius and Marcus Curius, the Samnite war came to an end. This war lasted for 49 years with much disaster to the Romans until not an enemy in Italy distressed the power of Rome anymore.

P. Cornelius Rufinus was consul in 290 BCE, with M. Curius Dentatus, and in conjunction with his colleagues brought the Samnite War to a conclusion, and obtained a triumph in consequence. Rufinus was consul a second time in 277, and carried on the war against the Samnites and the Greeks in Southern Italy. The chief event of his second consulship was the capture of the important town of Croton. In 275, Rufinus was expelled from the senate on account of his possessing ten pounds of silver plate. The dictator Sulla was descended from him.

M. Curius Dentatus is said to have derived his cognomen Dentatus from the circumstance of having been born with teeth in his mouth. He was a favorite hero of the Republican Republic, and was celebrated in later times as a noble specimen of old roman frugality and virtue. He was consul in 290 BCE with Rufinus as already stated, and was associated with him in the Samnite war. In 283 he fought as praetor against the Senones. In 275 he was consul a second time, and defeated Pyrrhus near Beneventum so completely that the king was obliged to leave Italy. In a third consulship he conquered the Lucanians, Samnites and Bruttians, who still continued in arms after the defeat of Pyrrhus. He retired to his small farm that he cultivated with his own hands, and rejected all favors. He was censor in 272, executing public works of great importance.

These two consuls fought agains the Latins. Decius Murena, consul, was killed and Manilius Torquatus triumphed.[In 340 BCE P. Decius Mus was consul with T. Manlius Torquatus, and he and his colleague had the conduct of the great Latin War. The two consuls marched into the field, and when they were encamped opposite the enemy near Capua, a vision appeared to each in the night, announcing that the general of one side and the army of the other were dedicated to the Gods of the Dead and to Mother Earth. They thereupon agreed that the one whose wing first began to waiver should dedicate himself and the army of the enemy to destruction. The decisive battle took place at the foot of Vesuvius; and when the troops of Decius, who commanded the left wing, began to give way, he resolved to fulfill his vow. He called for the pontifex maximus, M. Valerius, and repeated after him the form of words by which he dedicated himself and the enemy to the Gods of Death, with his toga wrapped around his head and standing upon a weapon; he then jumped upon his horse, wearing the cinctus gabinus or sacrificial dress, rushed into the greatest concentration of enemy troops, and was slain, leaving the victory to the Romans. Such is the common story of the death of Decius.] His son disobeyed the orders of the consuls by attacking the enemy; and although he obtained a victory, he was beaten with rods and beheaded for insubordination.[See T. Manlius Imperiosus Torquatus, Folio LXIX and note.]

Under the consuls Dolobella and Domitius (Domicio), the Lucani, Brucii, and Samnites, together with the Etruscans and Senonian Gauls, made war against the Romans. Seven tribunes and eighteen thousand Roman warriors were slain. But when they marched against Rome they were destroyed by Cornelius Cenus and the consul Dolobella.[P. Cornelius Dolabella Maximus was consul in 283 BCE with Cn. Domitius Calvinus, and in that year conquered the Senones, who had defeated the praetor L. Caecilius, and murdered the Roman ambassadors. Owing to the loss of the consular Fasti for that time we do not hear of his triumph, though he undoubtedly celebrated his victory by a triumph. In 279 he, together with C. Fabricius and Q. Aemilius, went to Pyrrhus as ambassadors to effect an exchange of prisoners.]

Fabricius, a man worthy of remembrance, would not permit himself to be influenced against Rome by the cunning or flattery of Pyrrhus (Pirrhi), the king. In fact, he renounced the part of the empire offered to him by the king.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] So Pyrrhus said, It is more difficult to divert this man from his honesty than to change the sun from its course. Therefore it is no wonder that the Romans, with such morals, have conquered because of the strength of their warriors.[C. Fabricius Luscinus was one of the most popular heroes in Roman histor, and, like Cincinnatus and Curius, is the representative of the purity and honesty of ‘the good old times.' In his first consulship, 282 BCE, he defeated the Lucanians, Bruttians and Samnites, gained a rich booty, and brought into the treasury more than 400 talents. Fabricius probably served as legate in the unfortunate campaign against Pyrrhus in 280; and at its close he was one of the ambassadors sent to Pyrrhus at Tarentum to negotiate a ransom or exchange of prisoners. The conduct of Fabricius on the occasion formed one of the most celebrated stories in Roman history, and was embellished in every way by subsequent writers. So much seems certain—that Pyrrhus used every effort to gain the favor of Fabricius; that he offered him the most splendid presents, and endeavored to enter him into his service, and accompany him to Greece; but that the sturdy Roman was proof against all his seductions, and rejected all his offers. On the renewal of the war in the following year (279) Fabricius again served as legate, and shared in the defeat in the battle of Asculum. In 278 he was consul a second time, and had the conduct of the war against Pyrrhus. The king was anxious for peace; and the generosity with which Fabricius sent back to Pyrrhus the traitor who had offered to poison him, afforded an opportunity for opening negotiations, which resulted in the evacuation of Italy by Pyrrhus. Fabricius then subdued the allies of the king in the south of Italy. He was censor in 275, and distinguished himself by the severity with which he attempted to repress the growing taste for luxury. Ancient writers love to tell of the frugal way in which he and his contemporary Curius Dentatus lived on their hereditary farms, and how they refused the rich present offered them. Fabricius died as poor as he had lived.]

This Papirius, while still a boy, responded cleverly to his mother in order to conceal the secret of the council. For with his mother urging him to reveal what secret of the senate he had heard there when he was admitted with his father, he told her what had been debated: Whether it was best for one man to have two wives, or one woman to have two husbands. Since many of the matrons were rushing together in a shamless assembly two days later, the boy tells the matter to the senate. And the boy was praised. And it was decreed that no child any longer be admitted to the council of the senate except that one. When he became a man, he turned out to be a very brave and warlike man.[Papirius is a name born by the members of a Roman gens (Papiria), originally plebeian and afterward patrician. the first consul of this name was L. Papirius Cursor, who held that office five times, and that of dictator twice. He was the chief hero of the second Samnite War (326-304 BCE), an exceptional commander and a man of strength and virtue. In 324, in the capacity of dictator, he condemned his magister equitum, Q. Fabius Maximus Rullianus, for joining in battle with the enemy contrary to his commands, and only allowed himself to be swayed from inflicting the death sentence through the combined pleas of his father, the senate, and the people. His son, of the same name, who was consul in 293, conducted a victorious war against the Samnites; and in his second consulate (273) he completed the subjugation of the Samnites, and celebrated a triumph over the Tarentians, Samnites, Lucanians and Bruttians.]


The line of Roman consuls is here continued from Folio LXIX verso. As the consuls were appointed in pairs, so they here appear in dual portraits as follows:

    PANEL I.
  1. Furius Camillus and Quintius Cincinnatus, both of whom are mentioned in the text.
  2. Lucius Gemicius and Quintus Servilius, neither of whom are mentioned in the text.
  3. Gaius Sulpicius and Marius Valerius, of whose victories over the Gauls the text makes very brief mention.
  4. Manlius Torquatus and Decius (Mus), both mentioned in the text.
  5. Fabricius (Lucinus) and Papirius, both referred to in the text.
  1. Claudius Marcus and Valerius Flaccus, neither of whom are mentioned in the text.
  2. Fabius Maximus and Quintus Decius, neither of whom are referred to in the text.
  3. Publius Cornelius Ruffinus and Marcus Curius Dentatus, each of whom is given brief mention.
  4. Dolobella (P. Cornelius Dolabella Maximus) and Domitius (Domicius) (Cn. Domitius Calvinus), both mentioned in the text.

There is a striking similarity in all these portraits. All are in medieval dress. Most of the characters wear hats or caps; a few are bareheaded. All are gesturing—‘arguing' in pairs, with the possible exception of Domitius, who listens to his co-consul with hands interlocked. Every man is waist-deep in the cup of a flower, which is true of almost every bust portrait in the Chronicle.


Antiochus, the second of that name, surnamed Antiochus Theos, son of Antiochus I, was the third king of Syria; and he reigned 15 years. His first wife was Laodice. He carried on a very strenuous war with Philadelphus, the king of Egypt. He made peace by marrying Berenice, the daughter of the same king of Egypt.[Antiochus Theos (261-246 BCE) was the son of Antiochus I, surnamed Soter. The Silesians gave him the surname Theos (‘God' or ‘Divine') because he delivered them from their tyrant Timarchus. He carried on war with Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt, which was brought to a close by his putting away his wife Laodice. In revenge Laodice caused Antiochus and Berenice to be murdered. He was succeeded by his son Seleucus Callinicus.]

Eliud, son of Achim (Achym), in the Year of the World 4959.[This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the .]

Antiochus Galericus, third of the name, and fourth king of Asia and Syria, reigned 20 years. He was the son of Antiochus Theos, and his first wife Laodice, who poisoned her husband and killed Berenice together with her children. And this Galericus, her son, she made ruler in the place of his father. Therefore Euergetes made war on Syria. And afterwards Ptolemy killed him. He left Seleucus and Antiochus the Great to succeed him.[Antiochus Galericus was Seleucus II (surnamed, not Galericus, as the chronicler states, but Callinicus). He was the eldest son of Antiochus II (surnamed Theos) by his first wife Laodice. The first step of his administration, or rather that of his mother Laodice, was to put to death his stepmother Berenice, together with her infant son. In order to avenge his sister, Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt, invaded the dominions of Seleucus, made himself master of Antioch, all of Syria, and carried his arms unopposed beyond the Euphrates and Tigris. Seleucus held himself aloof; but when Ptolemy was recalled by domestic disturbances at home, Seleucus recovered the greater part of the provinces he had lost. He then became involved in a war with his brother Antiochus Hierax, who attempted to obtain Asia Minor as an independent kingdom for himself. Antiochus was decisively defeated, obligated to quit Asia Minor, and took refuge in Egypt. Seleucus undertook an expedition to the East to reduce the revolted provinces of Parthia and Bactria. He was, however, defeated by Arsaces, king of Parthia, in a great battle to which the Parthians attribute their independence. After the expulsion of Antiochus, Attalus, king of Pergamon, extended his dominions over Asia Minor. In an expedition to recover these provinces Seleucus was accidentally killed by a fall from his horse in the twenty-first year of his reign. He left two sons, who succeeded him, Seleucus Ceraunus and Antiochus, surnamed the Great. ]

Josephus the Jew was a pious and great minded man, and influenced the Jewish people to excellent things. After he had collected taxes and tribute for twenty-three years from Syria, Phoenicia and Samaria, he died leaving behind his son Hyrcanus (Hircano). Hyrcanus continued as collector of tribute for Ptolemy. From childhood Josephus was marvelously virtuous and intelligent. At the age of thirteen years he showed a bright state of mind. Wishing to test him, his father sent him on a two days' journey to an isolated place with three hundred yoke of oxen to cultivate the soil; but he hid away the halters necessary to secure them. Under these circumstances the youth, considering his age, exhibited great ingenuity. He slaughtered ten yoke of oxen, divided the meat among the shepherds, and out of the skins he made halters for the other oxen; and he cultivated the soil as his father had directed. Therefore, on his return to his home he was praised very much.

Flavius Josephus (37-95 CE), Jewish historian and military commander, born in the first year of Caligula, was a precocious student of the law, and made trial of the three sects of Judaism – Pharisees, Sadducees and Essenes – before he reached the age of 19. Then, having spent three years in the desert with the hermit Banus, who was probably an Essene, he became a Pharisee. In 64 he went to Rome to intercede on behalf of some priests, his friends, whom the procurator Felix had sent to render account to Caesar for some insignificant offense. Making friends with Alityrus, a Jewish actor, who was a favorite of Nero, Josephus obtained an introduction to the empress Popaea and effected his purpose by her help. His visit to Rome enabled him to speak from personal experience of the power of the Empire, when he expostulated with the revolutionary Jews on his return to Palestine. But they refused to listen; and he, with all the Jews who did not fly the country, were dragged into the great rebellion of 66. In company with two other priests, Josephus was sent to Galilee under orders to persuade the ill-affected to lay down their arms and return to an allegiance with Rome, which the Jewish aristocracy had not yet renounced. Having sent his two companions back to Jerusalem, he organized the forces at his disposal, and made arrangements for the government of his province. His obvious desire to preserve law and order excited the hostility of John of Giscala, who endeavored vainly to remove him as a traitor to the national cause by inciting the Galileans to kill him and by persuading the Sanhedrin at Jerusalem to recall him.

In the spring of 67 the Jewish troops, whom Josephus had drilled so sedulously, fled before the Roman forces of Vespasian and Titus. He sent to Jerusalem for reinforcements, but none came. With the stragglers who remained, he held a stronghold against the Romans by dint of his native cunning, and finally, when the place was taken, persuaded forty men, who shared his hiding place, to kill one another in turn rather than commit suicide. They agreed to cast lots, on the understanding that the second should kill the first, and so on. Josephus providentially drew the last lot and prevailed upon his destined victim to live. Their companions were all dead in accordance with the compact; but Josephus at any rate survived and surrendered. Being brought before Vespasian, he was inspired to prophesy that Vespasian would become emperor. When this prophecy was fulfilled, he was liberated, assumed the name of Flavius, the family name of Vespasian, and accompanied his patron to Alexandria. He returned to Rome, was awarded a pension, and was made a Roman citizen, receiving an estate in Judea. The Jewish War, oldest of his extant writings, was written towards the end of Vespasian's reign (69-79). The Jewish Antiquities, a history of the Jews from the Creation to the outbreak of the war with Rome, was finished in the year 93. He also wrote a narrative of his own life to defend himself against the accusation that he had caused the Jewish rebellion.

Simon (Symon), son of Onias the priest, and nicknamed "the Just," was the eighth high priest of the Jews. He received the office on his father's death, and held it for sixteen years. By reason of his piety, righteousness and kindness to his fellow citizens, he was called "the Just."[Josephus, , 12.2.]

Eleazar (Eleazarus), the high priest, brother of Simon the Just, took the priestly office after the death of his father, and while his brother's son Onias was still a child; and he held the office for 17 years. He sent to Ptolemy Philadelphus 72 of the most learned men to interpret the law; but we say 70.

And the seventy-two interpreters sent by Eleazar from Jerusalem to the said king of Alexandria, at the latter's request, were well received by him. And when the rolls upon which the Law was written in golden letters were shown to the king, he provided a separate room for each interpreter. And in seventy-two days they brought him the Law translated from the Hebrew into the Greek tongue, and so clearly (as Augustine testifies) that no doubt remained as to the words or their meaning. This translation, confirmed by the Jews, Demetrius delivered to the king. And the king had the seventy-two brought before him. He thanked them, and sent them home; and to each of them he made a present of three fine garments, of two talents of gold, of a cup of the value of one talent, and of the furniture of the room in which they were feasted.[The (Seventy) is the oldest Greek version of the Old Testament. Its name, often represented by the Roman numerals LXX, is derived from the tradition that the translators numbered 70 or 72. According to Josephus, six elders from each tribe were sent to Alexandria with a copy of the Law requested by Ptolemy Philadelphus, and translated it in seventy-two days. Accounts of the translation vary but agree that it was made at Alexandria, begun under the early Ptolemies, about 285 BCE, and that the Pentateuch was translated first. The whole of the Old Testament seems to have been complete in Greek in the time of Ptolemy (VII) Physcon, about 130 BCE. Internal evidence suggests that it was made by different persons at different times from Egyptian Hebrew manuscripts, and by Alexandrian Jews more or less imperfectly versed in Hebrew. The books of Moses are the best translated. The version is faithful in substance as a whole, but contains many errors. The chronology differs materially from that of the Hebrew text, adding, for example, 606 years between the creation and the deluge. The importance of the is that it was the text upon which the first generations of Christians based their teachings and understandings of the meaning of God and Jesus in their religion. For this reason it is, perhaps, the most important translation ever made.]

Onias, the second of that name, son of Simon the Just, the eleventh priest of the Hebrews, officiated for 9 years. He was of a mean disposition, stingy with money. Through love of the Law or through miserliness he refused to pay tribute to Euergetes; and thereby the whole Jewish land was placed in danger. But Josephus restored peace among the nobles, and Ptolemy placed him over Judea.

Those three, Jason, Menelaus and Alchimus, were of the priestly class; but are not to be placed in the priestly line because of their idolatry, evil works and practices.


The Lineage of Christ which ended with Achim (Achym) at Folio LXXV verso, is here resumed with his son.

  • Eliud, as per Matt. 1:14.


The Priestly Lineage is here resumed from Folio LXXV verso (which there ended with Onias, son of Jaddua), and now the following are added:

  1. Simon (Symon), son of Onias (Onyas) and called the Just.
  2. Eleazar (Eleazarus), brother of Simon the Just.
  3. Onias (Onyas), son of Simon the Just.


The Lineage of Syrian Kings is here resumed from Folio LXXV recto, as follows:

  1. Antiochus (II) Theos, son of Antiochus (I) Soter.
  2. Antiochus Galericus (Seleucus II), eldest son of Antiochus II.


Josephus, probably the historian.


Jason, Manelaus and Alchimus, the priests whom the chronicler declines to place in the priestly lineage because of their idolatry, are represented by small woodcuts not used heretofore.


The Seventy (LXX) who translated the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek are represented by a group portrait similar to that of the Seven Wise Men, Folio LX verso. A dove symbolizing the Holy Spirit hovers over the Seventy. One of the translators has his back turned toward us, apparently addressing the gathering. All are in close huddle.


Alexandria, the large city that lies in Egypt, was built (as Justinus writes in book 11) by Alexander the Great 320 years before the Coming of Christ. For when Alexander journeyed to Jupiter Ammon[Ammon was originally an Ethiopian or Libyan deity, and later an Egyptian one. The real Egyptian name was Amun or Ammun. The Greeks called him Zeus Ammon, the Romans Jupiter Ammon, and the Hebrews Amon. The most ancient seat of his worship was Meroe, where he had an oracle; from there it was introduced into Egypt, where the worship took the firmest root at Thebes in Upper Egypt, which was therefore frequently called by the Greeks Diospolis, or the city of Zeus. Another famous seat of the god, with a celebrated oracle, was in the oasis of Ammorium (Siwah) in the Libyan Desert. The worship was also established at Cyrenaica. The god was represented either as a ram, or as a man with a ram's head. It seems clear that the original idea of Ammon was that of a protector and leader of the flocks. The Ethiopians were a Nomad people, flocks of sheep were their principal wealth, and it is perfectly in accord with the notions of the Ethiopians and Egyptians to worship the animal that is the leader and protector of the flock.] to consult him on the future and to get information as to his origin, he built Alexandria on his return, and arranged that it should be a place of residence for the Macedonians and to be the capital of Egypt. He built three cities named after him, namely, one in Egypt, which some call Canopicum; a second in Asia, and a third in Scythia on the river Tanais. Alexandria was so called because Alexander built it. His name and grave were venerated by Julius and Augustus, the Roman emperors. The city has a circumference of 333 furlongs. It is intersected by small streets on which horses and wagons pass. There are two wide streets in the middle, which intersect one another. The city (as Josephus states) is protected by impenetrable wildernesses, by harborless seas, by rivers, and by wooded swamps. Once upon a time it was very beautiful. It is still fortified by ornate towers and strong, high walls; but the interior is just a heap of ruins and deserted buildings. For a while it contained pagan temples; and Christian churches were still to be seen there. The city had many royal buildings, for each king adorned it with beautiful structures according to his own taste. Where the palace of Alexandria formerly stood there is now a very tall monument made of a single stone, and having a sharp point. It resembles a tower. There is also a Church of St. Mark, in which the Jacobites live; for St. Mark the Evangelist was the first to preach the Christian religion there. When the apostles made him a bishop there, he erected many churches. Upon his death Amanus succeeded him. Many men learned in the Holy Scriptures came from here; such as Philo, by birth a Jew, who wrote much that is useful; Clemens, the priest; the most excellent priest, Origen; Athanasius, the bishop there; Didimus, Theophilus, and many others. Outside the city are two marble monuments to indicate the place where St. Catherine, the virgin and martyr, was beheaded. The Venetians have two industrial establishments there. The Genoese also have one for their merchants and their wares; also the Catalanians, in the king of Sicily's court. And they also have beautiful little churches, in which holy things are accomplished. The Turks, Tartars and other pagans have their ornate houses, which are closed at night by the Saracens. At one point the city is surrounded by the great sea (i.e., the Mediterranean); at another it is bordered by wonderful gardens with fertile soil, watered by the Nile. The Saracens now have custody of the harbor. There are two hills in the city, from which approaching ships can be seen. It is said that pigeons were trained here to carry messages back and forth, so that those in the city were more secure against the enemy. For the pigeons (as Pliny says) were messengers in important matters. It is said that Brutus the Roman tied messages to the feet of pigeons during the Mutinian siege, and thus sent messages to the Roman army.

Alexandria is the name given to several cities founded by or in memory of Alexander the Great. One of them, the capital of Egypt under the Ptolemies, was ordered by Alexander the Great to be founded in 332 BCE. It was built on a narrow neck of land between the Lake Mareotis and the Mediterranean, opposite to the Isle of Pharos, which was joined to the city by an artificial dyke, called Heptastadium, which formed, with the island, the two harbors of the city, that on the northeast of the dyke being named the Great Harbor (now the New Port), that on the southwest Eunostos (the Old Port). These harbors communicated with each other by channels, and there was a canal from Eunostos to the Lake Mareotis. The city was built on a regular plan, and was intersected by two principal streets about 100 feet wide, the one extending 30 stadia from east to west; the other across this, from the sea towards the lake, to the length of 10 stadia. At the eastern extremity of the city was the royal quarter, and at the other end, outside the city, was the cemetery. A great lighthouse was built on the island of Pharos in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Under the care of the Ptolemies, as the capital of a great kingdom and of the most fertile country on earth, and commanding by its position all the commerce of Europe with the East, Alexandria soon became the most wealthy and splendid city of the Roman world. Greeks, Jews, and other foreigners flocked there, and its population probably amounted to somewhere between 500,000 and 750,000 people. But a still greater distinction was conferred upon it through the foundation, by the first two Ptolemies, of the Museum, an institution in which men devoted to literature were maintained at the public cost, and of the Library which contained 90,000 distinct works, and 400,000 volumes, and the increase of which made it necessary to establish another library in the Serapium (Temple of Serapis), which reached 28,000 volumes, but which was destroyed by the bishop Theophilus, at the time of the general overthrow of the pagan temples under Theodosius (389 CE). The great Library suffered severely by fire when Julius Caesar was besieged in Alexandria, and it was finally destroyed by a lieutenant of the Caliph Omar in 651 CE. When Egypt became a Roman province, Alexandria was made the residence of the prefect of Egypt. It retained its commercial and literary importance, and became also a chief seat of Christianity and of theological learning.

Much (all?) of this passage on Alexandria in the Latin edition of the Chronicleis taken from the work of Felix Fabri (c. 1437-1502), a Dominican monk from Germany who in 1480 and again in 1483 journeyed to the Holy Land, Arabia, and Egypt—his last visit being exactly one decade before the publication of the Chronicle. Published three years after his second visit to those lands, his nearly 1500-page text, whose title was Fratris Felici Fabri evagatorium in Terrae Sanctae, Arabiae et Egypti peregrinationem (‘The Wanderings of Brother Felix Fabri in his Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Arabia, and Egypt'), included the very first printed Coptic alphabet anywhere, and had a profound influence on European scholars in the 15th and 16th centuries.


Demosthenes was the prince of all the orators of Greece. And by the authority of Hermippus[There are several individuals who have this name in the ancient world. This one must be the philosopher and biographer from Smyrna who lived c. 250-200 BCE.] it is indicated that his father manufactured swords. And from the testimony of Juvenal (we learn) that his father, blinded with the soot of a blazing mass, sent Demothenes from coal and tongs and making swords, and from the forge and dingy Vulcan to learn rhetoric.[] And he, drinking in the fluent eloquence from Plato, became the greatest orator. His eloquence was praised by Aeschines (Eschines) (who from his youth was a student and lover of Socrates). Valerius says of him that when Philip, the Macedonian king, besieged the city of Athens and asked the Athenians to give him ten orators, Demosthenes counseled the Athenians by means of a fable: The wolves advised the shepherds to make friends with them and to give them their dogs in settlement of the dispute. And after the wolves had received the dogs from the shepherds, the wolves tore the flocks to pieces. And so Philip would treat the Athenians. When the Athenians heard this, they followed the advice of Demosthenes; and so the city was saved from danger.[Schedel incorrectly attributes this story to Valerius Maximus. In fact, it is found in (‘The Etymologies or Origins') 1.40.7 of Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636). Isidore's work was the most popular compendium in medieval libraries. Its popularity continued unabated in the Renaissance, as at least 10 printed editions of it between 1470 and 1530 clearly attest.] To one who asked him how to speak, Demosthenes replied: Speak of nothing but what you know well.

Demosthenes, greatest of Athenian orators, was born about 385 BCE. At the age of 7 he lost his father, who left him and his younger sister to the care of guardians, relatives and friends. The guardians squandered the estate and neglected his education. He nevertheless received instruction from Isaeus. It is very doubtful whether he was taught by Plato and Isocrates , as some suppose. In time he came forward as a speaker in the public assembly. His first effort was ridiculed, for he labored under great physical disadvantages. His voice was weak, his utterance defective. It is said he spoke with pebbles in his mouth to cure himself of stammering; that he repeated verses of the poets as he ran uphill, to strengthen his voice; that he declaimed on the seashore to accustom himself to the noise and confusion of the popular assembly; that he lived for months in an underground cave, constantly writing out the history of Thucydides, to form a standard for his own style. By 355 he acquired a reputation as a public speaker, and his eloquence soon gained him the favor of the people. He clearly saw Philip's resolve to subjugate Greece, and therefore devoted all his hours to resist the aggressions of the Macedonian. For 14 years he continued his struggle against Philip, and neither threats nor bribes could turn him from his purpose. His first Philippic, delivered in 352, was his earliest attempt to arouse his countrymen. His three Olynthiac orations, delivered three years later, had the same purpose, but without results. In the meantime the aggressions of Philip continued until by 338 he had seized Elatea. The Athenians heard of his approach with alarm; and succeeded, mainly through the efforts of Demosthenes, in forming an alliance with the Thebans. However, the allied forces were defeated by Philip in a decisive battle which ended Greek independence in the same year. Demosthenes was present at the battle, and fled like thousands of others. For this he was later reproached, but the Athenians, judging better of his conduct, requested him to deliver the funeral oration over those who had fallen, and celebrated the funeral feast in his house.

The death of Philip in the year 336 roused the hopes of the hopes of the patriots of Greece, and Demosthenes was the first to proclaim the joyful tidings of the death of Philip of Macedon, and to call upon his countrymen to unite their strength against Macedonia. But the youthful Alexander compelled the Athenians to sue for peace. He demanded the surrender of Demosthenes and other leaders of the popular party, and with difficulty allowed them to remain at Athens. In the course of events, however, Demosthenes was forced into exile; but not for long. On the death of Alexander the Greek states rose against Macedonia. Demosthenes was recalled from exile, and his return to the city was a glorious triumph. His voice rang out like a trumpet, calling Greece to arms. In the following year (322) the battle of Crannon decided the Lamian War against Greece. Antipater, as a condition on which he would refrain from besieging Athens, demanded the surrender of the leading patriots, and this of course included Demosthenes. The condemned men fled to Aegina, but Demosthenes went on to Calauria, a small island off the coast of Argolis. He took refuge in an ancient sanctuary, the temple of Poseidon. Here he was pursued by the emissaries of Antipater. He thereupon took poison, and died in the temple.

Aristotle, prince of all philosophers, and a master of natural philosophy, was a native of the small town of Stageira (Stragyra). His father was Nicomachus, who was a teacher of medicine and held an important position under Amynthas, the Macedonian king, and father of Philip. Aristotle's mother's name was Phaestias (Phestiada), a woman of noble birth. Aristotle spent his youth in Macedonia, and (as they say) came to Athens at 17 years of age. He was a student of (literally "listened to") Plato for 20 years. He left no body of knowledge behind that he did not treat perfectly. After the death of Plato he went to Hermias, the tyrant of Atarneus, and there he stayed three years. Afterwards King Philip recalled him to Macedonia and put Alexander under his instruction for ten years. When Alexander marched into Asia with his army, Aristotle returned to Athens, and there he had a school for thirteen years. He caused to be written on his seal (as one says): Wiser is he who conceals what he knows, than he who exposes what he does not know. Aristotle was versatile and (as Jerome says) was undoubtedly a leader in his knowledge of the entire realm of nature. But finally, through envy, he was accused by other natural philosophers of speaking evil of the gods; and being concerned that he might suffer the same fate as Socrates, he made no effort to defend himself, but fled to Chalcide. There he flourished in the full exercise of all his faculties and strength of mind. And he lived 62 years, and died there.[Aristotle the philosopher was born at Stageira, a town in Chalcide in Macedonia, in 384 BCE. His father Nicomachus was physician in ordinary to Amyntas II, king of Macedonia, and the author of several treatises on subjects connected with the natural sciences. His mother Phaestis (or Phaestias) was descended from a Chalcidian family. His father's studies may account for Aristotle's investigations of nature, an inclination which is perceived throughout the son's life. Aristotle lost his father at 17. In 367 he went to Athens to pursue his studies, and there became a pupil of Plato, who named him "the intellect of his school." Aristotle lived at Athens for 20 years, till 347. During the last ten years of his residence at Athens he gave instruction in rhetoric. On Plato's death he left Athens, returning to live with his friend Hermias of Atarneus. When Hermias was killed by the Persians, Aristotle fled to Mytilene. Two years later he became the instructor of Alexander the son of Philip, then thirteen years of age. On Alexander's accession to the throne Aristotle returned to Athens, assembling about him a large number of distinguished scholars, to whom he lectured on philosophy. His school soon became the most famous in Athens, and he presided over it for thirteen years. During that time he also composed the greater part of his works. In these labors he was assisted by the kingly liberality of his famous pupil, who not only presented him with 800 talents, but also caused large collections of natural curiosities to be made for him, to which posterity is indebted for his . After Alexander's death Aristotle was looked upon with suspicion as a friend of Macedonia, and the charge of impiety was trumped up against him; but he escaped to Chalcis in Euboea where he died the same year (322).]

Epicurus was, according to the testimony of Metrodorus, an Athenian philosopher. Heraclitus says that he was raised on Samos. He came back to Athens at the age of eighteen, when Xenocrates was teaching at the Academy, and Aristotle had his school at Chalcide. But after the death of Alexander, and with Macedonian and Greek affairs against king Perdiccas in a bad way, he went to his father at Colophon. There he gathered disciples and returned to Athens under Anaxicrates. After he, with others, had taught for some time, he originated the sect called after him. And although one called Epictetus (Epitectus) strove against him, all other philosophers were agreeable to him.[Epictetus (c. 55–c. 135 CE) was a famous Greek Stoic philosopher who lived more than three centuries after Epicurus, so he could only in a metaphorical sense ‘strive against' Epictetus. Perhaps the chronicler suggests that] In his native land he was honored with bronze statues. Diocles says that Epicurus lived on a very scant diet. He was born seven years after the death of Plato, and died at Athens at the age of 72 years by a stone blocking the exit of his urine.[Epicurus was born in 342 BCE on the island of Samos. At 18 he came to Athens, and there probably studied under Xenocrates, who at that time was head of the Academy. After a short stay Epicurus went to Colophon, and later resided at Mytilene and Lampsaeus, in which places he taught philosophy for five years. At 35 he again went to Athens and established a philosophical school, called after him, the Epicurians. there he spent the remainder of his life with numerous friends and pupils. His mode of living was simple, temperate and cheerful; and the aspersions of comic poets and later philosophers opposed to him, describing him as a person of sensual pleasures, do not seem entitled to credit. He took no part in public affairs, and died at the age of 72 after a long and painful illness, which he endured with true philosophic patience and courage. He is said to have written 300 volumes, and of these the most important was , in 37 volumes. All his works are lost except some fragments of this one. He made ethics the most important part of his system, since he regarded human happiness as the ultimate end of all philosophy. Pleasure with him was not a mere momentary and transitory sensation, but he conceived it as something lasting and imperishable, consisting in pure and noble mental enjoyments, free from all influences which disturb one's peace of mind. Peace of mind was his sumum bonum.]

Callisthenes (Callistenes), the celebrated philosopher, was a disciple of Aristotle and flourished at this time. He often earnestly chided Alexander the Great and spoke to him: If you are God, you should show it by your goodness toward mankind, and not take it away. If you are a human being, always keep in mind what you are. At these remarks Alexander took offense and ordered him put to death. He caused him to be locked up with a dog in a dreadful cave.[Callisthenes, a relative and pupil of Aristotle, accompanied Alexander the Great on his expedition into Asia. In his intercourse with Alexander he was arrogant and forward, taking every opportunity of exhibiting his independence. He expressed his indignation when Alexander adopted Oriental customs, and especially at the requirement of the ceremony of adoration. He thus rendered himself very obnoxious to the king, and was finally accused of being privy to the plot of Hermolaus to assassinate Alexander. After being kept in chains for seven months he was either put to death or died of disease. He wrote an account of Alexander's expedition; a history of Greece in ten books and other works, all of which have perished.]

Xenocrates, the Chalcedonian philosopher, was the son of Agathenor. From early youth he was a disciple of Plato; and (as Laertius states) was slow-witted. In comparing Aristotle and Xenocrates, Plato said: One needs a bridle and the other spurs. In other respects, he was always of a solemn and grave character and expression. He lived much in the Academy, and when at times he went into the city, an entire crowd of impudent people would watch as he passed by in order to bother him. At one time Phryne (Philene), a courtesan, who had been intentionally sent to him in his room by some people, was begging him (to share) part of his bed, and he allowed it. But at last, in spite of all her entreaties, she departed without having been able to succeed in her purpose, saying as she left that she had not come from a man but from a statue. Although he was a strict and exacting person, he scorned excessive pride. And as he often inclined to meditation, he consumed many an hour in silence. He succeeded Speusippus in the Academy, and led that school for twenty-five years. He died at night, after injuring himself with a pan, at the age of 82.

Xenocrates was a native of Chalcedon. He was born in 396 BCE, and died in 314, at the age of 82. He attached himself first to Aeschines the Socratic, and afterwards, while still a youth, to Plato, whom he accompanied to Syracuse. After his return to Athens he was repeatedly sent on embassies to Philip of Macedonia, and at a later time to Antipater during the Lamian War. He is said to have lacked quick apprehension and natural grace; but these facts were more than compensated by persevering industry, pure benevolence, freedom from all selfishness, and a moral earnestness, which obtained for him the esteem and confidence of the Athenians. He became President of the Academy even before the death of Speusippus, who was bowed down by sickness, and he occupied that post for 25 years. Of his numerous works only the titles have come down to us.

Schedel's mini-biography of Xenocrates comes from a Latin translation by Ambrose the Camaldulian (born Ambrogio Traversari, 1386-1439) of Diogenes Laertius' Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers, a work probably written sometime c. 225-250 CE.


Ptolemy Euergetes, son of Philadelphus, and the third Egyptian king, reigned 26 years. He avenged his sister Berenice, whom Antiochus Galericus and his mother Laodice had deprived of the kingdom of Syria Cicilia; and he devastated a part of Asia and came away with countless spoils of war.

Ptolemy III (surnamed Euergetes), king of Egypt, was the eldest son of Ptolemy II (Philadelphus). When a mere child he was betrothed to Berenice, the daughter of Magas; but it was not till after the death of Magas, and the assassination of Demetrius the Handsome, who had made himself master of Cyrene, that their nuptials were solemnized. Ptolemy succeeded quietly to the extensive dominions of his father, and to these he now reunited Cyrene in right of his wife. On learning of the death of his father Philadelphus, Antiochus II, the king of Syria, put aside his wife Berenice, the daughter of the Egyptian king, and recalled his former wife Laodice, who soon sacrificed to her resentment, both her faithless husband and her rival Berenice and her infant son. Ptolemy appears to have taken up arms on receiving the first news of danger to his sister; but finding himself too late to save her he invaded Syria at the head of a large army to avenge her fate. The cruelties of Laodice, and the unhappy fate of Berenice, excited general disaffection, and many cities voluntarily joined Ptolemy. Neither the youthful Seleucus nor his mother were able to oppose the progress of the Egyptian king, who made himself master of the whole company south of Mt. Taurus. But instead of crossing the ridge and pursuing Seleucus himself, he turned eastward, crossed the Euphrates, advanced as far as Babylon and Susa, receiving the submission of all the upper provinces of Asia. But in the course of his conquests he was recalled to Egypt by news of seditions. On his return he carried with him an immense booty, including all the statues of the Egyptian deities which Cambyses had carried to Babylon from Persia. In elation his Egyptian subjects bestowed upon Ptolemy the surname Euergetes—‘the Benefactor.' While he was making his conquests in the east, his fleets were reducing the maritime provinces of Asia. After his return to Egypt, the provinces in the east soon fell back into the hands of Seleucus, but Ptolemy retained the maritime regions and a great part of Syria.

Euergetes is scarcely less celebrated than his father as patron of literature and science. He added largely to the Alexandrian Library. General opinion is that he died a natural death, although some are of the opinion that he was poisoned by his son. He reigned 25 years in uninterrupted prosperity. By his wife Berenice he left three sons—Ptolemy, who was his successor; and Magas and Arsinoe, afterwards married to her brother Ptolemy Philopater.

Ptolemy Philopator, the fourth Egyptian king, reigned 17 years. He killed his father and strangled his brother. From these crimes he was called Philopator.[Philopator means ‘Father-Lover'—obviously ironic in this case.] And just as he was indifferent to the affairs of his kingdom, so too was he lazy and neglectful in the rule of it. He gave himself up to carnal pleasures, in consequence of which Antiochus the Great, the king of Syria, was able to subdue many cities. But when he later recovered all he had lost and had plundered the kingdom of Antiochus, in which matters luck was with him, he finally fell into debaucheries, and after the murder of his wife Euridice, he became promiscuous in his intercourse with voluptuous women. He died and left a son five years of age. The dissolute women (who had slept with him) were hanged to avenge the murder of the queen, while the Alexandrians sent (the boy) to the Romans so that they might take care of the orphan.

Ptolemy IV (surnamed Philopater), king of Egypt, was the eldest son and successor of Ptolemy Euergetes. He lacked the virtues of his father, and his reign initiated the decline of the Egyptian kingdom. One of his earliest acts was to put to death his mother, Berenice, and his brother Magas (of whose influence and popularity with the army he was jealous), as well as his uncle Lysimachus, the brother of Ptolemy Euergetes. In all these murders his minister Sosilius was his ready instrument, and probably his adviser. Having thus, as he conceived, secured himself from all danger from domestic enemies, Ptolemy gave himself up to a life of indolence, luxury, and sensual indulgence, while he abandoned to Sosilius the care of political affairs. But Sosilius was as incompetent as his master. The army was neglected, and the kingdom was allowed to fall into a sate of disorder. Of this condition Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, was not slow to avail himself. But Ptolemy roused himself, and in the end defeated Antiochus at Raphia on the borders of the desert. Peace was finally established, the indolent, luxury loving Ptolemy preferring to return to his life of ease rather than follow up his successes. And now he gave himself up entirely to every species of vice and debauchery. He died in 205, after a reign of 17 years, leaving only one son, a child five years of age.

Steeped in vice and debauchery as he was, Philopator appears to have inherited something of the love of letters for which his predecessors were so conspicuous. The schools continued to flourish in his reign, and he was on intimate terms with philosophers and men of letters.

Dion of Syracuse was a noble philosopher. He was slain in the city of Syracuse after being involved for a long time in the tyrannies of both Dionysiuses. For Dionysius the Elder demanded of Dion that he give him his sister Aristomache in marriage. By her two sons were born to him, Hipparus and Niseus, and as many daughters. One of these daughters he gave his son Dionysius, to whom he left the kingdom; and the other he gave to the uncle Dion. Aside from his noble birth, the good reputation of his parents, and his praiseworthy character, he was a man of good learning, versed in all the arts and of personal virtue. From his father he received by inheritance many possessions that he himself, through the gifts of the tyrant, increased. And, therefore, he loved Plato so much that he devoted himself to him. Nor was Plato less delighted by him.

Dion, a Syracusan, was the son of Hipparinus, and a relative of Dionysius. His sister Aristomache was the second wife of the elder Dionysius; and Dion himself was married to Arete, the daughter of Dionysius by Aristomache. Dion was treated by Dionysius with the greatest distinction, and was employed by him in many services of trust. Of this close connection he seems to have availed himself to amass great wealth. He made no opposition to the succession of the younger Dionysius to his father's power, but he became an object of suspicion to the youthful tyrant, to whom he also made himself personally disagreeable by the austerity of his manners. Dion was apparently a man of stern and proud character, and having become an ardent disciple of Plato when that philosopher visited Syracuse in the reign of the elder Dionysius, he carried to excess the austerity of a philosopher, and viewed with undisguised contempt the debaucheries and dissolute pleasures of his nephew. From these he endeavored to withdraw him by persuading him to invite Plato a second time to Syracuse; but the philosopher, thought received at first with the utmost distinction, failed in obtaining a permanent hold on the mind of Dionysius; and the intrigues of the opposite party headed by Philistus, were successful in procuring the banishment of Dion. He retired to Athens, where he lived in habitual intercourse with Plato and his disciples; but Plato having failed in procuring his recall (for which purpose he visited Syracuse a third time), and Dionysius having confiscated his property, and compelled his wife to marry another person, he attempted to expel the tyrant by force. He sailed from Zacynthus with a small force and obtained possession of Syracuse without opposition, while Dionysius was in Italy, leaving Dion undisputed master of the city in 356 BCE. His despotic character, however, soon caused great discontent, and the people complained with justice that they had only exchanged one tyrant for another. He caused his chief opponent, Heraclides, to be put to death, and confiscated the property of his adversaries. Callippus, an Athenian, who had accompanied him to Greece, formed a conspiracy against him, and caused him to be assassinated in his own house in 353.

Schedel's mini-biography on Dion is taken (with significant abridgment) from Cornelius Nepos (c. 100-24 BCE), Liber de Excellentibus Ducibus Exterarum Gentium (‘Lives of the Eminent Leaders of Foreign Nations') 10.1.1-2, 10.2.3:

1.1. Dion, Hipparini filius, Syracusanus, nobili genere natus, utraque implicatus tyrannide Dionysiorum. Namque ille superior Aristomachen, sororem Dionis, habuit in matrimonio; ex qua duos filios, Hipparinum et Nisaeum, procreauit totidemque filias, nomine Sophrosynen et Areten; quarum priorem Dionysio filio, eidem, cui regnum reliquit, nuptum dedit, alteram, Areten, Dioni. 2 Dion autem praeter nobilem propinquitatem generosamque maiorum famam multa alia ab natura habuit bona, in his ingenium docile, come, aptum ad artes optimas, magnam corporis dignitatem quae non minimum commendat, magnas praeterea diuitias a patre relictas, quas ipse tyranni muneribus auxerat.
2.3 Quem Dion adeo admiratus est atque adamauit, ut se ei totum traderet. Neque uero minus ipse Plato delectatus est Dione.

The last two sentences (a paraphrase of Nepos 10.2.3) are not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

The Cimmerian Sibyl (Sibilla Chimica), was a native of Italy. She is clothed in a sky-blue dress. Her golden locks are spread over her shoulders, and she is young. She spoke thus: In the first appearance of Virgo will arise a girl of beautiful countenance, with long locks of hair, seated on a chair of rushes, nursing a child, giving it its own broth to eat, consisting of milk sent from heaven.

Anaximenes, the great rhetorician, was the master of Alexander in the art of speaking. He is said to have written the history of Alexander. Of him Valerius[] says: When once upon a time Alexander, in a rage, was about to destroy the city of Lampsacus (Lausatum[A (spelling?) mistake for Lampsacus.]), Anaximenes came to meet him; and Alexander knew he would plead for the city. Alexander had sworn that what Anaximenes would ask of him he would refuse. So Anaximenes spoke to Alexander: I pray you to destroy Lausatum. And thus the city was saved. The same is said to have occurred with reference to Athens.[Anaximenes of Lampascus, accompanied Alexander the Great to Asia, and wrote a history of Philip of Macedon; a history of Alexander the Great; and a history of Greece in 12 books, from the earliest mythical ages down to the death of Apaminondas. He also enjoyed a great reputation as a rhetorician, and was the author of a scientific treatise on rhetoric, usually printed among works of Aristotle.]

Carneades (Carmeides), the philosopher, is said to have flourished at that time when he, together with Diogenes, was sent by the Athenians to the Roman senate. He was so taken up with learning and meditation that while seated at the table he forgot to bring his hand to his mouth; and Melissa (Mellissa), whom he had with him in the capacity of a wife, guided his hand in taking sustenance; for his life was nourished by his soul, and he appeared to be encased, as it were, in a foreign body. And finally, in the hundredth year of his life, he ended his philosophizing, as Valerius Maximus in his fourth book sets it down.

Carneades, a celebrated philosopher, born at Cyrene, about 213 BCE, was the founder of the third or new Academy at Athens. In 155 he was sent by the Athenians to Rome with Diogenes and Critolaus to deprecate the fine of 500 talents which had been imposed on the Athenians for the destruction of Oropus. At Tome he attracted great notice by his eloquent declamations on philosophical subjects, and it was here that he delivered his famous orations on Justice. He contended that justice was not a virtue, but a matter of compact for the maintenance of civil society. Thereupon Cato moved the senate to send him home to his school, and save the Roman youth from his demoralizing doctrines. He died in the year 129 at the age of 85. He was a strenuous opponent of the Stoics, and maintained that neither our senses nor our understanding supply us with a sure criterion of truth. The Diogenes here referred to is Diogenes the Babylonian, a Stoic philosopher, native of Seleucia in Babylonia. The third ambassador, Critolaus, also studied philosophy at Athens, and succeeded Ceos as the head of the Peripatetic school.

Carneades was a hard-working and long-serving soldier of wisdom. After he had completed ninety years, the end of his living and his philosophizing was the same. So marvelously had he devoted himself to the operations of learning that when he had lain down to take a meal, wrapped in thought he would forget to stretch out his hand to the table. But Melissa, whom he had in lieu of a wife, adjusted her duty so as on the one hand not to interrupt his studies and on the other to minister to his fasting, adapting her own hand to the necessary uses. So Carneades enjoyed life only with his mind, enveloped by a quasi-alien and superfluous body. The same, when about to hold a debater with Chrysippus, used to purge himself with hellebore with a view to bringing forward his own intellectual resources with more concentration and rebutting those of Chrysippus with greater vigour. What draughts did Diligence make attractive to men axious for true glory!

(D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Valerius Maximus, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 2000; pp. 233, 235)

The order of the mini-biographies devoted to Anaximenes and Carneades are switched in the German edition of the Chronicle (most likely due to the different arrangment of the woodcuts devoted to these two men).

Sextilia, a vestal virgin, was buried alive at the Porta Collatina[Porta Collatina (‘The Collatine Gate') is mentioned only by Festus (37): Collatia oppidum fuit prope Romam . . . a qua porta Romae Collatina dicta est. He has probably confused Collatina with Collina. The Via Collatina diverged to the southward from the Via Tiburtina outside the Porta Tiburtina. The Porta Collina is a gate in the Servian wall at the north end of the agger, named Collina, because it was on the collis Quirinalis.] for the loss of her virginity by her own fault.

Sextilia, who according to tradition was buried alive in 273 BCE, is an illustration of the fate of a vestal virgin who neglected her vow of chastity. Vesta was the Roman hearth goddess. In an early community fire was hard to make, and therefore it was desirable that at least one fire should be kept always burning. This duty would naturally devolve upon the chief or king, and the actual maintenance of the fire would naturally fall to his young daughters, since slaves, if he had any, would hardly be trusted with a duty considered holy, while he and his sons would be out most of the day, and his wife would be busy with the household. Much of the actual preparation of food would also fall upon the daughters, as soon as they were old enough, for a Roman housewife in early days might not grind corn or cook food for her husband. For these reasons we get, in early historical times, besides the private cult of Vesta, a public cult of a sacred royal hearth, never allowed to go out, tended by girls, called Vestal Virgins, whose service begins when they are from six to ten years old, and lasts originally for five years, till they are old enough for marriage, or at least betrothal. The earliest cult of this kind is supposed to have been that at Lavinium; the most famous was at Rome.

In the Republican times, the pontifex maximus took the place of the king for many sacred purposes. The Vestals, whose number was six, and whose term of service had now been lengthened to 30 years, were in his charge, being freed from the potestas of their own fathers. They must, when chosen, be of the required age, free-born of free and respectable parents (although later, daughters of freedmen were eligible), having both parents alive, and free from physical and mental defects. If a vestal let the fire go out she was beaten. If found guilty of unchastity, she was subjected to an ordeal which amounted to a horrible form of capital punishment; she was shut up with a little food in an underground chamber which was covered over with earth.

Besides tending the fire, the vestals also prepared the sacred foodstuffs for ritual purposes. They also had the custody of various holy objects. They took part in ceremonies of various kinds, beside Vesta's own elaborate daily ritual.

The shrine of Vesta stood in the forum, near the Regia, or palace of the kings. It was not technically a temple but a round structure, a stone imitation of the primitive "bee-hive" hut.

Xenophilus, the Pythagorean philosopher, a native of Chalcedonia (Calcidonem), was greatly esteemed at this time. He was a man who, so they say, had never experienced any human misery when he was still alive at the age of 105. Then, at the highest splendor of knowledge and perfection, he died.[Very little is known of this individual with the exception that he may have been a student of Pythagoras.]


Arcesilaus (Archiphilas) was a philosopher with whom the sect of the Academicians began. He had a poor sick friend, who for shame would not make his condition known. But when Arcesilaus learned of this, he gave secret assistance to his friend. Without his knowledge he placed a small bag of money under his pillow so that he would consider it as something he had found rather than as a gift.

Arcesilaus, here called Archiphilas, was the founder of the New Academy, and flourished c. 200 BCE. In his youth he came to Athens to study rhetoric, but becoming the disciple first of Theophrastus, and afterward of Crantor, he found his inclination led to philosophical pursuits. Not content, however, with any single school, he left his early masters and studied under skeptical and dialectic philosophers. He was not without reputation as a poet, and several of his puns and witticisms have been preserved, which give the idea of an accomplished man of the world rather than a grave philosopher. Although his means were not large, many tales are told of his generosity. His enemies accused him of the grossest profligacy, and it must be confessed that the accusation is slightly confirmed by the circumstance that he died at the age of 76 from a fit of excessive drunkenness.

On the death of Crantor, Arcesilaus succeeded to the chair of the Academy, in the history of which he makes so important an era. In his time philosophy was absorbed in the single question of the grounds of human knowledge. According to Cicero he summed up his opinion in the formula "that he knew nothing, not even his own ignorance." Arcesilaus is also said to have restored the Socratic method of teaching in dialogues. The Stoics were his chief opponents. The New Academy does not seem to have doubted the existence of truth in itself, but our capacity to obtain it.

These two consuls (referring to the dual portrait of Torquatus and Decius) fought with Alexander against the king of Egypt.

This Aemilius with the Romans waged a most just war against the Tarentines; and so with Pyrrhus, king of the Greeks, bringing aid to the Tarentines, he fought for more than four years. Finally, with Pyrrhus defeated, and having died miserably in his country, the Tarentines entered into a peace treaty with the Carthaginians. And from this the Punic Wars had their beginnings.[A paragraph of extreme historical compression. Pyrrhus (318-272 BCE) was king of Epirus in Greece, and, in one of his many bids to expand his empire, assisted the Greek city-state of Tarentum in southern Italy in 280. Some of his battles, though successful, cost him such staggering losses (most notably against the Italian town of Asculum in 279), that the phrase ‘Pyrrhic victory' was created to describe a victory that was so costly that it had become, in reality, a loss.]

Marcus Valerius, nicknamed Corvinus, was a Roman youth of truly excellent spirit and singular virtue no less unworthy than Camillus. And he himself, though still a youth, engaged in battle against a man of Gaul who was singularly distinguished by his size and his armor. And while he, in armor, proceeded into the middle (of the field to do battle), and had not yet guarded his hand with his shield, a raven suddenly sat on his shield and, from the beginning of the battle, never departed from Valerius' shield. And with the tip of its beak and its talons it did not stop wounding the eyes of the Gaul until Valerius had killed the enemy terrified by such a monstrous portent. And with him dead, immediately the raven vanished from sight. And Valerius then was called by the name Corvinus.[According to legend, Marcus Valerius (who was reputed to have lived to 100 years of age, c. 370-270 BCE) acquired the nickname Corvinus (corvus = ‘Raven') because, when serving as military tribune under Camillus in 349 BCE, he accepted the challenge of a gigantic Gaul to single combat, and was assisted in the conflict by a raven that settled upon his helmet, and flew in the face of the barbarian. He was six times consul and twice dictator, and by his military ability rendered the most memorable services to his country. His most brilliant victories were gained in his third consulship, 343, when he defeated the Samnites at Mt. Gaurus, and at Suessues. In his other consulships he repeatedly defeated the Etruscans and other enemies of Rome. He is frequently referred to by the later Roman writers as a memorable example of the favors of fortune. (Livy, 7.26-42, 10.2-11.)]

These two consuls (referring to a dual portrait of Gemicius and Sempronius) reigned after one another. Gemicius (Gemitius) conquered the Africans (Affros) and Tarentines (Tharentinos); and Sempronius defeated the Pisans (Picentes). In that battle the earth shook as if it dreaded to receive all the blood that was spilled, and few of the Romans who were victorious escaped.

Lucius Papirius, a Roman patrician and very celebrated warrior, was elected dictator by the Roman senate; and he appointed Quintus Fabius Master of the Cavalry. At the command of the Roman senate he undertook a war against the Samnites. Before long the dictator went to Rome, where he was needed; and he instructed Quintus Fabius, the commander, not to engage the enemy in his absence. But after the dictator left, Fabius learned through spies that there was disorder among the enemy. This made him anxious to engage them; and he attacked the Samnites. And to make the battle more violent he removed the bridles from the horses, and spurred them into the enemy. And no power could withstand them. As Livy states, 20,000 of the enemy were slain on that day. Fabius did not make this known to the dictator, but to the Roman senate. The dictator condemned him to death because, contrary to his command, he had engaged the enemy in his absence. But when Fabius was led to execution, he was released through the good will of the people and of the nobility. And there was such a tumult against the dictator that he barely escaped with his life. And although the Samnites afterwards surrounded the Romans in a narrow region and defeated them in a great battle, yet in the following year the Romans defeated the Samnites on the order of the senate with Papirius as their leader. With that victory he celebrated a triumph.[See Folio LXXVI verso (Papirius) and note.]


Seleucus Ceraunus, the second of the name, the fifth king of Syria, reigned two years. He conducted a large naval expedition against the states that had seceded from his father; but he lost all his ships in a storm, from which he survived with only his bare body and a few companions. After this shipwreck he was defeated by Ptolemy Euergetes and driven toward Antioch. There he sought help from his brother Antiochus. But Antiochus was only 14 years of age, and being concerned for the welfare of the kingdom, Seleucus placed himself at the head of the kingdom on the pretence of protecting the realm.[Seleucus III (226-223 BCE), surnamed Ceraunus (Greek for ‘thunderbolt') was the eldest son and successor of Seleucus II. The surname was given him by his soldiers, apparently in ironic derision, as he appears to have been feeble both in body and in mind. He was assassinated by two of his officers, after a reign of only three years, and was succeeded by his brother Antiochus the Great.]

These two brothers, Antiochus the Great and Seleucus Ceraunus, both reigned. They wished to avenge the blood of their father and of Onias, whom Euergetes the king of Egypt had slain. Therefore they sent a large and mighty army against Philopator, the son of Euergetes. But Seleucus died before the war began; so Antiochus carried on the war, in the course of which he was compelled to flee and lost almost his entire army. Later, however, he assembled another force against Epiphanes, the son of Philopator and who was then but a child four years of age. Among many others he had with him Philip, the king of the Macedonians. And he prevailed against the generals of the boy Ptolemy (Epiphanes). And Scopas, his (the child's) general, fled. And he captured Judea and many other cities. But as he was unable to defeat the Egyptians by force of arms, he cunningly married off his daughter to Epiphanes, so that he might come into the kingdom as a friend. His scheme was, however, suspected and forestalled.

Antiochus, called the Great, and the fourth person of that name, was the sixth king of Syria. He reigned 36 years. He defeated Ptolemy Philometor. Being very powerful and abundantly wealthy, he caused his soldiers to wear trousers of gold. Hannibal (Annibal) Penus surrendered to him through fear of the Romans, the city of Carthage, and allied himself with him. But the Romans would not endure the excessive pride of Antiochus and Hannibal; and so they sent L. Cornelius, the consul, and Scipio, surnamed Nasica and Africanus, as emissaries; and they defeated Hannibal and fought Antiochus to the point of suing for peace with the Romans. This was granted him on condition that he leave Europe and Asia and keep himself within the limits of Mt. Thaurus, and, with 20 persons pledged as hostages, pay ten thousand talents annually. But, through greed for treasure he was afterwards lured into Persia by the priests, who killed him in the Temple of Fortune, cut him to pieces limb by limb and cast him out of the temple.[Antiochus (III) the Great (223-187 BCE), second son of Seleucus Callinicus, took the throne on the death of his brother Seleucus Ceraunus at the age of 15. He warred against Ptolemy Philopator, king of Egypt, to obtain Coele-Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine, but was obliged to cede these provinces to Ptolemy after his defeat at Raphia near Gaza, in 217. In 205 he renewed his war against Egypt with some success. In 198 he conquered Palestine and Coele-Syria, which he afterward gave up as a dowry with his daughter Cleopatra upon her marriage with Ptolemy Epiphanes. In 196 he crossed over to Europe, taking possession of the Thracian Chersonese. This brought him into conflict with the Romans, who demanded that he restore the Chersonese to the Macedonian king. He refused to comply, and in this was seconded by Hannibal (Barca) who arrived at his court in195. Hannibal urged him to invade Italy at once; but Antiochus did not follow this advice. It was not until 192 that he crossed over into Greece. The Romans defeated him in 191 and he was compelled to return to Asia. The following year he was again defeated by the Romans under L. Scipio and compelled to sue for peace, which was granted in 188, on condition of his ceding all his dominion east of Mt. Taurus, paying 15,000 Euboic talents within 12 years, giving up his elephants and ships of war, and surrendering the enemies of Rome; but he allowed Hannibal to escape. In order to raise the tribute money, he attacked a wealthy temple in Elymais, but was killed by the people of the place in 187. He was succeeded by his son Seleucus Philopator.]

Seleucus, who was also know as Philopator, the seventh king of Asia and Syria, reigned 12 years, and was a mad, unreasonable and ill-tempered man. He sent Heliodorus to steal the treasures of the Temple. He judged unrighteously, and through the angels he was so chastised that he was barely restored by the prayers of Onias. Since this one left behind no son as his successor, he considered Antiochus, the brother whom he ridiculed, his successor.

Seleucus IV, surnamed Philopator, was the son and successor of Antiochus the Great, ascending the throne without opposition in 187 BCE. However, the defeat of his father by the Romans, and the ignominious peace that followed it, had greatly diminished the power of the Syrian monarchy, and the reign of Seleucus was feeble and inglorious. After a reign of twelve years he was assassinated by one of his own ministers, Helidorus, who conceived the idea of possessing himself of the sovereignty. The true heir, in fact, was Demetrius, the son of Seleucus (the chronicler is incorrect; he did leave an heir behind), now being retained in Rome as a hostage. The kingdom was thus seized by the younger brother of Seleucus, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, even though an infant son, also named Antiochus, was formal head of state for a few years until Epiphanes had him murdered.

The last sentence in the mini-biography on Seleucus IV is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

The seven sons of Maccabeus, with their mother and Eleazer and many others, crowned with martyrdom. Before the incarnation of the Son of God, as martyrs they suffered intense pain unto death for the sake of the laws of God.

In the 19th year of Epiphanes was that victory of the Jews over Antiochus the Great about whom is said in 2 Maccabees: Having been delivered by God out of great dangers, we give him great thanks, forasmuch as we ourselves have fought against such a king.[The quote is from 2 Maccabees 1.11. This paragraph is not in the German edition of the .]

Eleazar in the Year of the World 5009.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

Simon, son of Onias the high priest, 12th high priest of the Jews, sat (in office) for twelve years. He was a pious man, and is much praised in Chapter 50 of the Book of Ecclesiasticus. He improved the Temple and enlarged the city, brought salvation to his people, and saved them from injury. He finally died, leaving his son Onias as his successor.

Onias the Great, son of Simon, attained the office of high priest and held it for 29 years. Due to the oppressions of the tyrant Antiochus, he and many Jews fled to Egypt; and there he built a temple in likeness of the Temple at Jerusalem; by doing this he committed a great sin. He died and left a son who was still an infant.

Simon was the son of Onias, and he secured the priestly office after the flight of his father. When the prince of priests died, he left three sons, Onias, Jesus, and John, who came to three principalities of the priesthood.

Onias the Pious was a holy man, pleasing to God and mankind. He was finally slain by Andronicus; but the king, distressed by the death of this most righteous man, caused the murderer to be seized, stripped of his purple robe, and to be beaten with until he died.


Siena (Sena), now second among the cities of Etruria in power and possessions, is located in a very pleasant region; and as Polycrates writes in his sixth book was built by the Senonian Gauls 382 years before the coming of Christ, in the time of Brennus, when he marched in to Italy. There is evidence that those of Sena resembled the Gauls and Britons (in whom they had their origin) in appearance and bearing, in the anointing or smearing of their limbs, in their beauty of countenance and color, and also in their folkways; although the passage of time, the influence of the skies, the location, and their intercourse with their neighbors, with whom they intermingled in blood and manners, have in large part produced a change in them. As no mention is made of this city in the writings of the ancients, and as no signs of antiquity appear therein, it may be reckoned among the modern cities. Some say that Charles (Carolus), whose nickname was Hammer (Maleo)[Charles Martel (in Latin Carolus Martellus; c. 688-741) was the ruler of the Franks. He is best remembered for winning the Battle of Tours in 732, which has traditionally been understood as a historical turning-point, for it was by that victory that Islamic expansion into Europe—after rapid success in the Iberian peninsula—was halted. Charles' nickname is derived from the Latin word malleus, which means ‘hammer.'], founded this city; but in the praiseworthy cloister of Saint George de Alga (built by the glory-deserving Pope Eugenius when he was about to leave the world, and paid for with his own money which he inherited paternally), there is to be found an old book, in which it is written that Pope John XVIII built this city out of the bishoprics of Perugia (Perusina), Chiusi (Clusiensi), Arezzo (Aretina), Fesula (Fesulana), Florence (Florentina), Volaterra (Volaterrana), six communities, and gave it the name Siena (Sena), which means six. The city lies on a hill, and by reason of its height, resembles an island; but in the upper region of the city the land is improved with gardens and greens. There are at hand in this city very splendid buildings, such as a beautiful university, a market, a gate, the royal palace, and a very rich and well-regulated hospital. The city is also provided, far and wide, with towers and defenses. Governed by the best laws, there are no coarse or inhospitable people there. The soil is productive in fodder, and consequently supports many oxen, wild goats, and sheep. It also produces grain, wine, oil, and an abundance of fruits of all kinds. It is 800 stadia distant from Rome. This city possessed a galaxy of stars—the holy Saint Bernardinus, whose holy relics work manifold miracles daily in the city of Aquila. He, first of all, brought the order of St. Francis to its present flourishing state. The city was also favored with Hugo, the physician and natural philosopher, who after the death of Jacobi Forli, was considered the most learned and enlightened among all his contemporaries; also Frederick, the learned jurist, who left much advice in matters of jurisprudence; also Aeneas Silvius, the poet, thereafter honored with the papal office and called Pius. It is adorned by very many men and priests of refined knowledge.[This sentence is replaced in the German edition of the with the following: "There, too, by reason of the prominence of the city, a Council (Concilium) was held."] There are many mountainous regions and fields between the river Umbro and the Sea of Danaus, or the river Palias which flows out of that sea; also the very ancient city of Clusium, of which Pliny writes much, and which once upon a time was called Camers (Carmon) and is now subject to the city of Siena and enriched by it.

Siena (Sena) was a town in Etruria and a Roman colony. It was on the road from Clusium to Florentia and is mentioned only in the time of the emperors. According to one tradition, Siena was founded by Senius, son of Remus, who brought with him the image of Lupa, the she-wolf suckling the twins, which still remains the city's badge. When he offered to sacrifice to his gods, a dense black smoke arose from the altar of Apollo, and a pure white smoke from that of Diana —in commemoration of which was made the balzana, the black and white shield of the Comme that we still see upon Siena's gates and public buildings. There are two other shields associated with it: a blue shield with the word "Libertas" in gold letters, and a red shield with a white lion rampant.

Siena's epoch of greatness begins with the twelfth century. The people became associated in arts or guilds, resembling those of Florence, whose representatives sat in councils of the Republic. Throughout the greater part of the 12th and 13th centuries Siena was engaged in serious wars with Florence, brought on by the controversy between Guelfs and Ghibellines and by commercial rivalry. In 1552 Siena became a free city under the protection of Emperor Charles V.


Ptolemy Epiphanes, the fifth king of the Egyptians, reigned 24 years. At the beginning of his reign he was not more than four years old. After he became of age he was neither wise nor strong, and therefore Antiochus the Great, king of Syria, undertook the conquest of his kingdom and began to make war upon it. But the princes of the realm stood by Ptolemy and protected the whole kingdom. Onias, the high priest of the Jews also came to protect him. But when he became of age Antiochus (Antiochus IV Epiphanes), the noble son of Antiochus the Great, clandestinely betrothed his sister to him; and she bore him two sons.[Ptolemy (V) Epiphanes was the son and successor of Ptolemy IV. At the death of his father in 205 BCE, he was but five years of age and Philip of Macedon and Antiochus III of Syria determined to take advantage of his minority, and entered into an alliance to divide his kingdom between them. Antiochus conquered Coele-Syria, while Philip reduced the Cyclades and the cities in Thrace that had remained subject to Egypt. In this emergency the Egyptian ministers had recourse to the powerful intervention of the Romans, who commanded both monarchs to refrain from further hostilities, and to restore all the conquered cities. In order to evade this demand without openly opposing the power of Rome, Antiochus concluded a treaty with Egypt, by which it was agreed that the young kind should marry Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, and receive back the Syrian provinces as her dower. This treaty was made in 199, but the marriage ceremony was not solemnized until six years later. The administration of Egypt was placed in the hands of Aristomenes, a man in every way worthy of the charge. As early as 196, the young king was declared to be of full age and his coronation was solemnized with great magnificence. It was on this occasion that the decree was issued which has been preserved to us in the celebrated inscription known as the Rosetta stone, which afforded the key to discovery of hieroglyphics. In 193 the marriage of Ptolemy to the Syrian princess Cleopatra was solemnized at Raphia. Ptolemy, however, refused to assist his father-in-law against the Romans in the war that was about to break out, and he continued steadfast in his alliance with Rome. But he derived no advantage from the treaty that concluded it, and Antiochus still remained in the possession of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. As long as Ptolemy remained under the influence of Aristomenes, his administration was equitable and popular; but gradually he became estranged from his able minister, and threw himself more and more into the power of flatterers and vicious companions, until at length he was induced to rid himself of Aristomenes, who was compelled to take poison. He attempted to recover Coele-Syria from Seleucus, the successor of Antiochus, but having, by an unguarded expression, excited the apprehensions of some of his friends, he was poisoned in the 24th year of his reign at the age of 29. He left two sons, who afterward ascended the throne under the names of Ptolemy Philometor and Euergetes II, and a daughter, who bore her mother's name of Cleopatra.] When Antiochus heard this, he came to Egypt in person to see his sister Cleopatra and her sons, and he planned to kill Ptolemy at dinner. And when he attempted to subjugate the entire land of Egypt, he was driven out by the Egyptians. When two years later he besieged Alexandria, the Roman emissaries compelled him to yield and leave Egypt.[Antiochus IV Epiphanes was the son of Antiochus (III) the Great. He carried on a war with Egypt from 171-163 BCE with great success, in order to obtain Coele-Syria and Palestine, which had been given as a dowry to his sister; and he was preparing to lay siege to Alexandria in 168 when the Romans compelled him to retire. Perhaps at the instigation of several of his high-ranking Hellenizing Jewish officials, Antiochus IV attempted to introduce rather forcefully the worship of the Greek divinities to the peoples of Jerusalem (in an attempt to unite the peoples of his empire around a common religious set of beliefs?); but this lead to a rising of the Jewish people under Mattathias and his sons the Maccabees, which Antiochus was unable to put down. He attempted to plunder a temple in Elymais in 164, but he was repulsed, and died shortly afterwards in a state of raving madness, which the Jews and Greeks equally attributed to his sacrilegious crimes. His subjects gave him the name of Epimanes ("the Madman") in parody of Epiphanes.]

Ptolemy Philometor, the sixth king of the Egyptians, reigned 35 years, and was the son of the sister of Antiochus. He was altogether a lazy man, and his mother's brother made war on him. Therefore he sent his messengers to Rome for assistance. And so the Romans sent Pompilius (Popillius), the consul, to Antiochus demanding that he keep out of Egypt. Antiochus received him with a kiss; and when Pompilius had executed his commission, he offered Antiochus the choice of peace or war; and by this sternness the king was brought to obey the Roman consul. Afterwards Ptolemy gave his daughter in marriage to king Alexander (Balas), and later took her back and gave her in marriage to Demetrius; and he warred against Alexander, putting him to flight. When the head of Alexander was sent to him by the Arabian king three days later, he died for joy.[Ptolemy (VI) Philometor was the eldest son of Ptolemy V, Epiphanes. He was but a child when his father died in 181 BCE, and during his minority the regency was assumed by his mother Cleopatra. By her able administration she maintained the kingdom in a state of peace; but after her death, in 173, the chief power fell into the hands of Eulaeus and Lenoeus, both corrupt and incapable. They rashly engaged in war with Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, hoping to recover the provinces of Coele-Syria and Phoenicia. Their army was totally defeated by Antiochus, who advanced without opposition as far as Memphis in the year 170. The young king himself fell into the hands of the enemy but was treated kindly, as Antiochus hoped by that course to make himself master of Egypt. When the younger Ptolemy learned of the captivity of his brother, he was at Alexandria with his sister Cleopatra, and he assumed the kingship as Euergetes II, and prepared to defend the capital. Antiochus laid siege to Alexandria but was unable to take it, and withdrew to Syria after establishing Philometor as king of Memphis, retaining in his own hands the frontier fortress of Pelusium. This last circumstance, together with the ravages committed by the Syrian troops, awakened Philometor, who had hitherto been a mere puppet in the hands of the Syrian king, to a sense of his true position, and he hastened to make overtures of peace to his brother and sister at Alexandria. It was agreed the two brothers should reign together, and that Philometor should marry his sister Cleopatra. This arrangement did not suit Antiochus, who immediately resumed hostilities, and he advanced a second time to the walls of Alexandria, when he was met by a Roman embassy, headed by M. Popillius Laenas, who haughtily commanded him to immediately desist from hostilities. He dared not disobey, and withdrew to his dominions in 168. Dissension soon broke out between the brothers, and Euergetes expelled Philometor from Alexandria. Thereupon Philometor went to Rome in person, and the Romans appointed deputies to reinstate him in his power. This was effected without opposition; but they settled that Euergetes should have Cyrene as a separate kingdom. Euergetes, however, soon laid claim to Cyprus as well, and in this he was supported by the Romans. Philometor refused to surrender the island, and in the war which ensued, Euergetes was taken prisoner by his brother, who not only spared his life, but sent him back to Cyrene on condition that he content himself with that kingdom. The attention of Philometor from this time on appears to have been directed to the side of Syria. Demetrius Soter having sought during the dissensions between the two brothers to make himself master of Cyprus, Ptolemy now supported the usurper Alexander Balas, to whom he gave his daughter in marriage in the year 150. But when Ptolemy advanced with an army to the assistance of his son-in-law, Cummonius (the favorite and minister of Alexander) formed a plot against the life of Ptolemy; whereupon the latter took away his daughter Cleopatra from her faithless husband, and bestowed her hand on Demetrius Nicator, the son of Soter, whose cause he now espoused. In conjunction with Demetrius he warred against Alexander, whom he defeated in a decisive battle, but he died a few days later from a fall from his horse in this battle (146). He reigned 35 years from the period of his first ascension, and 18 years from his restoration by the Romans. He left three children: (1) A son, Ptolemy, who was proclaimed king after his father's death, as Ptolemy Eupator, but was put to death almost immediately by his uncle Euergetes; (2) a daughter, Cleopatra, married first to Alexander Balas, then to Demetrius II, king of Syria; and (3) another daughter named Cleopatra, who was afterwards married to her uncle Ptolemy Euergetes.]

Capronia (Caproma) Monialis, a vestal virgin, was hanged because she lost her virginity.

Titus Livius, a writer of tragedies, was at this time highly renowned. By reason of his ingenuity and intelligence, he was freed by Livius Salinator (Salivatore), whose books he was teaching.

Livy (Titus Livius), was a celebrated Roman historian. Jerome's Chronicle, from which our chronicler has lifted this paragraph word for word, has misnamed his intended subject, Livius Andronicus, a writer of tragedy and epic (indeed, he ‘translated' Homer's Odyssey into Latin, employing Saturnian verse). This Andronicus was Rome's first poet.
According to Smith (Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, s.v. Andronicus, Livius, Vol. 1, p. 175), Andronicus was:

The earliest Roman poet, as far as poetical literature is concerned; for whatever popular poetry there may have existed at Rome, its poetical literature begins with this writer. (Quintilian 10.2.7.) He was a Greek and probably a native of Tarentum, and was made prisoner by the Romans during their wars in southern Italy. He then became the slave of M. Livius Salinator, perhaps the same who was consul in 219 BCE, and again in 207. Andronicus instructed the children of his master, but was afterwards restored to freedom, and received from his patron the Roman name Livius. During his stay at Rome, Andronicus made himself a perfect master of the Latin language, and appears to have exerted him self chiefly in creating a taste for regular dramatic representations. His first drama was acted in 240 BCE, in the consulship of C. Claudius and M. Tuditanus (Cicero, Brutus 18); but whether it was a tragedy or a comedy is uncertain. That he wrote comedies as well as tragedies is attested beyond all doubt. The number of his dramas was considerable, and we still possess the titles and fragments of at least fourteen. The subjects of them were all Greek, and they were little more than translations or imitations of Greek dramas. He is said to have died in 221, and cannot have lived beyond 214. As to the poetical merit of these compositions we are unable to form an accurate idea, since the extant fragments are few and short. The language in them appears yet in a rude and undeveloped form, but it has nevertheless a solid basis for further development. Cicero (Brutus 18) says, that in his time they were no longer worth reading, and that the 600 mules in the Clytemnestra and the 3000 craters in the Equus Trojanus (‘Trojan Horse') could not afford any pleasure upon the stage. (ad Famil. 7.1) In the time of Horace, the poems of Andronicus were read and explained in schools; and Horace, although not an admirer of early Roman poetry, says, that he should not like to see the works of Andronicus destroyed. (Horace, Epistulae 2.1.69)

Minucia, the vestal virgin, was convicted of unchastity and buried alive.

Theophrastus the Chresian[The word chresius used to describe Theophrastus is meaningless. Perhaps it is related to the equally meaningless word used to describe Sappho (crexea) at Folio LXI verso. Since both were from the town of Eresus (or Eressos, on the island of Lesbos), it is possible that chresius/chrexea are corruptions of ‘Eresus.'], was a philosopher, and, according to the testimony of Athenodorus[Athenodorus (c. 74 BCE-7 CE) was a Stoic philosopher. He was born in Canana, near Tarsus (in modern-day Turkey). A student of Poseidonius of Rhodes, he is perhaps most famous for being the teacher of Octavian (the future Caesar Augustus) at Apollonia. ] in his book on the Peripatetics, the son of a fuller.[The word "Chresian" and the phrase "and, according to the testimony of Athenodorus in his book on the Peripatetics, the son of a fuller" are not in the German edition of the .] In his own country he first heard Leucippus, his fellow citizen. Then, after he had heard Plato, he took himself to Aristotle. When that one (Aristotle) went to Chalcide, he (Theophrastus) succeeded him as the president of his school.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He was a man of high intelligence, exceptional industry, and wonderful speech; and although he was formerly called Tyrtamus (Tyranno), yet because of his divine eloquence, Aristotle called him Theophrastus. He published about three hundred books. He had (according to Pamphilus) about two thousand disciples who came to listen to him. Among these were Nicomachus, the son of Aristotle, and Menander, the comic playwright. And this he always said: The most valuable thing is time. He died at the age of 85.[Theophrastus, Greek philosopher, was a native of Eresus in Lesbos, and studied philosophy at Athens, first under Plato and later under Aristotle, who is said to have changed his original name of Tyrtamus to Theophrastus (‘the Divine Speaker') to indicate the fluent and graceful address of his pupil. Aristotle named Theophrastus his successor in the presidency of the Lyceum, and in his will bequeathed to him his library and the originals of his own writings. He was a worthy successor of his great master. When the philosophers were banished from Athens, Theophrastus also left the city; but he returned when the law was repealed. He continued to teach at Athens until the time of his death in 287 BCE, having presided over the Academy about 35 years. He is said to have closed his life with the complaint respecting the short duration of human existence—that it ended just when the insight into its problems was beginning. He bequeathed his library to Neleus of Scepsis. Theophrastus exerted himself to carry out the philosophical system of Aristotle, to throw light upon the difficulties contained in his books, and to fill up the gaps in them. His greatest contribution, perhaps, are his two surviving treatises on botany, which had a profound influence on the Middle Ages, and were the most important studies in this field for nearly eighteen hundred years.]

Menander, the comic poet and disciple of Theophrastus, is the one of whom Quintilian says: In my opinion this Menander must have been an industrious reader to acquire all this learning. He treated all forms of life. He was highly qualified in verse and diction and spoke ably on all matters and of persons and their inclinations. For these reasons Ovid thought that he would last forever. And the Apostle Paul reveals that he himself had read this man when he says to the Corinthians: Bad company corrupts good morals. 1 Corinthians 15.

Menander of Athens, born in 342 BCE, was the most distinguished playwright of New Comedy. Alexis, the comic playwright, was his uncle and no doubt instructed his nephew in the rules of composition of comic drama. His character must have been greatly influenced by his intimacy with Theophrastus and Epicurus, of whom the former was said to be his teacher, and the latter his intimate friend. His taste and sympathy were entirely with the philosophy of Epicurus, and in an epigram he declared that "as Themistocles rescued Greece from slavery, so Epicurus from unreason." From Theophrastus, on the other hand, he must have derived much of that skill in the discrimination of character which we so much admire in the Characters of the philosopher, and which formed the great charm of the Comedies of Menander. Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, was one of his admirers, and he invited the poet to his court at Alexandria; but Meander seems to have declined the honor. He died at Athens in 291. His comedies were imitated by the Roman comic playwrights, particularly Terence. Indeed, through his Roman successors (and their successors in the medieval period all the way up to the 21st century) he can be seen as the father of situation comedy.

The last two sentences of this paragraph (beginning with "For these reasons Ovid…") are not in the German edition of the Chronicle. The citation from Paul is 1 Corinthians 15.33.

Menippus, a cynic philosopher, was by race Phoenician and by social position a slave. His master was Bachus, a certain man from the Pontus. He was (as Hermippus relates) a constant moneylender; but through his enemies he lost all he had. On account of this he hanged himself.[Menippus, a cynic philosopher, and originally a slave, was a native of Gadara in Coele-Syria who flourished about 250 BCE. He amassed great wealth as a moneylender but was defrauded of it all and committed suicide. We are told that he wrote nothing serious per se, but that he discussed serious subjects in a spirit of ridicule, and especially delighted in attacking rival philosophical schools such as the Epicureans and Stoics. Strabo called him the "serious-jokester". His works, named in honor of their creator Menippean satire, mixed prose and verse, and constituted an entirely new genre of literature. Though now lost, their influence on later writers was profound. Varro, Seneca (his , or "Pumpkinification," is the only near-complete classical Menippean satire to survive), Petronius (Satyricon). Apuleius (Golden Ass) and Lucian were all his heirs in the ancient world. Modern descendants of Menippean satire include Voltaire, Diderot, E.T.A. Hoffmann, Swift, Rabelais, and Lewis Carroll (to name a few).]

Demetrius, nicknamed Phalereus, was a philosopher and disciple of Theophrastus (Thephrasti); a clever disputant and orator. He was somewhat impetuous (as Cicero says), but gentle. And after he had been with the Athenians for 10 years, because of his exceptional virtue he was honored with 360 statues of bronze, for he had increased greatly the revenues and buildings of the city. But later on, when in his absence the statues were broken by those jealous of him, he said: Yet they have not destroyed my virtue because of which they erected the statues. He also said that eloquence has as much power in a state as a weapon has in war.[Demetrius Phalereus, so called from his birthplace, the Attic demos of Phalerum, where he was born about 345 BCE. His parents were poor but by his talents and perseverance he rose to the highest honors at Athens, and became distinguished as an orator, statesman, philosopher and poet. He was educated, together with the poet Menander, in the school of Theophratus. In 317 the government of Athens was entrusted to him by Cassander, and he discharged the duties of his office for 10 years with such general satisfaction that the Athenians conferred on him the most extraordinary distinctions, and erected no less than 360 statues in his honor. But during the latter period of his administration, he seems to have become intoxicated with his good fortune, and abandoned himself to dissipation. When Demetrius Poliorcetes approached Athens in 307, Demetrius Phalereus was obliged to take to flight, and his enemies induced the Athenians to sentence him to death. He went to Ptolemy Lagi at Alexandria, with whom he lived for many years on the best of terms, and it was probably owing to the influence of Demetrius that the great library at Alexandria was formed. But his successor Ptolemy Philadelphus was hostile toward Demetrius, because he had advised his father to appoint another of his sons as his successor. He banished Demetrius to Upper Egypt, where he is said to have died from a snakebite.]


In the 477th year of the founding of the city of Rome[The 477th year of the founding of the city corresponds to 277 BCE.], the name of the city was highly renowned; but its arms had not been carried beyond Italy. Rome then had a population of 292,334 inhabitants. And although the Romans from the beginning of their city had never been at war, they now entered upon a conflict with the Africans[Both in the German and the Latin editions of the the Carthaginians are referred to in this manner.], firstly, under Appius Claudius and Quintus Fabius, the consuls, in Sicily. And Appius Claudius triumphed over the Africans and king Hieron of Sicily.[This introduces the first of the Punic Wars, which raged between Rome and Carthage in the 3rd and 2nd centuries BCE. The conflict began during the consulship of Appius Claudius and Quintus Fabius, who conducted the war against the Carthaginians in Sicily. Incidentally, it must be noted that the lineage of the Roman consuls, as given in the , is by no means complete. These officials were elected annually, two for each year, and their number is legion, as can be readily appreciated by consulting the table supplementing Arnold's , William Smith's , and works of a like nature. The consuls and dictators who appear in the are only a very small number selected by Schedel.]

Under these consuls the Punic War against Hannibal the elder began.[This sentence does not appear in the German edition of the .]

During the consulship of Gnaeus (Gneo) and Caius (Gayo) the Romans fought at sea with sharp-pointed ships. Cornelius (the Gnaeus mentioned above) was betrayed, but Duilius (the Caius mentioned above) defeated the Carthaginian commander, captured 31 ships, and sank 14; he took 7,000 prisoners, and slew 3,000 of the enemy. The Romans had never enjoyed a more satisfying victory because although they had been undefeated on land, now they were also very powerful on sea.

Cn. Cornelius Scipio Asina (here called Gnaeus), and Caius Duilius were consuls in 260 BCE, and participated in the first Punic War. The author's reference to a naval battle with "sharp-pointed ships," may be thus explained: The old method of attempting to sink or disable an enemy ship by piercing her just below the water, with a brazen beak affixed to every ship's bow, was still universally practiced during their time. The system of fighting, therefore, brought the ships close together; and if the fighting men on one side were superior, boarding, if possible, assured victory. This was therefore the Roman goal, and for the purpose they contrived a sort of drawbridge thirty-six feet long and four wide, with a low parapet on each side. This bridge was attached by a hole at the end of it to a mast twenty-four feet high, erected on the ship's prow; and the hole was large and oblong, so that the bridge not only played freely all round the mast, but could be drawn up so as to lie close and almost parallel to it. The end of the bridge was hoisted by a rope passing through a block at the masthead. The bridge was let fall on the enemy's ship at whatever quarter she appeared; and as a ship's beak was commonly her only weapon, an enemy ventured without fear close to her broadside or her stern, as if she were there defenseless. When the bridge fell a strong iron spike, fixed at the bottom of it, was driven home by the mere weight of the fall into the deck of the enemy's ship, and held it fast; whereupon the soldiers in two files rushed over the bridge and boarded the enemy vessel. And thus equipped the Roman fleet put to sea. It was commanded by one of the consuls, Cn. Cornelius Scipio; but as he allowed himself to be taken with seventeen ships in an ill-advised attempt on the Liparaean Islands, his colleague Duilius was called upon to conduct the fleet. He came upon the Carthaginians under the command of Hannibal; and they advanced confident of victory. But the 30 ships that formed the Carthaginian advanced squadron, including that of Hannibal himself, were immediately grappled by the Roman bridges, boarded and taken. Hannibal escaped in his boat to the main line of battle; but the character of the reception received by their first division startled the Carthaginians; and when they found their approach endangered by these bridges from every angle, they were seized with a panic and fled. Their total loss is said to have amounted to about 50 ships, 3,000 slain, and 7,000 prisoners. Some authors speak of "grappling irons, by means of which the enemy's ship might be drawn, and the sea fight thus changed into a land fight;" but the bridges are probably meant.

The phrase "because although they had been undefeated on land, now they were also very powerful on sea" is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Crispus[There is no stoic philosopher called Crispus. The chronicler, or his source, must mean Chrysippus (c. 280–c. 207 BCE), the so-called second founder of Stoicism after Zeno.], a Stoic[Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded in Athens by Zeno of Citium in the early third century BCE. It was incredibly influential throughout all of antiquity.] philosopher, who was from the nation of Elea[Chrysippus was not from Elea (Velia in Latin and Italian), a town in southern Italy, but from Soli (in Cilicia, Asia Minor), and was raised in Tarsus (also in Asia Minor). The pre-Socratic philosopher Zeno, who lived in the fifth-century BCE (and who is not the founder of Stoicism) was from Elea. Perhaps the fact that the two philosophers were called Zeno, and that Chrysippus was considered with the second Zeno to be the founder of Stoicism, is what caused the confusion. In any case, the German edition of the does not include the phrase "who was from the nation of Elea."], flourished at this time. At the age of eighty he wrote a book so subtle that a long life is required to understand it, so Valerius gives witness in his 8th book.[] From his rather angry sayings the following one is very famous: The wise man is in need of nothing, yet is deserving of many things; the fool, on the contrary, is deserving of nothing, and, not knowing how to make use of anything, he lacks all things.[Seneca cites this quote of Chrysippus (to whom he ascribes it) in (‘Moral Epistles') 9.14] Zeno[Zeno (334-262 BCE) was a Greek philosopher from Citium, Cyprus, and the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy that he taught in Athens from around 300 BCE. Stoicism, which took its name from the fact that Zeno used to teach in the (‘Painted Porticoe') of Athens, along with the ideas of Plato's Academy, Epicureanism, and the philosophy of the Cynics, was one of the four great philosophical schools of thought of the ancient world. Its general principals placed great emphasis on the goodness and peace of mind that would arise from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature. After Zeno's death it quickly became the most popular philosophical way of life in the Hellenistic and Roman worlds.], also a philospher at this time, said, What is said in your sole presence should be buried with you. These two were authors of the Stoic sect.[This last sentence is not in the German edition of the .]

These two consuls (referring to the portraits of Lucius Scipio and C. Florus Aquillius) fought with Hanno, the Carthaginian commander; and they devastated Corsica and Sardinia, and Scipio took away many thousands of people as prisoners and celebrated a triumph.[Lucius Cornelius Scipio and C. Florus Aquillius were consuls in 259 BCE, the 6th year of the first Punic War. Scipio drove the Carthaginians out of Sardinia and Corsica, defeating Hanno, the Carthaginian commander, and obtaining a triumph in consequence. The province assigned to Florus was Sicily, where he watched the movement of Hamilcar. Florus triumphed in 258.]

Polemon, an Athenian philosopher, was in repute at this time. As Laertius states, he was immodest and forward in his youth, and to satisfy his pleasures he carried his money about with him and hid it in obscure lanes and streets. Once while intoxicated and crowned, he stumbled into the school of Xenocrates, who stopped discoursing on the subject in hand, and commenced to lecture on modesty. In consequence Polemon bravely and diligently applied himself to such a degree that he became the successor of Xenocrates in the leadership of the school.[Polemon of Athens was an eminent Platonic philosopher. He was the son of Philostratus, a man of wealth and political distinction. In his youth, Polemon was extremely profligate; but one day, when at the age of thirty years, on bursting into the school of Xenocrates, at the head of a band of revelers, his attention was so arrested by a discourse on temperance, that he tore off his garland and remained an attentive listener. From that day he pursued an abstemious course of life, and continued to frequent the school, of which, on the death of Xenocrates in 315 BCE, he became the head. He died in 273 at a great age. He esteemed the object of philosophy to be to exercise men in things and deeds, not in dialectic speculation. His whole theory was to live according to the laws of nature.]

Under these consuls (referring to the portraits of M. Atilius Regulus and Lucius Manlius Vulso) many catastrophes by fire and water almost consumed the city of Rome; and there was war in Africa against Hamilcar, the Carthaginian general, and a battle was fought on the sea, in which he was defeated. Afterwards those consuls proceeded as far as Carthage, and they destroyed many cities. Manlius (Mallius) returned to Rome as a victor, while Atilius Regulus remained in Africa, making war against the Africans and fighting the three Carthaginian generals, namely the two Hasdrubals (Asdrubales) and Atailcar (Atailcarem)[Since there is no historical individual known as Atailcar, the chronicler must have meant Hamilcar.]. He vanquished them and slew 17,000 of the enemies. He also killed a marvelously large serpent, whose skin was 120 feet in length. It was shown to many as an object of wonder at Rome. Then the defeated Carthaginians sought peace from the Romans. But later Regulus was in turn defeated.[L. Manlius Vulso Longus and M. Atilius Regulus, consuls in 256 BCE, the 9th year of the first Punic War, defeated the Carthaginians by land and sea in Africa, and landed a large force there. They met with striking success; and after Manlius returned to Rome with half of the army, Regulus remained in Africa with the other half and vigorously prosecuted the war. He defeated the Carthaginian generals Hasdrubal, Bostar, and Hamilcar with great loss, and they retired within the walls of the city. Regulus ravaged the country round about. But in the midst of defeat success came to the Carthaginians from an unexpected source. Xanthippus, a Greek mercenary, pointed out to the Carthaginians their error, and being chosen to lead them, he boldly marched against the enemy in the open country with 4,000 cavalry and 100 elephants. Regulus was totally defeated, 30,000 of his men were slain, scarcely 2,000 escaped to Clypea, and Regulus himself was taken prisoner.]

During the consulship of Marcus Aemilius (Emilio) and Paulus Servius, both these Roman consuls sailed to Africa in three hundred ships by way of the city of Clipsea; and soon they came to Carthage. They first defeated the Africans in a naval battle. Aemilius sank one hundred and four ships with the enemy on board, and captured thirty ships and their warriors; in addition he either slew or took 15,000 prisoners, and Africa would have been totally defeated at this time if there had not been a famine, which prevented the army from remaining there any longer. But at Sicily the consuls suffered shipwreck.[Servius Fulvius Paetinus Nobilior and M. Aemilius Paullus, whom the chronicler calls Marcus Aemilius and Paulus Servius, were consuls in 255 BCE. The Romans equipped a large fleet during their consulship, which defeated the Carthaginians in a naval battle, and carried off from Africa the survivors of the army of Regulus; but on its return to Italy the fleet was shipwrecked and most of the vessels were destroyed.] At this time silver money was first coined at Rome.


Antiochus, noble or illustrious, reigned 11 years. He was an image of the Antichrist. While he was a hostage at Rome he learned of his father's death and of the laziness of his own brother; and so he secretly fled and, coming to Syria, was there received by several cities. When his brother died he reigned in his place. After the sale of the priesthood, firstly by the advice of Jason and later by that of Menelaus, he ordered pagan names to be applied to the Jews and forbade sacrifices in the Temple at Jerusalem. After his return from Egypt he robbed the Temple at the instigation of Menelaus, and ordered the Jews to sacrifice to idolatrous gods and to adopt pagan customs. He placed an idol of Olympian Zeus (Jovis Olimpi) in the Temple, prohibited circumcision, and slew the circumcisers. The seven brothers and their mother, who would not eat pork, he martyred with various forms of punishment. Finally, when he was about to go to Jerusalem, he fell from a chariot, which broke; and he was consumed by worms, and died a miserable death in a strange land.[For Antiochus IV Epiphanes, see also Folio LXXX verso, and note.]

Antiochus Eupator reigned 2 years. He was still a child when his father died. Lysias was his guardian during his youth. They both led forth an army against the Jews, but before long were slain by their own people through fear of Demetrius, the son of Seleucus Eupator.[Antiochus V (Eupator), no doubt here referred to, was nine years old at the time of his father's death, and reigned under the guardianship of Lysias. He was dethroned and put to death by Demetrius Soter, the son of Seleucus Philopater, who had up until this point in time lived at Rome as a hostage.]

Demetrius Soter (Sother), the tenth king of Syria and Asia, reigned 12 years after the murder of his step-son. The son of Seleucus slew Antiochus Eupator and Lysias, and made Alcimus (Alchimum) a priest. He was sent to Jerusalem with Bacchides, and many Jews were slain. He sent Nicanor, who was killed by Judas Maccabeus. And he killed Bacchides the Judean. And, finally, he was conquered by Alexander, who deprived him of life and kingdom at the same time.[Demetrius Soter, who reigned 162-150 BCE, was the son of Seleucus IV (Philopator) and grandson of Antiochus the Great. While yet a child he had been sent by his father to Rome as a hostage, and remained there during the whole reign of Antiochus IV (Epiphanes). After the death of Antiochus, being now 23, he asked to be set at liberty, but being refused, he secretly fled from Rome and went to Syria. The Syrians declared in his favor; and the young king Antiochus V, with his tutor Lysias, was seized by his own guards and put to death. Rome recognized Demetrius as king; but having alienated his own subjects by luxury and intemperance, they sided with an imposter named Balas, who took the mane of Alexander. He defeated Demetrius in battle and slew him. Demetrius left two sons, Demetrius Nicator and Antiochus Sidetes.]

Mattathias, the priest, a son of Jonathan, the son of Simonides, was honored by the Jews for his learning and enjoyed glorious renown. In his wrath, this holy man slew the sinners; and he had five sons who possessed the same wrath. But he was not a priest, although three of his sons were. When he died he was buried at Modin.[Mattathias, a citizen of Modin, was of priestly descent. When in accordance with the policy of Antiochus IV, the royal officers attempted to establish pagan sacrifices in the town, Mattathias refused to conform, killed the officer and a Jew about to offer sacrifices, leveled the pagan altar to the ground, and fled with his five sons to the mountains. There he was joined by a number of other like-minded individuals. After a few months of vigorous fighting, Mattathias died, leaving the conduct of the revolt to his five sons. Of these Eleazar and John were killed in the succeeding struggle, without having attained official standing. The other three were his successors. (1 Maccabees 2)]

This Judas, the Maccabee, a very brave and war-like man, and a son of Mattathias, was a very stern warrior. He triumphed in Israel, and had no equal before or after that time. His glorious deeds are on display in the books of the Maccabees.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He was finally defeated in battle. For the sake of the laws of God he suffered death, after having administered the priesthood for three years.[Judas, called Maccabee, or ‘the Hammer,' from which surname the entire family came to be known, was essentially a warrior, whose plans involved not only the re-establishment of the Torah, but also, in all probability, the reestablishment of the Jewish State in at least a semi-independent position. He defeated successively the Syrian generals Apollonius and Seron. Antiochus IV then sent Lysias, the imperial chancellor, to put down the revolt, and he in turn sent a large body of troops against Judas, under three generals—Ptolemy, Nicanor and Gorgias. Judas called the fighting men of Galilee together at Mizpah, organized them, and at Emmaus surprised and utterly defeated the forces of Gorgias. Later he defeated a great army under Lysias at Bethzur. In December 165, Judas cleansed the Temple of the Syrian pollutions, and inaugurated the re-established worship with a great feast. For a year and a half he waged war against his enemies on the east of the Jordan, while his brother Simon brought the scattered Jews throughout Galilee back to Judea for safety. His vigorous campaign seems to have alienated ‘The Pious,' who had seen their ambitions realized in the re-establishment of the Temple worship. Lysias returned with a great army, completely defeating Judas at Beth-zacharias. He then laid siege to Jerusalem, where the citadel was still in Syrian hands. Jerusalem surrendered but Lysias did not attempt to disestablish the Jewish faith. He appointed Alcimus as high priest, who was received by ‘the Pious' as legitimate, although he favored the Greeks. Judas and his party, however, remained in revolt, and when Lysias returned to Syria, undertook war against Alcimus himself. Demetrius I, who had succeeded Antiochus IV, sent Nicanor to put an end to the rebellion; but Judas defeated him and became the supreme head of the Jewish State. Judas sent ambassadors to Rome and thus gained an ally, and Demetrius was asked to desist from fighting the Jews. But the international policy of Judas displeased ‘the Pious,' who deserted him; and before the message of the senate could reach Demetrius, Judas had been defeated by the Syrian general Bacchides, at Elasa, and killed (1 Maccabees 3-9:22).]

The Temple was cleansed by Judas and his brothers after it had been dishonored for three years.

Jonathan, the Jewish commander and high priest, ruled over the Jewish people after Judas, for a period of 19 years; and in virtue he was not unlike his brother Maccabee. He was finally betrayed, together with his sons, by Trypho, taken prisoner, and slain. Simon (Symon), his brother, buried his body with lamentation.

Jonathan undertook the leadership of the revolt upon the death of Judas Maccabeus, only to suffer serious defeat east of the Jordan, where he had gone to avenge the killing of his brother John by the ‘sons of Jambri.' For a time it looked as if Syria would again establish its complete control over the country. The high priest Alcimus died, and Bacchides, believing the subjecting of Judea complete returned to Syria (160 BCE). The land, however, was not at peace, and in the interests of order, Bacchides gave Jonathan the right to maintain an armed force at Michmash. The fortunes of the Maccabaean house now rose steadily. As a sort of licensed revolutionist, Jonathan was sought as an ally by the two rivals, Alexander Balas and Demetrius I. He chose Alexander, and when the latter defeated Demetrius, Jonathan found himself a high priest, a prince of Syria, and a military and civil governor of Judea (150 BCE). But the steady advance of Judea was checked by the treacherous seizure of Jonathan by Trypho, the guardian and commanding general of the young Antiochus V, by whom he was executed in 142 (1 Maccabees 9:23).

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.

Aristarchus, a teacher of grammar, was famous in the time of the Maccabees.[Aristarchus of Samothrace, the celebrated grammarian and scholar, flourished in the middle of the second century BCE. He was educated in the school of Aristophanes of Byzantium, at Alexandria, where he himself founded a grammatical and critical school. His specialty was Homer, and he soon became the most influential of all scholars of Homeric poetry. He was also the librarian of the library of Alexandria, and seems to have succeeded his teacher Aristophanes of Byzantium in that role. At an advanced age he left Alexandria and went to Cyprus, where he is said to have died at the age of seventy-two of voluntary starvation, because he was suffering from incurable dropsy. He was, perhaps, the greatest textual critic of antiquity.]

Pacuvius (Bacubius)[There is no playwright known as Bacubius, which must be a corruption for Pacuvius (c. 220-230 BCE), a tragic poet who was born at Brundusium and was the nephew of Ennius. Cicero ranked him first among all Roman writers of tragedy.], from the town of Brundusium[Ennius (239-169 BCE) was Rome's greatest and most influential early poet and playwright.], a writer of tragedies, was a nephew of the poet Ennius by his sister. He was famous first at Rome, and then later as well when he returned to Tarentum (Tharentum). He died at the age of ninety.

Simon, third son of Mattathias, was the Jewish leader and high priest for almost 8 years. He was a spiritual and very wise. From his youth he was of very good conduct. He was at last shamefully killed by his son-in-law. This Simon and Jonathan, brothers of Judas, redeemed from the enemy the body of their brother after he was slain, and buried it at Modin. For Ptolemy had invited him to a banquet, and there murdered him with his two sons. The widow of Simon, with the other two, were put in prison, and with that event ends the first book of the Maccabees.[Simon, another son of Mattathias, succeeded Jonathan when the affairs of the State were in a critical position. He was a successful diplomatist and seldom compelled to resort to war. In 141 BCE he was elected high priest and military commander and civil governor of the Jews. The office of the high priest became hereditary in Simon's family. Like his brother, however, he met a violent death, being killed by his son-in-law at a banquet. (1 Maccabees 13-16:18).]


Ptolemy Euergetes, son of Philometor and brother of Cleopatra, was the seventh king of the Egyptians. He reigned 29 years. He was a very evil and cruel man; and through fear of him, his brother and Cleopatra his sister, by means of messengers, surrendered the kingdom to him. When he had acquired his kingdom without any struggle, he became excessively proud; and he murdered his brother's son in the hands of his mother, and strangled all his patrons. And just as his relatives had regarded him as a cruel and bloodthirsty individual, so he became the laughingstock and mockery of the Romans who came there; for (as Justinus writes) he had a deformed face, short body, and a fat belly, resembling an animal. This was accentuated by his manner of dress. He begot children by his sister and by the sister of his wife; and he also forced the daughter of his sister, and he dismembered her son, placed him in a trunk, and at the celebration of his birthday ordered it brought forth.[Ptolemy VII (Euergetes II) or Physcon, that is ‘Big Belly' reigned 146-117 BCE. In order to secure undisputed possession of the throne, he married his sister Cleopatra, the widow of his brother Philometor, and put to death his nephew Ptolemy, who had been proclaimed king under the surname of Eupator. A reign thus commenced in blood was continued in the same spirit. Many of the leading citizens of Alexandria who had taken part against him on the death of his brother were put to death, while the populace were given up to the cruelties of his mercenary troops, and the streets of the city were repeatedly deluged with blood. Thousands fled and the population of Alexandria was so reduced that the king invited foreigners to settle there. At the same time that he thus incurred the hatred of his subjects, he rendered himself an object of aversion by abandoning himself to the most degrading vices. He became bloated and deformed in person, and enormously corpulent, whence the Alexandrians gave him the nickname Physcon, by which he is more usually known. His union with Cleopatra was of short duration for he became enamored of his niece Cleopatra (the offspring of his wife by her former marriage with Philometor, and he did not hesitate to divorce her mother and receive her daughter in her stead as his wife and queen. By this he alienated still more the minds of his Greek subjects, and his vices and cruelties at length produced an insurrection at Alexandria. Thereupon he fled to Cyprus, and the Alexandrians declared his sister Cleopatra queen (130). Enraged at this, Ptolemy put to death Memphitis, his son by Cleopatra, and sent his head and hands to his unhappy mother. But Cleopatra having been shortly afterwards expelled from Alexandria, Ptolemy found himself unexpectedly reinstated on the throne (127). His sister Cleopatra fled to the court of her elder sister Cleopatra, the wife of Demetrius II, king of Syria, who espoused the cause of the fugitive. Ptolemy, in revenge, set up against him a pretender, Zabinas or Zebina, who assumed the title of Alexander II. But the usurper was so haughty toward Ptolemy that the latter suddenly changed his policy, became reconciled to his sister Cleopatra, whom he permitted to return to Egypt, and gave his daughter Tryphaena to Antiochus Grypus, the son of Demetrius. Ptolemy died after a reign of 29 years from the death of Philometor, his brother. Although stained with the most infamous vices, Ptolemy retained that love of letters hereditary in the whole race of Ptolemies. In his youth he had been a pupil of Aristarchus, and courted the society of learned men. He himself was the author of memoirs that extended to 24 books. He left two sons, Ptolemy, afterward known as Soter II, and Alexander, both of whom subsequently succeeded to the throne of Egypt; also three daughters, (1) Cleopatra, married to her brother Ptolemy Soter, (2) Tryphaena, wife of Antiochus Grypus, king of Syria, and (3) Selene, who was unmarried at the time of her father's death.]

Ptolemy Physcon (Phiston), or Soter, son of Euergetes, and eighth king of the Egyptians, reigned 17 years. At this time Antiochus Tyricenus, the son of Demetrius, and Antiochus Grypus (Griffi), the king's brother, were at war with one another; so for a time one reigned and then the other. During the course of such murderous dissensions over the kingdom of Syria this Ptolemy died, and he left his kingdom to his wife.[The chronicler seems to be confused in the matter of surnames, as the name Physcon was applied to Ptolemy VII (Euergetes II). The Ptolemy now under consideration is Ptolemy VIII (Soter II), also called Philometor, but commonly called Lathyrus (‘chickpea'), who reigned firstly from 117 to 107, and later from 89 to 81, a total of 17 years, which agrees with the duration of his reign, according to the chronicler. Although of age at his father's death in 117, he was obliged to reign jointly with his mother Cleopatra, who had been appointed by the will of her late husband to succeed him on the throne. She was desirous of associating with herself her younger son Ptolemy Alexander; but since Lathyrus was popular, she was obliged to give way, and send Alexander to Cyprus. After declaring Lathyrus king, she compelled him to repudiate his sister Cleopatra, of whose influence she was jealous, and to marry his younger sister Selene in her stead. After reigning ten years jointly with his mother, he was expelled by an insurrection of the people, whom she had incited against him (107). His brother Alexander now assumed sovereignty of Egypt, in conjunction with his mother, while Lathyrus was able to establish himself in the possession of Cyprus. He reigned therefore 18 years, while Cleopatra and Alexander reigned in Egypt. After the death of Cleopatra and the expulsion of Alexander in 89, Ptolemy Lathyrus was recalled to Alexandria and was established anew on the throne of Egypt, which he occupied from that point on without interruption until his death in 81. He left only one daughter, Bernice, called also Cleopatra, who succeeded him on the throne; also two sons, both named Ptolemy, who, though illegitimate, became in turn kings of Egypt and Cyprus.]

Ptolemy Alexander, ninth king of the Egyptians, reigned 10 years after the expulsion of his brother. He was the brother of the aforesaid Ptolemy Soter. After Cleopatra, the mother, and her eldest son had reigned together for seventeen years, she became dissatisfied with his licentiousness, aroused the people against him, and forced him into exile on the island of Cyprus. She then ordered Alexander, her youngest son, to reign with her in his stead. Afterwards Alexander murdered his mother, and was exiled by the people, and Ptolemy Soter was recalled to the throne. Therefore Alexander made the Roman people heir to the kingdom of Cyrene, left him by his father in his will.[Ptolemy IX (Alexander I) was the youngest son of Ptolemy VII, and reigned jointly with his mother from the expulsion of his brother Lathyrus, from 107-90 BCE. In this year he assassinated his mother; but he had not reigned alone a year, when a general sedition of the populace compelled him to quit Alexandria. He raised fresh troops but was defeated by the rebels. Whereupon Lathyrus was recalled to Egypt, as related in the previous note. In an attempt to make himself master of Cyprus, he was defeated and slain. He left a son, Alexander, who later ascended the throne of Egypt.]

Ptolemy Soter, who had been exiled by his mother, recovered his paternal kingdom in the year Alexander was slain by the Egyptians. He reigned 8 years. For when Alexander had killed his own mother, they banished him in revenge for his mother, as has already been written.[The last two sentences of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the .]

Hannibal, son of Hamilcar the Carthaginian general, was made commander of the Carthaginian army at the age of twenty-five. In knowledge, keenness and counsel in meeting dangers he excelled all the other generals. When he became commander he subdued the people of Spain in three years, and placed his brother Hasdrubal over them as governor, while he passed over the Pyrenees and came to the mountains that divide Italy from Gaul, over which no person except Hercules had ever passed. He opened the rocky passes by burning piles of wood and pouring vinegar on them so that a loaded elephant could pass through, where previously hardly a single person had been able to pass; in the same region many persons and elephants were lost in the snow. It is said that Hannibal led into Italy 80,000 foot soldiers, twenty thousand cavalry, and thirty-seven elephants. He proceeded into the plain of Tarentum, and after devastating the whole region lying beyond the mountains, he defeated the Romans in three engagements and conquered many cities. He did likewise in the region of Liguria. After that he marched over the Apennines, and in Etruria, where Florence now is, he was attacked by a disease of the eyes to such an extent that he lost his right eye. Later he slew C. Flaminius. The Romans then sent Fabius Maximus against Hannibal. He (Fabius) disposed of his forces in the mountain heights and concealed them in the forests; and thereby he deceived him and defeated him with the assistance of the Aretinians. And Hannibal ravaged all Italy and molested it for sixteen years. Afterwards he marched into Apulia and defeated the Romans at Cannae. In this battle so many thousands of Romans were slain that Hannibal sent to Carthage three pecks[Peck = Latin modius (a measure of dry goods equal to 2 gallons or 8.81 liters).] of golden rings that he stripped from the hands of the Roman warriors. And in this battle the Roman consuls were either taken prisoners or slain. And the Romans feared that after this victory Hannibal would soon come to Rome. But Hannibal was compelled to vacate Italy in order to protect his fatherland against Publius Scipio. When the Carthaginians made peace with the Romans, Hannibal was compelled to flee to Antiochus, the king, and still later to the king of Bithynia. There T. Quintus (T. Quintius Flaminius), the legate, followed him; but in order that he would not be captured by the Romans, Hannibal took poison which he carried with him in a ring according to lordly custom. And so by that manner of death he freed himself from the shackles of the Romans.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He died in the seventieth year of his life.[Hannibal (247- c. 183 BCE), son of Hamilcar Barca, was one of the most illustrious generals of antiquity. At the age of nine, his father took him with him into Spain, and it was there that Hamilcar made him swear eternal hostility to Rome. He received an early training in arms, and was present with his father in the battle in which the latter perished (229). Due to his courage and capacity for war, even as early as his eighteenth year, Hasdrubal (son-in-law and successor of Hamilcar) entrusted Hannibal with the chief command of most of the military enterprises planned by that general. On Hasdrubal's death, the soldiers unanimously proclaimed their youthful leader commander-in-chief, which the government of Carthage forthwith ratified. Hannibal was now in his twenty-sixth year. His first work was to firmly establish Carthaginian power in Spain. Then followed the arduous struggle called the Second Punic War. In the spring of 218 Hannibal quitted his winter quarters and commenced his march for Italy, crossing the Pyrenees and passing along the south coast of Gaul. He crossed the Rhone and soon commenced his passage across the Alps. His army suffered much at the hands of the Gaulish mountaineers, and from the natural difficulties of the road; for it was October, and snow had already commenced to fall in the high Alps. When at length he emerged from the valley of Aosta into the plains of Po, he had but 20,000 footmen and 6,000 horses left. His first encounter with the Romans, which took place near the Ticinus, resulted in the complete rout of the Roman army under Scipio. Likewise was the outcome of a second engagement, after which the Roman army took refuge within the walls of Placentia. Early in the following year Hannibal descended by the valley of the Macra into the marshes on the banks of the Arno. In struggling through these marshes great numbers of his horses and beasts of burden perished, and he himself lost the sight of one eye by a violent attack of ophthalmia. The consul Flaminius hastened to meet him, and a battle was fought in which the Roman army was destroyed and in which the consul himself perished. Hannibal took no less than 15,000 prisoners, and marched on through the Apennines into Ticenum and then into Apulia, where he spent the great part of the summer. When the Roman army, 90,000 strong, under the consuls L. Aemilius Paulus and C. Terentius Varro marched into Apulia, Hannibal gave them battle, again annihilating the Roman army. Between 40,000 and 50,000 men are said to have fallen in the field, among whom was Aemilius Paulus, both consuls of the preceding year, about 80 senators and a multitude of wealthy knights who composed the Roman cavalry. This victory was followed by the revolt from Rome of most of the nations in southern Italy. Hannibal established his winter quarters in Capua, which had espoused his side. But Rome was still unsubdued, and still provided with the means of maintaining a protracted contest. The Romans changed their tactics, and instead of opposing Hannibal with one great army in the field, they hemmed in his movements on all sides, keeping an army in every province in Italy to thwart the operations of his lieutenants, and to check the rising disposition to revolt. In 212 Hannibal took possession of Tarentum, but in the following year lost Capua, which was recovered by the Romans after a long siege. Hannibal was losing ground, and in 209 the Romans also recovered Tarentum. Hannibal's forces gradually became more and more weakened; and his only object now was to maintain his ground in the south until his brother Hasdrubal should appear in northern Italy, an event to which he looked forward with anxious expectation. In 207 Hasdrubal crossed the Alps and descended into Italy, but was defeated and slain on the Metaurus. This was decisive of the fate of the war in Italy. From this time Hannibal abandoned offensive operations, collecting his forces within the peninsula of Bruttium. In these fastnesses of wild and mountainous regions he maintained his ground for nearly four years. Toward the end of 203 he crossed over to Africa to oppose P. Scipio. In the following year (202), the decisive battle was fought near Zama, and Hannibal was completely defeated with great loss. By treaty in the following year Carthage was effectually humbled by Rome. But the enmity of Hannibal remained unabated. He introduced the most beneficial reforms at Carthage, and restored the ruined finances; but having provoked the enmity of a powerful party at Carthage, they denounced him to the Romans as urging on Antiochus III, king of Syria, to take up arms against Rome. Hannibal was obliged to flee from Carthage, and took refuge at the court of Antiochus, who was on the eve of War with Rome. On the defeat of Antiochus, Hannibal fled to the court of Prusias, king of Bithynia. Here for some years he found a secure asylum; but the Romans could not be at ease so long as he lived, and they sent T. Quintius Flaminius to demand his surrender. The Bithynian king was unable to resist, and perceiving that flight was impossible, Hannibal took poison to avoid falling into the hands of his enemies.]


Four hundred eighty years after the building of the city of Rome blood was seen to come from the earth, and milk from the sky in the form of rain. A serious pestilence lasting for two years occurred at Rome, according to the Sibylline books, in consequence of divine wrath. One does not ask how many died, but how many survived.

A giant colossus, an image of the sun, executed by Chares of Lindus (Clare Lydo), the sculptor, and erected on the island of Rhodes, fell down. It was (as Pliny states) a wondrous statue 70 cubits high, and resembled a tower. Among the Seven Wonders of the World it was said to be the greatest.[See Rhodes, Folio XXVI verso and lengthy note. ]

Straton (Strato) of Lampsacus, a natural philosopher, and son of Arcesilaus, was a very eloquent man. He diligently applied himself, above all others, in the natural science that we call physics; and therefore, from this same art, he was called a physicus. He was a tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus, who made him a gift of eighty talents. He wrote On the Kingdom, On Justice, and On the Gods.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] They say that he was so thin that he died without its being perceived.[Straton (c. 335-c. 269 BCE), son of Arcesilaus, of Lampsacus, was the tutor of Ptolemy Philadelphus. He succeeded Theophrastus as head of Aristotle's Lyceum in 288 BCE, and, after presiding over it for eighteen years, was succeeded by Lycon. He devoted himself especially to the study of natural science, for which reason he obtained the appellation Physicus. Cicero, while speaking highly of his talents, blames him for neglecting the most important part of philosophy, that which has regard to virtue and morals, and giving himself up to the investigation of nature. Straton appears to have held a pantheistic system, the specific character of which cannot be determined. He seems to have denied the existence of any god out of the material universe, and to have held that every particle of matter has a plastic and seminal power, but without sensation or intelligence; and that life, sensation, and intellect, are but forms, accidents, and affectations of matter. Some modern writers have regarded Straton as a forerunner of Spinoza, while others see in his system an anticipation of the hypothesis of monads.] At this time Stilpo (Silphon), the natural philosopher, lost all his possessions and fled naked. And he said, I carry all my possessions with me; for he carried them in his heart.

Stilpo (Silphon; c. 380-c. 300 BCE) was a Greek philosopher from Megara who lived. He was thus a contemporary of Theophrastus and Crates of Thebes (who follows him in the Chronicle). According to one account he engaged in dialectic encounters with Diodorus Cronus at the court of Ptolemy Soter; while according to another he did not comply with the invitation of the king to visit Alexandria. He acquired a great reputation; and so high was he held in esteem that Demetrius, the son of Antigonus, spared his house at the capture of Megara. He is said to have surpassed his contemporaries in inventive power and dialectic art, and to have inspired almost all Greece with a devotion to the Megarian philosophy. He seems to have made the idea of virtue his special consideration. He maintained that the wise man ought not only to overcome every evil, but not even to be affected by any.

His biography, unusually, is continued two paragraphs below in greater detail.

Crates, the Athenian academic natural philosopher, son of Antigenis, was a disciple of Polemon (Palemonus), and his successor in the school. They were so devoted to each other that they always attained to the same art and learning. After death they were placed in the same grave in recognition of their mutual devotion. And Antagorus praised them with this thought in verse: Stranger who passes by, relate that in this mound are buried Crates and Polemon, men celebrated for their kindred minds; out of their divine mouth sacred wisdom flowed, and the elegance of their life was joined to wisdom.

Crates of Athens, was a pupil of Polemo, and his successor in the chair of the Academy about 270 BCE. He was the teacher of Arcesilaus, Theodorus, and Bion Borsythenites.

The German edition of the Chronicle replaces the actual epigram of Antagoras with the following:

Antagorus placed an inscription on the grave, stating how they had lived together in unity of disposition, virtue and wisdom.

Panaetius (Panetius), the natural philosopher, was famous in the time of Scipio at Rome, and was his tutor. He was a philosopher of the Stoic school, and a man whom Cicero imitated in his book On Duties.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] The following thought is his: Those people who live their life in the midst of affairs, and who wish to be helpful to themselves and to others, and who wish to guard against unexpected, constant, and almost daily dangers, must have a mind that is always ready and alert.

Panaetius (c. 185-c.110 BCE), a native of Rhodes, and a celebrated Stoic philosopher, studied first at Pergamum under the grammarian Crates, and subsequently at Athens under the Stoic Diogenes of Babylon, and his disciple, Antipater of Tarsus. He afterward went to Rome where he became an intimate friend of Laelius and of Scipio Africanus the younger. In 144 he accompanied Scipio on the embassy which he undertook to the kings of Egypt and Asia in alliance with Rome. Panaetius succeeded Antipater as head of the Stoic school, and died at Athens sometime before the year 111. His principal work was his treatise on the theory of moral obligation, in three books, from which Cicero took the greater part of his De Officiis. Panaetius had softened down the harsh severity of the older stoics and, without giving up their fundamental definitions, had modified them so as to make them applicable to the conduct of life, and had clothed them in the garb of eloquence.

The citation is taken from Aulus Gellius' Noctes Atticae (‘Attic Nights') 13.28.1-4:

Legebatur Panaetii philosophi liber de officiis secundus ex tribus illis inclitis libris, quos M. Tullius magno cum studio maximoque opere aemulatus est. 2 Ibi scriptum est cum multa alia ad bonam frugem ducentia, tum vel maxime, quod esse haerereque in animo debet. 3 Id autem est ad hanc ferme sententiam: "Vita" inquit "hominum, qui aetatem in medio rerum agunt ac sibi suisque esse usui volunt, negotia periculaque ex inproviso adsidua et prope cotidiana fert. Ad ea cavenda atque declinanda perinde esse oportet animo prompto semper atque intento, ut sunt athletarum, qui pancratiastae vocantur. 4 Nam sicut illi ad certandum vocati proiectis alte brachiis consistunt caputque et os suum manibus oppositis quasi vallo praemuniunt membraque eorum omnia, priusquam pugna mota est, aut ad vitandos ictus cauta sunt aut ad faciendos parata: ita animus atque mens viri prudentis adversus vim et petulantias iniuriarum omni in loco atque in tempore prospiciens debet esse, erecta, ardua, saepta solide, expedita, numquam conivens, nusquam aciem suam flectens, consilia cogitationesque contra fortunae verbera contraque insidias iniquorum quasi brachia et manus protendens, ne qua in re adversa et repentina incursio inparatis inprotectisque nobis oboriatur."
1 The second book of the philosopher Panaetius' On Duties was being read to us, being one of those three celebrated books which Marcus Tullius emulated with great care and very great labour. 2 In it there was written, in addition to many other incentives to virtue, one especially which ought to be kept fixed in the mind. 3 And it is to this general purport: "The life of men," he says, "who pass their time in the midst of affairs, and who wish to be helpful to themselves and to others, is exposed to constant and almost daily troubles and sudden dangers. To guard against and avoid these one needs a mind that is always ready and alert, such as the athletes have who are called ‘pancratists.' 4 For just as they, when called to the contest, stand with their arms raised and stretched out, and protect their head and face by opposing their hands as a rampart; and as all their limbs, before the battle has begun, are ready to avoid or to deal blows—so the spirit and mind of the wise man, on the watch everywhere and at all times against violence and wanton injuries, ought to be alert, ready, strongly protected, prepared in time of trouble, never flagging in attention, never relaxing its watchfulness, opposing judgment and forethought like arms and hands to the strokes of fortune and the snares of the wicked, lest in any way a hostile and sudden onslaught be made upon us when we are unprepared and unprotected.

J. C. Rolfe, The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 1927; pp. 505, 507

Stilpo (Silphon), the Megarian philosopher, flourished at this time. They say that in his pursuits and wisdom he far excelled all others to such a degree, and that he lacked so little, that it was said that everything pleasing attached itself to that man when he crossed into Megara. Cicero says in his book On Fate that he was a sharp-witted man, and in his time extremely well liked. When his country was captured, he lost all his possessions and fled naked. When asked if he had lost everything he answered: I carry all my possessions with me. And these he said he carried in his heart, and not on his shoulders.

Posidonius (Possidonius), the stoic philosopher, a disciple of Panaetius (Panecius), was famous in the time of Scipio. He was, as Augustine says, a great astrologer.[Posidonius (c. 135-51 BCE) was a distinguished philosopher, and a native of Apamea, in Syria. He studied at Athens under Panaetius, after whose death Posidonius set out on his travels. He finally fixed his abode at Rhodes, where he became the president of the Stoic school. He also had a part in the political affairs of Rhodes and was sent as an ambassador to Rome in 86. Cicero, when he visited Rhodes, received instructions from Posidonius. Pompey also admired and visited him twice. In 51, he moved to Rome, and appears to have died soon after, at the age of 84. He was a man of extensive and varied acquirements in all departments of human knowledge. Cicero thought so highly of his powers that he requested him to write a history of his consulship. As a physical investigator he was greatly superior to the Stoics, generally attaching himself in this respect to Aristotle. His geographical and historical knowledge were very extensive. He cultivated astronomy with considerable diligence. He also constructed a planetary machine, or revolving sphere, to exhibit the daily motions of the sun, moon, and the planets. We have only fragments of his writings.]

Erasistratus, an Athenian physician, according to Eusebius, who flourished at this time. He was of the family of Aristotle, and an excellent physician. For curing Antiochus the king of a very serious disease, he was rewarded by Ptolemy, the same king's son, with one hundred talents. This is testified to by Pliny in the twenty-ninth book of his Natural History.[Erasistratus, a celebrated physician and anatomist, was born at Iulus in the island of Ceos. He was a pupil of Chrysippus of Cnidos, Metrodorus, and apparently Theophrastus. He flourished from about 300 to 260 BCE. He lived for some time at the court of Seleucus Nicator, king of Syria, where he acquired a great reputation by discovering that the illness of Antiochus, the king's eldest son, was owing to his love for his mother-in-law, the young and beautiful daughter of Demetrius Policertes, whom Seleucus had lately married. Erasistratus afterward lived at Alexandria, which was then coming forward as a celebrated medical school. He gave up practice in his old age that he might pursue his anatomical studies without interruption. He is aid to have dissected criminals alive. He had numerous pupils and followers and a medical school bearing his name continued to exist at Smyrna in Ionia about the beginning of the Christian era.]

Lycon (Licon) of Troas, a philosopher, was considered to be a famous man, eloquent and especially good at the bringing up and education of children. He said that with children, as with horses, the spurs must be applied to their indiscretions and love of praise. During his life he was a man of pure conduct and unbelievable cleanliness and of good appearance in the matter of dress. As he was a man of physical strength, he also exercised himself in ball play. He was head of the school 44 years. He finally died of podagra in the 74th year of his life.[Lycon of Troas (c. 299-c. 225 BCE), was a distinguished Peripatetic philosopher, and the disciple of Straton, whom he succeeded as head of the school in 272 BCE. He wrote several works, one on the boundaries of good and evil (known by its Latin title as ). Only fragments survive (helpfully collected together and translated in: Fortenbaugh, W., White, S., . Transaction Publishers. (2004). ] Timon Appolloniates, the philosopher, also flourished at this time. In his youth he immersed himself in many disgusting activities. Afterwards, having become a man (although poor), having repudiated his vices, he moved to Calchedon. There he taught the art of philosophy and rhetoric, and he exercised. He wrote, moreover, various poems, tragedies, comedies, and satires.

Timon (c. 320-c. 230 BC), the son of Timarchus of Phlius, a philosopher of the Sceptic sect, flourished in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus about 279 BCE and onwards. He first studied philosophy at Megara, under Stilpo, and then returned home and married. He died at the age of 90. He appears to have been endowed with a powerful and active mind and with that quick perception of the follies of men which betrays its possessor into a spirit of universal distrust, so as to make him a sceptic in philosophy and a satirist in everything. He wrote numerous works both in prose and poetry.

The last sentence of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.


While Lucius Caecilius Metellus and Gaius Furius Placidus were consuls, Metellus in Sicily defeated Hasdrubal, the general of the Africans, who came against him with 130 elephants and a large host. At Panormus he killed twenty thousand of the enemy and captured twenty-six elephants. And the rest, wandering among the Numidians, whom they were holding in reserve, he gathered together again and brought to Rome with great pomp.[Metellus (L. Caecilius) was consul in 251 BCE, and carried on the war in Sicily against the Carthaginians. In the following year he defeated Hasdrubal, the Carthaginian general. The elephants which he took in this battle were exhibited in his triumph at Rome. He was consul a second time in 249, and was elected pontifex maximus in 243, and held this dignity for 22 years. In 241 he rescued the Palladium when the temple of Vesta was on fire, but lost his sight in consequence. He was dictator in 224, for the purpose of holding the comitia. He died shortly before the commencement of the second Punic War. His colleague, C. Furius, is not mentioned in the text.]

While Manlius (Mallio) Torquatus and Gaius Atilius (Attilo) were consuls, the Sardinians were defeated and peace was made in all regions; and so the Romans were no longer at war—a condition which after the founding of Rome happened but once before, namely during the time Numa Pompilius reigned. And the gate of Janus was closed for one year.

For Numa Pompilius see Folio LVI verso. Janus and Jana were a pair of Latin divinities who were worshipped as the sun and the moon. The names Janus and Jana are only other forms of Dianus and Diana, which words contain the same root as ‘dies,' day. Janus was worshipped by both the Etruscans and Romans, and occupied an important place in the Roman religion. He presided over the beginning of everything, and was therefore always invoked first on every undertaking, even before Jupiter. He opened the year and the seasons, and thus the first month of the year was named after him. On earth he was the guardian deity of the gates, and that is the reason he is commonly represented with two heads, because every door opens two ways. At Rome, Numa is said to have dedicated to Janus the covered passage bearing his name, which was opened in times of war and closed in times of peace. This passage is commonly but erroneously called a temple. It stood close by the forum. It appears to have been left open in war, to symbolize that the god had gone out to help Rome's soldiers, and to have been shut in time of peace that the god, the safeguard of the city, might not escape. On New Year's Day, which was the principal festival of the god, people gave presents to each other—sweetmeats and copper coins, showing on one side the double-headed Janus, on the other a ship. The sacrifices offered to Janus consisted of cakes, barley, incense and wine.

T. Manlius Torquatus (T. Mallius) was consul in 235 BCE, when he conquered the Sardinians, and consul a second time in 224. He possessed the hereditary sternness and severity of his family; and we accordingly find him opposing in the senate the ransom of those Romans who had been taken prisoners at the fatal battle of Cannae. In 217 he was sent into Sardinia, where he carried on the war with success against the Carthaginians and the Sardinians. He was dictator in 210. C. Atilius was his colleague while the Punic Wars raged.

During the consulship of Aemilius (Emilio) a mighty host of Gauls marched over the Alps; but all Italy sided with the Romans, and of the enemy 40,000 were made prisoners and seven thousand were slain. And Aemilius was decreed a triumph. Although the Gauls were of ferocious spirit and their bodies of super-human size, and although their strength at the first onslaught was more than a man's, their strength later was less than a woman's. They had Alpine[The adjective ‘Alpine' probably here means little more than ‘huge.'] bodies, reared under a moisture-laden sky, and were like the snow; but as soon as they experience the heat of battle they sweat, as though the sun heated them and relieved them of their strength. After the lapse of several years the Gauls again fought in Italy; and the war ended during the consulships of M. Claudius Marcellus and Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio. Afterwards that same Marcellus, together with his colleague Cornelius, slew a great horde of Gauls, attacked Milan (Mediolanum), and carried off the spoils of war to Rome. Marcellus, after placing the spoils of the Gauls onto a post, carried it on his shoulders during the celebration of his triumph.

M. Claudius Marcellus was consul five times, and distinguished as the conqueror of Syracuse. In his first consulship in 222 BCE, Marcellus and his colleague conquered the Insubrians in Cisalpine Gaul, and took their capital Mediolanum (Milan). Marcellus distinguished himself by slaying in battle with his own hand Britomartus, or Viridomarus, the king of the enemy, whose spoils he afterward dedicated as spolia opima (literally ‘rich spoils' a technical phrase meaning ‘arms wrested by a general from a general') in the temple of Jupiter Feretrius. This was the third and last instance in Roman history in which such an offering was made. After an extended military career he and his colleague were defeated by Hannibal near Venusia, and Marcellus himself was slain in battle. Marcellus appears to have been a stern soldier, brave and daring to excess, but harsh, unyielding and cruel. Cn. Cornelius Scipio Calvus was his colleague.

This entire paragraph is taken largely from Eutropius' Breviarum Historiae Romanae (‘Abridgment of Roman History') 3.5-6.

In the same year the second Punic or African War was begun against the Romans by Hannibal (Annibalem), the general of the Carthaginians, son of Hamilcar (Amilcaris). And he, when only nine years of age, swore to his father upon the altar that as soon as he was able he would fight against the Romans.[See Hannibal, folio LXXXII recto, and note.]

In the five hundred and fortieth year from the founding of the city, Lucius Aemilius (Emilius) Paulus and Publius Terrentius Varro were sent against Hannibal, but both were defeated.[Terentius Varro was consul in 216 BCE with Lucius Aemilius Paulus. Varro is said to have been the son of a butcher, to have carried on this business himself in his early years, and to have risen to eminence by pleading the causes of the lower classes in opposition to the opinions of the aristocratic elite. Over the opposition of the aristocracy, he was raised to the consulship by the people, who thought that it only required a man of energy at the head of an overwhelming force to bring the war against Hannibal to a close. His colleague belonged to the aristocratic party. The two consuls were defeated by Hannibal at the memorable battle of Cannae. The battle was fought by Varro against the advice of Paulus, and the Roman army was all but annihilated. Paulus and almost all the officers perished. Varro was one of the few who escaped and reached Venusia in safety with about seventy horsemen. His conduct after the battle seems to have been deserving of high praise. He proceeded to Canusium, where the remnant of the Roman army had taken refuge, and there adopted every precaution that the situation required. His conduct was appreciated by the senate and the people, and his defeat was forgotten in the services which he had lately rendered. He continued to be employed in Italy for several years in important military commands until the close of the Punic War.]

At the conclusion of the Punic War the Macedonian War began against King Philip in the five hundred and fiftieth year from the founding of the city. T. Quintius Flamininus was sent against him. And he was successful; and peace was granted Philip on condition that he should not war against the Greek cities that the Romans had defended against him; that he release the prisoners and fugitives; that he should retain only fifty ships and give the remainder to the Romans; and in a course of years pay forty thousand measures of silver. And he was to give up his son Demetrius as a hostage.[As soon as the Romans had brought the second Punic War to and end, they again declared war against Philip (in 200 BCE). This war lasted three or four years and was brought to an end by the defeat of Philip by the consul Flamininus at the battle of Cynoscephalae in the autumn of 197. By the peace finally granted to Phillip (196), the king was compelled to abandon all his conquests, both in Europe and in Asia, surrender his whole fleet to the Romans, and limit his standing army to 5,000 men, besides paying a sum of 1,000 talents. The king here referred to is Philip V, who reigned 220-178.]


Alexander, a son of Antiochus Epiphanes and eleventh king of Syria and Asia, reigned 9 years. He was always merciful to the Jews. He made an alliance with Jonathan Maccabeus; and with his help slew Demetrius Soter, and reigned in his stead. He betrothed himself to Cleopatra, daughter of king Ptolemy; but Ptolemy took her and gave her as wife to Alexander Demetrius, son of Demetrius Soter. Finally Alexander fled to the king of the Arabs; but the latter feared Ptolemy, and therefore slew Alexander and sent his head to Ptolemy.[Alexander Balas was a youth of non-aristocratic birth who lived in Smyrna. He was put forward by the enemies of Demetrius I Soter as a supposed son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, king of Syria. In their struggle for the throne, the rivals sought the support of Jonathan Maccabeus, who elected to side with Alexander, and was appointed high priest by him (153 BCE). Jonathan defeated Apollonius, one of the generals of Demetrius, and received further honors (1 Maccabees 10). But Alexander Balas cared more for sensual pleasures than for kingly duties; his father-in-law Ptolemy turned against him, and Alexander, fleeing to Arabia, was assassinated there (1 Maccabees 11:17).]

This Demetrius reigned three years after Alexander. When his father's kingdom was recovered, the vices of youth led him into neglect and inattention. Finally he was taken prisoner at Hyrcania, and lived for nine years deprived of his kingdom. After that he was reinstated in his kingdom, and Philometor gave him as wife his daughter Cleopatra, who had been misled by Alexander.[Demetrius Nicator, son of Demetrius Soter, is probably here referred to. He reigned 146-142 BCE, and again 128-125 BCE. He had been sent to Cnidus by his father for safety, when Alexander Balas invaded Syria; and after the death of his father he continued in exile for several years. With the assistance of Ptolemy Philometer, he defeated Balas and recovered his kingdom; but having like his father rendered himself odious to his subjects by his vices and cruelties, he was driven out of Syria by Tryphon, who set up Antiochus, the infant son of Alexander Balas, as a pretender against him. Demetrius retired to Babylon, and from there marched against the Parthians, by whom he was defeated and taken prisoner in 138. He remained in captivity for ten years, but was kindly treated by the Parthian king Mithridates, who gave him his daughter Rhodogune in marriage. Meanwhile his brother Antiochus III Sidetes, having overthrown the usurper Tryphon, engaged in war with Parthia, in consequence of which Phraates, the successor of Mithridates, brought forth Demetrius, and sent him into Syria to operate a diversion against his brother. In the same year Antiochus fell in battle, and Demetrius again obtained possession of the Syrian throne (128). Having engaged in an expedition against Egypt, Ptolemy Physcon set up against him the pretender Alexander Zebrina, by whom he was defeated and compelled to fly. His wife, Cleopatra, who could not forgive him his marriage with Rhodogune, refused to afford him refuge at Ptolemais', and he fled to Tyre, where he was assassinated in 125.]

Antiochus Sidetes (Sedetes), while still a child, on the advice of Tryphon (Triphone) attempted to recover the kingdom; but he accomplished little, for he was at once slain by him when they fought with one another. For a while one reigned, and then the other.[Antiochus VII Sidetes (137-128 BCE), so called from Side in Pamphylia, where he was brought up, was the younger son of Demetrius Soter and succeeded Tryphon. He married Cleopatra, wife of his dear brother Demetrius Nicator, who was a prisoner with the Parthians. He carried on war against the Parthians, at first with success, but was afterwards defeated and slain in battle in 128.]

This John Hyrcanus (Hircanus), after the slaying of his father Simon (Symone) and his two sons, Judas and Mattathias by Ptolemy the general at a banquet, rightfully attained to the priesthood at Jericho. After having managed affairs very well for twenty-three years he died. He left behind Aristobulus, his first-born son, and Antigonus and two other small sons. But as none of them were as yet competent to rule over the people, he placed over his sons his wife, who was very smart. And she officiated for 26 years as a man worthy of the priesthood and vigorous in her governance. He sought and secured the right of friendship from the Romans. He suffered much opposition on the part of the Pharisees and Essenes, of whom he was finally relieved, and lived to a glorious old age.[John Hyrcanus I, prince and high priest of the Jews, was the son and successor of Simon Maccabaeus, the restorer of the independence of Judea. He succeeded to his father's power in 135 BCE. He was at first engaged in war with Antiochus VII Sidetes, who invaded Judea, and laid siege to Jerusalem. In 133 he concluded a peace with Antiochus, on the condition of paying an annual tribute. Owing to the civil wars in Syria between the several claimants to the throne, the power of Hyrcanus steadily increased; and at length he took Samaria, and razed it to the ground (109), notwithstanding the army which Antiochus IX Cyzicenus had sent to the assistance of the title of king, he may be regarded as the founder of the monarchy of Judea, which continued in his family till the accession of Herod.]

Aristobulus, son of John Hyrcanus, imprisoned his mother and his two younger brothers. And first he took over the crown of the kingdom. He reigned for one year only. He was a king and a priest, and at the suggestion of his wife he killed his brother. And when 475 years had passed since Zedekiah, the last king of Judea, when the kingdom of Judea was divided and brought to an end, he died of a very severe disease that expelled blood from his ruined inner organs.[Aristobulus I, eldest son of Joannes Hyrcanus, assumed the title of king of Judea on the death of his father. He put to death his brother Antigonus, in order to secure his power, but died in the following year.]

Tryphon (Triphon), after the treacherous imprisonment of Jonathan, began a war against his brother Simon; and he obtained from Simon one hundred talents of silver and the two sons of Jonathan as sureties. And he killed Jonathan and his two sons. Afterwards he also killed his lord Antiochus, a boy, and reigned in place of him.[Tryphon (Diodotus Tryphon) usurped the throne of Syria during the reign of Demetrius II Nicator. After the death of Alexander Balas in 146 BCE, Tryphon first set up Antiochus, the infant son of Balas, as a pretender against Demetrius; but in 142 he murdered Antiochus and reigned as king himself. He was defeated and put to death by Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, in 139, after a reign of three years.]

This Alexander, the brother of Aristobulus, received the priesthood and kingdom at the hands of the Jews, and he reigned 27 years. The surviving widow of Aristobulus, who had born him no child, released him and two brothers from prison, and placed him, he being the oldest, on the throne as king of Judea. He put to death his brother, the next born after him, and placed the kingdom beyond the reach of the third brother by compelling him to live with him. He was so cruel that in one year he put to death a thousand old people, and hung up in the lanes and streets eight hundred married men who criticized his evil conduct, together with their wives and children. He died of the four-day fever in the 27th year of his reign; and he left two sons, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus; but he appointed his wife Alexandra to rule, for she had the good will of the people since, when her husband was still alive, she had comforted them with kindness.

Upon the death of Aristobulus I, his widow Alexandra released her brother-in-law Alexander Jannaeus from prison and offered him her hand and the throne, both of which he accepted. In his long and checkered reign he not only put down the rebellion of his turbulent subjects, but conquered and Judaized the old Israelite territory across the Jordan, so that under him the little Jewish community spread, by conquest and forcible conversion, form the narrow limits of the ancient territory of Israel. During the whole reign of Alexander, the opposition of the Pharisess to the dynasty and its policies was exceedingly bitter. As his end approached. Alexander committed the government to Alexandra, advising her to make her peace with the Pharisees. This she did, and for the next ten years the affairs of the kingdom were more pacific. She made her son, John Hyrcanus II, high priest. Upon her death she left the civil authority to Aristobulus II, the younger of the two sons. Each brother desired the office of the other, and a civil war followed. Aristobulus defeated his older brother and also assumed the priesthood.

The name Maccabees is commonly given to the Jewish family (otherwise known as Hasmonaeans) who led the revolt against Syria and Antiochus IV, and furnished the dynasty of leaders and rulers in the State thus formed. The chronology follows:

John Hyrcanus I135-105
Aristobulus I105-104
Alexander Jannaeus104-79
John Hyrcanus II + Aristobulus II69-63

This Alexander (referring to a portrait in the lineage of Syrian kings, following the portrait of Tryphon), a son of Antiochus, reigned after Tryphon (Triphonem). He was slain by the general Diodotus (Dyodatus).

The Alexander referenced here seems to be either:

  1. Alexander I Balas, a Seleucid king who ruled from 152 to 145 BCE. However, he was not killed by Diodotus (in fact the opposite is true—Diodotus supported Alexander throughout his life), but by Nabataean Arabs. Nor did Alexander I Balas rule after Tryphon, but before him.


  1. Alexander II Zabinas (Zabinas is a derogative nickname meaning "the bought one" or "the purchased slave"), a Seleucid king who claimed to be an adoptive son of Antiochus VII, but in fact appears to have been the son of an Egyptian merchant. He was used by the Egyptian king Ptolemy VIII Tryphon as a means of getting to the legitimate Seleucid king Demetrius II, who supported his sister Cleopatra II against him in the complicated dynastic feuds of the latter Hellenistic dynasties. Zabinas managed to defeat Demetrius II and thereafter ruled parts of Syria (128-123 BCE), but soon ran out of Egyptian support and was in his turn defeated by Demetrius' son Antiochus VIII Grypus. As a last resort, Zabinas plundered the temples of the Seleucid capital Antioch. He is said to have joked about melting down a statuette of the goddess of victory Nike (‘Victory') which was held in the hand of a Zeus statue, saying "Zeus has given me Victory." Enraged by his impiety the citizens of Antioch drove Zabinas out of their city. He was then captured by robbers who gave him to Antiochus. Shortly thereafter he was put to death.

The problem with this one-sentence paragraph is with the identity of Tryphon, who could be either the Egyptian king Ptolemy VIII Tryphon (but why mention Ptolemaic kings in a king list devoted to Seleucids?) or the Seleucid general and later king Diodotus Tryphon, the Seleucid king described two paragraphs earlier in the Chronicle, who did not put to death any Seleucid king named Alexander. The entire paragraph, however, may be translated "This Alexander, the son of Antiochus, reigned after Tryphon, whom the general Diodotus killed." This, of course, still doesn't solve anything, since Diodotus did not kill Tryphon (most likely the general Diodotus himself was Tryphon!).


Mantua is a celebrated city in the Gaul of the Cenomani, and (as some say) it was named after Manta, the daughter of Teiresias (Thiresie) the prophet, and was built after the destruction of Thebes by Alexander at that time. There are some who say that Teiresias lived in the time of Theseus, and became his servant. After the death of her father in Italy she came with many people, and with the help of the Greeks she built this city of Mantua. As Ocnus (Oenus) was born to Tiberinus, the Tuscan (Etruscan) king, in the meantime, and the Tuscans and Venetians gathered together in this same city, Ocnus surrounded the city with a wall, changed its form, and named the city Mantua after his mother, and so it is called in the 10th book of Virgil's Aeneid. Yet it is known that this very ancient city was built by the Etruscans, and it was, T. Livy the Paduan relates, one of the twelve colonies sent beyond the Apennines by that people. The famous poet Virgil, a citizen of that town, has made it especially well known to the world. And he told more fully his city's origin: Mantua, wealthy city; but no single race do all its citizens share. This (city) lies by the mountains that separate Gaul and Germany from Italy, and not far from Lake Benacus (Lake Guardia) out of which the Mincius flows to Mantua, and there itself became a sea. It runs about the city and at a short distance flows into the river Padus (Po). In earlier times Mantua suffered the greatest disasters besides those which are very well known in the Vergilian verse: Mantua, alas, too close to wretched Cremona! It was ravaged and plundered by Attila the Hun, by the Goths, the Lombards and the Bavarian kings at various times, and its walls breached and the city left unprotected. And for the rest the Hungarians (Ungari) raised the city to the ground. For this reason also the place where they were then, in memory of the deed, now is called Hungary (Ungaria). Mathilda, the noble countess, at one time possessed the city and wonderfully enlarged it. Pope Nicolas II held a council there. Many rulers possessed this city after Mathilda. There also once upon a time ruled the highly renowned houses of Rippa and Passerini. Finally, after various difficulties, the house of Gonzaga, having driven out the Passerini, possessed the city with great honor, and have had it up to this time. Through the industry and care of this house, and those who ruled there before it, the city was beautified by the erection of many bridges over the waters, and with tall churches, royal palaces and beautifully adorned private residences. And to this day Mantua is a large city, possessed of rich estates, productive of the necessities of life, and mightily esteemed. In the time of Charles the Great (Karoli Magni) there appeared at Mantua the miraculous blood of Christ, which Pope Leo II went there to see, and from there he journeyed to the same Charles in Germany. Charles the Bald, son of Charles the Great, died at Mantua from poison given him by a Hebrew physician, who was bribed. There also rests Anselm (Anshelmus) the Lucensian bishop, a holy man, well informed in folkways; also the blessed John the Good was for a time a citizen there and performed miracles. Albertinus, who wrote a book on the holy body of Christ, was a native of this city; also Matthew, a very famous physician, who wrote an extraordinary book on medicine for the king of Sicily.

Mantua, the Italian Mantova, is a fortified city of Lombardy, in Italy, twenty-five miles southwest of Verona. It is 88 feet above the level of the Adriatic on the almost insular site among swampy lagoons of the Mincio (formerly Mincius). Anciently Mantua was a town in Gallia Transpandana, and not a place of great importance. The account of its origin and the derivation of its name, as given in the Chronicle, are somewhat vague and confusing. In fact, the name may derive from the Etruscan god Manto, a god of the underworld.

Mantua owes some of its renown to the fact that Virgil (cf. especially Aeneid 10.201-3), who was born at the neighboring village of Andes, regarded Mantua as his birthplace.

Manto, whom the chronicler calls Manta, and describes as the daughter of "Teiresias the prophet," was according to tradition a daughter of Teiresias, a Theban soothsayer, the most renowned of antiquity; for in the mythical history of Greece there is scarcely any event, due to his long life, with which he is not connected in some way. During the war of the Epigoni, Teiresias fled with the Thebans; but according to others, he was carried to Delphi as a captive. It is also stated that on his flight he drank from the well of Tilphossa and died. His daughter Manto was sent by the victorious Argives to Delphi, as a present to Apollo. Manto herself was a renowned prophetess, first of the Ismenian Apollo at Thebes, where monuments of her existed, and subsequently of the Delphian and Clarian Apollo. Being a prophetess of Apollo, she is also called Daphne, that is, the laurel virgin.

Ocnus, to whom Virgil refers, was the son of Tiberinus (or Tiberis) and Manto, and is the reputed founder of the town of Mantua, which he named after his mother. William Smith, in his biographical dictionary, speaks of two other women of the same name—one the daughter of the soothsayer Polyeidus, and the other a daughter of Heracles, "the personage from whom the town of Mantua received its name."

Mantua was not a place of importance until the Middle Ages. In the conflicts of the Hohenstaufen period the town embraced the cause of the Guelphs. In 1328 the citizens elected Luigi, Lord of Gonzaga, as ‘Capitano del Popolo,' and to his dynasty the town owed its prosperity. The Gonzagas fought successfully against Milan and Venice, and extended their territory, while they were liberal patrons of art and science. In 1627, when Charles de Nevers, a member of a French collateral line, ascended the throne, the Mantuan war of succession broke out, the Emperor Ferdinand III declared the fief forfeited. In 1630 Mantua was stormed and sacked by the Austrians. Though later compelled to surrender the rest of Lombardy to the French, the Austrians retained Mantua. In 1866 they were obliged to ceded it to Italy.

Much of this passage on Mantua is taken from Biondo Flavio's Italia Illustrata (‘Italy Illuminated') 360H-361B. Flavio's text, a breakthrough work in historical topography, was completed in 1453.


Naevius (Nevius), the comic poet, in the second year of the reign of Ptolemy, called Epiphanes, died at Utica (as Eusebius writes). He was expelled from Rome by a faction of nobles, particularly Metellus. He ranked third among the poets whose poems dealt with certain plebeian persons in a sweet and lovely way, as Vulcatius in his book On Poets states. Of renown in this class of poetry, Caecilius (Cecilius) was the first, Plautus as second easily surpasses the rest, Naevius third, Licinius fourth, Atilius fifth, Terence (Terencius) sixth, Turpilius seventh, Trabea eighth, Luscius (Lucrecius) ninth, and Ennius (Aennius) tenth.

Naevius, (Cn.) was an ancient Roman poet, of whose life few particulars have been recorded. He was probably a native of Campania, and was born somewhere between 274 and 264 BCE. He appears to have come to Rome early, and he produced his first play in 235. He was attached to the plebeian party; and, with the license of the old Attic comedy, he made the stage a vehicle for his attacks upon the aristocracy. He attacked Scipio and Metelli; but he was indicted by Q. Metellus and thrown into prison. While in prison he composed two plays, Hariolus and Leon, in which he recanted his previous imputations, and thereby obtained his release through the tribunes of the people. His repentance, however, did not last long, and he was soon compelled to expiate a new offense by exile. He retired to Utica; and it was here, probably, that he wrote his poem on the first Punic war; and here it is certain that he died, either in 204 or 202. He was both an epic and a dramatic poet. Of his epic poem on the first Punic war a few fragments remain. It was written in the old Saturnian metre; for Ennius, who introduced the hexameter among the Romans, was not brought to Rome till after the banishment of Naevius. The poem appears to have opened with Aeneas's flight from Troy, his visit to Carthage and amour with Dido, together with other legends connected with the early history of both Carthage and of Rome. It was extensively copied by Ennius and Virgil. Virgil took many passages from it, particularly the description of the storm in the first Aeneid, the speech with which Aeneas consuls his companions, and the address of Venus to Jupiter. He wrote both tragedies and comedies, most of which were taken from the Greek. Even in the Augustan age, Naevius was still a favorite with the admirers of the genuine old school of Roman poetry. Aulus Gellius, a Latin grammarian, has preserved some lines of Vulcatius Sedigitus, in which the Roman writers of comedy are arranged in order of merit—Caecilius, Plautus, Naevius, Licinius, Atilius, Terence, Turpilius, Trabea, Luscius, and lastly, added, causa antiquitatis, Ennius (except that the chronicler—or typesetter—forgot to include the word causa in the last phrase dealing with Ennius). This is the same group of ten that the chronicler follows in his text on Naevius.
In fact, he follows it almost literally, as the text from Gellius's Noctae Atticae (‘Attic Nights') 15.24 which follows makes clear:

Sedigitus in libro, quem scripsit de poetis, quid de his sentiat, qui comoeodias fecerunt, et quem praestare ex omnibus ceteris putet ac deinceps, quo quemque in loco et honore ponat, his versibus suis demonstrat:

multos incertos certare hanc rem vidimus,
palmam poetae comico cui deferant.
eum meo iudicio errorem dissolvam tibi,
ut, contra si quis sentiat, nihil sentiat.
Caecilio palmam Statio do comico.
Plautus secundus facile exsuperat ceteros.
dein Naevius, qui fervet, pretio in tertiost.
si erit, quod quarto detur, dabitur Licinio.
post insequi Licinium facio Atilium.
in sexto consequetur hos Terentius,
Turpilius septimum, Trabea octavum optinet,
nono loco esse facile facio Luscium.
decimum addo causa antiquitatis Ennium.

Sedigitus, in the book which he wrote On Poets, shows in the following verses of his what he thought of those who wrote comedies, which one he thinks surpasses all the rest, and then what rank and honour he gives to each of them:

This question many doubtfully dispute,
Which comic poet they'd award the palm.
This doubt my judgment shall for you resolve;
If any differ from me, senseless he.
First place I give Caecilius Statius.
Plautus holds second rank without a peer;
Then Naevius third, for passion and for fire.
If fourth there be, be he Licinius
I place Atilius next, after Licinius.
These let Terentius follow, sixth in rank.
Turpilius seventh, Trabea eighth place holds.
Ninth palm I gladly give to Luscius,
To Ennius tenth, as bard of long ago.

(J. C. Rolfe, The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, Vol. III; Loeb Classical Library, 1928; pp. 113, 115)

Plautus, the comic poet, was a father of the Latin tongue; and (as the same Eusebius writes) was from the Umbrian city of Arpina, others say Sarsina, and died at Rome. From his speech (as Varro said in the aphorism of Aelus Stilo [Epistolonis][The word epistolonis is meaningless. The chronicler means Aelus Stilo (see next note), whose name in the genitive case would be Aeli Stilonis.]), the Muses would have spoken, if they had wished to speak in Latin.[This citation (modified by the chronicler) of Varro (who is himself quoting Aelus Stilo) is found in Quintilian's 10.1.99 (Licet Varro Musas, Aeli Stilonis sententia, Plautino dicat sermone locuturas fuisse si Latine loqui vellent).] He flourished in the theater in the fifteenth year after the beginning of the second Punic War; and although he translated into Latin stories taken from many Greek comic writers, yet in a statement of Horace (Oracii), Plautus is said to hasten to the model of the Sicilian Epicharmus.[Horace, 2.1.58 (Plautus ad exemplar Siculi properare Epicharmi). Epicharmus (c. 540-c. 450 BCE) was a Greek playwright and philosopher. His comedies, which now exist only in very small fragments, are perhaps the earliest ever composed.] This one, as Varro and many others have handed down to memory, when he had lost all the he had earned in jobs connected with the stage in business ventures, he came back to Rome a poor man. And to earn a livelihood had hired himself out to a baker, to turn a mill, of the kind that is called a "push-mill." And there, whenever he was free from his work, he occupied himself with writing fables for sale. He died around the 145th Olympiad. And he ordered that upon his grave there should be written an inscription, as Varro says in his On Poets: Since Plautus was taken by death comedy mourns, the stage is deserted; then laughter, mockery, and play, and countless rhythmns all simultaneously at the same time[The verse is typically Plautine in its use of wordplay and repetition, but the citation in the ‘one-ups' Plautus with its inclusion of an extra simul in the last verse.] weep together.

Plautus is the most celebrated comic poet of Rome. He was a native of Sarsina, a small village in Umbria. The date of his birth is placed at about 254 BCE. Probably all that we know of him is more fiction that fact. That said, tradition relates that he probably came to Rome at an early age, since he displayed such perfect knowledge of the Latin language, and an acquaintance with Greek literature, which he could hardly have acquired in a provincial town. When he arrived at Rome he was in needy circumstances and was first employed in the service of the actors. With the money he had saved in this inferior station he left Rome and set up in business; but his speculations failed. He returned to Rome and entered the service of a baker, who employed him in turning a hand mill. While in this occupation he wrote three plays, the sale of which to the managers of the public games enabled him to quit his day job and begin his literary career. He was then probably 30 years of age, and he commenced writing comedies a few years before the outbreak of the second Punic War. He continued his literary occupation for about 40 years, and died in 184, at the age of 70. During the long period that he had possession of the stage, he was always a great favorite of the people, and he expressed a bold consciousness of his own powers in the epitaph (in dactylic hexameters) which Varro in the first book of his On Poets (cited in Gellius, Noctes Atticae 1.21.3) says he wrote for his tomb (and, with the exception of a few misspellings and the inclusion of an additional word—a second simul in the third verse—Schedel cites this very epigram as the wonderfully apt conclusion to his paragraph on Plautus):

Plautus wrote many comedies, and in the last century of the Republic 130 plays bore his name. Most of these were not, however, considered genuine by the Roman critics. Several works were written upon the subject, and of these the most celebrated was a treatise by Varro, who limited the undoubted comedies of Plautus to 21. At present we possess only 20 comedies of Plautus. His comedies enjoyed popularity among the Romans, and continued to be presented down to the time of Diocletian. Though he founded his plays on Greek models, characters in them act, speak, and joke like Romans, and the Greek core of his plays is often buried so deeply under his wild imagination as to be all but invisible.

Ennius, a comic poet, was born at Tarentum, and was called Quintus Ennius; and (as Eusebius states) he flourished at this time. He was brought to Rome by Cato the quaestor.[Quaestors were originally appointed by the consuls to investigate criminal acts and determine if the consul needed to take public action. Quaestors eventually took on additional responsibilities, such as supervising the treasury (what they are best known for). Like consuls, praetors, and prefects they were of the magistrate class (i.e., high-level government administrators). Quaestors were the lowest level of this class and, though initially were appointed by the consuls, were later elected by the people.] He lived on the Aventine hill content with a lifestyle of little expense and with the services of a single maidservant. He was always persuading (people) that souls are immortal; and, therefore, at the end of his life he said, O citizens, look upon the image of old Ennius, who depicted the greatest deeds of your fathers. Let no one honor me with tears or make lamentation at my funeral. Why? I fly alive on the tongues of men. This same poet in praising modesty said that it is the beginning of vice when one goes naked amongst one's fellow citizens. This one, when he had written the best and most elegant comedies, died when he was older than seventy of a disease of the limbs in the 153rd Olympiad, and he was buried in the grave of Scipio on the Appian Way.[Ennius, the Roman poet, was born at Rudiae, in Calabria, c. 239 BCE. He was a Greek by birth, but a subject of Rome, and served in the Roman army. In 204 Cato, who was then quaestor, found Ennius in Sardinia, and brought him to Rome. When far advanced in life he obtained the rights of a Roman citizen. He dwelt in a humble house on the Aventine, and maintained himself by acting as a preceptor to the youths of the Roman nobles. He lived on terms of closest intimacy with Scipio Africanus. He died in 169 at the age of 80, and was buried in the sepulcher of the Scipios. Ennius was regarded by the Romans as the father of their poetry. Only a few, very interesting fragments of his works remain. Although he wrote in several genres (including comedy), his greatest work was the , an epic poem in fifteen books (later expanded to eighteen), covering Roman history from the fall of Troy in 1184 BCE down to the censorship of Cato the Elder in 184 BCE. It was the first Latin poem to employ the dactylic hexameter metre used in Greek epic and didactic instead of native Italic metres (such as Saturnian verse). It quickly became a standard text for Roman schoolchildren, only supplanted by Virgil's one and a half centuries later. About 600 lines survive.]

Scipio Africanus, son of the other Scipio, was the most distinguished of all the Romans. At the age of 24 years, after two Scipios had been slain by Hasdrubal, the senate of Rome sent him to Spain. He was a student of Panaetius. He excelled all others in courage. When he learned that through fear of Hannibal the Roman senate was about to give up Italy, he turned the tide by drawing his sword, and saying that he alone wished to be the protector of his fatherland. He had flowing hair and was of manly disposition and bearing. As Eutropius states, he took seventy cities in Spain; and as he well managed this affair, he was elected consul against the Carthaginians. He proceeded to that place and subjugated the ruler of the Africans, together with Syphax (Stiphace), the king of Numidia. Not long afterwards he engaged Hannibal and defeated his forces, so that 20,000 were slain on Hannibal's side, and as many were taken prisoner in a single day; and Hannibal escaped with but a few of his men. With peace having been secured on land and sea, he proceeded to Sicily. Finally he arrived at Rome, entering in a very glorious triumph. He earned the right to be called Africanus. And thus ended the second Punic War which had endured for 18 years. He spoke against Cato because he did not wish that Carthage, a rival to Roman rule, be destroyed, lest the Romans should act decadently. His aphorisms were very famous. For he used to say that he was never less idle than when he was idle, and never more alone than when he was alone. And although a great father to his country, he was accused by those who envied him, was driven from his ungrateful fatherland, living in exile in the country in Liturnum. He died of an illness at the 52nd year of his life.

Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major, born in 234 BCE, was one of Rome's greatest men, and at an early age he acquired the confidence and admiration of his countrymen. He never engaged in any public or private business without first going to the Capitol to commune with the gods. At the battle of the Ticinus (218) he saved the life of his father; fought at Cannae (216) and was one of the few Roman officers who survived that fatal day.

In 210, after the death of his father and uncle in Spain, the Romans decided to increase their army there, and to place it under the command of a proconsul. Scipio, then barely 24, offered himself as a candidate and was chosen to take the command. His success in Spain was striking and rapid. Upon returning to Rome in 206, he was elected consul for the following year. He desired to cross to Africa and end the contest at the gates of Carthage, but was opposed by the oldest members of the senate. All he was able to obtain was the province of Sicily, with permission to cross to Africa. The senate having failed to vote him an army, he enlisted volunteers, invaded Africa, and defeated the Carthaginians and their ally Syphax with great slaughter. The long struggle was finally ended when on October 19, 202, near the city of Zama, Scipio gained a decisive and brilliant victory over Hannibal. He returned to Rome in triumph, was received with universal enthusiasm, and surnamed Africanus.

In 190 Africanus served as legate under his brother Incius in the war against Antiochus the Great. Shortly after his return he and his brother were accused of having received bribes to let that monarch off too leniently, and of having appropriated part of the money paid by Antiochus to the Roman state. L. Scipio accordingly prepared his accounts, but as he was in the act of delivering them up, the proud conqueror of Hannibal indignantly snatched them out of his hands, and tore them to bits before the senate. This produced an unfavorable impression, and when his brother was brought to trial in the same year, he was declared guilty and imprisoned until he should pay a heavy fine.

The contest would probably have been attended with fatal results had not Tiberius Gracchus, father of the celebrated tribune, and then tribune himself, had not prudence to release Lucius from the sentence. But the successful issue of the prosecution emboldened his enemies to bring Africanus himself to trial before the people. When the trial came on Africanus proudly reminded the people that this was the anniversary of Zama, and called upon them to follow him to the Capitol, in order there to return thanks to the immortal gods and to pray that they would grant the Roman state other citizens like himself. Crowds followed him, and having thus set all the laws at defiance, Scipio immediately left Rome and retired to his country estate at Liternum. He never returned, but passed his remaining days in the cultivation of his estate.


It is established that Philo, a Jew born of the priestly class and educated at Alexandria, flourished at this time. He translated the Book of Wisdom into the Greek tongue (in which he was highly learned) in an artistic manner; and this same book he called the Book of Wisdom, for in it, in particular, he mentioned the praise of our Lord Jesus Christ; also because wisdom is praised in it in many ways. He wrote many things, as Saint Jerome makes mention in his book On Illustrious Men.[Philo Judaeus, the Jew, was born at Alexandria, and was descended form a priestly family of distinction. He had already reached an advanced age when he went to Rome (40 CE) on an embassy to the emperor Caligula, in order to procure the revocation of a decree that exacted from the Jews divine homage to the statue of the emperor. We have no other particulars of the life of Philo worthy of record. His most important works treat of the Books of Moses, and are generally cited under different titles. His great object was to reconcile the Sacred Scriptures with the doctrines of Greek philosophy, and to point out the conformity between the two. He maintained that the fundamental truths of Greek philosophy were derived from the Mosaic revelations; and to make the latter agree more perfectly with the former, he had recourse to an allegorical interpretation of the books of Moses. He may therefore be regarded as a sort of precursor of the Neo-Platonism.]

Cato (Cathon), the Stoic philosopher, was born in Egypt, and was for some time a student of Panaetius (Panecii). He left many writings, the majority of which are considered excellent. From these the following small number of well-known ones has been excerpted: When you stop hoping you will cease to fear. When you ask what advantages I have secured for myself, I answer, I have begun to be a friend to myself. If you wish to be loved, love. Once upon a time, when he was asked whether a servant might do his lord a favor, he answered, There are various kinds of favors, various duties and various services; What a stranger does, he said, is a favor, but he is a stranger who does not criticize. But duty belongs to a son, a wife, and other persons whom compulsion sets in motion and orders to endure the task. But service is for the servant, whose own condition has placed him in that position, and he should not find fault with what his master does.[Cato Dionysius, probably the man here referred to, was the author of a work consisting of a series of sententious moral precepts. Nothing is known of the author nor of the time when he lived, but many writers place him under the Antonines.]

Cato (Catho), the first Roman philosopher and jurist, was at first a quaestor, and then was twice consul. And he distinguished himself among the Romans in the Greek and Latin languages. He first served in the military with Q. Fabius Maximus. Later, in the fifth year he went to Tarentum, and there, finding the poet Ennius, he brought him back with him to Rome. Afterwards he journeyed to Africa with that excellent man Scipio, and greatly helped the Roman cause. Then, from the office of aedile, he was made censor. And afterwards as praetor he acted best in everything. Even though he was twice consul, and after his consulship which he vigorously carried out in Spain, he was elected military tribune. Finally, late in his life at an advanced age, after he had learned Latin, he also decided to learn Greek. In consequence he became sufficiently learned that he treated of historical and military matters. And as he had obtained for himself certain glory on account of his clemency, he so conducted himself that the Romans regarded him as the best informed man in civil law; and he rose above all his father's contemporaries, in and out of the senate, in courage and in trustworthiness. He was called the Censor (Censorinus) because the office of censor had been especially intrusted to him. His marks of distinction were also the majesty of the senate and the continuation of his family, out of which indeed was born the greatest glory of the Romans, his descendant Cato, who afterwards made that most sacred name, Cato, immortal.[Cato, frequently surnamed Censorius or Censor, also Cato Major (to distinguish him from his great-grandson Cato Uticensis), was born at Tusculum in 234 BCE, and was brought up on his father's farm, situated in the Sabine territory. In 217 he served his first campaign at the age of 17, and during the remaining years of the second Punic War, he greatly distinguished himself by his courage and military abilities. In the intervals of war he returned to his Sabine farm, which he had inherited from his father, and there led the same simple and frugal life which characterized him to his last days. He went to Rome and became a candidate for office. He obtained the quaestorship in 204, and served under the proconsul Scipio Africanus in Sicily and Africa. But the habits and views of life of these two men were very different, and on his return to Rome he denounced the luxury and extravagance of his commander. On his voyage home he is said to have touched at Sardinia, and to have brought the poet Ennius from the island to Italy. He established a reputation for strict morality and virtue. In 195 he was consul with his old friend and patron L. Valerius Flaccus. He carried on war in Spain with greatest success, and on his return to Rome received the honor of a triumph in 194. In 191 he served in the campaign against Antiochus in Greece, and the decisive victory of Thermopolae was mainly due to him. But here his military career ended, and now he took an active part in civil affairs. He obtained the condemnation of L. Scipio, the conqueror of Antiochus, and compelled his brother P. Scipio to quit Rome in order to avoid the same fate. In 184 he was elected censor. His censorship was a great epoch in his life, but all his efforts to stem the luxury of the times proved unavailing. In his old age he applied himself to the study of Greek literature. He retained his physical and mental vigor in his old age. He died in 149 at the age of 85. His most important work entitled , has come down to us in fragments. It contains the history of the Roman kings, and treats of the origin of Italian towns.]

Scipio, grandson of Scipio the Great, was celebrated among the Romans for every virtue; and out of the regular order he was made a consul and given Africa. He proceeded against Carthage, and after storming it for six days and nights, he forced the Carthaginians to capitulate; and those who survived offered to submit. After that he first assembled the women, and later on the men. For (as Livy writes), he took as prisoners 25,000 women and 30,000 men. But Hasdrubal, their ruler, voluntarily fled, while his wife, with feminine madness, threw herself and her children into the flames. The city itself burned for sixteen successive days, so that even the victors looked on with compassion. This Scipio by reason of his very strong courage earned the illustrious surname of his ancestor, and was called Africanus the Younger.[P. Cornelius Aemilianus Africanus Minor was the younger son of L. Aemilius Paulus, the conqueror of Macedonia, and was adopted by P. Scipio, son of the conqueror of Hannibal. He was born about 185. On the outbreak of the third Punic War, he accompanied the Roman army to Africa, as a military tribune, and showed great personal bravery and military skill. The senate assigned Africa to him as his province, to which he immediately sailed. He prosecuted the siege of Carthage with the utmost vigor. The Carthaginians defended themselves with the courage of despair, but, by the spring of 146, the Romans forced their way into the city. The inhabitants fought from street to street, and from house to house, and the work of destruction and butchery went on for days. The fate of the once magnificent city moved Scipio to tears. After reducing Africa to a province, he returned to Rome in the same year, and celebrated a great triumph. The surname of Africanus, which he had inherited by adoption form the conqueror of Hannibal, had now been acquired by him by his own exploits.]

Publius Terentius (Terence), an African born in Carthage, was a comic poet who, as some say, was taken as a slave from Africa by the aforesaid Scipio the Younger. Because of his great intelligence and his distinguished appearance, he was given his freedom. Some write that Terentius served Lucanus, the senator, at Rome, by whom, on account of his innate talent and beauty, he was not only liberally educated, but also in time manumitted. This Terentius lived in the service of many noble persons, particularly Scipio Africanus and Laelius. He wrote six comedies with studious elegance in which he observed the character of many people attempting to avoid troubles. Concerning his death Volcatius hands down the following story: After the African had written six comedies for the people, he then made a journey to Asia. As soon as he boarded his ship, he was never seen again. Others pass down the tradition that he died in Arcadia, in the town of Stymphalus in the Gulf of Leucadia during the consulships of Gn. Cor. Dolobella and Marcus Fulvius Nobilior. He was said to have been of medium stature, lean of body, and of dusky complexion. He left behind a daughter who married a Roman knight. Afranius preferred him to all comic playwrights. The following epitaph was inscribed on his tomb: Born in the lofty towers of high Carthage, I was a prize of war to Roman generals. I described the character of people, both of youths and of old men, and how slaves deceive their masters. What the courtesan and the greedy pimp devise with their tricks, these things, whenever someone reads them, thus I think he will be safe.

P. Terentius Afer, usually called Terence, the celebrated comic poet, was born at Carthage in 195 BCE. By birth or purchase he became the slave of P. Terentius Lucanus, a Roman senator. His handsome person and promising talents recommended Terence to his master, who afforded him the best education of the age, and finally manumitted him. On his manumission, according to the usual practice, Terence assumed his patron's nomen, Terentius, having been previously called Publius or Publipor. The Andria was the first play offered by Terence for representation. He was now in his 27th year. The play was successful. His chief patrons were Laelius and the younger Scipio, both of whom treated him as an equal, and are said even to have assisted him in the composition of his plays. After residing some years at Rome, Terence went to Greece, and while there he is said to have translated 108 of Menander's comedies. He never returned to Italy, and there are various accounts of his death. According to one story, after embarking at Brundusium, he was never heard of again. According to others, he died at Stymphalus in Arcadia, in Leucadia, or at Patrae in Achaia. One writer says he was drowned with all the fruits of his time in Greece, on his homeward passage. But the prevailing report was that his translations of Menander were lost at sea, and that grief for their loss caused his death. He died in 159 at the age of 36, leaving a daughter; but nothing is known of his family. Six comedies are all that remain to us, and they were probably all that Terence produced.

The sentence that begins "Afranius preferred…" to the end of this paragraph is not in the German edition of the Chronicle.


In the six hundred and twenty-seventh year from the founding of the city these consuls (referring to the dual portrait of Caius Cassius Longinus and Sextus Domitius Calvinus opposite) made war against the Transalpine Gauls; and of the forces of their (i.e., the Gauls') king Viturtus they (i.e., Longinus and Calvinus) slew countless numbers by the Rhone (Rhodanus) River. And although Viturtus had 180,000 warriors, and boasted that the small body of Romans would hardly make food enough for the dogs in his army, yet he was defeated in battle by the Romans. From his army some died in war, others were submerged with the bridge that they had constructed over the Rhone by means of their ships being joined together. 150,000 died. And a large quantity of spoils of war, consisting of the necklaces of the Gauls, was carried off. And the two consuls triumphed in great glory.[The 627th year from the founding of the city corresponds to 127 BCE; but Caius Cassius Longinus and C. Sextius Calvinus (here called Sextus Domitius Calvinus) were consuls in 124 BCE. During their consulship the war in Transalpine Gaul continued, and Calvinus defeated the Allobroges and Arverni. In the year 123 Calvinus had the administration of Gaul, and carried on the war against the Saulluvii. After having conquered them he founded the colony of Aquae Sextia.] When M. Porcius Cato and Quintus Marcus were consuls, a colony was led out to Narbonne in Gaul,[This clause is not in the German edition of the .] while in that same year when Licinius Metellus and Quintus Lucius Scaevola (Scevola) were consuls there was a victory over Dalmatia.[P. Caecilius Metellus Diadematus (here called Lucinius Metellus) and Quintus Mucius Scaevola (here called Quintus Lucius Scevola) were consuls in 117 BCE, and during this consulship Metellus subdued the Dalmatians.]

In the time of these two consuls (referring to the opposite dual portrait of Scipio Nasica and Calpurnius Bestia),[P. Cornelius Scipio Nasica (nasica = "pointed nose") and L. Calpurnius Bestia were consuls in 111 BCE, the first year of the Jugurthine War. L. Calpurnius Bestia was tribune of the plebs in 121 BCE, but became popular with the aristocratic party who then had the chief power in the state. He obtained the consulship in 111, and the war against Jugurtha was assigned to him. At first he prosecuted it with great vigor, but by the offer of large sums of money he was induced to make peace with the Numidian without consulting the senate. An investigation resulted. Bestia and many men of high rank were condemned in 110. The nature of Bestia's punishment is not mentioned; he was still living in Rome in 90, in which year he went into voluntary exile.] a war arose against Jugurtha, king of the Numidians, because he had slain Adherbal and Hiempsal, the sons of Micispa, his own brothers, who were kings and were friends of the Roman people. Although Calpurnius (Calphurnius) Bestia was first sent against him, he was bribed by the money of the king and made a shameful peace with him that was rejected by the senate. Afterwards, in the following year, Spurius Albinus Postumus was sent against the same man; and he too, through his brother, fought ignominiously against the Numidians. The third consul to be sent was Quintus Caecilius (Cecilius) Metellus. He brought back the army, which he reformed with great severity and judgment, without exercising cruelty on any one, to Roman discipline.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He defeated Jugurtha in various engagements, killed or captured his elephants, and took many cities. And when he was about to put an end to the war, Caius Marius succeeded him. He defeated at the same time both Jugurtha and Bocchus, king of Mauretania, who had begun to bring Jugurtha assistance, and slew 20,000 warriors. Jugurtha and his two sons were chained to the chariot of Marius and driven before it. Soon afterwards he was strangled in prison at the command of the consul.[Jugurtha, king of Numidia, was orphaned at an early age and was adopted by his uncle Micipsa, who brought him up with his own two sons, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha quickly distinguished himself and rose to such popularity that he excited the jealousy of his uncle, who, to remove him, sent Jugurtha to assist Scipio against Numantia; but there his zeal and bravery gained him the favor of Scipio and the leaders in the Roman camp. In 118 BCE the uncle died, leaving the kingdom to Jugurtha, Hiempsal and Adherbal. Jugurtha, aspiring to sole rule, assassinated Hiempsal and defeated Adherbal, who fled to Rome for assistance, and the senate decreed that Numidia be equally divided between the two competitors. Jugurtha bribed the senators and thus succeeded in obtaining the western division of the kingdom, adjacent to Mauretania, by far the larger and richer portion. Still not content, Jugurtha invaded the territory of Adherbal, defeated and slew him. For this Rome declared war against Jugurtha, and sent L. Calpurnius Bestial, the consul, into Africa (111). Again Jugurtha purchased a favorable peace; but this aroused Roman indignation. The war was renewed; but the consul, Sp. Postumius Albinus, who conducted it, accomplished nothing. When he went to Rome to hold the comitia, he left his brother Aulus in command; but Aulus was defeated by Jugurtha. An ignominious peace made by Aulus was repudiated, and the consul Q. Caecilius Metellus was sent to Africa at the head of a new army (109). Metellus frequently defeated Jugurtha, and at length drove him to take refuge among the Gaetulians. In 107 Metellus was succeeded by Marius; but the cause of Jugurtha had meantime been espoused by his father-in-law Bocchus, king of Mauretania. Marius defeated the united forces, and Bocchus purchased the forgiveness of the Romans by surrendering his son-in-law to Sulla, the quaestor of M. Maurius (106). Jugurtha remained in captivity until the return of Marius to Rome, where, after adorning the triumph of his conqueror, he was starved to death.]

After the the Jugurthine victory, Marius became consul a second time, and to him was assigned the war against the Cimbrians (Cymbros) and Teutons (Theutones); and as the Cimbrian war continued, he was elected consul a third and fourth time. But in his fifth consulship he had as his colleague Quintus Lutatius (Lucanum) Catulus.

Caius Marius and Quintus Lutatius Catulus were Roman consuls at this time. Marius had served with distinction at Numantia under the younger Scipio Africanus in 134 BCE, and in 119 he became tribune of the plebs. In 114 he went to Spain as propraetor. He served in Africa against Jugurtha, and when elected consul in 107, closed that campaign. Meanwhile the Cimbrians and Germans burst into Gaul, repeatedly defeating the Romans. Marius finally defeated them also and was declared the savior of State, the third founder of Rome. When Sulla as consul was entrusted with the Mithridatic War, Marius, jealous of his patrician rival, attempted to deprive him of the command, and civil war followed. Marius was forced to flee to Africa, where he remained until his friends rose under Cinna. He hurried back to Italy, and with Cinna he marched against Rome, compelling it to yield. Marius and Cinna were elected consuls for the year 86, but Marius died a fortnight later.

Catulus, associate of Marius in 102, was to attack the Cimbri while Marius opposed the Germans. Although Marius succeeded, Catulus failed, and the Cimbri poured over the mountains with such fury that Catulus fled in confusion. Marius, after his return to Rome, came to his assistance and defeated the Cimbri. Catulus served with distinction in the Social War, and having espoused the cause of Sulla, his name was included in the great proscription of 87. Escape impossible, he shut himself up in a newly plastered chamber, kindled a fire, and was suffocated.

When the former consuls had been defeated at the Rhone (Rhodanus) River by the Cimbrians, Teutons, and Ambronians, which were nations of the Germans and Gauls, there was a great fear at Rome, the like of which had not been felt since the days of Hannibal during the Punic Wars. And now he fought against the Cimbrians, and in two battles he slew 200,000 of the enemy, and took 30,000 prisoners. Meanwhile the Cimbrians and Germans, of whom countless numbers remained, crossed into Italy. And once again Caius Marius and Quintus Catulus fought against them. Catulus was the more fortunate, for in the battle that soon followed, 140,000 of the enemy were slain in battle and during flight, and 40,000 were made prisoners. Of the two Roman armies both lost 300 men. And thirty-three standards of the Cimbrian army were carried off. Of these the army of Marius captured two, while the army of Catulus took 31. But the women gave the Romans a harder fight than the men had. With carts and chariots they made a wagon-fort, behind which they defended themselves for a long time. But they were now confronted with a new host that put them so in fear of death that they ceased fighting. For their hair was cut off, together with the posterior veins of the neck, presenting very gruesome wounds. The weapons that they had taken from the enemy, they turned upon themselves and upon their own. For although they sent their messengers to Marius, they could not obtain their freedom or anything approaching it. So they suffocated and strangled their children; and then they either wounded each other or, having made cords of their hair, they hanged themselves from trees and from the yokes of their wagons.

In the 662nd year of the founding of the city, the first civil war occurred at Rome. And in that same year also was the Mithridatic (War).[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Caius Marius, consul for a sixth time, was the cause of the civil war. For when Sulla (Silla), the consul, was sent to wage war against Mithridates (who had occupied Asia and Achaia), he kept his army in Campania a little while in order that the remains of the Social War, which had been carried on within the limits of Italy, might be extinguished. Marius desired that he himself be sent against Mithridates. This moved Sulla to first march to Rome with his army, and there give battle to Marius and Sulpicius. He was the first to enter the city in arms.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He slew Sulpicius and drove Marius to flight. And after he had made Gnaeus (Gneo) Octavius and Cornelius Cinna consuls for the next year, he went to Asia. At this time foreboding omens were seen. For under the rising of the sun a fiery globe in the region of the northern sky shone forth with a very great roar of thunder from the sky.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Among the Aretinians blood flowed from the bread at a feast; and animals of every kind that were accustomed to live with humans, with pitiable bleating, neighing, and howling they fled from their stables and pastures to the forests and mountains. And not long after these serious omens civil war followed.[L. Cornelius Cinna and Cn. Octavius were elected consuls in 87 BCE with the permission of Sulla when the latter was about to take the command against Mithridates, but upon condition that Cinna take an oath not to alter the constitution as then existing. But Cinna's first act as consul was to impeach Sulla; and as soon as the general had left Italy, Cinna sought to overpower the senate by forming a strong popular party of the new citizens, chiefly of the Italian states, who had lately been enrolled in the 35 old tribes, whereas they had previously voted separately as eight tribes; and by their aid it was proposed to recall Marius and his party. The other consul, Octavius, was ill fitted to oppose the popular leaders; yet Sulla had left the party of the senate so strong that Octavius was able to defeat his opponents in the forum, and Cinna fled the city. He was soon joined by Sertorius and others, who assisted in raising the Italians against the party in power at Rome. Cinna and his friends marched on Rome and invested it from the land, while Marius, having landed from Africa, blocked it by sea. The result has already been told in the previous note on Marius. Sulla threatened to return and take vengeance on his enemies. Cinna assembled an army at Brundisium to meet Sulla before he entered Italy; but when he ordered the rest to follow, a mutiny arose and Cinna was slain.]


Sulla (Silla), a Roman patrician, after he had performed many deeds in the Jugurthine War, carried away from the Roman senate the glory that belongs to an emperor. Immediately sent against Mithridates, he was victorious in Achaia and Asia. He was of the ancient and highly renowned family of the Scipios; and all of his days since youth were addicted to shameful and licentious practices, until under Marius he was made quaestor and sent against Jugurtha. In the exercise of this function he changed the course of his life entirely. He put Jugurtha in chains, silenced Mithridates, suppressed the affliction of the Social War, destroyed the power of Cinna, and had Marius proscribed and forced into exile. He was well versed in Greek and Latin, eloquent, sharp, smart, and greedy for glory; he gave away many things, especially money. He had a great mind, so much so that one doubted whether to say he was braver or luckier. As he now attained to the position of dictator and head of the Roman government, he decreed that no man should continue to keep life, property, or fatherland against his (Sulla's) will. He finally died in isolation of an intestinal disorder. With his death ended the two very deadly wars, namely, the Italian War, which was called the Social War, and the Sullan Civil War, both of which had continued for ten years with a loss of more than 150,000 people, 23 consuls, and 300 senators, not including those who were destroyed everywhere throughout Italy.

L. Sulla, surnamed Felix, the dictator, was born in 138 BCE. He studied Greek and Roman literature with success at an early age. But he followed pleasure with equal ardor, and his youth and manhood were filled with the most sensual activities. Still his love of pleasure did not absorb all his time, nor enervate his mind, which was always clear and firm. He aspired to the honors of state and became quaestor in 107, when he served under Marius in Africa. Although previously known only for his profligacy, he now displayed zeal and ability, and soon gained the approbation of his commander and the affection of the soldiers. It was to him that Jugurtha was delivered by Bocchus; and the quaestor thus shared with the consul the glory of bringing this war to an end. Sulla continued to serve under Marius with great distinction in the campaigns against the Cimbri and Teutons; but because Marius was becoming jealous of his rising fame, Sulla left him in 102 and took a command under the colleague of Marius, one Q. Catulus, who entrusted the chief management of the war to Sulla. In the military campaigns assigned to him he was successful. But now the enmity between Marius and Sulla assumed deadly form. This was temporarily checked by the breaking out of the Social War, which hushed all private quarrels for the time. Marius and Sulla took an active part against the common foe. Marius was advanced in years and found himself thrown in the shade by the superior energy of his younger rival. Sulla gained brilliant victories, and was elected consul in 88, receiving from the senate the command of the Mithridatic war. But he was expelled from Rome by Marius. So Sulla, on his return to the city at the head of his legions, proscribed Marius and his leading adherents. Sulla then remained at Rome till the end of the year, and set out for Greece at the beginning of 87, in order to carry on the war against Mithridates. He defeated Archelaus, Mithridates' general, in Boeotia, and in the following year was victorious in another battle against the same foe. But Sulla's enemies were giving trouble at home. The consul Cinna, who had been driven out of Rome by his colleague Octavius, soon after Sulla's departure from Italy, entered it again with Marius at the close of the year. Both Cinna and Marius were appointed consuls in the year 86, and all the regulations of Sulla were swept away. Having brought the Mithridatic War to conclusion, Sulla returned to Italy. He landed at Brundusium in the spring of 83. After several engagements Sulla became complete master of Rome and Italy. He resolved to take great vengeance on his enemies, and to utterly destroy the popular party. For the first time a list of names of those to be put to death was prepared. All persons whose names appeared on the list were outlaws, to be killed by anyone with impunity. Their property was to be confiscated and sold at public auction; and their descendants were excluded from a voice in public offices. Terror reigned throughout Rome and Italy. Fresh proscriptions constantly appeared. No one was safe. The confiscated property was purchased at nominal prices by Sulla's friends. Thousands perished. At the commencement of these horrors, towards the close of 81, Sulla had been appointed dictator for as long as he judged necessary. His object in the dictatorship was to carry out in a legal manner the reforms in the constitution and the administration of justice. He did not intend to abolish the republic, and consequently caused consuls to be elected for the following year, and was himself elected to the office while he continued to hold the dictatorship. His object was to give back to the senate and aristocracy the powers they had lost. In 81 he celebrated a splendid triumph on account of his victory over Mithridates. He claimed for himself the surname of Felix (‘happy' or ‘lucky'), as he attributed his success to the gods. He established military colonies throughout Italy, taking lands away from those who opposed him and giving it to his soldiers. At Rome he created a kind of a bodyguard for his protection by giving citizenship to slaves who had belonged to persons proscribed by him. The slaves thus rewarded were said to have numbered 10,000. In 79, to the surprise of everyone, Sulla resigned and retired to his estate at Putedi, and there, surrounded by the beauties of nature and art, he passed the rest of his life in literary and sensual enjoyments. He died in 78, at the age of 60. He wrote his own epitaph, stating that none of his friends ever did him a kindness, and none of his enemies a wrong, without being fully repaid.

Now when Sulla had placed the republic under these consuls new wars arose—one in Spain (Hispania), another in Pamphilia and Sicily, a third in Macedonia, and a fourth in Dalmatia. For Sertorius, who was (a member) of the Marian Party,[The German edition of the mistranslates the Latin clause qui partium marianarum fuerat ("who was (a member) of the Marian Party"—i.e., a partisan of the political party of Marius) as "being present in the region of the seas."] moved the Spaniards to war. Against him were sent the generals Quintus Caecilius (Cecilius) and Metellus, his son,[Schedel is mistaken here. The two generals sent against Sertorius were Quintus Caecilius Metellus, the son of that Metellus who had subdued Jugurtha, and the praetor Lucius Domitius.] and the Spaniards were brought under the dominion of the Roman people. Appius Claudius was sent against Macedonia, and later Cn. Scribonius was sent. He conquered the Dardanians, and marched as far as the Danube River. And so at one and the same time many triumphs and victories were celebrated.

The First Servile War, at the beginnings of the city[The phrase "at the beginnings of the city" is rather vague. Perhaps the chronicler is referring to the lands surrounding (i.e., the suburbs of) the city.], was incited in the city itself by Herodonius, the Sabine ruler. But this was more of an insurrection than a war. Soon afterwards, with the empire occupied throughout a variety of lands, who could believe that Sicily was being ravaged with far greater cruelty by the Servile War than during the Punic War? The land, rich in wheat, a province that, in its way, is a suburb of the city, was held by great estates of our citizens. At last Perperna (Perpenna) the general punished them. And he was content with an ovation (for his victory) over the slaves, so that he might not dishonor the dignity of his triumph with an inscription mentioning the slaves.

The Servile or Slave War occurred in Sicily in 133-131 BCE; a second in Sicily in 103 was ended by the proconsul Aquilius in 99.

In the 689th year from the founding of the city, in the time of these consuls (referring to the portraits of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Gneus Antonius)

Marcus Tullius Cicero and C. Antonius (here called Gneus Antonius) were colleagues in the consulship in the year 63 BCE. Cicero, the Roman orator and politician, was born in 106, and spent his boyhood partly in his native town of Arpinum and partly at Rome. He was a devoted pupil of Philo, the head of the Academic School, studied rhetoric under Molo of Rhodes, and law under Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur and juris-consult. His forensic life began at twenty-five. He studied philosophy at Athens and under various masters in Asia. He returned to Rome in 77, engaging at once in forensic and political life. He held various political offices. He was elected the consulship in 63, and this was a year of amazing activity in his career, both administrative and oratorical. In the political dissensions of the times, Cicero found himself deserted, and on the advice of Cato went into exile at the end of March in the year 58 to avoid bloodshed. He was recalled the following year and was received at Rome with enthusiasm by all classes.

Under Caesar's dictatorship, Cicero abstained from politics. Domestic difficulties drove him to find comfort for his troubles in literature. His repose was broken by Caesar's murder in 44; but when it became apparent that the conspirators had removed the despot but not the despotism, he again devoted himself to philosophy. He returned to Rome at the end of the year and again became involved in Rome's political quarrels. He was included in the list of the proscribed and was slain on December 7th, 43 near Formiae. His head and hands were sent to Rome and nailed to the rostra after Fulvia, wife of Antony, and widow of Clodius, had thrust her hairpin through the tongue.

C. Antonius, according to most accounts, was one of Catiline's conspirators, and his well-known extravagance and rapacity seem to render this probable. Cicero gained him over to his side by promising him the rich province of Macedonia, in which he would have better opportunity of amassing wealth than in the other consular province of Gaul. At the conclusion of the war he went into this province and plundered it so shamefully that his recall was proposed in the senate. Cicero defended him. In 60 he was succeeded in the province by Octavius, father of Augustus, and on his return to Rome was convicted in his province. He retired to the island of Cephallenia, but was recalled by Caesar, whom he probably did not long survive.

, one L. Sergius Catilina, a man of very noble lineage, but of very depraved intelligence, conspired to destroy his fatherland. Together with some other famous, but reckless men, he was driven out of the city of Rome by Cicero. His accomplices, after being seized, were strangled in prison, and Catiline was defeated in battle and slain by the other consul, Antonius.[L. Sergius Catilina (Catiline) was a descendant of an impoverished ancient patrician family. His youth and early manhood were stained by every vice and crime. He first appears as a zealous partisan of Sulla, sharing personally in the horrors of Sulla's proscriptions. Notwithstanding his infamy he attained to the dignity of praetor in 68 BCE, was governor of Africa during the following year, and returned to Rome in 66 to sue for the consulship, but was disqualified by an impeachment for oppression in the province. Disappointed in the outcome, Catiline organized a conspiracy to murder the new consuls; but through his own hastiness the attempt failed. His subsequent attempts to upset the government are best read in Cicero. Catiline was slain in the year 62.] Then in the following year Metellus triumphed over the island of Crete when Junius Sillanus and L. Murena were consuls.

Pompeius Maximus, general of the Romans, was held in very great esteem by the Romans. After a speedy defeat of the pirates he was made a commander of the army and proceeded against twenty-two eastern kings. In Lesser Armenia he defeated Mithridates in a battle at night. Afterwards he made war against Tigranes the king, and the Albanians and Herod their king. He also wisely fought the king of Iberia, the Itureos and the Arabs. He then proceeded against Jerusalem, the capital city of Judea; and although at that time the city was not only well protected by nature, but by great walls and moats, he besieged it and captured it in barely three months' time. A thousand Jews were slain, and the remainder held as hostages. He ordered the walls of the city to be overturned.[This sentence is not found in the German edition of the .] Hycarnus was given the office of high priest. Aristobulus was carried to Rome as a prisoner. He then went to Asia, and from there he returned to Rome in great glory and triumph in the consulships of Junius Sullanus and L. Murena.[Cn. Pompeius Magnus, born September 30, 106 BCE, was a few months younger than Cicero, and six years older than Caesar. He was one of Sulla's most successful generals. When the war in Italy was brought to a close, Sulla sent Pompey against the Marian party in Sicily, of which he easily made himself master. He proceeded to Africa and gained further victories, returned to Rome in great triumph. He became consul, and openly breaking with the aristocracy, which was jealous of him, he became the great popular hero. A number of changes were now made in the laws, such as restoring to the tribunes the powers of which Sulla had deprived them. For the next two year Pompey remained in Rome. In 67 power was conferred upon him to make war against the pirates, which he did with great speed and success (though several modern scholars believe that the threat of piracy was intentionally overplayed by Pompey for political reasons). During the remainder of the year and the beginning of the following, he visited the cities of Cicilia and Pamphylia, and provided for the government of the newly conquered districts. He was then authorized to proceed against the Mithridates, who retreated to Armenia, but was there defeated by Pompey; and as Tigranes now refused to receive him into his dominions, Mithridates resolved to plunge into the heart of Colchis, and from there made his way to his own dominions in the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Pompey now turned against Tigranes, but the Armenian king submitted without a contest, and was allowed to conclude a peace with the republic. In 65, Pompey was sent out in pursuit of Mithridates, but met with much opposition from the Albanians and Iberians, so he resolved to leave these districts. In 64, he made Syria a Roman province. In 63, he advanced further south, in order to establish the Roman supremacy in Phoenicia, Coele-Syria, and Palestine. The Jews shut the gates of Jerusalem against him; but after a siege of three months the city gave up. During this war came news of the death of Mithridates. Settling his affairs in Asia, Pompey returned to Italy in 62. As soon as he landed at Brundisium he disbanded his army in order to allay the fear that he might seize the supreme power. He was now 45, and for the third time was accorded the honor of a triumph. And now he was called upon to take part in the problematic civil affairs of the commonwealth, and for this he was hardly fitted. The aristocracy still regarded him with jealousy and distrust; yet Pompey would not ally himself with the popular party over which Caesar held sway. The aristocracy refused to sanction the work of Pompey in Asia, and Caesar having agreed to use his influence to favor Pompey in securing this approval, Pompey joined Caesar, and Crassus with his immense wealth became the third party to the triumvirate. This union, for the time, crushed the aristocracy. Pompey's acts in Asia were ratified and the Agrarian laws espoused by Caesar were passed. Caesar gave Pompey his daughter Julia in marriage. Caesar then went to Gaul, but Pompey remained in Rome. Caesar gained in glory, but Pompey lost confidence at home. The senate feared Pompey and deserted him for their favorite Clodius. And so he decided to strengthen his connection with Caesar. Thus he became regarded as the second man in the state. But he aspired to the dictatorship of the Roman world, and to this he fomented internal strife. The story of the civil war that followed between himself and Caesar eventually ended, as far as the part he played in it, in his assassination on the shores of Egypt.]

Caius Julius Caesar, who later became emperor, was, together with Lucius Bibulus, made consul in the 698th year from the founding of the city.[C. Julius Caesar and M. Calpurnius Bibulus were colleagues in the consulship in 59 BCE.] And to him were assigned Transalpine and Cisalpine Gaul. To this the Roman senate also added Illyricum and ten legions with which he fought heavy engagements for ten years. First he fought the Helvetians, and he marched as far as the English Sea. Then he put to flight Ariovistus (Arioiustum), the king, and the Aedui (Arudes), Marcomones, Tribeti, Vangiones, and Suevi; and later also the Belgae and others whom we collectively call the Germans. After that he built a bridge over the Rhine (Rhenum) and passed over it. In nine years he subdued all Gaul lying between the Alps and the Rhone (Rhodanus) River, and the Rhine (Rhenum) River and the sea. This was followed by a grievous domestic war. For when the victorious Caesar returned from Gaul and craved the honor of the office of consul a second time, this was denied him by Marcellus Bibulus, Pompey and Cato; and he was ordered to dismiss his army and return to the city; and Pompey was sent (against him?) with absolute authority; and on account of this insult a war arose.[Caius Julius Caesar was born July 12th, 100 BCE in the consulship of C. Marius and L. Valerius Flaccus. He was six years younger than Pompey and Cicero. He was killed when almost 56 years of age, March 15th, 44. At the age of 22 he obtained great renown as an orator and was elected to high offices. In 63 he was elected Pontifex Maximus. In 61 he went as propraetor into farther Spain, where he gained great victories over the Lusitanians. On his return he and Bibulus were elected consuls. After his election he formed the first triumvirate with Pompey and Crassus. Caesar's first popular measure was to divide the Campanian plain among the poorer citizens. By a vote of the people the provinces of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria were granted to Caesar with three legions for five years; also Transalpine Gaul, with another legion for five years. For nine years Caesar was now occupied with the subjection of Gaul. He conquered Transalpine Gaul, twice crossed the Rhine, and twice landed in Britian, previously unknown to the Romans. He conquered the Helvetii, who had emigrated from Switzerland, to settle in Gaul. He next defeated Ariovistus, the German king, who had taken possession of part of the territories of the Aedui and Sequavi, and pursued him as far as the Rhine. In his second campaign Caesar made war on the Belgae in northeastern Gaul, and subdued them. He crossed the Alps and made war against the Veneti and other states in northwestern Gaul. In three campaigns Caesar subdued the whole of Gaul. In his fourth campaign he crossed the Rhine in order to strike terror into the Germans, but he only remained 18 days on the further side of the river. He invaded Britain in the same year, but soon returned to Gaul and put down all the revolts that had occurred in the meantime (50). But his brilliant victories estranged Pompey, who joined the aristocratic party by the assistance of which alone he could hope to remain the chief man in the Roman state. The great object of this party was to deprive Caesar of his command, and to compel him to return to Rome as a private man to sue for the consulship. They would then have accused him, and as Pompey was in the neighborhood of the city with his army, the trial would have been a mockery, and condemnation certain. Caesar offered to compromise, and to resign his command if Pompey would do likewise. But the senate refused to listen. January 1st, 49 the senate decreed that Caesar disband his army, and refusing to do so, he should be regarded as an enemy of the state. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, which separated his province from Italy, and marched towards Rome. Pompey and some of the magistrates and senators fled to Capua, and from there to Greece, to which country Caesar was not able to follow on account of his lack of ships. In three months Caesar was master of all Italy, and later, crossing into Greece, completely defeated Pompey, who fled to Egypt. There Pompey was murdered before Caesar arrived. Caesar was now appointed dictator for a whole year and consul for five years. He accepted the dictatorship but declined the consulship. He made M. Antony his master of horse.]


Florence (Florentia), the noblest and most distinguished city among the cities of Etruria (Ethrurie), is said to have had its origin with the coming of the soldiers of Sulla (to whom this land was assigned by Sulla). And because they took their first dwellings at the flowing waters of the Arno, from that, at first, they suppose the city was called Fluentia. And Pliny (who first makes mention of this region) says the Fluentini were located beside the flowing Arno. These soldiers came there six hundred and sixty-seven years after the founding of the city of Rome. Thus Florence seems to have had its beginning around eighty-three years before the advent of Christ our Lord. This city of Florence was founded by the Fiesoleans (Fesulanis) on the shores of the river Arno, and the ancients called the city Fluentia; but after the city became prosperous and had wonderfully increased in size, and excelled all other cities in the same neighborhood in power, strength and possessions, it was more appropriately called Florence (Florentia), rather than Fluentia. In the time of the Goths the city was powerfully attacked, for Totila overran and devastated it. But Charles the Great rebuilt it; and he increased it in size and surrounded it with fortifications, and endowed it with esteemed liberties and civic regulations. After Florence, by force, annexed the Fiesoleans in the year 1024, it greatly increased in riches and honor. In the same year Emperor Henry I built the Church of San Miniato, by the walls of Florence. From nearly that time the city began to be governed just as it is today by the Priors of the Guilds and by the Standard-bearers of Justice. In this city is found, among many other unbelievable adornments, the celebrated cathedral dedicated in honor of the glorious Virgin. In the fourth year after that was begun a palace, equally superb, which the Priors inhabit; and after that, in the fifth year (1071) an orchard was planted, and the walls were enlarged; while above the Church of St. Lawrence on the banks of the river, the city was permanently enclosed. Thirty-one years later a marble tower, a beauty among the bell-towers of the world, was erected. And there also the index finger of the forerunner (of Christ) is held in very great veneration; and in his honor a very famous building, in a rather crowded part of the city,


was dedicated, which they call the Baptistery. The doors are made of solid bronze, and the histories of the New and Old Testament are engraved on them with indescribable art.[The Florence Baptistery (or Baptistry) of St John (Italian Battistero di San Giovanni) is a religious building in Florence believed to be the oldest building in the city. It is particularly famous for its three sets of artistically adorned bronze doors by two different artists. The South Doors were designed and created by Andrea Pisano in the years 1329-1336. The more celebrated North Doors, begun in 1401, took Lorenzo Ghiberti, the winner of a contest to see who would create the sculptures for these doors, 21 years to complete. Their success made Ghiberti the most celebrated artist in Italy, and secured him the commission to complete one further set of doors on the Baptistery, the East Doors (now known by Michelangelo having called them worthy of being "The Gates of Paradise"), which took 28 years to complete and contain what may be the greatest of all renaissance sculptures.] And although Florence was called the flower of all the cities of Italy, yet beside her beauty and the sophistication of her citizens, she also possessed more extraordinary men of every kind of virtue. She was graced by two poets, Dante Alighieri[Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) was Italy's greatest medieval writer. Although he wrote many works in Latin, his masterpiece, the (originally simply called the in Italian), was written in the vernacular language of his native Tuscany now known as Italian.] (Aldegerio), and Francesco Petrarch[Petrarch (1304-1374), called the ‘father of humanism' and the ‘father of the Renaissance', was an Italian scholar and poet. He perfected the sonnet form in poetry, and contributed significantly to the development of the study of ancient history and literature that would be the foundation of the Italian Renaissance. The is, in a certain sense, a descendant of Petrarch's humanistic legacy.]. The former was born at Arezzo (Aretium) of a Florentine father in exile, died and was buried in Arqua (Arquade) in the Euganean hills.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] The latter was born in Florence of Florentine parents and died in exile from his fatherland in Ravenna.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Not long after that she had the very famous painter Giotto[Giotto (c. 1267–1337), an Italian painter and architect from Florence, was the founding father of the artists of the Italian Renaissance. His most famous work, and the one that decisively broke with the medieval artistic traditions of the past, were the frescoes he painted for the Scrovegni Chapel between 1303 and 1310.] (Iotum), a highly celebrated artist and the equal of Appelles[Apelles of Kos (c. 352-308 BCE) was a celebrated painter of ancient Greece. Pliny the Elder, who discusses him in his ( 35.36.79-97 and passim), considered him the greatest painter of the ancient world. None of his paintings survive.]. She also had Accursius, prince of legal scholars, and foremost interpreter of the civil law. And she gave (to the world) Tadeus, of all physicians most renowned. And she was graced by Cosimo de Medici (Cosmo Mediceo), who in wealth, magnanimity and amiability excelled all the other citizens of Europe; and his sons and grandsons crown his good fortune, and added very many adornments to the city of Florence, particularly the monastery of San Marco, in which there are beautiful structures and a library which excels all others. These demonstrate the great man's magnificence. And his private residence built on the Via Larga (Lata) can be compared to the works of the Romans. Leonardo[Leonardo Bruni (c. 1369-1444) was a humanist, historian and chancellor of Florence. He was a pioneer in the development of a more modern understanding of history, in which secular events were divorced from religious ones, and where the Bible was just one source in the historian's toolbox. His greatest work, , applies these principals to the writing of history.] of Arezzo has given a detailed history of the origin and accomplishments of this most flourishing[Schedel—unusually—makes a pun here of the name of the city of Florence (‘The Flourishing Place'). His source, Biondo Flavio, (‘Italy Illuminated') 1.26, simply states: "The distinguished Leonardo of Arezzo has given a detailed account of the origin and accomplishments of the famous city of Florence in his ."] city. Beside Florence is the ancient city of Fiesole (Fesula), a place celebrated by the writings of many, especially Sallust (Salustii) and Livy (Livii). It has perished, or, as mentioned above, moved its people and its wealth to Florence. From its mountains, which slope down to the east, arises the Mugnone (Munio) stream, which washes the walls of Florence. The Arno River, yoked by four great bridges, divides the city of Florence. They say that the upper Arno valley, which now, as far as the floodplain of the Arno encompasses, is the most productive of the best wine in the Florentine region, was once a swamp. The foresight of the Florentines is to be praised in many respects, particularly in the selection of their chancellors who examine the art of rhetoric and who welcome men experienced in the field of study they call humanism, such as Leonardo[See the note above on Leonardo Bruni.] and Carlo Aretino[Carlo Marsuppini (1399-1453), also known as Carlo Aretino (Carolus Arretinus in Latin), was a celebrated Renaissance humanist and chancellor of Florence.] and Poggio[Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini (1380-1459), Italian scholar of the Renaissance, was born in 1380 at Terranuova, a village in the territory of Florence. His abilities and his dexterity as a copyist of manuscripts brought him into early notice with the chief scholars of Florence. Coluccio Salutati and Niccolo de'Niccoli befriended him, and in the year 1402 he was received into the service of the Roman curia. His functions were those of secretary. He did not concern himself with the ecclesiastical controversies of the times, but devoted himself heart and soul to the resuscitation of classical studies. He unearthed many valuable manuscripts, copied them and communicated them to the learned. Wherever he went he carried on his researches. He distinguished himself as an orator and writer, and epistolographer and grave historian, and as a facetious complier of fabliaux in Latin. He also wrote a , written in avowed imitation of Livy's manner. His , a collection of humorous and indecent tales, is chiefly remarkable for its unsparing satires on the monastic orders and the secular clergy. A considerable portion of his extant works are invectives. About 1452, Poggio finally retired to Florence, and on the death of Carlo Aretino in 1453 he was appointed chancellor and historiographer to the republic. His declining days were spent in the discharge of his Florentine office and in the composition of his history.]; and before these, Coluccio[Coluccio Salutati (1331-1406) was an Italian scholars and one of the most important political and cultural leaders of the Florentine Republic. The teacher of Leonardo Bruni, Coluccio wrote historical works linking Florence's origin to the Roman Republic. In his lifetime, although the study of ancient literature was generally frowned upon by the Roman Catholic Church, Coluccio both promoted the study of this literature and was instrumental in getting theologians and church officials to see the value of classical studies for current and future generations.], men who have passed down most eloquently the art of writing and speaking.

Florence, also called Florentia, Fiorenza, and Firenze, is located in Etruria, on either side of the river Arno, and about three miles south of Fiesole (Faesulae). Though celebrated in modern times as the capital of Tuscany, and in the Middles Ages as an independent republic, it was not a place of much consequence in antiquity. It is probable that it derived its first origin as a town from the Roman colony, the date of the establishment of which is not clear. A colony was settled there by the triumvirs after the death of Caesar; but there seems some reason to believe that one had previously been established there by Sulla. There is no direct authority for this fact, any more than for that of the new town having been peopled by emigrants who descended from the rocky heights of Fiesole to the fertile banks of the Arno; but both circumstances are in themselves probable enough, and have a kind of traditionary authority which has been generally received by the Florentine historians. A passage of Florus also, in which he enumerates Florentia (or as some manuscripts give the name, Fluentia) among the towns sold by auction by order of Sulla, is only intelligible on the supposition that the lands were divided among new colonists. But he is certainly in error in reckoning Florentia as a flourishing municipum at this time. It is probable that its favorable position in the center of a beautiful and fertile plain on the banks of the Arno, and on the line of the great high road through the north of Tuscany, became the source of its prosperity; and it is clear that it rapidly came to surpass its more ancient neighbor of Fiesole.

Fiesole (Faesulae) is an ancient and important city of Etruria, situated on a hill rising above the valley of the Arno, about three miles from the modern city of Florence. It was taken and ravaged with fire and sword during the Social War. In the middle ages the city was reduced to insignificance by the growing power of the Florentines, and gradually fell into decay. According to the ordinary histories of Florence it was taken and destroyed by the Florentines in 1010 CE, but much doubt has been thrown on this statement by modern historians. Fiesole is now a mere village, though retaining its Episcopal rank and ancient cathedral. Edmund G. Gardner, in his Story of Florence, observes, "The truth appears to be that Florence was originally founded by Etruscans from Fiesole, who came down from their mountain to the plain of the Arno for commercial purposes. The Etruscan colony was probably destroyed during the wars between Marius and Sulla, and a Roman military colony established here—probably in the time of Sulla, and augmented later by Caesar and Augustus."

Christianity is said to have been first introduced at Florence in the days of Nero; the Decian persecution raged here as elsewhere, and here Miniatus suffered martyrdom. Christian worship is said to have been first offered up on the hill where a stately eleventh century basilica now bears his name. When persecutions came to an end under Constantine, a church dedicated to the Baptist on the site of the Marsian temple, and a basilica outside the walls, where San Lorenzo now stands, were among the earliest churches in Tuscany.

By the beginning of the 13th century Florence became one of the foremost cities of Italy. When the inability of the nobles to govern themselves was made manifest by ceaseless conflicts between Guelphs and Ghibellines, the guilds, in 1282, took the government in hand. But in time a new aristocracy arose against which the lower ranks rebelled in 1378. Three years of mob rule followed, and then came an aristocratic government headed by the Albizzi, who inaugurated the city's most brilliant history. Florence became the money market of Europe, and the chief cradle of modern culture. The wealthy Medici, aided by the democrats, next seized the government. Cosimo, pater patriae (‘father of his fatherland'), while retaining the republican constitution, ruled the city from 1434 until his death in 1464. He was succeeded by his weak son, Piero, who was followed in 1469 by his son Lorenzo the Magnificent, a statesman, poet, and patron of arts and science, who died while the Chronicle was in the making. After his death the Florentine love of liberty was powerfully stimulated by the Dominican friar, Savonarola of Ferrara, and there followed a successful rebellion against the Medici rule. But Savonarola was burned at the stake in 1498, and in 1512 the Medici were reinstated with the aid of Spanish troops. In 1527 they were again expelled, but in 1530, after a heroic defense, during which Michelangelo had charge of the fortifications, Florence was captured by the army of Charles V, who installed Alessandro de Medici as hereditary duke. After him in 1537 came Cosimo I, who united the communities of Tuscany into a single state. On their extinction in 1737, Tuscany fell to the house of Lorraine. In 1860 Tuscany was united with the new kingdom of Italy by a plebiscite.

Florence is memorable in literature as the birthplace of Dante, who was born in 1265 and died in exile at Ravenna in 1321. Here also lived Giovanni Boccaccio, whose Decameron laid the foundation for modern Italian prose. Here Giotto, called the father of modern painting, began his work. The three greatest Italian masters, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael, though not permanently attached to Florence, did some of their most important work here. Among the celebrated Florentine sculptors were Ghiberti, Luca della Robbia, and Donatello. Among its architectural monuments are the Palazzo Vecchio, with its tower 308 feet in height, built in 1298-1314, now the town hall; the great Cathedral, begun in 1296 and not completed until 1436, 185 yards long and 114 yards across the transepts, and with a dome 345 feet high; the Campanile, a square ball tower, begun by Giotto in 1334, and 275 feet high; and the Monastery of San Marco built in 1437-1443, which contains murals by Fra Angelico.

Nearly the entire paragraph devoted to Florence on folios LXXXVIv and LXXXVIIr was taken by Schedel from Biondo Flavio's Italia Illustrata (‘Italy Illuminated') 1.26-34.

FOLIO LXXXVI verso and LXXXVII recto

This special woodcut covers fully two-thirds of these two folios, and appears to have been based on other panoramic views of Florence of about the time of the Chronicle.

Let us enter the city by way of the Arno in the flat bottom boat that is being pioloted without passengers or cargo at the river mouth. The Arno flows off to the right and is spanned by a number of bridges. The city lies on either side of the river and is fortified with walls and turrets. In the center of the town is the great cathedral church and before it the famous Campanile of Giotto. The church, called Santa Maria del Fiore (but more popularly known as the Duomo), is the largest and most important of the numerous Florentine churches. It was founded in 1298, but the façade was not finished until the nineteenth century. In actuality the famous Campanile of Giotto is close by; and the woodcutter has given us some suggestion at least of the Baptistery which was built in the thirteenth century, and adorned with the beautiful bronze doors of Ghiberti in the fifteenth century. The city is pictured as nestling at the foot of the Apennines, and in the distance to the left there is a suggestion of another city, probably Fiesole.


This Antiochus, being encouraged, pursued Triphon and caused him to flee. Triphon was at first on Alexander's side; and as he saw that the entire army was murmuring against Demetrius, he went to Arabia to bring back Antiochus. After that Triphon was determined to slay Antiochus, and to wear the crown himself; but he feared Jonathan, the formidable protector of Antiochus. Afterwards, Antiochus came to the soil of his fathers, and the whole army came to him, and only a few of the people remained with Triphon. Later he besieged and shut up Triphon. Finally Triphon was slain in Parthia.[Diodotus Triphon was a usurper of the throne of Syria during the reign of Demetrius II Nicator. After the death of Alexander Balas in 146 BCE, Triphon first set up Antiochus, the infant son of Balas, as a pretender against Demetrius; but in 142 he murdered Antiochus and reigned as king himself. Triphon was defeated and put to death by Antiochus Sidetes, the brother of Demetrius, in 139, after a reign of three years.]

Antiochus Spondius was the son of Antiochus Pius who fled from the kingdom to Parthia.

Mithridates Pharnaces, son of the king of the Parthians, was a king of Pontus, born and reared at Sinope. While still a child his parents died. But as he grew up he subjugated the neighboring people and the Scythians. With the Romans he engaged in a very cruel war lasting forty years. He captured Bithynia and Cappadocia, and invaded Asia, Phrygia, Paphlagonia and Macedonia. Fighting many famous battles, he did not attack the Romans in a single way.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] They say that he knew twenty-two languages (for he ruled over that number of nations), so that in whatever language someone brought a case before him, he rendered judgment in that same language.

Schedel here employs Quintilian (Institutio Oratoria 11.2.50), but his cut and paste compilation technique conflates Mithridates with Crassus(!):

Ceterum quantum natura studioque valeat memoria vel Themistocles testis, quem unum intra annum optime locutum esse Persice constat, vel Mithridates, cui duas et viginti linguas, quot nationibus imperabat, traditur notas fuisse, vel Crassus ille dives, qui cum Asiae praeesset quinque Graeci sermonis differentias sic tenuit ut qua quisque apud eum lingua postulasset eadem ius sibi redditum ferret….
For the rest there are many historical examples of the power to which memory may be developed by natural aptitude and application. Themistocles is said to have spoken excellently in Persian after a year's study; Mithridates is recorded to have known twenty-two languages, that being the number of the different nations included in his empire; Crassus, surnamed the Rich, when commanding in Asia had such a complete mastery of five different Greek dialects, that he would give judgement in the dialect employed by the plaintiff in putting forward his suit….

H. E. Butler, Quintilian; Loeb Classical Library, 1922; pp. 241, 243

He was also versed in Greek literature, and he even studied music. He was a man of great soberness and industry. Cn. Pompeius finally defeated him in a night battle, destroyed his fort, and killed forty thousand of his men. Pharnaces, his son, after the slaying of the other sons, led an army against his father. And after Mithridates from a high wall pleaded at length, but in vain, with his son, he (Mithridates) came down to his wives, concubines and daughters, and administered to them, and finally to himself, the poison. But as he had beforehand provided himself with antidotes, he was not able to be affected by the poison; he asked a certain Gaul, Bituitus (Vitigis), who was a soldier of his, (to kill him), and offered him his neck;

The probable source of this section on Mithridates' death seems to be Orosius, Historiae Contra Paganos (‘Histories Against the Pagans') 6.5.6:

quod cum ipse nouissimus hausisset nec tamen propter remedia, quibus uitalia sua aduersus noxios sucos saepe obstruxerat, ueneno confici posset frustraque spatiaretur, siquo tandem modo infusa pestis per uenas uegetatione corporis acta discurreret, Gallum quendam militem iam fracto muro discurrentem inuitauit eique iugulum praebuit.

But the name of the Gallic soldier, Bituitus (the only sense that can be derived from the vitigis of the Chronicle), seems to come from Appian,Roman History, 12.111:

Seeing a certain Bituitus there, an officer of the Gauls, he said to him, "I have profited much from your right arm against my enemies. I shall profit from it most of all if you will kill me, and save from the danger of being led in a Roman triumph one who has been an autocrat so many years, and the ruler of so great a kingdom, but who is now unable to die by poison because, like a fool, he has fortified himself against the poison of others. Although I have kept watch and ward against all the poisons that one takes with his food, I have not provided against that domestic poison, always the most dangerous to kings, the treachery of army, children, and friends." Bituitus, thus appealed to, rendered the king the service that he desired.

Horace White, Appian; Loeb Classical Library, 1913

but he passed away at Bosphorus. He reigned 40 years, and with the consent of Pompey was placed in the royal sepulcher at Sinope.[Mithridates VI, King of Pontus (120-63 BCE), surnamed Eupator, also Dionysus, but more commonly called ‘the Great,' was the son and successor of Mithridates V, King of Pontus, surnamed Euergetes, who was the son of Pharnaces I. He was eleven years of age upon his accession. We are told that immediately upon ascending to the throne, he was assailed by the designs of his guardians, but that he succeeded in eluding all their machinations, partly by displaying a courage in warlike exercises beyond his years, partly by the use of antidotes against poison, to which he began thus early to accustom himself. He attained to manhood, possessed of natural vigor of body and intellect. As a boy he had been brought up at Sinope, where he probably received his Greek education; and so powerful was his memory, that he is said to have learned not less than 22 languages, and to have been able in the days of the greatest power to transact business with the deputies of every tribe subject to his rule in their own particular dialect. He is said to have murdered his mother, to whom a share in the royal authority had been left by Mithridates Euergetes; and this was followed by the assassination of his brother. In the early part of his career he subdued the barbarian tribes between the Euxine and the confines of Armenia, including the whole of Colchis and the province called Lesser Armenia, and even extended his conquests beyond the Caucasus. He incorporated the kingdom of Bosphorus into his dominions, and now considered himself in possession of such great power, that he felt equal to a contest with Rome itself. Up to this point he had submitted to the mandates of Rome. Even after expelling Ariobarzanes from Cappadocia, and Nicomedes from Bithynia in 90, he offered no resistance to the Romans when they restored these monarchs to their kingdoms. But when Nicomedes, urged by the Roman legates, invaded the territories of Mithridates, the latter prepared for immediate hostilities. His success was rapid and striking. In 88, he drove Ariobarzanes out of Cappadocia, and Nicomedes out of Bithynia, defeated the Roman generals who had supported the latter, made himself master of Phrygia and Galatia, and at least of the Roman province of Asia. During the winter he issued the sanguinary order to all the cities of Asia to be put to death, on the same day, all the Romans and Italians who were to be found within their walls. These commands were obeyed by almost all the cities, and 80,000 are said to have perished in those massacres, so hateful had the Romans made themselves. In the meantime Sulla received the command to make war against Mithridates, who at once sent an army under his general Archelaus into Greece to meet Sulla. But Archelaus was twice defeated by Sulla, while about the same time the king himself was defeated in Asia by Fimbria. He sued for peace, which was granted upon condition that Mithridates abandon all his conquests in Asia, pay 2,000 talents and give up 70 ships. So ended the first Mithridatic War. A second war followed, but peace was again restored with Sulla, but not confirmed by the Roman senate. The death of the king of Bithynia brought on complications, for by his will that king gave his kingdom to the Roman people, and so it was declared a Roman province. But Mithridates espoused the cause of the king's son, which he prepared to support by his arms. He took the field with 120,000 footmen and 16,000 horses and a vast number of barbarian auxiliaries. And so commenced the third Mithridatic war. The Roman consuls Lucullus and Cotta were unable to oppose his first interruption. He traversed Bithynia without resistance, and when Cotta gave him battle, the consul was totally defeated. Mithridates now laid siege to Cyzicus, but Lucullus came to its relief and caused Mithridates to abandon the enterprise and force him to retreat with great loss. The king now took refuge in Pontus. There he was followed by Lucullus and again defeated. Whereupon the king took refuge with his son-in-law, Tigranes, king of Armenia, who became his ally. But Lucullus invaded Armenia and defeated the allied forces, then turned aside into Mesopotamia and laid siege to Nisibis. But now the tide turned, for the soldiers of Lucullus mutinied and demanded to be led home. Lucullus was obliged to give up the siege and returned to Asia Minor. Mithridates took advantage of this situation, raised an army and invaded the Pontus, and defeated Fabius and Triarius, to whom the defense of Pontus had been committed. Before the close of the year 67 Mithridates had regained possession of all his hereditary dominions. In the following year the conduct of the war was entrusted to Pompey, and the king was obliged to retreat before the Romans. With his small army he plunged into the heart of Colchis, and from there made his way to the Palus Maeotis and the Cimmerian Bosphorus. Unable to obtain peace from Pompey, he conceived the daring project of marching round the north and west coasts of the Euxine, through the wild tribes of the Sarmatians and Getae, and having gathered around his standard all these barbarian nations, to penetrate Italy itself. But his followers became disaffected. His son, Pharnaces, at length openly rebelled against him, and was joined by the whole army, who unanimously proclaimed him king. Mithridates took refuge in a strong tower, seeing that no choice remained to him but death or captivity. He took poison, but his constitution had been so long inured to antidotes that it did not take effect, and he was compelled to call in the assistance of one of the Gallic mercenaries to dispatch him with his sword. He died in 63. By the orders of Pompey his body was interred with regal honors in the sepulcher of his forefathers at Sinope.]

This Demetrius was a brother of the aforesaid Antiochus, and was slain by Alexander the king of the Jews.

Philip, the last king of Syria and Asia, began to reign in the fourth (year?) of the kingdom of Alexander, and he reigned two years. During his reign Antiochus his uncle fled to the Parthians, and gave himself up to Pompey, after which Philip was immediately taken prisoner by Gabinus, the Roman consul, and his kingdom was made subject to the Romans. And the kingdom of Syria came to an end after having endured for two hundred and twenty years under 17 kings.

After the last king of Syria, Syria too was made tributary to the Romans. Pompey came to Jerusalem and took the city. He opened the Temple and went as far as the Holy of Holies. He endowed Hyrcanus with the high priesthood and took Aristobulus, his brother, away. At this time the Jews completely gave up their freedom and became subject to the Romans. And Pompey placed in the hands of Scaurus, the pro-consul, the management and care of the land, and left two legions with him.[M. Scaurus, eldest son of Aemilius Scaurus, and stepson of the dictator Sulla, whom his mother married after the death of his father, served in the third Mithridaics War under Pompey as quaestor. The latter sent him to Damascus with an army, and from there he marched into Judea to settle the disputes between Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. Pompey left him in the command of Syria with two legions. During the government of Syria he made a predatory incursion into Arabia Petraea, but withdrew with the payment of 300 talents by Aretas, the king of the country. He was made curule in 58, when he celebrated the games with extraordinary splendor. The temporary theatre which he built for the purpose, accommodated 80,000 spectators. In 56, he was praetor, and in the following year governed the province of Sardinia, which he plundered without mercy. He married Mucia, former wife of Pompey, and by her had one son of the same name.]

Gabinus was sent to Syria to succeed Scaurus. He assigned the care of the Temple to Hyrcanus, and divided the Jewish people into five assemblies, in order to break up the pride of Judea.[Gabinus dissipated his fortune in youth by his profligate mode of life. He was tribune of the plebs in 66 BCE, when he proposed and carried a law conferring on Pompey command of the war against the pirates. He was praetor in 61 and consul in 58 with L. Piso. Both consuls supported Clodius in his measures against Cicero, resulting in the latter's banishment. In 57 he went to Syria as proconsul. His first attention was directed to the affairs of Judea. He restored Hyrcanus to the high priesthood, of which he had been dispossessed by Alexander, the son of Aristobulus. He next marched into Egypt and restored Ptolemy Auletes to the throne. The senate and Sibylline books had forbidden this; and he accordingly set at naught both senate and Sibyl. His government of the province was otherwise venal and oppressive, and when he returned to Rome in 54, he was accused of high treason for his restoration of Ptolemy. Contrary to his own wishes, Cicero defended him at the solicitation of Ptolemy; but he was condemned and exiled. In 49, Caesar recalled him, sending him with newly levied troops into Illyricum to reinforce Q. Cornificius, and there he died sometime near the end of 48.]

Crassus, the Roman consul and colleague of Pompey, was by the Romans appointed proconsul of Syria upon the death of the aforesaid Gabinus, principally to quell the Parthians who bordered on Syria, and who were antagonistic to that country. He was a most miserly man of insatiable greed. When he heard of the riches of the Temple at Jerusalem, which Pompey had left unmolested, he came to Jerusalem, and went through the Temple and carried away from it treasures valued at two thousand talents. And he went through Mesopotamia in Parthia, and through the river Euphrates. When he reached the city of Caram the Parthians soon came to meet him and defeated the Romans with their arrows; and they rapidly pursued Crassus with their cavalry, and, once he had been surrounded, they shamefully killed him. Some write that he died of gold poured into his mouth.[M. Crassus, surnamed Dives (‘Wealthy'), was a triumvir. His life was spared by Cinna, after the death of his father; but fearing Cinna, he escaped to Spain, where he concealed himself for 8 months. On the death of Cinna in 84 BCE, he collected some forces and crossed into Africa, from which he passed into Italy in 83 and joined Sulla, on whose side he fought against the Marian party. On the defeat of the latter he was rewarded by donations of confiscated property, and thus greatly increased his patrimony. His ruling passion was money, and he devoted all his energies to its accumulation. He was a keen speculator. He bought multitudes of slaves, and to increase their value had them instructed in the lucrative arts. He worked silver mines, cultivated farms, and built houses, which he let at high rents. In 71 he was appointed praetor to carry on the war against Spartacus and the gladiators. He defeated them and was honored with an ovation. In 70 he was consul with Pompey. He entertained the people with a banquet of 10,000 tables, and distributed enough wheat to supply the family of every citizen for 3 months. He was jealous of Pompey, but the two were reconciled by Caesar, and thus the triumvirate was formed. In 55 Crassus was again consul with Pompey, and received the province of Syria, where he hoped both to increase his wealth and acquire military glory by attacking the Parthians. He set out for his province. After crossing the Euphrates in 54, he did not follow up the attack on Parthia, but was misled by a crafty Arab chieftain to march into the plains of Mesopotamia, where he was attacked by the Parthians and defeated with great slaughter. The mutinous threats of his troops compelled him to accept a perfidious invitation from the Parthian general, who offered a pacific interview, at which Crassus was slain either by the enemy or by a friend who desired to save him from the disgrace of becoming a prisoner. His head was cut off and sent to the Parthian king, Orodes, who caused melted gold to be poured into the mouth of his fallen enemy, saying "Sate yourself now with that metal which you were so greedy for in life." ]

This Cassius was a successor of Crassus as proconsul of Syria. He raised an army against Octavian. He took nine hundred talents of silver from the Jews. He was finally slain at Philippi.[C. Cassius Longinus was one of the conspirators against Caesar. He was quaestor to Crassus in the Parthian War (54 BCE), and saved the credit of the Roman arms after the commander's disastrous defeat and death, and as tribune of the people attached himself to Pompey in the year 49. After Pharsalia he was taken prisoner and pardoned by Caesar. In 44 as praetor he attached himself to the aristocrats who resented Caesar's supremacy, and won over M. Brutus; and in the same year participated in the assassination of Caesar. But popular feeling blazed out, and Mark Antony seized his opportunity. Cassius fled to the east, united his forces with those of Brutus, and being routed at Philippi, compelled his freedmen to slay him.]


Lyons (Lugdunum), is a city of Transalpine Gaul near Vienne. According to Eusebius it was founded by Munatius (Numantius) Plancus[], a very famous student of the orator Cicero, during the time of Octavian Augustus on an elevation at the confluence of the Saone (Arar) and the Rhone (Rodanus). Franciscus Petrarch writes that it was a royal residence of the Romans and somewhat older than the city of Cologne (Agrippa). Here, the famous rivers Saone and Rhone come together and run into the Mediterranean Sea. The inhabitants call it Sona (Saone?). According to Strabo, for a long time this city excelled all other cities in Gaul with the exception of Narbonne in the number of very renowned and illustrious men. In time commerce developed, and this remains an important part of the city today. Its Roman leaders struck gold and silver coins at the command of Augustus. At public expense all Gaul erected a temple where these rivers meet in honor of the same emperor. Here also is a small temple of artistic workmanship with the names of 60 peoples inscribed on it, and a statue of each one of them. This city was once the capital of the Segusiani[The Segusiani were one of the most important peoples of Gallia Lugdunensis, bounded by the Allobroges on the south, by the Sequani on the east, by the Aedui on the north, and by the Averni on the west. In the time of Caesar they were dependent on the Aedui. In their territory was the town of Lugdunum, the capital of the province.], whose territory was between the Rhone and the Dabudis. The other people in the direction of the Rhine are separated from them partly by the Dabudis and partly by the waters of the Saone. These same rivers after falling from the mountains unite and run into the Rhone. And the Rhone, again rising up, is carried to Vienne, chief city of the Allobroges. And it is established that these three rivers have their sources in the north, then flow to the west, and finally become one river that proceeds to the south and becomes predominant because of other rivers flowing into it. And from here it directed its remaining stream into the sea. But the temple and the entire region, as Seneca writes to Lucillus, were destroyed by a swift fire in his time. Some people include this city among the Celts. There Plotinus, who first taught Latin rhetoric at Rome, was born. It was from him that Cicero, with his brother Q. (Quintus), as a boy at Rome first learned his knowledge of Latin. There Saint Augendus was noted for his life and miracles. There Saint Desiderius was bishop, and Saint Baldomerius, whose many miracles make the city famous. There Romanus was abbot, who first lead the life of a hermit and became the father of many monks. The city was also graced by Saint Nicecius the bishop, and by Hyreneus, the bishop who was a disciple of Saint Polycarp (Policarpus) who was crowned there with martyrdom. In that city was Domicianus the abbot, Lupus the bishop and anchorite, and Antiochus the bishop, all of whom are now resting in the Lord. Justus, also, a man closest to the angels, concluded his life there. This famous city for a long time was subject to the kings of France, who established annual merchants' fairs there. To this place Pilate and Herod (so it is said) were banished by the rulers of Rome and ended their lives without honor. Lugdunum (as some maintain) is named for Caesar's lugda legion, for lugda in the Gallic language means the same thing as lightning. This legion was accustomed to stay in these regions throughout the winter. And so also, as Tacitus states, a certain Roman legion was quartered among the Spaniards, and it was called by those naming it the Violent One (Rapax), in order to frighten the people. For those are names that almost scare by their sound.

Lyons (Lugdunum) was the chief city of Gallia Lugdunensis, situated at the foot of a hill at the confluence of the Arar (Saone) and the Rhodanus (Rhone). It is said to have been founded by some fugitives from the town of Vienne, farther down the Rhone. In 43 BCE Lugdunum was made a Roman colony by L. Munatius Plancus, and became under Augustus the capital of the province and the residence of the Roman governor. Being situated on two navigable rivers, and being connected with the other parts of Gaul by roads, which met at this town as their central point, it soon became a wealthy and populous place, and is described by Strabo as the largest city in Gaul next to Narbo. It received many privileges from the emperor Claudius, but was burned down in the reign of Nero. It was, however, soon rebuilt, and continued to be a place of great importance until 197 CE, when it was plundered and the greater part of it destroyed by the soldiers of Septimus Severus, after his victory over his rival Albinus in the neighborhood of the town. From this blow it never recovered, and was more and more thrown into the shade by Vienne. Lugdunum possessed a vast aqueduct, of which the remains may still be traced for miles, a mint, and an imperial palace, in which Claudius was born, and in which many of the Roman emperors resided. At the tongue of land between the Rhone and the Saone stood an altar dedicated to Augustus by the different states of Gaul. Lugdunum is memorable in the history of the Christian church as the seat of the bishopric of Irenaeus, and on account of the persecutions which the Christians endured here in the second and third centuries.

The last sentence of the paragraph devoted to Lyons is not in the German edition of the Chronicle. It is, in fact, a very slightly modified line of Ovidian verse (Heroides 13.54): nomina sunt ipso paene timenda sono.


Alexandra, wife of Alexander, the king of Jews, reigned nine years. For when her husband died, he left behind his children Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. But he left the rule of his kingdom to this Alexandra, his wife; for Hyrcanus, ignoring the responsibility of being a ruler, had elected to lead an idle life, while Aristobulus was too impetuous and bold. She herself was loved by the people. When she entered upon her reign she immediately appointed Hyrcanus high priest on account of his age. The heresy of the Pharisees originated in Judea at this time. She made use of their advice in all matters, but she alone carried the royal name. With their advice she murdered the best of the Jews, or condemned them to exile; and so destroyed everything. Yet she handled many matters in the best interests of the kingdom, and she was wily in retaining it. However, as she did not keep in view either goodness or righteousness, she brought the affairs of her house into a state of great discord. Upon her death the kingdom suffered many miseries. Yet she kept her people at peace. When she finally became seriously ill, Aristobulus, with an assembly of very many people, declared he would reign after his mother; not long after that she died at the age of 73 years.[Alexandra died in the year 69 BCE. Hyrcanus succeeded to the sovereignty, but was soon attacked by his younger brother Aristobulus, who possessed more energy and ambition than he. In the following year Hyrcanus was driven from the throne of Judea and took refuge with Aretes, king of Arabia Petraea. That monarch assembled an army and invaded Judea to restore Hyrcanus. He defeated Aristobulus, and blockaded him in the Temple of Jerusalem. But by bribes and promises, Aristobulus won over M. Scaurus, Pompey's lieutenant, who had arrived at Damascus, and who now ordered Aretes and Hyrcanus to withdraw from Judea (64). The next year Pompey himself arrived in Syria, reversed the decision of Scaurus, carried away Aristobulus as a prisoner to Rome, and reinstated Hyrcanus in the high priesthood. But Hyrcanus did not enjoy his newly recovered sovereignty in peace for long; for Alexander, son of Aristobulus, and subsequently Aristobulus himself, escaped from Rome and incited dangerous revolts, which, however, were quelled with Roman assistance. The real government was now in the hands of Antipater, the father of Herod, who rendered such important services to Caesar in the Alexandrian War (47) that Caesar made him procurator of Judea, leaving to Hyrcanus the title of high priest. Although Antipater was poisoned by the contrivance of Hyrcanus (43), the latter was a man of such evil character that he allowed Herod to take vengeance on the murderer of his father, and to succeed to his father's power and influence. In their invasion of Syria, the Parthians carried Hyrcanus away as a prisoner to Babylon, but treated him with consideration. He was allowed to return to Jerusalem to the invitation of Herod, who treated him with respect until the battle of Actium; when Herod, fearing that Augustus might place Hyrcanus on the throne, accused him of treasonable correspondence with the Arabians, and on that pretext put him to death.]

Jacob was Joseph's natural father; but Heli was his father according to the law. Matthew mentions one, Luke the other.[According to Matthew 1:16, "Jacob begat Joseph," the supposed father of Jesus; but according to Luke 3:23, Joseph "was the son of Heli."]

Hyrcanus, son of Alexander, king of the Jews, by the aforementioned Alexandra, was the twenty-third high priest of the Jews, taking the chief office of the priesthood. He held office for 24 years, having been installed by his mother. After the death of his mother he suffered very severe investigations and controversies. His brother, Aristobulus, attacked him with an army. Now, as the same two brothers marched out into the field of Jericho, Hyrcanus was defeated and fled to Jerusalem. They finally came to an agreement by which it was provided that Aristobulus was to rule, and that Hyrcanus was to be subject to him and in honor bound to obey him. Not long afterwards Hyrcanus was not satisfied with the role assigned to him; and he fled in the night to Aretes, the Arabian king. He assembled an army and invaded Judea, laying siege to Jerusalem. But Scaurus, the Roman general, drove off the besiegers; and he now considered Jerusalem an easy prey for tribute. And while they thus quarreled and fought, they thereby gave the Romans an excuse to make war on them. So Pompey came to Jerusalem and besieged it. Discord arose in the city, those on the side of Aristobulus wishing to protect the city, but those on the side of Hyrcanus preferring to surrender to the Romans. Finally he (Pompey) came into the city; and he assaulted the Temple. And in the third month the Temple was broken into. Faustus Cornelius, the son of Sulla, first dared to enter it.[This sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .] And the Romans desecrated the Temple. Nevertheless, from it he took nothing. He (Pompey) made Hyrcanus chief of the priesthood once again, and Judea was made a tribute-paying state.[See note on Alexandra, this folio. The last sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .]

Aristobulus, after Pompey's devastation of the city, was captured and, with his two sons Alexander and Antigonus, and as many daughters, was led off to Rome. And from that point in time the Jews completely surrendered their freedom and began to be subject to the Romans. The administration of Syria and Judea was entrusted to Scaurus Gabinius.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] After these things Aristobulus secretly left Rome and assembled a great army of Jews. Antonius was sent to wage war against him by Gabinius. Aristobulus was captured by Gabinius and led back to Rome again. During the quarrel between Pompey and Caesar he was sent to Syria with two cohorts. But the hope of Caesar was not realized, for the partisans of Pompey poisoned Aristobulus as he was attempting to bring Judea into the jurisdiction of Caesar.[Aristobulus was the younger son of Alexander Jannaeus and Alexandra. Upon the death of the latter, civil war broke out between Aristobulus and his brother Hyrcanus for the sovereignty. In 63 BCE he was deprived of the crown by Pompey, and sent as a prisoner to Rome. Six years later he escaped with his son Antigonus, returned to Judea and renewed the war. But he was taken prisoner by Gabinius and sent back to Rome. In 49, Julius Caesar released him, and sent him into Judea, but he was poisoned on the way by some of Pompey's party.]

Alexander, the high priest, son of Aristobulus, escaped while being taken to Rome with his father. He gathered a great army and was laying waste to Judea. And he was plotting against his uncle Hyrcanus. He was occupying such well-fortified places as Alexandrium, Hyrcanium and Macheros. Later he was slain at Antioch by Scipio with an axe in accordance with the contents of Pompey's letters, and with the accusation first laid against him in his trial for the things that he had done to the Romans.

Antigonus, son of Aristobulus, king of the Jews, fled as the sole survivor with his two sisters after Alexander and Aristobulus were slain. Caesar, taking control of Syria and Judea, appointed Antipater Idumeum, a strict man, procurator of Judea. And, in turn, he offered the kingdom to Hyrcanus, the uncle of Antigonus; but he was not to be called king. Shortly after that Antigonus fled to Pacchorus, the Parthian king, and there he remained until the death of Caesar, immediately after which he stormed and attacked the city, took Hyrcanus and tore off his ears with his teeth. For this reason M. Antony, with the assistance of Octavian, declared Herod king of Judea. He violently entered the city, took Antigonus and sent him in chains to Antony at Antioch, who slew him with an axe. And this was the end of the race of the Hasmoneans (Asamoneorum), for he was of the priestly family. And the kingdom of Judea ended.[Antigonus, son of Aristobulus II, was placed on the Judean throne by the Parthians in 40 BCE, but was taken prisoner by Sosius, lieutenant of Anthony, and put to death by the latter in the year 37.]


In the first year of the reign of Cleopatra there arose between Caesar and Pompey a horrible civil war in which occurred not only the hardships that happen in battles, but the prosperity of the Roman people was changed. The cause of such calamity was due to the excessive good fortune of everyone; for when Caesar invaded Gaul, Crassus invaded Asia, and Pompey invaded Spain. There were three very great armies. Thus the rule of the world was occupied by the alliance of three rulers. This rule continued for ten years. After this each was afraid of the other. Upon the death of Crassus among the Parthians, and of Julia, the daughter of Julius Caesar, who had been married to Pompey to keep peace between the parties, discord immediately arose among them; for Pompey became jealous of the riches and power of Caesar, while the reputation of Pompey weighed upon Caesar. Now as Caesar was master of the peaceful empire of Europe, he crossed over into Greece and besieged Pompey and destroyed all his forces, though he himself escaped with the help of the arrival of night. Caesar swiftly marched on through Epirus in Thessaly. Pompey followed him with a very large force. They armed for the fight, and fought a mighty battle of doubtful fortune. Finally the forces of Pompey ware scattered, and Pompey fled to Alexandria seeking the aid of Ptolemy (Ptholomeo). But he was unwilling (to assist him), killed Pompey, and sent his head and a small ring to Caesar. When Caesar saw this he immediately wept. After the death of Pompey, Caesar was subjected to the secret enmity of Ptolemy, the murderer, and after the capture of Alexandria, Caesar recalled Cleopatra from exile and conferred on her the kingdom. After this he swept over Syria for two years, and defeated Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates, in Pontus. When he returned to Rome he was made a dictator and consul, and crossed over to Africa. Then, with the wars completed, he celebrated a triumph. He returned to Rome, and caused himself to be named emperor; and so ended the rule of the people and of the consuls, which had endured for 464 years.[This text is continued from Folio LXXXVI recto, and this footnote is a continuation of the note there. On his arrival in Egypt Caesar became involved in a war, which gave the remnant of the Pompeian party time to rally. This war, usually called the Alexandrine War, arose from the determination of Caesar that Cleopatra, who had won his heart, should reign in common with her brother Ptolemy; but his decision was opposed by the guardians of the young king, and the war which thus broke out was not brought to a close until the end of March, 47. It was soon after this that Cleopatra had a son by Caesar. Caesar returned to Rome through Syria and Asia Minor and, on his march through Pontus attacked Pharnaces, the son of Mithridates the Great, who had assisted Pompey. He defeated Pharnaces near Zela with such ease that he informed the senate by the words, "Veni, vidi, vici." (" I came, I saw, I conquered.") He reached Rome in September (47), was appointed consul for the following year, and before the end of September set sail for Africa, where Scipio and Cato had collected a large army. The war was terminated by the defeat of the Pompeian army at the battle of Thapsus, on April 6th, 46. Cato, unable to defend Utica, put an end to his own life. Caesar returned to Rome in the latter part of July. He was now the undisputed master of the Roman world, but he used his victory with the greatest moderation. His clemency against his enemies was one of the brightest features of his character. All parties vied with each other in paying him honor. He was made dictator for ten years.]

Tullius, surnamed Marcus and Cicero, was a very great philosopher and a prince of orators, and also a consul of the Romans. He was of the Tullian family, which had its origin in Arpinum (Arpinati) and traced its beginning to Tullius, the king of the Volsci. His father was Tullius, and his mother Helvia (Olbia). When he was first able to study, he excelled his fellow students in the greatness of his intelligence. He was first praised for his poetry, of which he wrote several books. With the passing years he fell in love with the art of rhetoric, which was better suited to his nature.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] After he had mastered the studies of his youth, he devoted himself to the study of philosophy and civil law. Then he fought under Sulla (Sylla) in the Marian War. Then he became a master builder; and aftewards, with the help of the Roman people, he was made praetor. Later still he was elected a consul with C. Antonius, son of the orator M. Antonius. He discharged his duties as consul so gloriously that he was called the father of his country. He explained the ideas of philosophy that previously were unknown to our books; and by virtue of the enlightened subtlety of his intelligence he wrote very many things. From his wife Terentia he had Tulliola (his daughter) and Marcus, his son.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] At last the famous orator was killed in the 64th year of his life by Antony through the agency of his supporters on the pretext of securing unity with Octavian; nevertheless, his enemies passed away disgracefully.[Marcus Tullius Cicero was born January 3rd, 106 BCE, of M. Tullius and his wife, Helvia, at the family residence in the vicinity of Arpinum. He and his brother Quintus displayed such aptitude for learning that his father sent them to Rome, where they received instruction from the best teachers in the capital. After receiving the manly gown (91), the young Marcus was placed under the care of Q. Mucius Scaevola, the augur, from whom he learned the principles of jurisprudence. In 89 he served his first and only campaign under Cn. Pompeius Strabo in the Social War. During the civil wars between Marius and Sulla, Cicero did not identify himself with either party, but devoted himself to the study of law, philosophy, and rhetoric. Having carefully cultivated his powers, Cicero came forward as a pleader in the forum, as soon as tranquility was restored in the final overthrow of the Marian party. He defended many notable causes, but fearing the resentment of Sulla, he retired to Greece, ostensibly for the improvement of his health, which was very delicate. From Athens he went to Asia Minor, receiving instruction from the most celebrated rhetoricians in the Greek cities of Asia. From there he went to Rhodes. After an absence of two years, he returned to Rome, his health improved, and his rhetorical powers greatly enhanced. He obtained great distinction in the forum as an orator, and thus he paved his way to the high offices of state. In 75, he was quaestor in Sicily; in 74 he returned to Rome, and for four years was engaged in pleading causes. In 69, he was praetor. Two years later he was elected consul with C. Antonius as a colleague. Although he favored the popular party up to this time, he now allied himself with the aristocracy. He crushed Cataline, the conspirator, and for this service received the highest honors, was addressed as "father of his country," and thanksgivings in his name were voted to the gods. When he laid down the consulship, the tide turned against him. The friends of the conspirators accused him of putting Roman citizens to death without the vote of the whole people assembled in the comitia. The people, whose cause he had deserted, showed signs of resentment. He mortally offended Clodius by bearing witness against him, and Clodius vowed vengeance. The triumvirs, Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus, left Cicero to his fate. Cicero retired from Rome into Greece. He gave himself over to despair. But his friends at Rome had not deserted him, and over the opposition of Clodius, he was recalled from banishment. In 57, Cicero returned to Rome and was received with honor. But he retired to a great extent form public life. He was sent to Cicilia as governor, returning to Rome in 49, just as the civil war between Caesar and Pompey broke out. He threw his lot with Pompey and crossed over to Greece. At the battle of Pharsalia (48), Cicero abandoned the Pompeian party and returned to Brundisium, where he lived in the greatest anxiety for many months, dreading Caesar; but when the latter landed at Brundisium he greeted Cicero with kindness and respect, and allowed him to return to Rome. Cicero now retired into privacy and composed the greater part of his philosophical and rhetorical works. The murder of Caesar in 44 again brought Cicero into public life. He put himself at the head of the republican party, and attacked M. Antony with unmeasured vehemence. On the formation of the triumvirate between Octavian, Antony and Lepidus in 43, Cicero's name was in the list of the proscribed. Cicero tried to escape but was overtaken, his head and hands cut off and taken to Rome, and by orders of Antony, were nailed to the Rostra. He perished December 7th, 43, in his 64th year.]

Catiline, born of a noble family, was strong of mind and body, but had a depraved intelligence. From youth he loved civil wars, destruction, robbery and internal strife. And in those things he employed his youth; for in his mind he was bold, subtle, ever changing and a treacherous deceiver in all things. And inasmuch as he was a most evil and greedy man, and a leader of criminal activities, he sought to surround himself with companions of the same disposition. With the help and counsel of such associates, the disgraceful Catiline himself conceived a plan to overthrow the Republic. When it was his very great hope of obtaining the consulship, he attempted a dangerous conspiracy against the Republic when Marcus Tullius Cicero was consul. After the disclosure of this conspiracy and when the names of the conspirators were known, Lentulus, born of the very famous family of the Cornelii, abdicated from the senate during his first magistracy. Then Cethegus, Statilius, Gabinius (Gabinus), and Coeparius (Ceparius), men of senatorial rank, were sent to prison by decree of the senate. And at once, with Lentulus himself, they were all strangled with a noose.[For this last sentence and the one that precedes it, the German edition of the simply states: "Some of them, who were members of the senate, were apprehended, taken to prison, and there strangled."] When the news reached Catiline, he decided to flee beyond the Alps. When this became known, and as Antonius was pursuing him with his legions, he stabbed himself in the midst of the battling legions; and thus the Republic was saved by Cicero's virtue from great disaster.[See Note on L. Sergius Catilina (Catiline) Folio LXXXVI recto.]

Cato the Later, the great-grandson of Cato the Former, shared his name. Marcus Porcius Cato was a Stoic philosopher whom some men call Uticensis because he died at Utica. He was a very highly educated man, and he was so fired by his zeal for learning that even in the senate house while the senate was in session he could not restrain from reading, but actually was reading eagerly Greek books. By such diligence he showed that some lack time, while others are superior to times.

Compare the chronicler's text to his source, Valerius Maximus (who gets his own mini-biography on Folio XCIII verso), Factorum et Dictorum Memorabilium Libri Novem (‘Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings') VIII.7.2:

Cuius mirifica proles, propior aetati nostrae Cato, ita doctrinae cupiditate flagravit ut ne in curia quidem, dum senatus cogitur, temperaret sibi quo minus Graecos libros lectitaret. Qua quidem industria ostendit aliis tempora deesse, alios superesse temporibus.
His (Cato the Elder's) marvelous progeny, a Cato nearer to our own time, was so aflame with desire for learning that even in the senate house, while the members were assembling, he did not refrain from reading Greek books. By such diligence he showed that some lack time, whereas others are superior to times.

D. R. Shackleton Bailey, Valerius Maximus, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 2000; p. 225

Shackleton Bailey has a note on the last word, ‘times' (tempora, temporibus), that reads (p. 224): "The text has been questioned. Is there a play on two senses of tempora, time and circumstances?"

He taught that the Republic was better guarded by virtue than by weapons, saying: Do not assume that our ancestors made their state from small to great by means of arms; for if that had been true, we would have a greater one; for we also aspire to greater power, and have more allies, citizens, weapons and horses than they had. The more he fled from human glory, the more glory pursued him. And among the other aspects of his virtue he composed a book with his own rational explanations as an ethical and moral guide for the instruction of human life, from which (as they say) is that little book in meter which has been excerpted and is read to children. Among his thoughts was this one worthy of memory: Human life is especially like iron; because if it is used it is worn out; but when not used it is consumed by rust. He killed himself (as Augustine says), because he could not endure the victory of Caesar, and did not wish to submit to him.[M. Cato, great grandson of Cato the Censor, and surnamed Uticensis, from Utica, the place of his death, was born in 95 BCE. In early childhood he lost both his parents and was brought up in the house of his mother's brother, M. Livius Drusus. In his youth he revealed a stern and unyielding character, and applied himself with great zeal to the study of oratory and philosophy, and became a devoted adherent of the Stoic school. He was conspicuous for his rigid morality. In 63, he was tribune of the plebs, and supported Cicero against Cataline. He became one of the chief leaders of the aristocratic party, and an opponent of the measures of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus. But all his efforts were in vain, and he was rejected as a candidate for the praetorship. On the breaking out of civil war in 49, he was entrusted as propraetor with the defense of Sicily; but on the landing of Curio with an overwhelming force, he abandoned the island and joined Pompey in Greece. After Pompey's victory at Dyrrachium, Cato was left in charge of the camp, and thus was not present at the battle of Pharsalia in 48. After this battle he set sail for Corcyra, and from there crossed over to Africa, where he joined Metellus Scipio, after a terrible march across the desert. The army wished to be led by Cato, but he yielded to Scipio. In opposition to the advice of Cato, Scipio fought with Caesar at Thapsus, and was utterly defeated. All Africa now submitted to Caesar, except Utica, where Cato wanted the Romans to resist; but when he saw that they were inclined to submit, he resolved to die rather than fall into the hands of the conqueror. He stabbed himself and died at the age of 49.]


Antipater, a son of Aristobulus, and Crispus his wife had four sons and a daughter. He was accused by Antigonus before Julius Caesar. Exposing his wounds that were covered by his clothes, he revealed that fidelity is not to be proven by words, but by scars. Immediately after that he was declared governor of Judea. After this he appointed his eldest son Phasael (Faselus) governor of Jerusalem under him; and Herod he appointed governor of Galilee.[Antipater was the son of a noble Idumaean of the same name, although the chronicler calls him Aristobulus. He had a brother of the latter name against whom he espoused the cause of Hyrcanus. Antipater ingratiated himself with the Romans and in 47 BCE he was appointed procurator of Judea by Caesar; which appointment he held until 43, when he was killed by poison, which Malichus, whose life he had twice saved, bribed the cup-bearer of Hyrcanus to administer to him. Antipater's father was apparently the first governor of Idumaea (Greek for Edom), originally the territory east of the Jordan-Arabah valley, and south of the land of Moab. It was originally inhabited by the Horites. They were partly destroyed and partly absorbed by the Bedouin tribes, who claimed descent through Esau from Abraham, and whom the Israelites acknowledged as brethren. They were governed by sheiks. After the fall of Babylon the pressure of the desert Arabs forced the Edomites across the Jordan-Arabah valley, and the people and name were extended westward. Hebron was in Idumaea. Herod's family was by origin Idumaean.]

Ptolemy Dionysius, the 12th king of the Egyptians, reigned 30 years. Pompey went to him in order to get aid from him. Because of the tenderness of his age, the Roman senate had appointed him (Pompey) his (Ptolemy's) tutor, but being a very ungrateful man, he (Ptolemy) killed Pompey. After Pompey's death Caesar proceeded to Alexandria, where he was subjected to the enmity of Ptolemy the murderous traitor, who unexpectedly besieged him; but Caesar fled on a small vessel which, however, sank under the burden of his followers. With an upraised hand, in which he held a letter, he swam two hundred paces to a larger vessel. Not long after that he won a naval battle over the royal navy; but Ptolemy, who escaped, again waged war against Caesar; but his entire force was destroyed. The king had boarded a small vessel on which he had hoped to escape, but was drowned. His body, identified by his breastplate inlaid with gold, was found on the shore. And thus Caesar captured Alexandria. He recalled from exile Cleopatra, the sister of Ptolemy, and gave her the kingdom. She later came to the city (i.e., Rome) in the royal train.[]

Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, was a daughter of Dionysius Auletes[Ptolemy XI. Philopater Philadelphus Neos Dionysus (80-51 BCE), nicknamed Auletes (‘the flute-player'), was the illegitimate son of Soter II, and was chosen king by the Alexandrian people. The rights of these kings were doubtful, not only because of their illegitimacy, but because it was claimed in Rome that Alexander II had bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people. Ptolemy Auletes was thus obliged to spend his reign in buying the support of the men in power in Rome. From 58 to 55, Auletes was in exile, driven out by popular hatred, and worked by bribery and murder in Rome to get himself restored to Roman power. His daughter Bernice meanwhile reigned in Alexandria, a husband being found for her in the Pontic prince Archelaus. In 55, Auletes was restored by Aulus Gabinus, proconsul of Syria. He killed Bernice and, dying in 51, bequeathed the kingdom to his eldest son, aged ten years, who was to take as wife his sister Cleopatra, aged seventeen.], whom the Alexandrians expelled on account of his crimes. After the death of her brother, Caesar made her queen. After the death of Caesar and the events that took place at Philippi, Anthony proceeded to Asia, and he showed the queen the greatest honors so that he too her as his wife and had sons by her. Both were in the Attic War[There is no Attic War except in Greek mythology (where the Amazons do battle with Theseus and the Athenians in Attica, Greece). The chronicler is referring to the Battle of Actium (31 BCE).], and both fled. Finally they were defeated by Augustus. At the city of Nicopolis, Augustus forced Anthony to take his own life and ordered Cleopatra taken into custody. Not long afterwards she died in shackles in the sepulcher of her husband Antony from the bite of a serpent she had secretly gotten hold of. She was a very beautiful and eloquent woman, but greedy, cruel and and universally known for her licentiousness. And thus the Egyptian kingdom came to an end, having endured for 306 years under thirteen kings. And Augustus calmed raging Egypt.[Cleopatra VII (69-30 BCE) was the eldest daughter of Ptolemy Auletes. Her father died when she was seventeen, leaving the kingdom to her and her younger brother Ptolemy, whom she was to marry. She was expelled from the throne by his guardians and retreated into Syria, collecting an army with which she was preparing to enter Egypt when Caesar arrived there in pursuit of Pompey. Her charms gained her support of Caesar, who placed her on the throne with his brother. This led to the Alexandrine War in which Ptolemy perished. Although this left Cleopatra the sole ruler, Caesar associated her with another brother of the same name who was still a child and to whom she was nominally married. She had a son by Caesar and followed Caesar to Rome, where she appears to have been at the time of his death in 44. She returned to Egypt, and in the year 41 met Anthony who became her devoted lover and slave. She accompanied Anthony in the war with Octavian, and was present at the battle of Actium in which she retreated with her fleet, hastening Anthony's defeat. She then attempted to win over Augustus, but having failed, and seeing that he was about to carry her to Rome as a captive, she ended her life at the age of thirty-nine in the year 30 BCE.]

FOLIO XC recto

Herod, son of Antipater, received the kingdom of Judea from the Romans, and he reigned 37 years. Antipater, during the time of Sabinus, the governor of Syria, was a man so renowned for his virtues that he merited a royal mate, and married a woman of royal Arabian blood. Of her there were born to him four sons, namely, Phasael (Phaselus), Herod, surnamed Ascalonitas, Joseph (Josippus) and Pheroras (Feroas); and a single daughter named Salome. Afterwards he was destroyed by poison and Phasael, his first born, was slain. But Herod fled to Antony, and was soon afterwards crowned king of Judea. In addition to this Augustus gave him Trachonitis[Trachonitis, or Trachon, is the northern district of Palestine beyond Jordan, and lies between Antilibanus and the mountains of Arabia. It was bounded on the north by the territory of Damascus, on the east by Aurenitis, and on the south by Ituraea. Gaulanitis lay to the west of it. Trachonitis was for the most part a sandy desert, intercepted by mountains where caves gave refuge to murderous bands of robbers.] (Traconitidem) and Ituraea[Ituraea, or Ityraea, is a district on the northeast borders of Palestine. It is bounded on the north by the plain of Damascus, on the southwest and south by Gaulantis, and on the east by Aurenitis and Trachonitis. It was inhabited by Arabian people of warlike and predatory habits, which they exercised upon the caravans from Arabia to Damascus, whose great road lay through this country. Augusuts gave Ituraea, which had been hitherto ruled by native princes, to the family of Herod. It was a country of open villages and tents, set up according to the Arab fashion of living.] (Ituream), and the whole region by the sea. At Ascalon[Ascalon was one of the chief cities of the Philistines, and is situated on the coast of Palestine between Azotas and Gaza.] he built a royal residence; and after this he was called Ascalonitas. By birth through his father he was an Idumaean, and by his mother, an Arabian. As the birth of Christ our Lord approached, the kingdom and the priesthood of Judea declined in the course of its passage from one heir to another; and so the prophecy of Moses was fulfilled, which was to the effect that there would be no end to the princes of Judea until he comes of whom it is beholden; and he will be the expectation of nations.[] Now when Herod had received the kingdom, he built Samaria from the ground up; and he called it Augusta in honor of Caesar Augustus. Against the wishes of the Jews, he placed a golden eagle over the gate of the Temple. And he also made the Herodion in which he is buried. The Temple he adorned most magnificently. Finally, in year 26 he slew Hyrcanus, the high priest, and his son who was to have succeeded him in the priesthood. And he did the same thing to his own sister, his wife and her two young sons, and his mother. He also murdered his sister Salome's husband, and married her to another. And him he also killed. And with a similar crime he murdered all the scribes and the interpreters of the divine law. And finally, when this most murderous man learned of the birth of Christ through the three kings, he caused all the boys at Bethlehem to be slain with swords. However, he was soon visited with a serious sickness, in consequence of which worms issued from his entire body; and thus he gave up his miserable soul. Five sons survived him, namely, Archelaus, Herod Antipas, Antipater, Lysanias, and Philip. Of these, four each, as the gospel says, received a share in the kingdom.

Antipater, the governor of Idumaea, was the father of this Antipater, the procurator of Judea, who married Cryspos (Cypros), an Arabian woman by whom he had four sons and a daughter: Phasael, Herod the Great, Joseph, Pheroras, and Salome. Phasael (Phaselus) died in captivity in 40 BCE. Herod the Great, second son, was married five times and there was issue of each marriage as follows:

  1. Doris, by whom he begot Antipater, who was put to death in 4 BCE.
  2. Mariamne (granddaughter of Hyrcanus II), by whom Herod the Great begot:
    1. Aristobulus, who married Bernice (daughter of Salome) and was put to death 6 BCE. Of this marriage were born:
      1. Herod Agrippa, who married Cypros, daughter of Phasael and Salampsio, and died in 44 CE. Of this marriage were born: (a) Herod Agrippa II, king of Chalcis, who died in 86 or 90 CE; (b) Mariamne; (c) Berenice, who married Herod, king of Chalcis, and later Polemon, king of Pontus; (d) Drusilla, wife, firstly of Azizus, king of Emesa, and secondly, Felix, by whom she bore Agrippa (who died in 79 CE); and (e) Drusus, who died young.
      2. Herodias, who married firstly Herod Philip, and secondly, Herod Antipas.
      3. Aristobulus, who married Jotape, princess of Emesa.
      4. Herod, king of Chalcis.
    2. Alexander, who married Glaphyra, daughter of Archelaus, king of Cappodocia, and was put to death in 6 BCE. Of this marriage were born:
      1. Alexander
      2. Tigranes, king of Armenia
    3. Salampsio, who married Phasael, her cousin.
    4. Cypros, who married Antipater, the son of Salome.
  3. Mariamne (daughter of Simon the high-priest), of whose marriage to Herod the Great was born Herod Phillip, who married Herodias, but who divorced him. Of this latter marriage a Salome was born.
  4. Malthace, a Samaritan who bore Herod the Great the following:
    1. Archelaus, king of Judea, deposed in 4 BCE and died in exile. He was married to Glaphyra, widow of Alexander.
    2. Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee and Persaea, who died in exile. He was married to Herodias, wife of Herod Philip.
  5. Cleopatra (of Jerusalem), last wife of Herod the Great, who begot Phillip, tetrarch of Ituraea.

FOLIO LXXXIX verso and XC recto

This woodcut covers the major portions of Folios LXXXIX verso and XC recto, and is one of the best woodcuts of its kind in the Chronicle. It may be analyzed as follows:

  1. Antipater and his wife Cypros (Crispis), from whom emanate two main branches of descent.
  2. The first or left main branch bears four of the five children of Antipater, namely: Pheroras (Feroas), Joseph (Josypus), Phasael (Phaselus), and Salome (Saloma), the only daughter. Antipater and these four children are confined to that portion of the woodcut which occupies Folio LXXXIX verso. And now we are to account for Antipater's second son, Herod the Great.
  3. The second or right hand branch proceeds to Herod the Great (Herodes Ascolonita), who with drawn sword appears in medieval armor at the top of Folio XC recto, in the company of four of his five wives, namely Doris (Dosis), the first Mariamne (Mariane, granddaughter of Hyrcanus II); Malthace (Mathata), and Cleopatra. The second Mariamne (daughter of Simon the high priest) is not shown.
  4. From each of the four wives of Herod shown in the woodcut issue proceeds as follows:
    1. From Doris (Dosis), a branch to her son Antipater.
    2. From Mariamne (Mariane), second wife of Herod, a branch proceeds to her her sons Alexander and Aristobulus (who is shown with his wife); but her two daughters Salampsio and Cypros are omitted. From this Aristobulus and wife a branch proceeds to their son Herod Agrippa (and his wife) and Herodias, wife of Philip. From Herod Agrippa and wife proceeds one son, Agrippa (II). In this branch Aristobulus (who married the princess of Emesa), and Herod, king of Chalcis (both children of Herod the Great by the first Mariamne), are not shown.
    3. The second Mariamne, Herod's third wife, is not shown, as already stated, nor is her son Herod Philip, who married Herodias.
    4. From Malthace (Mathata) a branch proceeds to Archelaus. Herod Antipas and Olympias, the remaining children of this marriage, are not shown on this branch.
    5. From Cleopatra, last wife of Herod the Great, a branch proceeds bearing her son Philip (Philippus), and Herod Antipas, the latter of whom should have been credited to Herod's fourth wife, Malthace.

FOLIO XC verso

Agrippa Colonia (Cologne), which is situated on the left bank of the Rhine, is highly renowned for its location, its river and its people. Some say it was called Agrippina, but now is called Colonia. It is a city of rich fields in Lower Germany situated next to the banks of the Rhine. According to Sicardus Cremonensis it was founded by and named after Colonus, a Trojan, in the time of the Trojan Aeneas. After the people called the Ubii[The Ubii were German people who originally dwelt on the right bank of the Rhine, but were transported across the river by Agrippa in 37 BCE, at their own request, to escape the hostilities of the Suevi. They took the name of Agrippensis, form their town Colonia Agrippina.] were driven out by the Suevi (Swabians), the city was built up and taxed by command of Claudius, the Roman emperor, who was the husband of Agrippina. He called the city Agrippa after his wife's family. And so the people called the Ubii began to live there. However, the real and creditable writers of history say that M. Agrippa was the founder of the city. And although he constructed many buildings in the city as well as on the outside, he regarded this city as the most worthy of them all, and gave it his name. He was considered an excellent and worthy master-builder and warrior. The emperor Augustus selected him from the entire world for his beloved, and only, and revered daughter. He set this very wealthy city against Trier with the intent to suppress and to eliminate the enmity and dissensions of the Gauls. Long afterwards Hilderic (probably Childeric), the king of the Franks, drove Egidius, the friend and ally of Rome, out of the city, and settled Frenchmen there. After this colonization he gave the city the Latin name of Colonia. Some say the city was a Roman colony. While it was an ally of Rome it was consumed by a destructive fire. It had a Capitol building and other structures, in the Roman manner, of which a few are still at hand. It had a Capitol of the same construction as that of the Romans, except that in place of the senate there (i.e., in Rome) that debates councils of peace and war, here (i.e., in Cologne) highly renowned youths and maidens, in eternal unity, sang nightly praises to God. There (Rome) is the shrieking sound of wheels and weapons and the groans of captive men. Here is quiet and the voices of those who are joyful and telling jokes. And, finally, in that place (Rome) marches war, and in this place (Cologne) marches the triumphant bringer of peace.[This sentence and the two that precede it are not in the German edition of the , and are only slightly modified versions of sentences from Petarch's 1333 letter to Cardinal John Columna in (see note on Colonia Agrippina below).] In the midst of the city one sees the most beautiful, though incomplete, temple, which they called the Highest. Here lie also the bodies of the Three Holy Kings, brought there in three stages from east to west. And, as we read, they honored the Heavenly King in the manger with gifts. This is a free and archepiscopal capital city. The archbishop is an elector of the Holy Roman Empire, having a vote in the choice of the Roman emperor. Many persons flourished there in the arts and in holiness, such as Saint Severinus, himself a bishop there; and Albertus Magnus, whose body lies with the Order of the Preachers; also here ended their lives fifty of the host of Thebes; and Ursula with the 11,000 virgins, and various other persons there earned the crown of martyrdom. Also admirable is how much hope and civic-mindedness are there in that city; and how much seriousness


the men possess, and how much elegance the women have. Franciscus Petrarch writes of an old custom of the people of Cologne that was especially observed by the common women. At sundown on the Eve of St. John the Baptist an incredible number of women assemble on the banks of the river; and with sleeves rolled up to their elbows, they immerse pleasant smelling herbs in the water, and put their snowy white hands and arms in it, at the same time throwing all the troubles of the year into the water, so that the river may wash them away and bring back happiness instead. Oh, you more than blessed inhabitants of the Rhine, which washes away and cleanses your shortcomings, something which neither the Danube (Hister) nor the Elbe (Albis) in Upper Germany, nor the Po (Padus) in Italy, nor the Tiber ever has the strength to do. These are rather lazy, sluggish rivers! Near Cologne is a city called Aachen (Aquensis Aquisgrani)[Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle).], seat of Charles the Great; and there in a marble temple is a tomb of that prince venerated by the barbarian nations. He ordained that his successors in the rule of the kingdom should accept the crown and sovereignty of the Roman Empire, as still happens today, and will continue to occur as long as the German (Theutonica) nation holds the reins of the Roman Empire.

Colonia Agrippina, or Agrippinensis, is the present site of Cologne (Köln in German), on the Rhine. It was so called after 50 CE, when a Roman colony was planted here by the emperor Claudius, at the request of his wife Agrippina, who was born in the place, and after whom the colony was named. Before this colonization the site was called Oppidum Ubiorum, ‘the town of the Ubii.' It rose to be the chief town of Germania Secunda, and had the privilege of the Ius Italicum. About 330, the city was taken by the Franks, but was not permanently occupied by them until the fifth century, becoming in 475 the residence of the Frankish king Childeric. Counts of Cologne are mentioned in the ninth century. The city still contains remnants of Roman occupation, such as the wall, the ancient gate, etc. The great cathedral or Dom stands on the site of a church begun in the ninth century by Hildebold, metropolitan of Cologne, and finished under Willibert in 873. This structure was ruined by the Normans, was rebuilt, but destroyed by fire in 1248. The foundation of the present cathedral was then laid, and in 1322 the new choir was consecrated. After the death of Conrad of Hochstaden (archbishop from 1238 to 1261), who laid the foundation of the present cathedral, the work of building advanced but slowly, and the structure was not completed until the nineteenth century. It contains the shrine of the Magi. The greatness of Cologne was founded on her trade. Wine and herrings were the chief articles of her commerce; but her goldsmiths, armorers, and weavers were famous, and exports of cloth were large.

When, in 1201, Cologne joined the Hanseatic League, its power and repute were so great that it was made the chief place of a third of the confederation.

The expulsion of the Jews in 1414, and still more the exclusion of the Protestants from citizenship and magistracy, deeply affected the prosperity of Cologne. New trade routes, the decay of guilds, and many prolonged periods of warfare further contributed to its decay; and when, in 1794, Cologne was occupied by the French, it was a poor city of about 40,000 inhabitants, of whom only 6,000 possessed civic rights. With the assignment of the city to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, a new ear of prosperity began, and this rapidly increased.

The "bones of the Magi" are said to have been brought by the Empress Helena to Constantinople. They were afterwards taken to Milan, and in 1164 presented by Frederick Barbarossa to Archbishop Reinald von Dassele, by whom they were removed to Cologne. The golden reliquary in which they are preserved is now in the Cathedral Treasury. It is a costly specimen of Romanesque work, probably executed in the years 1190-1200. It was seriously damaged in 1794, when carried away for concealment from the French; but it was restored in 1807.

St. Severin, mentioned by the chronicler as bishop of Cologne, is commemorated by the church of his name which stands upon the site of a Christian church built as early as the 4th century. It contains the sarcophagus of St. Severin. The career of Albertus Magnus and the legend of Ursula and her 11,000 virgins are referred to elsewhere in the Chronicle.

Much of this paragraph on Cologne is taken by Schedel from a letter of Petrarch, "Franciscus Petrarca Iohanni Columnae Cardinali salutem plurimam dicit" (Epistolae familiares I, 5 Colonia Agrippina et Lugdunum (1333).

L. Pomponius, historian and orator, and writer of attelane farce, was (according to Eusebius) held in high esteem at this time. He wrote a little book of geography in which he calculated the distances between cities.[Schedel has conflated two different men named Pomponius in this very short biography: (1) Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis, the most celebrated writer of atellane farce, who flourished in 91 BCE, and (2) Pomponius Mela, the first Roman author who composed a formal treatise on geography, and who probably flourished under the emperor Claudius (more than a century after Lucius Pomponius Bononiensis!). The German edition of the still (incorrectly) names our author L. Pomponius, but (correctly) removes the reference to him being a writer of atellane farce.]

Lenaeus (Leoneus) was a highly educated grammarian and a freedman of Gn. Pompey. At the request of his master he translated into our language (Latin) a number of commentaries on medicine, which Pompey found in the possession of Mithridates after he had defeated him; for Mithridates was interested in medicine, and drew medical knowledge from all his subjects, leaving behind commentaries and examples of these in his own secrets.

Lenaeus, according to Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (vol. 2, p. 728) was,

a freedman of Pompey the Great, whence he is sometimes called Pompeius Lenaeus. He was a native of Athens, possessed great know ledge of natural history, and was acquainted with several languages, in consequence of which Pompey restored him to freedom. (Suetonius. De llustr. Grammat. 2,15; Pliny, H. N. xxv. 2, 3.) He accompanied his patron in nearly all his expeditions (Suet. l. c. 15), and by his command he translated into Latin the work of Mithridates on poisons. (Plin. l. c., comp. xv. 30, 39, xxiv. 9, 41, xxv. 6, 27, and Elench. lib. xiv. xv. xx. xxiii. xxvii.) After the death of Pompey and his sons, Lenaeus maintained himself by keeping a school at Rome, in the Carinae, near the temple of Tellus, the dis trict in which the house of Pompey had been. This fact is a proof not only of his great attachment to the memory of his late master, but also of his not having made use of his friendship with Pompey for the purpose of enriching himself. His affection for Pompey also led him to write a very bitter satire against the historian Sallust, who had spoken of Pompey in an unjust and slanderous manner. Suetonius (l. c. 15) has preserved some of the opprobrious terms in which Lenaeus spoke of Sallust.

The last phrase, "in his own secrets" (in archanis suis) is not in the German edition of the Chronicle, probably on account of its obscure meaning.

Agrippa, son-in-law of Octavian, was a builder of exceptional merit. During his career he erected many things at Rome. And, moreover, in his term as aedile, he added to these the Aqua Virgo, and with the channels of the others repaired, he made seven hundred basins.[This sentence, not found in the German edition of the , is taken from Pliny, 36.24.121: Agrippa vero in aedilitate sua, adiecta Virgine aqua, ceterisque conrivatis atque emendatis, lacus septingentos fecit. Pliny, however, is mistaken about the building of the Aqua Virgo aqueduct, which was completed not under the aedileship of Agrippa in 33 BCE, but in 19 BCE.] And the reason for that was, Suetonius writes, that Octavian Augustus, becoming somewhat angry at the Roman people's request for wine, responded: Agrippa, my son-in-law, has introduced so many sources of water and you ask for wine![] He gave his name and his greatness to Cologne.[Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63-12 BCE), under whose protection the Ubii, who were on the east side of the Rhine in Caesar's time, removed to the opposite shore to escape the attacks of their neighbors, the Catti. Agrippa studied with the young Octavian (afterwards the Emperor Augustus) at Apollonia in Illyria; and upon the murder of Caesar in 44, was one of the friends of Octavian who advised him to proceed immediately to Rome. Agrippa took an active part in the civil wars which followed, and which gave Augustus the sovereignty of the Roman world. As a military commander he was successful, and in 37 was made consul. He expended vast sums of money on public works, such as aqueducts, and erected several public buildings. He continued to be employed in various military commands until his death in 12 BCE.]

FOLIO XC verso and XCI recto

The City of Cologne (Colonia) is depicted by a woodcut that extends across folios XC verso and XCI recto. This woodcut has been specially designed for the Cologne, and appears nowhere else in the Chronicle to represent any other city. This is made certain by the coats of arms suspended form the tower of the fortress on the left. On each of these three shields are inscribed the three crowns, emblematic of the Three Kings of Cologne, and which appear in the arms of the city. Immediately before us swiftly flows the Rhine, upon which rides a medieval craft with a number of people aboard. They are waving farewell to a group of three persons who stand behind the seawall along the bank.

The city itself is represented as a walled town containing a number of churches. The tower of the great Cathedral, or Dom, is shown only to the third story, and the body of the edifice is still in course of construction, as stated in the text. The Cathedral was not completed until the 19th century. This structure became the symbol of the city, and is one of the greatest of all Gothic buildings. It stands on a slight eminence about 60 feet above the Rhine. Its towers, 512 feet in height, were for a long time the tallest structures in Europe.


Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg) is a famous and ancient city in upper Germany. Some who believe this city was of ancient origin say that the Swabian people descended from Japheth[Japheth was the son of Noah.], who first inhabited this region and there built this city, where one may easily enjoy an abundance of water, a wholesome climate, as well as other things of comfort and necessity. When the Swabians (Suevi) came there and saw that it was a desirable region due to the fact that two very swift rivers, the Wertach (Vinde) and the Lech (Lici) here came together, and that it was a natural stronghold, they first built the city there; and they named it Vindelicum for these two rivers. The same region, as far as the Alps, was formerly called Vindelica. All the mountains to the east and south were occupied by the Rhaeti (Rheti) and the Vindelici, as Strabo states. This same city, according to an ancient custom, they surrounded with a moat. Now since the warlike women, called the Amazons, afterwards entered Europe under their queen Marsepia, and with unusual weapons and implements of war drove the Swabians out of this city, and forced them into the mountains, and laid the city waste (which occurred before the destruction of Troy), it is reckoned that the city existed before Troy, and was built in the time of the exodus of the children of Israel from Egypt, and five hundred fifty years before Rome was built. Some say the city was built by the Trojans. And they chose for themselves the goddess Ziza, whom they believed to be Ceres. After the same goddess the city was named Zizaria. Her temple remained there intact until the time of the Romans, when it fell into ruin. And the city bore the name of a mountain that to this day the inhabitants of Augusta call the Eisenberg. The city was afterwards protected by the Rhaeti and the Vindelici with walls, turrets and other defenses; and it endured much war at the hands of the Romans. These people always loved freedom and therefore held themselves aloof from the Romans. At a later date the Divine Augustus Octavian sent Titus Ennius, the praetor, with the Marcian Legion, and other generals, against them. In this legion Avar Bogudis, the king's son, a youth trained in weapons among the Greeks and Latins, and Varus (Varro), a tribune of the soldiers, became famous.[It is ironic that nothing is known of Avar Bogudis, who became famous in this battle. But see further the note below.] These besieged the city in the late summer with a large force of Romans, and harassed it in many ways. In this storming Avar the Greek was slain, and he was buried in the village of Criechsaueron. The following inscription has been found indicating his origin and his end. The praetor also perished together with his Marcian legion so that few survived that battle who could tell what had taken place. And the destroyed legion gave to the region where the defeat occurred the name that now in the middle of the city is called Perleich.["Destroyed legion" in Latin is perdita legio. The first two syllables of each Latin word, per and leg, were believed to be the components making up the name Perleich.] Thus it is written. The hill here indicates by its name the Roman disaster where the Marcian Legion at once utterly perished.[This sentence and the one that precedes it are not in the German edition of the .] Varus (Varro), whom they called Verres,


fled over the water, hid himself in the marshes, and gave his name to Lake Vernensee. Afterwards, that consul died miserably.[The entire narrative on the battle of Augsburg by the Marcian Legion may be the most corrupt in the Chronicle (it certainly is in terms of the Fifth Age). The corruption is probably due to a medieval chronicler whose knowledge of the ancient world was, to say the least, shaky at best. Much of Schedel's text seems to follow that of the Auersberg chronicle. The names of the various individuals mentioned in the story (Avar Bogudis, Titus Ennius (or should it be Annius?), and Varus/Varro/Verres) have, at least in terms of the last two, common enough names, but no historical figure known by these names is associated with Augsburg. Although Titus and Ennius/Annius are individually well known, there is no Titus Ennius/Annius that I'm aware of. And despite the fact that there were many Romans named Varus/Varro/Verres, none fought at Augsburg. The only connection here might be the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, in which the Roman general Varus suffered the complete elimination of three Roman legions under his command in 9 CE. This was possibly the worst defeat suffered by Rome at the height of its empire. Unfortunately, Augsburg and the Teutoburg Forest are in different parts of Germany (Bavaria and Lower Saxony, respectively).] Suetonius records that Octavian Augustus suffered every serious disgrace and the two disasters, Loliana and Varriana, entirely in no other place than Germany. Variana was almost a total annihalation, with three legions, the general, emissaries and common allies slain. But three years later after the Variana disaster Augustus, through Tiberius Nero (while Drusus his brother advanced against the region of the Rhine), defeated the Lechs and destroyed their city. And as the words of Strabo in his fourth book indicate, Caesar Augustus sent three thousand Romans to occupy the city. But Claudius Drusus later built up the city, enlarging it with walls and towers. As the city was taken and enlarged through the initiative of Augustus, it was named Augusta in honor of Augustus Octavian. Horace (Oratius) in his odes makes mention of these wars: So the Vindelici saw Drusus waging war against the Rhaeti (Rethi) under the Alps, for whom it is the custom, descended through all time, to arm their right hands with the Amazonian axe, etc.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the . The citation is from the fourth book of Horace's , 4.17-21, a poem in the style of Pindar written in honor of Augustus' stepson Drusus, who at the age of 23 (in 15 BCE) had brought the eastern Alps under Roman control with the aid of his brother, the future emperor Tiberius. Suetonius states that this praise of his stepsons was the reason why Augustus wanted Horace to publish a fourth book of odes.] The Swabians, who then excelled all others in strength and people, had before that time selected this city as a most secure one, and it remained loyal and true to the Roman empire. Much evidence of its age remains. When the Hungarians (Ungari) swept over Germany and Swabia in the nine hundred and fifty-fourth year of salvation, they besieged Augusta and afflicted the Noricans, Rhaeti, and the Swabians with many disasters. Emperor Otto the first fought many days against them and finally defeated them near Augusta. Also, three princes of the Hungarians were captured by his soldiers and led to him. On account his clemency, he tried to make them slaves.[This sentence and the one preceding it are not in the German edition of the .] The Swabians, however, against his protestations, had them put to death by hanging. In the same battle died Count Diepolt (Diopoldus), brother of Saint Ulrich (Udalrici) , and Regnibaldus (Regniboldus), his sister's son. Afterwards Saint Ulrich, the bishop, made the city more famous and rebuilt the church of Saint Affra, which one before by Attila and now by the Hungarians (Huni) had been damaged. This city is adorned by a large Episcopal cathedral and by a church in honor of the Blessed Virgin; also with Saint Ulrich's Cloister, of the order of St. Benedict, in which lie the bodies of Saint Ulrich and Simprecht (Simperti), and of the blessed Affra, the martyr. There also many other holy men are held in esteem, whose martyrdom brought credit to Augusta.

Augusta is a name given to a number of towns founded or colonized by Augustus. Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), capital of Vindelicia, or Rhaetia (also spelled Raetia) Secunda, on the Licus (Lech), was colonized by Drusus under Augustus, after the conquest of Rhaeti in 14 BCE. Vindelicia was a Roman province south of the Danube, which separated it from Germany. It was bounded on the west by the territory of the Helvetti in Gaul, on the south by Rhaetia, and on the east by the river Oenus (Inn), which separated it from Noricum, thus corresponding to the northeast part of Switzerland, the southeast of Baden, the south of Wuertemberg and Bavaria, and the north part of the Tyrol. It was originally part of the province of Rhaetia, and was conquered by Tiberius in the reign of Augustus. Later Rhaetia was divided into two provinces: Rhaetia Prima and Rhaetia Secunda. The latter became Vindelicia. It was drained by the tributaries of the Danube, of which the most important were the Licus (Lech), with its tributaries, the Vindo or Vidro (Wertach), the Isarus (Isar) and Oenus (Inn). The greater part of the Vindelicia was a plain, but the south portion was occupied by the northern slopes of the Alpes Rhaeticae. It derived its name from its chief inhabitants, the Vindelici, a warlike people dwelling in the southern part of the country. Their name is said to have been formed form the two rivers, Vinda and Licus. The Vindelici were a Celtic people, and closely connected with the Rhaeti; with whom they are frequently spoken of by the ancient writers, and along with whom they were subdued by Tiberius. The other tribes in Vindelicia were the Brigantii on Lake Constance, the Licatti on the Lech, and the Breuni in the north of Tyrol, on the Brenner. Augusta Vindelicorum (Augsburg), as already stated, was the chief town of the province, and it was situated at the confluence of the Vindo and the Licus. It was made a Roman colony in 14 BCE, and was the residence of the governor. Together with other towns of Vindelicia, it fell into the hands of the Alemanni in the fourth century, and from this time the population of the country appears to have been entirely Germanized.

The Roman province of Rhaetia lay south of the Danube and was originally distinct from Vindelicia. Toward the end of the first century, however, Vindelicia was added to the province of Rhaetia. When Rhaetia was subdivided, Rhaetia Prima answered for the old province, and Rhaetia Secunda in time was named Vindelicia. They were separated from one another by Lake Constance (Brigantinus Lacus) and the river Oenus (Inn). Rhaetia was a very mountainous country, as the main chain of the Alps ran through the greater part of the province. The Rhaeti are first mentioned by Polybius. They were known as a brave and warlike people, and conducted marauding incursions into Gaul and northern Italy, and were not subdued by the Romans until the reign of Augustus. They offered a brave and desperate resistance against both Drusus and Tiberius, who finally conquered them. Rhaetia then became a Roman province, to which Vindelicia was later added.

The Augsburg of today is a city and Episcopal see in Bavaria, Germany, and chief town of the district of Swabia. It lies on the plateau 1500 feet above the sea, between the Wertach and Lech, which unite below the city. Since the time the Chronicle was written, namely, in 1632, it was besieged and taken by Gustavus Adolphus. The Augsburg Confession, the most important Protestant Statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation, was presented in Latin and German to the emperor Charles V at the Diet of Augsburg, June 25th 1530. It was compiled by Melancthon, but based on articles previously drawn up by Luther. Augsburg was the chief seat of the textile industry in southern Germany, and has bleaching and dye works, while its production of agricultural and industrial machinery and its chemical works are important. According to the chronicler there was a theory that this ancient city was built by the Trojans and that they chose for themselves a goddess named Ziza, as he designates her, and whom they believed to be the Roman goddess Ceres (the Greek goddess Demeter). Undoubtedly the deity to whom the chronicler refers is Cisa, the goddess of the ancient Germans, who, according to middle age tradition was worshipped in Augsburg (ancient Cisaris) and the surrounding country. The chronicler gives the old name of the city as "Zizaria," instead of Cisaris.

The reference to Perlech, and the origin of the name from perdita legio, the lost legion, are both rather indefinite. The chronicler states that Perlech is now in the middle of the city. In explanation it may be said that north of the courthouse in Augsburg rises the "Perlachturm," or "Perlach Tower," a portion of which has survived from the eleventh century. This, perhaps, marks the spot of the victory over the Romans. Its weather vane represents Cisa, the ancient pagan patron goddess of the city of Augsburg.

XCI verso and XCII recto

The city of Augsburg (Augusta) is depicted in a woodcut that extends over the greater part of two opposite pages. Although specially intended to represent the ancient city of Augsburg, the illustration contains nothing by which it may be identified. In the foreground, one proceeding from the left, the other from the right, are two little streams, creeks, or possibly only a moat, which may be intended for, but can hardly be dignified as the rivers Lech and Wertach, at whose confluence the city was built. The waterfront shows no signs of life, no development, commercial or otherwise. The waters are very shallow, and the shores covered with an abundance of vegetation, consisting chiefly of bulbous trees and shrubs, all of the same mold. The general terraine would seem to be correct, for Augsburg does lie on a hill. The city is surrounded by an unusually well fortified wall, which fairly bristles with towers and turrets; and there are large military towers within the city which vie with numerous church steeples, almost all of the same type. But how are we to identify the great cathedral, with its two Romanesque towers, dating from the tenth century? The woodcutters have often introduced church towers in pairs, but not so here. And which is the church of St. Affra founded by Ulrich (1474-1500), so finely proportioned, with its 300 ft. tower? And where are the broad streets of which this community has boasted for centuries. We look in vain! Just another stock medieval city!


Three suns arose in the East on the second day after the death of Julius Caesar. From time to time these drew together into one body, indicating that the rule of Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony, and Augustus were about to be consolidated into a single sovereignty, or, which is more likely, that the future acknowledgement of the Trinity and of the one God of the entire world was imminent. At this time in a suburb of Rome an ox spoke to a ploughman, and told him that he labored in vain and to no purpose for shortly there would be fewer people than crops.

In Egypt the most celebrated library of any city on earth, containing 40,000 books, was destroyed by fire. There were the labors of the ancients in the collection of highly esteemed works. For Aristotle had left his library and the Academy to Theophrastus; and according to Strabo he was the first collector of books, and had taught the kings of Egypt the ordering of a library. Afterwards Theophrastus turned the library over to Neleus, who carried it to Scepsis, by whom it was turned over to unconcerned and ignorant people who kept it locked up. Ptolemy Philadelphus also collected a great number of books; and, as Seneca hands down: 40,000 volumes were burned at Alexandria, a very beautiful monument of royal opulence. So too Livy, who said that it was a work of elegant concern and of eminent kings. That was not elegant or a concern, but learned luxury. On the contrary, it was not learned luxury at all since they collected books not for study but for show. Just as many people, ignorant even of the texts of slaves, collect books not as tools for study but as ornaments of the dining room.

Under the care of the Ptolemies, Alexandria, as the capital of the great kingdom of Egypt and of the most fertile country on earth, and commanding by its position all the commerce of Europe with the East, became the most wealthy and splendid city of the known world. Greeks, Jews and other foreigners flocked to it, and its population probably amounted to three quarters of a million. But a still greater distinction was conferred upon it through the foundation by the first two Ptolemies of the Museum, an establishment in which men devoted to literature were maintained at the public cost, and of the Library which contained 90,000 distinct works and 400,000 volumes, and the increase of which made it necessary to establish another library in the Serapeum (Temple of Serapis) which reached 40,000 volumes, but which was destroyed by the bishop Theophilus at the time of the general overthrow of the pagan temples under Theodosius in 389 CE. The Great Library suffered severely by fire when Julius Caesar was besieged at Alexandria and was finally destroyed by Amrou, the lieutenant of the Caliph Omar in 651 CE. These institutions made Alexandria the chief center of literary activity.

Neleus of Scepsis was a disciple of Aristotle and Theophrastus, the latter of whom bequeathed to him his library and appointed him one of his executors. According to a story current in antiquity, Aristotle bequeathed his library and manuscripts to Theophrastus, his successor in the Academy. On the death of Theophrastus, the libraries and manuscripts are said to have come into the hands of his relative and disciple Neleus of Scepsis. Neleus sold both libraries to Ptolemy II, king of Egypt, for the Alexandrian library; but he retained for himself as an heirloom the original manuscripts of the works of these two philosophers. The descendants of Neleus, who were subjects of the king of Pergamum, knew of no other way of securing them from the search of the Attali, who wished to rival the Ptolemies in forming a large library, than concealing them in a cellar, where for a couple of centuries they were exposed to the ravages of damp and worms. Not until the beginning of the first century BCE did a wealthy book collector, the Athenian Apellicon of Teos, discover these valuable texts, bought them from the ignorant heirs, and prepared from them a new edition of Aristotle's works. After the capture of Athens, Sulla conveyed Apellicon's library to Rome in 64 BCE.

The last third of this paragraph, from ‘So too Livy,….' to the end, are not in the German edition of the Chronicle. They are a slightly abridged version of Seneca, De Tranquillitate Animi (‘On the Tranquility of the Mind') 9.5:

Quadraginta milia librorum Alexandriae arserunt; pulcherrimum regiae opulentiae monimentum alius laudaverit, sicut T. Livius, qui elegantiae regum curaeque egregium id opus ait fuisse. Non fuit elegantia illud aut cura, sed studiosa luxuria, immo ne studiosa quidem, quoniam non in studium sed in spectaculum comparaverant, sicut plerisque ignaris etiam puerilium litterarum libri non studiorum instrumenta sed cenationum ornamenta sunt.
Forty thousand books were burned at Alexandria; let someone else praise this library as the most noble monument to the wealth of kings, as did Titus Livius, who says that it was the most distinguished achievement of the good taste and solicitude of kings. There was no 'good taste' or 'solicitude' about it, but only learned luxury -- nay, not even 'learned,' since they had collected the books, not for the sake of learning, but to make a show, just as many who lack even a child's knowledge of letters use books, not as the tools of learning, but as decorations for the dining-room.

(J. W. Basore, Seneca: Moral Essays, Vol. II; Loeb Classical Library, 1928-1935)

Sallust (Sallustius), a Roman historian and philosopher, an imitator of Cicero, was famous at Rome; and in the nobility of truth he was a distinguished historian. He wrote celebrated books on on the Catilinarian War and also on the Jugurthine War. He also wrote some letters.[Sallust (Sallustius Crispus, or Salustius), the Roman historian, was born in 86 BCE, at Amiternum, in the country of the Sabines. He held several public offices. In the year 50, Sallust was expelled from the senate by the censors, probably because he belonged to Caesar's party, though some give another reason. In the civil war he followed Caesar's fortune. In 47 we find him praetor elect, by obtaining which dignity he was restored to his rank. He accompanied Caesar in the African War, and was left by Caesar as the governor of Numidia, in which capacity it is said, he oppressed the people and enriched himself by unjust means. He retired to private life after his return from Africa, and passed quietly through the troublesome period of Caesar's death. He died in 34, about four years before the battle of Actium. It was probably not until his return from Africa that he wrote his historical works. His or is a history of the conspiracy of Catiline, during the consulship of Cicero, 63. The or contains the history of the war of the Romans against Jugurtha, king of Numidia. Sallust was a decided partisan of Caesar from the first, and it was to him that he owed such political advancement as he attained. His account of the Catiline conspiracy and of the Jugurthine War have come down to us complete, together with fragments of his larger and most important work (), a history of Rome from 78-67, intended as a continuation of the work of L. Cornelius Sisenna. In the Catiline conspiracy he adopts the usually accepted view of Catiline, describing him as the deliberate foe of law, order and morality. Catiline, it must be remembered, had supported the party of Sulla, to which Sallust was opposed. He is careful to clear Caesar of complicity and on the whole he is not unfair towards Cicero. His , though interesting, is not satisfactory, -- too much moralizing about the feebleness of the senate and aristocracy. As a military history it is unsatisfactory in geographical and chronological details, though vivid in the depicting of character and scenery.]

Marcus Varro, a native of Atace in the province of Narbonensis, was held in great esteem at Rome; for he was a highly educated man of keen intellect and experience in all the ways of the world. At the age of 35 he studied Greek with great industry. He was a very learned man and wrote so much that we would hardly think it possible to read all he wrote. As Isidorus states, he wrote innumerable books of which 413 were venerated among the ancients, and which he divided into divine and human topics[This last phrase is not in the German edition of the .]. In addition, he wrote a book about the Latin language, and a book about morality[The first two clauses of this sentence are replaced in the German edition of the with the phrase "and he also wrote many other books."], from which we find this thought: The friends of the rich are the chaff among the grain. He said, If you wish to test a friend, become utterly miserable. He also wrote a book about the veneration of the gods.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He lived 90 years.[Varro was a celebrated writer, whose vast and varied erudition in almost every breath of literature, earned him the title of the "most learned of the Romans." He was born in 116 BCE. He held a high naval command in the wars against the pirates and Mithridates, and later served as the legatus of Pompey in Spain in the civil war, but was compelled to surrender his forces to Caesar. He then passed over into Greece and shared the fortunes of the Pompeian party till after the battle of Pharsalia, when he sued for and obtained the forgiveness of Caesar, who employed him in superintending the collection and arrangement of the great library designed for the public use. For some years Varro remained in literary seclusion, passing his time chiefly at his country seats in study and in composition. Upon the formation of the second triumvirate, his name appeared upon the list of the proscribed, but he managed to make his escape, and after a period of concealment, obtained the protection of Octavian. He spent the remainder of his days in tranquility, pursuing his favorite studies, although his magnificent library had been destroyed, a loss to him irreparable. He died in 28, at the age of 89. Varro was not only the most learned, but also the most prolific of Roman writers. He composed no less than 490 books, of which only two have come down to us.]

Virgilius (Virgil) Maro, a prince of poets, a Mantuan by birth, was born of humble parents on the 15th day of October, under Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and M. Licinius Crassus, the Roman consuls, in a village called Andes (Pietola), which is not far from Mantua. His mother Maia dreamed that she bore a laurel branch, an absolutely clear expectation of a happy birth. He spent his younger days at Cremona. When he became of age he journeyed to Milan, and not long after that he went to Naples. After having seriously and industriously applied himself to the study of Greek and Latin, he eagerly studied medicine and mathematics. When he had become more knowledgable and experienced in these matters than others, he journeyed to the city (i.e., Rome). There he was received by the emperor Augustus and recommended to Pollio.

C. Asinius Pollio was a distinguished orator, poet and historian of the Augustan age. On the breaking out of the civil war he joined Caesar, and in 49 accompanied Curio to Africa. After the latter's defeat and death, he crossed over to Greece, and fought on Caesar's side at Pharsalia in 48. He accompanied Caesar on his campaigns against the Pompeian party in Africa and Spain. He returned with Caesar to Rome, but was shortly afterward sent back to Spain to prosecute the war against Sex. Pompey. He was there at the time of Caesar's death. He took no part in the war between Antony and the senate; but when Antony was joined by Lepidus and Octavian in 43, Pollio espoused their cause, and persuaded L. Plancus in Gaul to follow his example. In the division of the provinces among the triumvirs, Antony received the Gauls. The administration, of Transpadane Gaul was committed to Pollio by Antony. It was on this occasion that he saved the property of the poet Virgil at Mantua from confiscation, when he took him under his protection through his love of literature. In the year 40, Pollio took an active part in effecting a reconciliation between Antony and Octavian. After further military campaigns he withdrew from political life and devoted himself to literature. He died at his Tusculan villa in 4 CE, at the age of 80.

Pollio deserves a very distinguished place in the history of Roman literature, not so much on account of his works, which were marred by an affected archaism, as because of the encouragement and incentive that he gave to literature. He was not only a patron of Virgil, Horace, and other great writers and poets, but he has the honor of being the first person to establish a public library at Rome. He wrote tragedies which Virgil declared to be worthy of Sophocles, and a prose history of the civil wars of his time from the first triumvirate to the death of Caesar.

In body and stature he was large. He was of dark complexion and plain appearance, and of variable health, for he suffered much from stomach pains and throat pains and head pains.[The last clause of this sentence ("for he suffered much from stomach pains and throat pains and head pains") is not in the German edition of the .] Augustus granted him whatever he asked. For many years he sent liberal amounts of gold to his parents for their support. When he was grown up he lost them.[This last sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He wrote many things: the Priapea, the Culex, and the Moretum; then the Bucolics; afterwards, the Georgics in honor of Maecenas (Mecenatis); and lastly, the Aeneid.[In place of this long list of specific works written by Virgil, the German edition of the simply states that "He wrote many works of poetry."] At the age of 52 he died at Brundusium. His remains were taken to Naples and buried there on the Via Puteolana under a stone on which is inscribed: Mantua gave birth to me, Calabria took me away (i.e., killed me). Now Parthenope holds me. I have sung of shepherds, fields, and leaders.

Virgil (Virgilius, or Maro P. Virgilius), the Roman poet, was born October 15th 70 BCE at Andes (Pietola) a small village near Mantua in Cisalpine Gaul. His father had a small estate that he cultivated; his mother's name was Maia. Virgil was educated at Cremona and Milan. It is said he later studied at Naples and learned Greek; also at Rome. His writings showed learning. His health was always feeble, and there is no evidence of an attempt to rise by those means through which a Roman gained distinction—public office and the military. Having completed his education he retired to his paternal farm.

He worked on his Aeneid for a long time, and it was still unfinished at the time of his death in the year 19; for which reason, in his last illness he wished to burn his manuscript, but his friends would not permit him to do so. He had been enriched by the liberality of his patrons, used his wealth liberally, and made his excellent library easy of access. He sent liberal sums to his parents every year. In his fortune and his friends Virgil was a happy man, and his learned poems gave employment to many commentators and critics; for Virgil is one of the most difficult of Latin authors, not so much because of his style, but from the great variety of knowledge required to attain his meaning in all its fullness.

The last sentence of this paragraph, which cites the inscription purportedly found on Virgil's gravestone, is not in the German edition of the Chronicle. Instead, that translation simply reads: "and his grave was marked by a monument."

The entire paragraph on Virgil is, to a large extent, a very significant abridgment of Suetonius' Life of Virgil, a work attributed to Suetonius and found in Donatus' commentary.

Horace (Horacius), a very much-praised poet, was born at Venusia, of a father who was a freedman. He was a person of short stature, and learned in the liberal arts. Afterwards he became the most esteemed man in Athens. He attained the friendship of Marcus Brutus, who slew Caesar, and who made him a military tribune against M. Antony and Augustus; but when Brutus was defeated in battle, he fled from the disaster. Augustus later pardoned him at the instance of Maecenas. Having been freed, he then devoted himself to poetry, of which he wrote the Odes, the Ars Poetica (The Art of Poetry), and the Epistles.[The German edition of the does not list specific works by Horace, but simply states: "He wrote many works of poetry." ] After acquiring great wealth by his hightest learning he died at Rome, making Augustus his heir. And he died at the age of 63, and was buried with Maecenas.[Horace (Q. Horatio Flaccus), the poet, was born December 8th, 65 BCE, at Venusia, in Apulia. His father was a libertinus ('freedman'). He had received his manumission before the birth of the poet. When twelve years of age his father took him to Rome to receive the usual education of a knight's or senator's son, which he could not attain at home. He frequented the best schools in the capital and was instructed in Greek and Latin. At 18 he continued his studies at Athens, and when Brutus came there after the death of Caesar, Horace was given the rank of military tribune and command of a legion. He was present at the battle of Philippi, and shared in the flight of the republican army. Thereafter he devoted himself to more peaceful pursuits, and having been pardoned, he returned to Rome. His paternal estate had been swept away in the general forfeiture, but he was able to purchase a clerkship on the profits of which he was able to live in frugality. Meanwhile, however, some of his poems attracted Varius and Maecenas, and the friendship thus formed soon ripened into intimacy. In 34 Maecenas bestowed on Horace a Sabine farm, sufficient to maintain him in ease and contentment the rest of his life. Even Augustus favored him as a poet. Horace died November 17th, 8 BCE, at the age of 57. His death was so sudden that he had no time to make a will, but he left the administration of his affairs to Augustus, whom he made his heir. According to his own description, Horace was short of stature, eyes dark, hair dark but ringed with gray. In his youth he was tolerably robust, but suffered from an ailment of the eyes. In advanced years he became fat and Augustus teased him for his proturbent belly. He was rather careless in dress, frugal even after he became rich, though he seems to have indulged in conviviality.]


The three suns, which appeared after the death of Julius Caesar, are shown in one woodcut, side by side, each blazing forth to portend the dire events to follow.


The desruction of the Library at Alexandria is represented by a bonfire of venerable tomes heaped up promiscuously.


Caius Julius Caesar, son of Lucius, at the age of sixteen years lost his father. As quaestor he pronounced funeral orations from the rostrum, according to custom, in praise of his aunt Julia, and his wife Cornelia. As aedile he adorned—in addition to the Comitium and the Forum and the Basilicas—the Capitol. After his praetorship he obtained by lot Spain (Hispania), and was made consul with Bibulus. At the beginning of this office the first thing he did was to order that the daily proceedings of the senate be made public to the people.[This sentence and the three that precede it are not in the German edition of the .] At the same time he married Calpurnia, the daughter of L. Piso, his successor in the consulship. And he gave his own daughter Julia to Gnaeus Pompey (Pompeius). After that he waged wars for nine years throughout nearly all of Gaul that is contained by the borders of the Pyrennes, the Alps, Mt. Gebenna, and the rivers Rhine (Rhenuo) and Rhone (Rhodano). In this same space of time he lost first his mother and then his daughter, and not much later his granddaughter. He was victorious in five campaigns. The first and most excellent was in Gaul; the next was in Alexandria; then in the Pontus; after that in Africa; and last in Spain; and he accomplished public shows of various kinds. He is said to have been a tall erect man, of light complexion, rounded limbs, a somewhat full mouth, black and lustrous eyes, and a strong body; but at the end of his life his health left him and he also was accustomed to being terrified in his sleep. He first lived in a small house in the Suburra[The Suburra lay between the Caelian and Esquiline hills. It was one of the most frequented quarters of Rome.], but after he became chief priest he occupied a palace belonging to the state in the Via Sacra. There was a doubt whether in his military affairs he was more cautious or more daring. When he concluded the civil wars, he was the sole ruler of the city (i.e., Rome) and of the world. His rule over the Romans began in the 183rd Olympiad, and lasted 4 years and 7 months. After him the Roman rulers were called Caesars. But when, contrary to the custom and usages of freedom, he undertook to give himself honors and to distribute them, a conspiracy was formed against him of over sixty men, including Gaius Cassius (C. Cossio) and Marcus (M.) and Decimus Brutus. His future destruction, nevertheless, had been announced to him through clear omens. When he arrived at the Capitol the conspirators surrounded him in the guise of their offices, and he was stabbed by them with twenty-three wounds. And Caesar ended his life in the 56th year of his age. His body was burned before the rostrum in the Campus Martius. Scarcely any of those who were accessory to his murder survived him more than three years, or died a natural death.

For Caesar's earlier history see Folios LXXXVI recto and LXXXIX recto and notes. Caesar's power was not witnessed without envy, for the Roman aristocracy, who had been long accustomed to rule the Roman world, could hardly endure such a master, and resolved to remove him by assassination. Cassius set the conspiracy in motion, and there were more than sixty persons involved in it. Many of these Caesar had raised to wealth and honor; some, like Brutus, lived with him on terms of intimate friendship. The conspirators pretended solicitude for the republic, but for many (not all) their object was power for themselves and their party. Caesar had many warnings, but disregarded them all, and fell by the daggers of his assassins on the Ides (or 15th) of March 44 BCE. At an appointed signal the conspirators surrounded him. Casca dealt the first blow; others quickly followed. Caesar at first defended himself, but when he saw his friend and favorite, Brutus, also draw his knife, he pulled his toga over his face, and sank, pierced with many wounds.

Caesar was a truly remarkable figure. He was gifted by nature with the most various talents, and was distinguished by the most extraordinary attainments in the most diversified pursuits. He was at one and the same time a general, statesman, lawgiver, jurist, orator, poet, historian, philologer, mathematician and architect. In his busy career he found time for literature, and was the author of many works, the majority of which are lost. The purity of his Latin and the clearness of his style were celebrated by the ancients themselves, and are conspicuous in his Commentaries, his only works that have come down to us.

The paragraph devoted to Caesar in the Chronicle is a massive abridgment of Suetonius' Life of Caesar.

Octavian (Octavianus) Augustus was born to Octavius, a Roman consul, on the 9th of the Kalends of October, shortly before sunrise, during the time of Marcus Tullius Cicero and Antony, consuls. At the age of four he lost his father, and at twelve his grandmother Julia, whom he praised in a funeral oration before an assembly of the people. Four years after he attained manhood he received military honors at the African triumph of Caesar. He fought five battles of the civil war, namely, at Mutina, Philippi, Perusia, Sicily, and Actium; the first and last against Mark Antony; the second against Brutus and Cassius; the third against the triumvir Antony's brother, the fourth against Sextus, son of Pompey. The beginning and cause of these wars was the murder of his uncle Julius. He also subjugated Cantabria, Aquitania, Pannonia, Dalmatia, and all of Illyricum. Item, he subdued the Rhaeti, the Vindelici, and the Salassi, peoples of the Alps, and checked the inroads of the Dacii, of whom he slew a great number, together with three of their leaders. He also took the Germans beyond the river Elbe; and other restless people were by him brought to submission. He also erected many public buildings, and surpassed all his predecessors in the frequency, variety, and magnificence of his public shows. While young he took to wife the daughter of P. Servilius; and when he became reconciled to Antony, he took his stepdaughter Claudia to wife. He also married Scribonia, but divorced her. Afterwards he caused Livia Drusilla to become pregnant and her alone he loved steadfastly. By Scribonia he begot Julia, his daughter; but of Livia he begot no children. He gave Julia in marriage to Marcellus; and after the latter's death, to Marcus Agrippa. From Agrippa and Julia he had three grandsons and two granddaughters. He was a man of beautiful physique, and very handsome in all the stages of his life. He had clear and beautiful eyes; his hair was slightly wavy and almost golden; his eyebrows were drawn together; ears medium size; nose elevated above and longer below; complexion between light and dark. He was of short stature. From youth he studied oratory and the liberal arts eagerly with very great industry. He wrote numerous prose works of various kinds.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] When he returned victorious from the East he was first hailed as Augustus because he had increased the republic. And and from that point on he held the highest power in the state—a thing which the Greeks call monarchy. From him the kings of the Romans were afterwards called Augusti. He also enlarged the city of Rome, and beautified it with many buildings, taking pride in that statement of his: I have found this a city of brick; I leave it one of marble. He reigned 56 years. The temple of Janus Quirinus, which had been closed only twice before his time since the founding of the city, he closed in a far shorter period, having won peace on land and sea.[For this sentence the German edition of the simply states: "He made peace on land and sea."] In these peaceful times our Savior Jesus is said to have been born. He (i.e., Augustus) finally succumbed to his bed at Nolae (Nole), and when everyone had been dismissed, he died while kissing Livia, saying to her: Live mindful of our marriage, Livia, and farewell.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] He obtained an easy death and such a one as he had always longed for at the age of his life of 78.

Augustus, the first Roman emperor, was born on the 23rd of September 63 BCE, the son of C. Octavius by Atia, a daughter of Julia, the sister of C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, but for the sake of brevity he is called Augustus, though this was only a title given him by the Senate and the people in 27, to express their veneration for him. He lost his father when he was 4 years of age, but his education was conducted with great care by his grandmother Julia, and by his mother and stepfather, L. Marcius Phillipus, whom his mother married soon after his father's death. C. Julius Caesar, who had no male issue, also watched over his education with solicitude. He joined his uncle in Spain in 45, in the campaign against the sons of Pompey, and in the course of the same year he was sent by Caesar to Apollonia in Illyricum, where some legions were stationed, that he might acquire more thorough practical training in military affairs, and at the same time prosecute his studies. While at Apollonia, he heard of his uncle's murder, and forthwith set out for Italy, accompanied by Agrippa and a few other friends. Caesar having adopted him in his testament and made him his heir, Augustus now assumed the name of Caesar, and was so saluted by the troops; but, on reaching Rome, he demanded nothing but the private property which Caesar had left him, declaring however his resolution to avenge the murder of his benefactor. He displayed extraordinary tact and prudence. He had to contend against the republican party as well as against Antony, who attempted to prevent his acceptance of the inheritance his uncle had left him. Resolved to first crush Antony, Augustus made overtures to the republican party, and these succeeded. The senate made him praetor and sent him with the two consuls of the year, C. Vibius Pansa and A. Hirtius to attack Antony, who was besieging D. Brutus in Mutina. Antony was defeated but the senate became alarmed, and determined to prevent Augustus from acquiring further power. Ignoring the senate, Augustus marched on Rome and compelled that terrified body to give him the consulship. The murderers of the dictator were outlawed. Later Augustus and Antony became reconciled, and agreed to divide the empire between the triumvirate of Augustus, Antony, and Lepidus. They proscribed their enemies, and a large number were put to death, including Cicero. Soon afterwards Augustus and Antony crossed over to Greece, defeating Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in 42, by which the hopes of the republican party were ruined. The triumvirs made a new division of the provinces. Lepidus obtained Africa, and Augustus returned to Italy to reward his veterans with the lands he had promised them. Here a new war awaited him, excited by Fulvia, wife of Antony. She was supported by L. Antonius, consul and brother of the triumvir, who threw himself into the fortified town of Perusia, which Augustus succeeded in taking in 40. Antony now made preparations for war, but the opportune death of Fulvia led to a reconciliation between the triumvirs, and a new division of the provinces was made. Antony married Octavia, sister of Augustus, in order to cement this alliance. In 39 Augustus made peace with Sextus Pompey, whose fleet gave him command of the sea, and thus enabled him to prevent corn from reaching Rome, but the peace was only transitory, and in a naval battle which followed, the fleet of Augustus gained a decisive victory over that of Pompey, who abandoned Sicily and fled to Asia. In 35 and 34 Augustus was engaged in war with the Illyrians and Dalmatians. Meanwhile, Antony had repudiated Octavia and had alienated the Roman people by his arrogant proceedings in the East. In 32 the senate declared war against Cleopatra, for by means of Augustus' propaganda machine, Antony was looked upon only as her infatuated slave. The fleet of Augustus gained a brilliant victory over Antony near the promontory of Actium. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt, and being pursued by Augustus, committed suicide.

Augustus now became the ruler of the world, and though he had thus united in his own person all the power and the great offices of the state, he was too prudent to make any display of authority to indicate that he was the sole master. The people retained their republican privileges, though merely in form, for only such persons were elected as had been proposed or recommended by the emperor. Almost uninterrupted festivities, games, distributions of wheat, and the like, made the people forget the substance of their republican freedom, and obey contentedly their new ruler. The wars of Augustus were not aggressive, but chiefly undertaken to protect the frontiers of his dominions. Most of them were carried on by his relations and friends, but some he conducted in person, such as his attack on the warlike Cantabri in Spain, whose subjection, however, was not completed until later by Agrippa. In 16 the Romans suffered a defeat on the Lower Rhine by some German tribes; whereupon Augustus went himself to Gaul, and spent four years there to regulate the government of that province and to make the necessary preparations for defense against the Germans. In the year 9 he went to Gaul, made peace with the German ambassadors he received there, and from this time he took no active part in the wars. He died at Nola in 14 CE, at the age of 76. He was first married, though nominally, to Clodia, daughter of Clodius and Fulvia; secondly to Scribonia, who bore him his only daughter Julia. His third wife was Livia Drusilla, the mother of Tiberius Nero by her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero.

The last sentence of this paragraph in the German edition of the Chronicle simply states: "He died a peaceful death at the age of 76 years."

The paragraph devoted to Augustus in the Chronicle is a massive abridgment of Suetonius' Life of Augustus.

Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius), the consul, was declared an enemy by the senate; whereupon Pansa and Hirtius, and also Octavian, then still a youth, were sent against him. Afterwards Caesar (i.e., Octavian) made peace with Antony, and the Roman Empire was divided between them; to Augustus (i.e., Octavian) was given Spain, Gaul and Italy; to Antony, Asia, Pontus, and the East. He (i.e., Antony) deserted the sister of Caesar Augustus Octavian, and married Cleopatra, the queen of Egypt. He brought on a civil war while he was hoping to rule the city with unmanly greed. He was defeated by Augustus in a naval battle at Actium (Accium), which is a place in Epirus. After that he fled to Egypt. And as every man now allied himself with Augustus, Antony despaired and took his own life. Thus the land of Egypt became part of the Empire through Octavian.[Marc Antony, son of M. Antony (surnamed Creticus) and Julia, the sister of L. Julius Caesar, consul in 64, was born in 83 BCE. His father died while Antony was still young, and Antony was brought up by Cornelius Lentulus, who married his mother Julia, and who was put to death by Cicero in 63 as one of Catiline's conspirators; for this reason he became a personal enemy of Cicero. In his early youth Antony indulged in every kind of dissipation, and his affairs soon became deeply involved. He took part in the campaigns against Syria, Aristobulus in Palestine, and the restoration of Ptolemy Auletes in Egypt. In 54 he went to Caesar in Gaul, and by his influence was elected quaestor. As such, he returned to Gaul and served under Caesar for two years, returning to Rome in 50, and becoming one of the active partisans of Caesar. He voted against the senate decree depriving Caesar of his command, and fled back to the latter in Cisalpine Gaul. He accompanied Caesar in his victorious march into Italy and was left in command of that country, while Caesar carried on the war in Spain. He commanded the left wing of Caesar's army at Pharsalia, and was again left in command of Italy while Caesar went to Africa. In 44 he was consul with Caesar, when he offered him the kingly diadem at the feast of the Lupercalia. After Caesar's murder, Antony attempted to succeed him in power, but found an unexpected rival in young Octavian, the adopted son and grandnephew of Caesar, who assumed the name of Caesar, and at first joined the senate to crush Antony. Towards the end of the year Antony proceeded to Cisalpine Gaul, which had been previously granted to him by the senate; but Dec. Brutus refused to surrender the province to him and threw himself into Mutina, where he was besieged by Antony. The senate supported Brutus, declared Antony a public enemy, and entrusted the conduct of the war against him to Octavianus. Antony was defeated at Mutina, and was obliged to cross the Alps. Both the consul, however, had fallen and the senate now began to show its jealousy of Octavian. But the latter became reconciled to Antony, and it was agreed that the government of the state should be vested in Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus. The mutual enemies of both were proscribed, and Cicero thus lost his life to Anthony, whom he had opposed. In 42, Antony and Octavian crushed the republican party at Philippi, in which battle Brutus and Cassius both fell. Antony then went to Asia, which he had received as his share of the Roman world, and here began his relationship with Cleopatra, whom he followed to Egypt. In 41 Fulvia, the wife of Antony, and his brother L. Antonius, made war upon Octavian in Italy. But the war was ended before Antony reached Italy. The opportune death of Fulvia resulted in the reconciliation of Antony and Octavian, which was cemented by the marriage of Antony to Octavia, the sister of Octavian. But he later sent her back to her brother and returned to Cleopatra. His conduct and the unbounded influence that Cleopatra had acquired over him, alienated many of his friends and supporters; and Octavian thought that the time had now come for crushing his rival. The contest was decided by the sea-battle-that-never-really-occurred off Actium, September 2nd, 31, in which Antony's fleet was completely defeated. Antony, accompanied by Cleopatra, fled to Alexandria, where he put an end to his own life in the following year (30).]


The Tiburtine Sibyl (Sibilla Tiburtina), the foremost seeress, also called Albunea, flourished in Italy and prophesied many things. She was revered as a goddess in the city of Tibur (Tiburre), on the banks of the river Anio (Amonis), and was therefore called Tiburtina. In the whirlpool of the same river was found her image with a book in her hand. Augustus Octavian (whom the Romans accorded divine honors) asked this sibyl for advice; and after she had fasted for three days, she spoke of the sign of judgment, and of the moistening of the earth with sweat, and of how the future king would come from heaven; and there are 27 verses, of which the last is: a downpour of fire and sulphur would fall from the sky. The capital letters of this verse express (by that same testimony) the meaning: Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savior. When she thus spoke in the presence of Augustus the heavens opened, and a great light fell upon him; and he saw in the heavens a most beautiful virgin standing on an altar, and carrying a little child; and at the same time he heard a voice saying: This altar is that of the Son of God. And as Augustus saw and heard all this in his bedchamber, he fell upon the earth and prayed to God. Therefore Augustus refused to permit himself to be called a god afterwards. In commemoration of this event a temple was erected at this place, under the name of the Holy Virgin Mary in Aracoeli (Ara Celi); and there the Brothers of the Order of the Blessed Francis now live. Others describe her (Mary) as not old, and as wearing a red dress, a rough pelt upon her shoulders, with flowing tresses, and holding this script in her hand: Christ will be born at Bethlehem, and will be proclaimed in Nazareth, while Thaurus, the founder of peace reigns. O happy is the mother whose breasts will nurse him.[Tibur (Tiburs, pl. Tiburtes, Tiburtinus), now Tivoli, is one of the most ancient towns in Latium, 16 miles northeast of Rome. It is situated on the slope of a hill (and so called by Horace supinum Tiber), on the left bank of the Anio, which here forms a magnificent waterfall. It was said to have been originally built by the Siculi, and to have afterwards passed into the possession of the Aborigines and Pelasgi. According to tradition, it derived its name from Tiburtus, son of Catillus, who emigrated from Greece with Evander. It was afterwards one of the chief towns of the Latin league, and became subject to Rome with the other Latin cities on the final subjugation of Latium in 338 BCE. Under the Romans Tibur continued to be a large and flourishing town, since the salubrity and beautiful scenery of the place led many of the most distinguished Roman nobles to build their magnificent villas here. Of these the most splendid was that of Hadrian. Horace had a country house in the neighborhood of Tibur. In the vicinity was also a grove with the fountain and temple of the Sibyl Albunea, whose oracles were consulted from the most ancient times. This fountain was the largest of the Albulae aquae, sulphurous springs, which flow into the Anio. Near it was the oracle of Faunus Fatidicus. The temple is still extant at Tivoli. ]

Miraculous signs occurred at the birth of Christ. A fountain of oil (as Eutropius and others testify) from a reputable tavern at Rome in the Trestevere (Transtiberina) quarter flowed forth for an entire day, announcing the mercy of Christ given to all peoples. Also on that day a golden circle appeared about the sun; and the statue of Romulus and the temple of peace fell.

Publius Ovidius Naso (Ovid), from Sulmo, a highly renowned poet, flourished at Rome during this period, and he wrote many works. He was a native of Sulmo, a town of the Bruttii (Bruciorum), as he himself reports: Sulmo is my fatherland, so rich in icy rivers, 90 miles from the city.[Ovid, 4.10.3-4. This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] At Athens he first studied extremely well the field of poetry and then the field of philosophy. Coming to Rome he was very much valued by Augustus Caesar for his life and his poetry. But long afterwards, in his 50th year, by this same Augustus he was banished to the island of Pontus to dwell among the Samartians. Concerning this he says in his book On the Pontus: Master Naso, without much prudence, while he was passing on the art of loving, now has the prize for his sad teaching.[Ovid, 2.10.15. This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] His character was as good-natured as his poems. He died at the age of 54 in the 5th year of the emperor Tiberius Caesar.[Ovid (P. Ovidius Naso), the Roman poet, was born at Sulmo, in the country of the Peligni, on March 20th, 43 BCE. He was descended from an ancient equestrian family of only moderate wealth. He was destined to be a lawyer, and was carefully educated for that purpose. But the hours which should have been spent in the study of law were devoted to poetry. He completed his education at Athens, thoroughly mastering Greek. He married twice in early life at the desire of his parents, but speedily divorced each wife in turn. By a third wife a daughter was born to him, who grew up and was married at the time of his banishment. Until his 50th year Ovid resided at Rome. He not only enjoyed the friendship of a large circle of distinguished men, but was regarded with favor by Augustus and the imperial family. But in 9 CE Ovid was suddenly banished by an imperial edict to transport himself to Tomi on the Euxine (Black Sea), on the very border of the empire. He had no trial, and the sole reason given in the edict was his having published his poem on the and for his committing an error (‘mistake' or ‘error'); but the first reason must have been a mere pretext as the poem had appeared ten years before. According to some the real cause was his intrigue with Julia, the accomplished but sexually free daughter of Augustus. Yet this is refuted by the fact that she had been in exile since 2 BCE. Others supposed his offense to have been with the younger Julia, granddaughter of Augustus, who was banished in the same year with Ovid. Speaking of his exile, Ovid draws an affecting picture. He complains of the inhospitable soil, the severity of the climate, the perils to which he was exposed when barbarians plundered the surrounding country and assaulted the very walls of Tomi. Here he died in 18 CE at the age of 60.]

Titus Livius (Livy) of Padua, a great prince of the Greek and Latin historians, was famous at Rome in the 16th year before the coming of Christ. Of him Saint Jerome, quoting the words of Pliny, writes: We read that certain noble persons came from the furthest ends of Spain and of Gaul to Titus Livius (whose eloquence was) flowing like a fountain of milk, and that Rome did not attract them to look upon itself, but the fame of one man led them there. That age had something unheard of to all other ages, something that was a very famous miracle: that people who had come to so great a city were looking for something that wasn't the city.[The citation from Jerome is taken from his (‘Letter of Saint Jerome to Paulinus the Bishop') 1.2-4.] This man was honored with honors and with rich possessions by Augustus. A most diligent investigator of history, he wrote 110 books of history. The greatest part of his works (by the evil of the times) was lost. He lived 80 years, and died at Padua in the fourth year of the reign of Tiberius and was buried there. And his grave is still to be seen in the divine vestibule of Saint Justina the Virgin, and is adorned with these titles: Ti. Livius. Ti. fi. quartae legionis Aliis Concordialis Patavi sibi et suis omnibus.

The titles given in the Chronicle text are an abbreviated and nearly indecipherable mess of what we know the inscription actually says (but which took many years for scholars to understand). Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (vol. 2, pp. 790-1) has many fascinating things to say on this matter:

The memoirs of most men terminate with their death; but this is by no means the case with our historian, since some circumstances closely connected with what may be fairly termed his personal history, excited no small commotion in his native city many centuries after his decease. About the year 1360 a tablet was dug up at Padua, within the monastery of St. Justina, which occupied the site of an ancient temple of Jupiter, or of Juno, or of Concordia, according to the conflicting hypotheses of local antiquaries. The stone bore the following inscription, V. F. T. LIVIUS. LIVIAE. T. F. QUARTAE. L. HALYS. CONCORDIALIS . PATAVI. SIBI. ET. SUIS. OMNIBUS, which was at first interpreted to mean Vivus fecit Titus Livius Liviae Titi filiae quartae, (sc. uxori) Lucii Halys Concordialis Patavi sibi et suis omnibus. Some imagined that QUARTAE. L. HALYS denoted Quartae legionis Halys, but this opinion was overthrown without difficulty, because even at that time it was well known that L. is seldom if ever used in inscriptions as an abbreviation of legio, and secondly because the fourth legion was entitled Scythica and not Halys. It was then decided that quartae must indicate the fourth daughter of Livius, and that L. Halys must be the name of her husband; and ingenious persons endeavoured to show that in all probability he was identical with the L. Magius mentioned by Seneca. They also persuaded themselves that Livy, upon his return home, had been installed by his countrymen in the dignified office of priest of the goddess Concord, and had erected this monument within the walls of her sanctuary, marking the place of sepulture of himself and his family. At all events, whatever difficulties might seem to embarrass the explanation of some of the words and abbreviations in the inscription, no doubt seems for a moment to have been entertained that it was a genuine memorial of the historian. Accordingly, the Benedictine fathers of the monastery transported the tablet to the vestibule of their chapel, and caused a portrait of Livy to be painted beside it. In 1413, about fifty years after the discovery just described, in digging the foundations for the erection of new buildings in connection with the monastery, the workmen reached an ancient pavement composed of square bricks cemented with lime. This having been broken through, a leaden coffin became visible, which was found to contain human bones. An old monk declared that this was the very spot above which the tablet had been found, when immediately the cry rose that the remains of Livy had been brought to light, a report which filled the whole city with extravagant joy. The newfound treasure was deposited in the town hall, and to the ancient tablet a modern epitaph was affixed. At a subsequent period a costly monument was added as a further tribute to his memory. Here, it might have been supposed, these weary bones would at length have been permitted to rest in peace. But in 1451, Alphonso of Arragon preferred a request to the Paduans, that they would be pleased to bestow upon him the bone of Livy's right arm, in order that he might possess the limb by which the immortal narrative had been actually penned. This petition was at last complied with; but just as the valuable relic reached Naples, Alphonso died, and the Sicilian fell heir to the prize. Eventually it passed into the hands of Joannes Joviantis Pontanus, by whom it was enshrined with an appropriate legend. So far all was well. In the lapse of time, however, it was perceived upon comparing the tablet dug up in the monastery of St. Justina with others of a similar description, that the contractions had been erroneously explained, and consequently the whole tenor of the words misunderstood. It was clearly proved that L. did not stand for Lucius but for libertus, and that the principal person named was Titus Livius Halys, freedman of Livia, the fourth daughter of a Titus Livius, that he had in accordance with the usual custom adopted the designation of his former master, that he had been a priest of Concord at Padua, an office which it appeared from other records had often been filled by persons in his station, and that he had set up this stone to mark the burying-ground of himself and his kindred. Now since the supposition that the skeleton in the leaden coffin was that of the historian rested solely upon the authority of the inscription, when this support was withdrawn, the whole fabric of conjecture fell to the ground, and it became evident the relics were those of ah obscure freedman.

The German edition of the Chronicle does not cite the inscription.

And afterwards when his remains had been found, the Venetians, who had rebuilt the city's town hall that had been burned down, place them in the gable of it so as to be visible to all.[Livy (Titus Livius), Roman historian, was born at Patavium (Padua), Italy, in 59 BCE. The greater part of his life was spent in Rome, although he returned to his native city before his death, which occurred at the age of 76 in the fourth year of Tiberius, 17 CE. His literary talents secured the patronage and friendship of Augustus, and he became a person of consideration at court. His reputation rose so high that a Spaniard traveled from Cadiz to Rome just to behold him; and having gratified his curiosity, immediately returned home. The great and only extant work of Livy is a , which he calls (43.13), extending from the foundation of the city to the death of Drusus in 69 BCE, comprising 142 books. Of these only 35 have come down to us, but of the whole, with the exception of 2, we possess , drawn up by one who must have been well acquainted with the subject. The style of Livy is indeed like that of ‘thick milk', for the narrative flows on strongly but calmly; rich, but not heavy, simple but not tame.]

Valerius Maximus, a Roman natural philosopher and very distinguished orator, was famous at Rome in the 15th year before the coming of Christ, and was very dear to the emperor Augustus. Among other things he wrote nine books in a very clear and brilliant style consisting of memorable sayings and deeds of men that were esteemed among the Greeks and Romans, adding also his own thoughts pertaining to the commendation of the virtues and the condemnation of vices. From these we excerpt this memorable thought: Divine anger proceeds with a slow step to avenge itself, but it makes up for its tardiness by the severity of the punishment.[Valerius Maximus is known to us as the compiler of a large collection of historical anecdotes, (‘Nine Books of Memorable Deeds and Sayings'), arranged under different headings. And again, under each heading the sayings and doings of celebrated Romans are kept distinct from those of foreigners. He lived in the reign of Tiberius, to whom he dedicated his work, which was very popular in the Middle Ages.]

We gather from his books that Solinus flourished as a historian and very distinguished orator of that time; for he himself wrote a very good book of things he had brought together, and which he dedicated to Augustus Caesar at Rome. In it he maps out the world, gives the distances of cities, and measures many places. And he called that book The Collection, that is, On the Wonders of the World.[C. Julius Solinus, author of a geographical compendium, divided into 57 chapters, must have lived after the reign of Alexander Severus, and before that of Constantine. He may perhaps be placed about 238 CE. His compendium contains a brief sketch of the world as known to the ancients, diversified by historical notices, remarks on the origin, habits, religious rites and social condition of various nations enumerated. The arrangement, and frequently the very words, are derived from the of Pliny; but little knowledge, care, or judgment are displayed in the selection.]


This woodcut tells the legend of the Tiburtine Sibyl (Sibilla Thiburana) and Caesar Augustus (Octavianus). The prophetess holds the center of the stage, and behind her stands a lady, apparently her attendant or maid. The Sibyl has just made the pronouncement and conjured forth for the benefit of the emperor a vision of the Virgin Mary with the Christ-child in her arms, the mother and child being surrounded by a brilliant blaze, in the face of which Augustus (also accompanied by an attendant) has sunk to his knees in an attitude of adoration, and having removed his crown has set it on the ground before him. The miracle occurs in a hilly country and apparently beside a stream, which we may imagine to be the Anio on the left bank of which the city of Tibur was located.


Strabo, a historian, geographer and philosopher, and also interpreter of Homeric majesty, was (as some say) a native of Crete and, as we discover by his works, highly renowned at this time. And as he was very highly educated and regarded as the most informed man in great things, he wrote, as evidence of his merit, 17 beautiful books on the geography of the world. In it the regions of the earth, which had been neglected or forgotten by reason of their antiquity, were carefully recorded and indicated. He very clearly placed before our eyes races, nations, history, mountains, and seas, and their location. He traced his maternal ancestry to the blood of Mithridates, the king. Since his most famous work was for a long time unknown to readers of Latin, Pope Nicholas V wished it to be translated in part by Gregory Tiphernas (Typernatem). The rest of the work is defective, namely (the section devoted to) Europe, and was rendered complete by Gregory of Verona (Veronensis).

Strabo, the geographer, was a native of Amasia in Pontus. The date of his birth was about 54 BCE. He lived during the reign of Augustus and in the early years of that of Tiberius. He is supposed to have died in 24 CE. Strabo received a careful education, and he studied grammar and philosophy under noted men. He lived at Rome for a number of years, and traveled much in various countries. He wrote a historical work in 43 books, which is lost. He also wrote his celebrated Geography in 17 books, which has come down to us almost complete. As he himself states, his works were not intended for all persons, but for those of good education, and particularly for those in higher departments of administration. He is not given over to minute descriptions except when place or object is of great interest or importance. His descriptions are not limited to physical characteristics, but his work comprehends the important political events of which each country has been the theater, a notice of the chief cities, and the great men who have lived or worked there. It is a sort of historical geography intended for reading, and the language is generally clear. The first two books are introductory, containing Strabo's views on the form and magnitude of the earth, and other subjects connected with mathematical geography. In the third book, he begins his description. Eight books are devoted to Europe, 6 to Asia, and the 17th and last to Egypt and Libya. The work is in striking contrast to that of Ptolemy, and the dry list of names, occasionally enlivened by something added to them, in the geographical portion of the Natural History of Pliny. Although Strabo saw a comparatively small portion of the regions that he describes, he had traveled much. As he states himself: "Westward I have journeyed to the parts of Etruria opposite Sardinia; towards the south from the Euxine to the borders of Ethiopia." His geography is the most important work on that science which antiquity has left us.

The last two sentences of this paragraph are not in the German edition of the Chronicle. Pope Nicholas V asked Guarino (Guarinus) of Verona in the middle of the 15th century to translate them from Greek into Latin. Guarino then translated the first ten books, while the remainder were translated by by Gregory (Gregorius) Tiphernas (also known as Gregorio da Città di Castello). Guarino finished his translation in 1458 (two years before his death).

Anna, a Hebrew woman, daughter of Issachar (Isachar) the Jew, was given in marriage to Joachim, holiest of men and of her own tribe. After having been barren for a long time and without offspring, and having offered up many prayers and lamentations, Anna bore Mary, the future mother of God, according to angelic annunciation. Soon after the death of her husband Joachim, Anna married another man, named Cleophas, who betrothed Mary, his stepdaughter, to Joseph, and his own daughter Mary to Alpheus (Alveo); and out of her were born James Alpheus, Simon (Symon) the Canaanite (Chananeus), and Judas Thaddeus. After the death of her second husband, Cleophas, Anna was married a third time, according to the laws of Moses, to Salome. And by him she bore a third daughter, Mary Salome, who married Zebedee and by him begot James the Greater and John the Evangelist. Anna had a sister, named Ismeria, of whom was born Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist. Having walked in the commandments and ways of the Lord all her life, Anna, full of the days, now rested in the Lord.

Zacharias (Zaharias), Hebrew priest from the village (or course) of Abia[Zacharias was a priest of the course of Abia (alternative spelling: Abijah), the eighth of the twenty-four courses who ministered at the Temple in turn.] and prophet of the Lord, father of Saint John (Johannis) the Baptist, and a paragon of holiness, married Elizabeth, the sister of the mother of the Virgin Mary. Both women were very pious in their innocence, goodness and grace. They had been barren for a long time, and Elizabeth had reached old age, and her womanly potency had ended. But the Lord was moved by her prayers, and finally gave her a son, John the Baptist. While Zacharias was performing his priestly office, and had ignited the sacrifice, and was alone in the Temple, he perceived an angel at the right of the altar; and he was frightened. But the angel spoke: Fear not, your wife will bear you a son in the following year, and you will rejoice in his birth, and he shall be great before the Lord. Wine and all intoxicating liquor he will shun. Then Zacharias said, I am now old, and my wife is beyond her days. And the angel said this sign of disbelief, You shall not speak until all those things have been performed. When Zacharias left the Temple he was not able to speak to the people, and they perceived that he had seen a vision. He departed to his own house; and soon Elizabeth conceived, and for five months she hid herself for shame. In the sixth month Mary the Virgin and mother of the Lord, who had conceived by the Holy Ghost, went to Elizabeth to greet her. And when Elizabeth received Mary's greeting, the unborn child exulted for joy in its mother's womb. Afterwards Elizabeth bore a son, and her neighbors and relatives rejoiced with her. On the eighth day when the child was to be circumcised, they nodded to the father what he wanted him to be called. And he, taking up a reed pen, wrote, John is his name. And his mouth was opened, and he prophesied: Blessed is the Lord God of Israel, etc. Finally he died in all holiness as a prophet.[Luke 1:36-68.]

Mary, most blessed and highly esteemed Mother of God, and Virgin everlasting, out of the root of Jesse, was born to Joachim and Anna, her father and mother, at Nazareth in Judea, in the 28th year of the reign of Augustus. She was a girl most refined, and in the eyes of all men worthy of admiration. After her mother had weaned her, and she had reached the age of three, she was given to the service of the Temple with other maidens according to a solemn vow. Contrary to the usual course of childhood she excelled her playmates in nobility and elegance, and from youth acquired a knowledge and understanding of religious life by example and study. In a brief while she exceeded all other pious virgins in holiness and in the practice of a spiritual life, as well as in humility in divine and human matters. For this reason God chose her to be the mother of his incarnate son. At the age of thirteen, through divine inspiration, she was married to Joseph, a man of her own family. Soon after the marriage the angel Gabriel came to her at Nazareth, and he appeared to her in her bedchamber, in a great light, and paid her homage, greeting her with these words: Hail, you that are highly favored, the Lord is with you. And he said further: You have found favor with God; truly you shall conceive, and bring forth a son, and shall call his name Jesus. And in response to these things Mary answered: Behold the handmaid of the Lord; be it to me according to your word. And at once the word became flesh. And as soon as these things had been done, she went to visit Elizabeth at her home, where she stayed with her for three months. And Mary sang that wonderful song: My soul magnifies the Lord.[Luke 1:28-55.] After John was born, Mary, now pregnant, returned to her own house. And Joseph learned that she was with child, and decided to secretly leave her. But while he was thus thinking (as Matthew states), the angel admonished him in a dream that what she had conceived was of the Holy Ghost.[Matthew 1:18-24.] The rest of the events in the life of the most blessed Virgin Mary, up to the time of the sufferings of her son, can be gathered from the Gospels.


John the Baptist, forerunner of Jesus Christ, born of holy parents, Zacharias (Zaharia) and Elizabeth, was the most holy one who emerged from his mother's womb, and among the sons of women (as the Lord himself witnesses) the most outstanding. He was a prophet and more than a prophet when he pointed out Christ the redeemer with his finger, saying: Behold the Lamb of God, etc. After the years of his infancy had passed, he, although he was but a tender and only child of aged parents, became a hermit for the love of his heavenly fatherland. Afterwards, at the age of 30, it being the 12th year of the reign of the emperor Tiberius Caesar (while Pontius Pilate governed the land of Judea), the holy word of God came to John in the wilderness; and he came into all the regions of the Jordan preaching the baptism of repentance. For that reason he was giving fitting answers to each one of the many people running up to him and asking him questions.[This sentence is not in the German edition of the .] Sometime before the period of Christ's preaching, he was taken and imprisoned by Herod Antipas, whom he reproved, saying: It is not lawful for you to have the wife of your brother. At the instigation of this same woman John was imprisoned for one year and suffered for lack of food.[Luke 3:1-20.] At the end of the year, Herod, on the day of his birthday, invited all the princes and nobles to the festivities. And while those in the house were enjoying themselves, the daughter of his wife Herodias performed with her voice and danced before them, and she pleased the king. And he promised with an oath to give whatever she would ask. At the suggestion of her mother she asked for the head of John the Baptist on a platter. And although the king, by reason of his oath, was sorry, he sent the executioner and had him (John) decapitated.[Matthew 14:3-10.]

FOLIO XCIIII verso and XCV recto

The Ancestry of John the Baptist is shown by a woodcut at the top of Folio XCIV verso. The genealogy begins with a dual portrait of Ismeria (sister of Anna) and her spouse—an elderly couple, she with a halo. From her a branch runs which divides and proceeds to Eliud (not mentioned in the text) on the left, and to Elizabeth, who is shown in a dual portrait with her husband, Zacharias. From them another branch proceeds to their son John the Baptist. The entire ensemble consists of a single woodcut. The portrait of John's parents is not the same as that shown on the recto of this folio, although the general characteristics of dress are the same. John the Baptist is shown as an elderly man, and in symbolism of his mission he holds in his left hand a large book, upon which rests a little lamb. In his right hand is the banner of the Resurrection. About his head is a simple halo. This genealogy accompanies the text as given in the third paragraph of Folio XCIIII verso.


The Descendants of Anna are represented in a single woodcut on the recto of folio XCV, and which covers the greater portion of the page, on which begins the Sixth Age of the World. At the top of the woodcut appears Anna, who was married three times. Beside her and to the left is her first husband Joachim; to the right her second husband Cleophas, and third one Salome. Anna is shown in flowing robes, a halo about her head, her hands in an attitude of prayer.

From Joachim a single branch proceed to the Virgin Mary on the opposite folio.

From Cleophas a winding branch runs to his daughter Mary, who is shown in dual portrait with her husband Alpheus. From this couple a short branch proceeds to Joseph Justus (not mentioned in the text), and a longer one to the three sons, James Alphaeus the Lesser (Jacobus Minor), Simon Chananeus (Symon), and Judas Thaddeus (simply called Judas).

From Anna's third husband runs a long branch to the third Mary (Salome) portrayed with Zebedee. From her there is a branch to John the Evangelist and James the Greater (Jacobus Major).

Lower right and left hand corners of the woodcut are filled in, apparently for good measure, with portraits of Herod the Great (Ascolonita) and Mariamne (Mariamnes), one of his wives. Herod is in medieval armor and holds a large sword in his left hand, while in his right is a scepter.


The Lineage of Christ is here continued from Folio LXXXVIII verso, to which Joseph is now added.


Events in the Life of Mary are given in three woodcuts:

  1. The Birth of the Virgin Mary. The mother, Anna, is shown in bed, attended by two women who are bringing her drink and food. Beside he bed is a small cradle out of which peeps the infant Mary.
  2. The Espousal of the Virgin Mary. Joseph stands at the left, Mary at the right. A Catholic priest wearing a huge mitre stands between them and joins their hands in marriage.
  3. The Annunciation. Mary appears at the right kneeling in prayer. The angel Gabriel, scepter in hand, has suddenly alighted at the left, and hails the surprised Mary as the future mother of Christ.


Herod's Birthday and the Decapitation of John the Baptist. Herod Antipas is celebrating his birthday. The celebrants are seated at the table. The king himself sits at the right, and oddly enough in a seemingly uncomfortable niche in the wall. Beside him sits his wife Herodias, and to her left is her daughter Salome. Attendants are busy about the table; a cupbearer brings in a large goblet; another attendant stirs the air with a besom of peacock feathers. We must assume that Salome has completed her dance, and that it has pleased the king, since he has clearly fulfilled his promise to give her whatever she should ask for. The executioner of John the Baptist has done his work and now stands against a wall to the left of the table, resting an elbow on his deadly tool, a huge sword, which one would hardly believe this diminutive officer able to wield. The head of John the Baptist rests on the platter in the center of the table, as thought it were the pièce de résistance of the banquet. Why Salome should raise her index finger, or why her father should raise two, apparently in religious significance, is not understandable. The face and the attitude of the king indicate that the whole affair has left a bad taste in his mouth. His wife Herodias seems better pleased. Salome, the dominating figure in the woodcut, poises the sharp point of a knife on the forehead of a the victim.