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Anderson, A. C. (Alfred Conrad), 1887-, et al. / Soil survey of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Soils,   pp. 8-28 PDF (7.7 MB)

Page 16

of this soil. Another group of small areas is along Lake Michigan
in the southeastern part of the county. Tracts are level or gently
undulating, and in a few places gently rolling. Natural drainage is
generally good, but in some places is deficient owing to the level
surface and heavy subsoil.
  The silt loam surface soil and the subsoil to a depth ranging from
about 14 to 18 inches are commonly slightly acid, the lower part of
the subsoil is about neutral, and the substratum contains considerable
lime and effervesces with hydrochloric acid.
  This is a good general-farming soil well suited ,to grasses, small
grain, peas, and other crops. Some corn is grown, but the areas
are too near Lake Michigan, nights are too cold, and the soil is too
late in spring to be classed as a good corn soil. Dairying is the
chief farming industry.
                           SUPERIOR LOAM
  The surface soil of Superior loam to a depth of 9 inches consists
of grayish-brown medium loam. Over the surface in many virgin
areas there is a covering of leaf mold and the topmost inch or two
of material is darker than that below. The dark color and the leaf
mold are soon lost on cultivation, by decay and mixing with the
plowed layer. From 9 to 18 inches the material is heavy light-brown
loam containing horizontal streaks of yellowish brown and yellow.
Between depths of 18 and 26 inches there is dull-red stiff clay, which
is underlain to a depth of 40 inches by pale pinkish-red stiff clay
with yellow mottles in many places. The chief variation is in the
depth to the heavy red clay.
  Superior loam is of small extent but is widely scattered over the
county. Probably most of the areas are between East Twin and West
Twin Rivers, northwest of Two Rivers. Smaller areas are in the
towns of Kossuth and Centerville, and in other towns throughout the
region of Kawaunee and Superior soils. The land surface is level
or very gently undulating, and natural drainage is fair or somewhat
deficient. Tile drains can be used to advantage in some places, owing
to the heavy subsoil and low level surface.
  The greater part of this soil is cleared and in farms. It is a good
soil and is well suited to general farming and dairying. It is easier
to work than Superior clay loam and responds readily to fertilization.
Some peas and sugar beets are grown, but general farming is the
main industry.
                      SUPSEOR INE SANDY LOAM
  The surface soil of Superior fine sandy loam to a depth of 3 inches
consists of dark grayish-brown fine sandy loam, the upper part of
which is darkest owing to organic-matter accumulation in the virgin
soil. In wooded areas there may be a thin covering of leaf mold.
Under cultivation the leaf mold and dark color soon disappear, and
the soil takes on a lighter grayish-brown color. Between depths of
5 and 9 inches the soil is brownish-yellow heavy fine sandy loam, and
from 9 to 11 inches it is drab-brown heavy loam with faint traces of
tan. From 11 to 28 inches there is pinkish-red stiff plastic clay
which breaks up into angular fragments about one-fourth inch in
diameter. Between depths of 28 and 40 inches the material is

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