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Anderson, A. C. (Alfred Conrad), 1887-, et al. / Soil survey of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin

Soils,   pp. 8-28 PDF (7.7 MB)

Page 14

resulting in a grayish-brown or light-brown surface soil. From 7
to 15 inches the material is yellowish-brown loamy fine sand, and
from 15 to 20 inches it is pinkish-yellow loamy fine sand. Between
depths of 20 and 36 or more inches there is dull brownish-red clay
loam which may contain various amounts of gravel and small stones,
mostly limestone.
  The chief variation in this soil is in the depth to the red clay
loam substratum, which may range from 18 inches to 3 feet. There
is also some variation in the texture of the surface soil.
  Kewaunee fine sandy loam is of small extent and minor importance.
It is rather widely distributed, chiefly in the towns of Two Rivers,
Kossuth, Newton, Meeme, and Centerville. Areas are undulating
or gently rolling, and natural drainage is good.
  More than 85 per cent of this soil is successfully farmed. The
land is easy to cultivate and retains moisture fairly well, owing
to the heavy texture of the substratum.                         I
  Although this soil is devoted chiefly to general farming and dairy-
ing, it is better suited to special crops, such as potatoes, beans, and
other truck crops where rapid growth and early maturity are de-
sirable. The land is easy to work and responds well to fertiliza-
tion and careful management. Yields of general farm crops are
somewhat below the average for Kewaunee loam and Kewaunee silt
loam. Yields of special crops show a wide range, depending on the
amounts of fertilizers used.
                      BERRIEN LOAMY FINE SAND
  The surface soil of Berrien loamy fine sand to a depth of 6 inches
consists of grayish-brown fine sand. In virgin areas darker-colored
material, such as leaf mold, decayed roots, and other organic matter,
an inch or so thick, is on the surface, but in plowing this is mixed
with the soil and the dark color disappears. Between depths of 6
and 26 inches the material is brownish-yellow fine sand. This layer
is underlain to a depth of 55 inches by pale-yellow fine sand,
splotched with gray. Below a depth of about 55 inches is pinkish-
red heavy clay. The depth to this clay layer is variable.
  Berrien loamy fine sand is of very small extent. Small patches
are found in the towns of Newton and Liberty and scattered about
in association with Kewaunee fine sandy loam. The land surface
is gently rolling, and natural surface drainage is good. The sandy
part of the soil is generally medium acid in reaction, and the red
clay substratum contains considerable lime.
  Most of this land is cleared and in farms. It is used for general
farm crops and to some extent for truck crops. It is best suited to
truck crops.
                        SUPERIOR CLAY LOAM
  The surface soil of virgin Superior clay loam to a depth of about
2 inches consists of grayish-brown clay loam or silty clay loam. Over
the surface in wooded areas there is in many places a thin layer of
leaf mold, but under cultivation this becomes mixed with the upper
soil material and is soon lost by decay. Between depths of 2 and
8 inches there is grayish-brown and reddish-brown mixed clay

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